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Sample records for 2reproductive toxicology division

  1. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16).

  2. Behavior within fortuitous environments: The entwined history of Division 28 and the fields of behavioral pharmacology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    Behavioral pharmacology emerged in the early to mid-20th century as an experimental and observational science, helping to consolidate an empirically based psychological science of behavior. Behavioral psychologists came to play significant roles in toxicology, neuropharmacology, and psychopharmacology. This article traces the first 3 decades of American Psychological Association Division 28. Sources include the Division 28 Oral History Project; formal interviews conducted by the author in the early 2000s with behavioral, experimental, and clinical pharmacologists; and the archived newsletters of Division 28. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454672

  3. The Role of Toxicology in the Pharmacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autian, John; Wood, George

    1976-01-01

    The past history of toxicology courses, recent trends, departments or divisions of toxicology, undergraduate and graduate courses, and residency programs are described. The emphasis of clinical toxicology in the University of Tennessee program is discussed, along with the school's Drug and Toxicology Information Center. (LBH)

  4. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the last several years, there has been increased pressure to utilize novel technologies derived from computational chemistry, molecular biology and systems biology in toxicological risk assessment. This new area has been referred to as "Computational Toxicology". Our resear...

  5. Harold Seifried, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Harold Seifried is a member of the American Chemical Society Biological Chemistry Division; American College of Toxicology Industrial Toxicology Subcommittee; American Industrial Hygiene Association; Society of Toxicology; International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics; Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology since 1980; American Board of Industrial Hygiene, 1986-2004; and is certified in the Microscopic Examination of Asbestos. |

  6. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  7. Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    ‘Computational toxicology’ is a broad term that encompasses all manner of computer-facilitated informatics, data-mining, and modeling endeavors in relation to toxicology, including exposure modeling, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, dose-response modeling, ...

  8. Spaceflight Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a review of NASA Johnson Space Center's Toxicology program. The mission of this program is to protect crews from toxic exposures during spaceflight. The presentation reviews some of the health hazards. A toxicological hazard level chart is presented that reviews the rating of hazard level, irritancy, systemic effects and containability. The program also participates in the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group.

  9. 75 FR 52535 - Availability of Draft Toxicological Profile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Mailstop F-62, 1600 Clifton Road, NE... Roney, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease... of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,...

  10. Space Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  11. Systems toxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; van Vliet, Erwin; Jaworska, Joanna; Bonilla, Leo; Skinner, Nigel; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The need for a more mechanistic understanding of the ways in which chemicals modulate biological pathways is urgent if we are to identify and better assess safety issues relating to a wide range of substances developed by the pharmaceutical, chemical, agri-bio, and cosmetic industries. Omics technologies provide a valuable opportunity to refine existing methods and provide information for so-called integrated testing strategies via the creation of signatures of toxicity. By mapping these signatures to underlying pathways of toxicity, some of which have been identified by toxicologists over the last few decades, and bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity. PMID:22562485

  12. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  13. TOXLINE (TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION ONLINE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOXLINE? (TOXicology information onLINE) are the National Library of Medicines extensive collection of online bibliographic information covering the pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals. TOXLINE and TOXLINE65 together...

  14. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  15. TOXNET (TOXICOLOGY DATA NETWORK)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) is a computerized system of files oriented to toxicology and related areas. It is managed by the National Library of Medicines Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) and runs on a series of microcomputers in a networked cl...

  16. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  17. Microbiology & Toxicology: Space Environment

    NASA Video Gallery

    One key aspect in maintaining crew health and performance during spaceflight missions is the provision of a habitable environment with acceptably low concentrations of microbiological and toxicolog...

  18. NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM (NTP) DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978 by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to coordinate toxicological testing programs within the department, strengthen the science base in toxicology; develop and validate improved testing methods; and pr...

  19. Proteomics for systems toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Titz, Bjoern; Elamin, Ashraf; Martin, Florian; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Current toxicology studies frequently lack measurements at molecular resolution to enable a more mechanism-based and predictive toxicological assessment. Recently, a systems toxicology assessment framework has been proposed, which combines conventional toxicological assessment strategies with system-wide measurement methods and computational analysis approaches from the field of systems biology. Proteomic measurements are an integral component of this integrative strategy because protein alterations closely mirror biological effects, such as biological stress responses or global tissue alterations. Here, we provide an overview of the technical foundations and highlight select applications of proteomics for systems toxicology studies. With a focus on mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we summarize the experimental methods for quantitative proteomics and describe the computational approaches used to derive biological/mechanistic insights from these datasets. To illustrate how proteomics has been successfully employed to address mechanistic questions in toxicology, we summarized several case studies. Overall, we provide the technical and conceptual foundation for the integration of proteomic measurements in a more comprehensive systems toxicology assessment framework. We conclude that, owing to the critical importance of protein-level measurements and recent technological advances, proteomics will be an integral part of integrative systems toxicology approaches in the future. PMID:25379146

  20. National Toxicology Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... p.m. Webinar 6: 21st Century Testing Approaches Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) Sept. 27, 2016 8:30 a.m. – ... Biennial Progress Report now available 08/24/2016 Scientific Advisory Committee ... Toxicological Methods Meeting September 27, 2016 08/19/2016 NTP ...

  1. Educational Challenges in Toxicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    Issues and topics related to educational challenges in toxicology at all levels are discussed. They include public awareness and understanding, general approach to toxicology, quality structure-activity relationships, epidemiological studies, quantification of risk, and the types of toxicants studied. (JN)

  2. TOXICOLOGY OF PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes the results of five toxicological studies of pesticide compounds conducted by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In the first study, the reactions of two groups of esterases (cholinesterases and arylesterases) with...

  3. Handbook of toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, T.J.; Berndt, W.O.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the ongoing battle against the effects of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and other toxic agents. It points out gaps in present-day research, illustrate other diseases that can mimic chemical toxicity, and emphasize thorough consideration of all aspects in a given incident prior to administering an antidote. The book offers a compiled data on target organ toxicity involving the liver, kidneys, and lungs - detailing the rapid, recent progress in this area. The coverage also highlights reproductive toxicology, food additives, asphixiant gases, and pulmonary toxicology. The partial contents are: Absorption, distribution, Biotransformation, Conjugation, and Excretion of Xenobiotics, Hepatotoxicity, Pulmonary Toxiology, Reproductive and Perinatal toxicology, Toxicology of Insecticides, Rodenticides, Herbicides, and Fungicides, Mechanisms of Metal-Induced Cell Injury, Food Additives: A Benefit/Risk Dilemma, Animal Toxins, and Toxic Effects of Chemicals on the Immune System.

  4. Computational Toxicology (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emerging field of computational toxicology applies mathematical and computer models and molecular biological and chemical approaches to explore both qualitative and quantitative relationships between sources of environmental pollutant exposure and adverse health outcomes. Th...

  5. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  6. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties. PMID:20109297

  7. Oral-toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, B. K. Charan; Sundharam, B. Sivapatha; Mahadesh, Jyothi; Mukund

    2014-01-01

    Forensic toxicology deals with the investigation of toxic substances, poisonous products or with the environmental chemicals. This field of science helps to identify poison substance and hazardous chemicals. Forensic toxicology deals with the way that substances are absorbed, distributed or eliminated in the body – the metabolism of substances. This paper reviews the manifestations that each poisonous substance presents concentrating toward the commonly used poisonous substance especially in India. It also explains the Indian Penal Code, which is main criminal code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law regarding poison. PMID:24696586

  8. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  9. TOXICOLOGY OF METALS. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report on metal toxicology contains reviews on twenty-three metals. These have been written for inclusion in a Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals: Environmental and Occupational Aspects which is being prepared by the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals of the P...

  10. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  11. Toxicology, an STS Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities suggested through Project L.A.B.S. that involve the topic of toxicology. Activities include suggested research, the risk benefit seesaw, human-made compounds, legislation, a historical perspective, and health. A suggested readings list is provided. (KR)

  12. Emerging Approaches in Predictive Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Greene, Nigel; Snyder, Ronald D.; Rich, Ivan N.; Aardema, Marilyn J.; Roy, Shambhu; Pfuhler, Stefan; Venkatactahalam, Sundaresan

    2016-01-01

    Predictive toxicology plays an important role in the assessment of toxicity of chemicals and the drug development process. While there are several well-established in vitro and in vivo assays that are suitable for predictive toxicology, recent advances in high-throughput analytical technologies and model systems are expected to have a major impact on the field of predictive toxicology. This commentary provides an overview of the state of the current science and a brief discussion on future perspectives for the field of predictive toxicology for human toxicity. Computational models for predictive toxicology, needs for further refinement and obstacles to expand computational models to include additional classes of chemical compounds are highlighted. Functional and comparative genomics approaches in predictive toxicology are discussed with an emphasis on successful utilization of recently developed model systems for high-throughput analysis. The advantages of three-dimensional model systems and stem cells and their use in predictive toxicology testing are also described. PMID:25044351

  13. DIVISIBILITY TESTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOLEY, JACK L.

    THIS BOOKLET, ONE OF A SERIES, HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THE PROJECT, A PROGRAM FOR MATHEMATICALLY UNDERDEVELOPED PUPILS. A PROJECT TEAM, INCLUDING INSERVICE TEACHERS, IS BEING USED TO WRITE AND DEVELOP THE MATERIALS FOR THIS PROGRAM. THE MATERIALS DEVELOPED IN THIS BOOKLET INCLUDE SUCH CONCEPTS AS (1) DIVISIBILITY TESTS, (2) CHECKING THE FUNDAMENTAL…

  14. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. PMID:27090769

  15. 20 years of toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B E

    1998-01-01

    With over 80,000 chemicals being used in commerce worldwide, it is important to identify the human health effects of these chemicals and the levels of exposure at which they are harmful to humans. In order to address this need, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978; since then, the NTP has become the world's leader in designing, conducting, and interpreting various types of toxicity assays. PMID:9755149

  16. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red-tailed hawk

  17. Synthetic toxicology: where engineering meets biology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Markus; Pei, Lei

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the implications of synthetic biology (SB) for toxicological sciences. Starting with a working definition of SB, we describe its current subfields, namely, DNA synthesis, the engineering of DNA-based biological circuits, minimal genome research, attempts to construct protocells and synthetic cells, and efforts to diversify the biochemistry of life through xenobiology. Based on the most important techniques, tools, and expected applications in SB, we describe the ramifications of SB for toxicology under the label of synthetic toxicology. We differentiate between cases where SB offers opportunities for toxicology and where SB poses challenges for toxicology. Among the opportunities, we identified the assistance of SB to construct novel toxicity testing platforms, define new toxicity-pathway assays, explore the potential of SB to improve in vivo biotransformation of toxins, present novel biosensors developed by SB for environmental toxicology, discuss cell-free protein synthesis of toxins, reflect on the contribution to toxic use reduction, and the democratization of toxicology through do-it-yourself biology. Among the identified challenges for toxicology, we identify synthetic toxins and novel xenobiotics, biosecurity and dual-use considerations, the potential bridging of toxic substances and infectious agents, and do-it-yourself toxin production. PMID:21068213

  18. History of wildlife toxicology.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A

    2009-10-01

    The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic

  19. Reprint Library for Toxicology Data Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, S. N.; Khan, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Industrial Toxicology Research Center, Lucknow, India, maintains a register of toxicology and provides its research workers with current information mainly through its collection of reprints. (Author)

  20. Toxicology: Old Art, New Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timbrell, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the need for a science of toxicology and training at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in response to legislation controlling drugs, food additives and toxic substances in the work environment, and concern about effects on man. Stresses need for putting toxicology on a scientific base with adequate funding. (JM)

  1. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  2. Structures Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1995 are presented.

  3. Honey bee toxicology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-01

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed. PMID:25341092

  4. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  5. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    PubMed

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-03-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. PMID:26867944

  6. BEHAVIORAL TOXICOLOGY: AN EMERGING DISCIPLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book contains the proceedings of a symposium entitled Behavioral Toxicology: An Emerging Discipline, held in conjunction with the Southwest Psychological Association meetings, April 30, 1976 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Authors of formal presentations later reviewed and enlarg...

  7. Predictive Models and Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the potential health risks posed by environmental chemicals is a significant challenge elevated by the large number of diverse chemicals with generally uncharacterized exposures, mechanisms, and toxicities. The ToxCast computational toxicology research program was l...

  8. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  9. American College of Medical Toxicology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agents of Opportunity: TICs and TIMs Seminars in Forensic Toxicology Clandestine Meth Labs Courses Opioid Academy International ... Natural Toxins Academy 2014 FIT Open Mic 2013 Forensic Conference 2012 Chelation Course 2012 Prescription Opioid Misuse ...

  10. CHEMINFORMATIC APPROACHES IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cheminformatics and data models, are providing the underpinning for the large public HTS efforts of the NIH Molecular Libraries Initiative, as well as new toxicity-targeted HTS programs within the EPA and the NIEHS National Toxicology Program.

  11. PULMONARY TOXICOLOGY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SYNTHETIC AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES CONTAINING METAL SULFATES COMPARED TO CARBON BLACK AND DIESEL.

    M Daniels, A Ranade* & MJ Selgrade & MI Gilmour.
    Experimental Toxicology Division, ORD/NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC. * Particle Technology, College Par...

  12. DESIGN OF A LIMITED-ACCESS FACILITY AND SAFETY PROGRAM FOR A GENETIC TOXICOLOGY LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new limited access facility located in the Environmental Research Center was conceived as a result of the need for laboratories for testing hazardous materials found in the environment. The Genetic Toxicology Division (GTD) research personnel had the expertise and proven test p...

  13. [Preclinical toxicology of bisphosphonates].

    PubMed

    Mondelo, N; Peluffo, V A; Parma, M D; Cointry, G R; Capozza, R F; Ferretti, J L; Piccinni, E; Montuori, E

    1997-01-01

    Bisphosphonates regulate bone turnover by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Due to their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics, bisphosphonates have a special pharmacotoxicological profile related to their high degree of specificity: low or non-existent distribution in soft tissues and strong affinity for calcified tissues. Some general conclusions may be drawn from the pre-clinical toxicological studies, whose main aim is to identify the toxicity target organ/s and estimate the safety margins of a "prospective therapeutic agent" in laboratory animals. They are based on our own results and on data from the available literature as regards various bisphosphonates: Alendronate, Clodronate, Etidronate, Olpadronate and Pamidronate. Generally, very high doses of bisphosphonates are required to produce in different levels and incidence various extra-skeletical toxic side effects: local reaction, hypocalcemia (and its consequences on the cardiovascular system and the possibility of tetany), affection of the dental structures and renal dysfunction. Most of side effects may be related to the low solubility in biological fluids, the formation of calcium complexes, the potent inhibitory effect of endogenous or induced bone resorption as well as to its main excretion pathway. Some other side effects (on the eye, lungs and liver), may be related to repeated excessive high doses. A safety margin of 200 to 300 : 1 between the "toxic" and "pharmacological" doses may be estimated if the total quantity of Olpadronate given to various animal species in toxicological studies and in pharmacodynamic experimental models (osteopenias due to estrogen deprivation or immobilization and retinoid-induced hypercalcemia) is considered. If the toxic doses in animals are related to the highest doses suggested for human beings, then the ratio increases from 300 to 1000 : 1 depending on the pathology and the route of administration. As regards their effect on the bone

  14. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee... notice announces a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods... and promotes the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and...

  15. The toxicology of chemosterilants

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Wayland J.

    1964-01-01

    Sterilization of males can in certain circumstances be more efficient than killing as a method for control of insects and perhaps other pests. A number of chemicals (chemosterilants) show promise of producing sexual sterility in insects without some of the practical limitations of radiation. The most important compounds are alkylating agents. These have little immediate pharmacological action, but are notable for their selective action against haematopoietic and some other proliferating tissues. A number of alkylating agents have been shown to be mutagens in insects, bacteria, fungi, and higher plants; carcinogens in mammals; and teratogens in insects, birds, and mammals. Some produce sexual sterility, possibly in mammals as well as in insects, at doses too low to produce the other effects. Some have an established reputation as drugs for palliative treatment of leukaemia and other neoplasms. The development of insect sterilization as a vector control technique has been handicapped in part by lack of scientific information on the acute and long-term hazards that might be associated with the use of chemosterilants. In this paper the author brings together the available knowledge on the toxicology of the alkylating agents. PMID:14278008

  16. Avian toxicologic diagnosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigurdson, C.J.; Franson, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the sources and pathophysiology of some potential poisons that affect birds and summarizes useful laboratory tests. The diagnosis of poisoning in birds, as in mammals, requires a complete and accurate history, careful observation of clinical signs, and a thorough necropsy evaluation. Appropriate sample handling and analysis, based on consultation with the diagnostic toxicologist, are critical (Table 19--1). Veterinary toxicology laboratories are becoming increasingly specialized, with only certain laboratories capable of analyzing for drug residues or anticoagulants, for example. Although a local laboratory may not be able to fulfill a specific test request, they may recommend an alternative laboratory or may be willing to forward the sample. As a general rule in suspect poisoning cases, large tissue samples of liver, kidney, brain, and subcutaneous fat and of crop, proventriculus, and ventriculus contents should be collected at necropsy and frozen. Appropriate samples should be submitted frozen, with the remainder held in the freezer for possible later testing. A second set of tissues should be placed in 10% formalin for histopathologic examination.

  17. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected. PMID:20348049

  18. Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.

    PubMed Central

    Dekant, W

    1996-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements. PMID:8722112

  19. Toxicological approaches to complex mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Mauderly, J L

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of toxicological studies in understanding the health effects of environmental exposures to mixtures. The approach taken is to review mixtures that have received the greatest emphasis from toxicology; major mixtures research programs; the toxicologist's view of mixtures and approaches to their study; and the complementary roles of toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Studies of tobacco smoke, engine exhaust, combustion products, and air pollutants comprise most of the past research on mixtures. Because of their great experimental control over subjects, exposures, and endpoints, toxicologists tend to consider a wider range of toxic interactions among mixture components and sequential exposures than is practical for human studies. The three fundamental experimental approaches used by toxicologists are integrative (studying the mixture as a whole), dissective (dissecting a mixture to determine causative constituents), and synthetic (studying interactions between agents in simple combinations). Toxicology provides information on potential hazards, mechanisms by which mixture constituents interact to cause effects, and exposure dose-effect relationships; but extrapolation from laboratory data to quantitative human health risks is problematic. Toxicological, clinical, and epidemiological approaches are complementary but are seldom coordinated. Fostering synergistic interactions among the disciplines in studying the risks from mixtures could be advantageous. PMID:7515806

  20. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY: OVERVIEW AND CURRENT APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current approaches in Reproductive Toxicology encompass a broad spectrum. This review article summarizes several of these approaches, based on presentations at the Symposium on Reproductive ToxicologY in Michigan. here are multiple targets for toxicological injury in the developi...

  1. Clinical toxicology and military application.

    PubMed

    Bland, S A

    2006-01-01

    The changing operational tempo and types of deployment have, since the end of the Cold War, required a change in CBRN training. The threat from weapons of mass destruction has been replaced with the threat from improvised explosive devices and insurgent attempts to develop asymmetric weapons to target military and civilian populations. In addition exposure to hazardous materials as well as environmental hazards and natural toxins requires a greater awareness of the necessary supportive and definitive management. Developing a cadre of specialists with an interest in toxicology and environmental medicine, within either emergency or acute medicine, would be advantageous to deployed units as well as specialised units, including those tasked in support of UK homeland security. An established pathway for sub-specialisation in clinical toxicology does not yet exist. With the establishment of the College of Emergency Medicine, as well as the Acute Medicine Society and Intensive Care Society further development of clinical toxicology is likely. PMID:17310611

  2. Fire toxicology program. JSC methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H.; Bafus, D.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological testing of spacecraft materials was initiated in 1965. Toxicological evaluations of the pyrolysis/combustion products of candidate spacecraft materials were performed using a modified 142 liter Bethlehem Chamber equipped with a Linberg Model 55031 furnace external to the chamber. In all of the assessments, lethality was chosen as the endpoint. A new pyrolysis/combustion chamber was developed for toxicological testing and ranking of both spacecraft and aircraft materials. The pyrolysis/combustion chamber permits the use of both behavior and physiological measurements as indicators of incapacitation. Methods were developed which employ high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to generate chamber atmospheric profiles which indicate the reproductibility of pyrolysate concentrations. The atmospheric volatile profiles in combination with CO, CO2, and O2 analysis indicates that small chamber equipped with an internal furnace will give reproducible results.

  3. Toxicological profile for selenium. (Update)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Each profile includes: (1) The examination, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic information and epidemiologic evaluations on a hazardous substance to ascertain the levels of significant human exposure for the substance and the associated acute, subacute, and chronic health effects; (2) A determination of whether adequate information on the health effects of each substance is available or in the process of development to determine levels of exposure that present a significant risk to human health of acute, subacute, and chonic health effects; and (3) Where appropriate, identification of toxicologic testing needed to identify the types or levels of exposure that may present significant risk of adverse health effects in humans.

  4. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology,...

  5. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  6. 42 CFR 493.1213 - Condition: Toxicology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Toxicology. 493.1213 Section 493.1213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1213 Condition: Toxicology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Toxicology,...

  7. Reproductive Toxicology Testing with EDCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An introduction to reproductive toxicology: the basic approaches to testing chemicals for adverse effects using multigenerational studies with rats and how the regulatory agencies used the data in risk assessments. Case studies were presented of how endocrine or genomic data were...

  8. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Groten, J P

    2002-06-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures have gradually substituted trial-and-error approaches, improving the insight into the testability of joint action and interaction of constituents of mixtures. The acquired knowledge has successfully been used to evaluate the safety of combined exposures and complex mixtures such as, for example, the atmosphere at hazardous waste sites, drinking water disinfection by-products, natural flavouring complexes, and the combined intake of food additives. To consolidate the scientific foundation of mixture toxicology, studies are in progress to revisit the biological concepts and mathematics underlying formulas for low-dose extrapolation and risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Conspicuous developments include the production of new computer programs applicable to mixture research (CombiTool, BioMol, Reaction Network Modelling), the application of functional genomics and proteomics to mixture studies, the use of nano-optochemical sensors for in vivo imaging of physiological processes in cells, and the application of optical sensor micro- and nano-arrays for complex sample analysis. Clearly, the input of theoretical biologists, biomathematicians and bioengineers in mixture toxicology is essential for the development of this challenging branch of toxicology into a scientific subdiscipline of full value. PMID:11983277

  9. CAROLINA CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center will advance the field of computational toxicology through the development of new methods and tools, as well as through collaborative efforts. In each Project, new computer-based models will be developed and published that represent the state-of-the-art. The tools p...

  10. Public Databases Supporting Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the emerging field of computational toxicology is the development of screening-level models that predict potential toxicity of chemicals from a combination of mechanistic in vitro assay data and chemical structure descriptors. In order to build these models, resea...

  11. Distance learning in toxicology: resident and remote; Scotland, IPCS, IUPAC, and the world.

    PubMed

    Duffus, John H

    2005-09-01

    Globally, very few college or university chemistry courses incorporate toxicology although public perception of chemicals and the chemical industry as threats to health and the environment has had an adverse effect on chemistry and on the use of its products. The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) through its Commission on Toxicology recognized this and, with the support of the Committee on the Teaching of Chemistry has used the IUPAC web site to promote distance learning in toxicology for chemists. After preparation of a thoroughly refereed consensus Glossary of Terms for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology, a textbook Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists and a set of educational modules entitled Essential Toxicology were compiled and put through the normal thorough review procedure of IUPAC before being approved by the organization. There is now an additional Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicokinetics. The modules are freely downloadable in Adobe PDF format and are designed to be used both by educators and by students. Educators are asked to select whatever is appropriate to their students and to use the material as they wish, adding content specifically relevant to their circumstances. For self-study, the web modules have self-assessment questions and model answers. Currently the original Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology is being revised and it is expected that this will lead to further developments. The currently available components of the IUPAC programme may be accessed through the IUPAC website at the Subcommittee on Toxicology and Risk Assessment page: http://www.iupac.org/divisions/VII/VII.C.2/index.html. PMID:15982692

  12. Distance learning in toxicology: Resident and remote; Scotland, IPCS, IUPAC, and the world

    SciTech Connect

    Duffus, John H. . E-mail: J.H.Duffus@btinternet.com

    2005-09-01

    Globally, very few college or university chemistry courses incorporate toxicology although public perception of chemicals and the chemical industry as threats to health and the environment has had an adverse effect on chemistry and on the use of its products. The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) through its Commission on Toxicology recognized this and, with the support of the Committee on the Teaching of Chemistry has used the IUPAC web site to promote distance learning in toxicology for chemists. After preparation of a thoroughly refereed consensus Glossary of Terms for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology, a textbook Fundamental Toxicology for Chemists and a set of educational modules entitled Essential Toxicology were compiled and put through the normal thorough review procedure of IUPAC before being approved by the organization. There is now an additional Glossary of Terms Used in Toxicokinetics. The modules are freely downloadable in Adobe PDF format and are designed to be used both by educators and by students. Educators are asked to select whatever is appropriate to their students and to use the material as they wish, adding content specifically relevant to their circumstances. For self-study, the web modules have self-assessment questions and model answers. Currently the original Glossary for Chemists of Terms Used in Toxicology is being revised and it is expected that this will lead to further developments. The currently available components of the IUPAC programme may be accessed through the IUPAC website at the Subcommittee on Toxicology and Risk Assessment page: http://www.iupac.org/divisions/VII/VII.C.2/index.html.

  13. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075

  14. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Martin L.; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B.; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A.; Scherer, Roberta W.; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on “The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology,” on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075

  15. Divisibility--Another Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardella, Francis J.

    1984-01-01

    Given is an alternative to individual divisibility rules by generating a general process that can be applied to establish divisibility by any number. The process relies on modular arithmetic and the concept of congruence. (MNS)

  16. Vernon Steele, PhD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Vernon Steele is a Program Director and Group Leader for the Chemoprevention Agent Development Research Group in the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. He earned his MS and PhD degrees in Radiation Biology at the University of Rochester in 1975 studying radiation effects on cell differentiation. He recently received his Masters of Public Health degree from Johns Hopkins University focusing on environmental toxicology. |

  17. QUANTITATIVE TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGY-METHODS AND INTERPRETATION' SESSION AT THE JOINT MEETING OF SOCIETY OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS AND THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES OF TOXICOLOGIC PATHOLOGISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Report of the 'Quantitative Toxicologic Pathology - Methods and Interpretation' session at the Joint meeting of Society of Toxicologic Pathologists and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists, Orlando, Florida, USA, June 24-28, 2001. Douglas C. Wolf,...

  18. Toxicological significance of dihydrodiol metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    Dihydrodiols are often found as the major organic-extractable metabolites of various olefinic or aromatic xenobiotics in many biological samples. Studies on the chemistry of dihydrodiol metabolites have provided insight into the pharmacokinetic behavior and the mode of action of the parent compound. The toxicology of dihydrodiol is more complex than what can be deduced solely on the basis of diminished bioavailability of the epoxide precursor, and the increased hydrophilicity associated with the dihydrodiol moiety. Dihydrodiols can be intrinsically toxic and may even represent metabolically activated species. Some of the dihydrodiol metabolites may still retain sufficient lipophilic character to serve again as substrates for microsomal oxygenases. Because of the tremendous chemical and biological diversity that existed among the various dihydrodiols, more mechanistic studies are needed to examine the toxicological properties of these compounds. It may be premature to conclude dihydrodiol formation as purely a detoxification route for xenobioties.

  19. Toxicologic studies of SRC materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mahlum, D.D.; Pelroy, R.A.; Drucker, H.; Wilson, B.W.; Massey, M.J.; Schmalzer, D.K.

    1980-02-01

    Investigations on the toxicity of SRC materials are reported. Toxicological studies include: microbial mutageneis (Ames test); in vitro mammalian cell toxicity and transformation assays; epidermal carcinogenesis (skin painting); acute and subchronic oral toxicity; developmental toxicity; dominant lethal assays; inhalation toxicity; and dosimetry and metabolism. The materials tested include: SRC-I process solvent, wash solvent, and light oil; SRC-II heavy distillate, middle distillate, and light distillate; shale oil; crude petroleum; and pure carcinogens. (DC)

  20. Recent advances in materials toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the fire toxicology program, its principal objectives and approach, is outlined. The laboratory methods of assessing pyrolysis product toxicity for two experiments are presented. The two experiments are: a comparison of test end points; and an evaluation of operant techniques. A third experiment is outlined for a comparison of full-scale and laboratory toxicity tests, with the purpose of determining animal survivability in full-scale tests. Future research plans are also outlined.

  1. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  7. Resource Guide to Careers in Toxicology, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society of Toxicology, Reston, VA.

    This resource guide was prepared by the Tox 90's Educational Issues Task Force of the Society of Toxicology. The introduction provides information on the Society of Toxicology and financial support for graduate students in toxicology. Other sections include career opportunities in toxicology, academic and postdoctoral programs in toxicology, and…

  8. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical toxicology control material. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3200 - Clinical toxicology calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology calibrator. 862.3200 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3200 Clinical toxicology calibrator. (a) Identification. A clinical toxicology calibrator...

  12. Toxicologic properties of fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Gloxhuber, C; Bloching, H

    1978-01-01

    From the collection of toxicologic data, it is seen that the fluorescent whitening agents are a well-investigated class of compounds. Only in one of the groups of compounds investigated did it appear advisable to discontinue the use of a particular product on the basis of the toxicologic findings. In the large number of the other cases, the findings indicate that there is a considerable degree of toxicologic safety in the use of the FWAs in soap and detergent products. PMID:367695

  13. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  14. ACToR A Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are developing the ACToR system (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) to serve as a repository for a variety of types of chemical, biological and toxicological data that can be used for predictive modeling of chemical toxicology.

  15. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  16. Label-free quantitative cell division monitoring of endothelial cells by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Bauwens, Andreas; Vollmer, Angelika; Ketelhut, Steffi; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Müthing, Johannes; Karch, Helge; von Bally, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) enables quantitative multifocus phase contrast imaging for nondestructive technical inspection and live cell analysis. Time-lapse investigations on human brain microvascular endothelial cells demonstrate the use of DHM for label-free dynamic quantitative monitoring of cell division of mother cells into daughter cells. Cytokinetic DHM analysis provides future applications in toxicology and cancer research.

  17. LIVING RESOURCES AND THEIR HABITATS ARE THE FOCUS OF THE GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION'S MISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brief article introduces ERF Newsletter readers to the Gulf Ecology Division. Future articles will showcase our estuarine and near-coastal research efforts in areas such as biochemical and cellular toxicology, temporal and spatial scaling of ecological data, reproductive and...

  18. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  19. Review, discussion, and summary: toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    The research presented in the toxicology session of the Symposium on the Health Effects of Acid Aerosols significantly advances our understanding of the health effects of acid aerosols and clearly illustrates the importance of animal inhalation toxicology to risk assessment. The description of the effects of acid on airway mucus buffering capacity and viscosity helps explain some of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of sulfuric acid on mucociliary clearance and pulmonary function observed in man and animals. Several of the papers illustrate that other pollutants interact with sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), causing concern about exposure risks and helping in elucidating the effects observed in epidemiology studies that have not yet been duplicated in a laboratory. For example, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ absorbed in zinc oxide (ZnO) particles appears to be about a log more potent than H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone in causing pulmonary function decrements. Low levels of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and O/sub 3/ were found to be synergistic in increasing collagen synthesis, implying a risk in development of lung fibrosis. More complex mixtures containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ cause a variety of interactions, depending upon the end points examined and the chemistry of the mixture. Other reports indicate that dose rate and length of exposure issues are critical to toxicological outcomes. Animal data on mucociliary clearance, which parallels that of human data, was extended to show that concentration of exposure was more important than time of exposure in eliciting a response, although time played a significant role. A recent chronic study showed that H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ caused effects that also can occur in the development of chronic bronchitis.

  20. Toxicology - A primer on toxicology principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kamrin, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    As the use of synthetic chemicals increased dramatically after World War II, concern about the possible adverse health and environmental effects of such use grew. The book opens with a discussion of the general principles of toxicology and how these general principles are applied in assessing the acute, subacute and chronic effects of chemicals. Both qualitative and quantitative measures of toxicity are addressed and the protocols for the various tests are described. Emphasis is placed on both the strengths and limitations of the techniques which are in current use. This is then followed by a discussion of risk assessment and risk management. Risk assessment deals with both the toxic potential of a chemical and the exposure likely to occur in specific situations. Risk management includes the steps taken to reduce or eliminate risks identified in the assessment process. The components of risk assessment are described in relation to a variety of possible toxic effects and exposure scenarios. The last part of the book provides a description and analysis of four case studies, each dealing with a different substance. These include the food additives, cyclamate and saccharin; asbestos; formaldehyde; and benzene. The basic toxicological information regarding each, and the different regulations to which they have been subject, provide the basis for exploring how the principles introduced in the first part of the book are applied in practice.

  1. Toxicology of indigo. A review.

    PubMed

    Ferber, K H

    1987-01-01

    Most reports relating to the biological and toxicological properties of indigo have never been published in scientific journals. They are in the files of commercial testing laboratories, government agencies or sponsoring industrial corporations. They include studies of acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity, subchronic and chronic dietary effects in the rat and dog, multi-generation and dose-response effects, repeated dermal applications, human skin sensitization, and end-use in surgical sutures for the eye. This review summarizes the experimental protocols and results of these studies and others reported in the literature. It is concluded that indigo has a very low order of both acute and chronic toxicity. PMID:3598883

  2. Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jane; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    There is extensive research on the safety, toxicology, potency, and therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, uncertainty remains facilitating continued debate on medical and recreational cannabis policies at the state and federal levels. This review will include a brief description of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system; a summary of the acute and long-term effects of cannabis; and a discussion of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. The conclusions about safety and efficacy will then be compared with the current social and political climate to suggest future policy directions and general guidelines. PMID:26269228

  3. Advanced toxicology for health compliance officers (instructor manual)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.M.

    1980-03-15

    The course includes an overview of the Toxic Substances Control Act; the biologic transformation mechanisms; some of the chemical hazards encountered in the workplace; an overview of human biochemistry; the kinetics of toxication; and finally the toxicology of metal dust. The general classification of pesticides is also discussed. The course is divided into 16 lessons. The specific titles of the course are as follows: Legislation, Organ physiology (overview), Organ physiology blood, Liver, Kidney, Organ system physiology, Nervous system, Biochemistry (overview), Dose response relationship, Toxification and biotransformation, Experimental studies, Special toxicology problems, Biological monitoring, Toxicology of gases, Toxicology of dusts, Toxicology of solvents, Toxicology of metals, Toxicology of pesticides, Toxicology of miscellaneous substances.

  4. The Toxicology Education Summit: Building the Future of Toxicology Through Education

    PubMed Central

    Barchowsky, Aaron; Buckley, Lorrene A.; Carlson, Gary P.; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A.; Ford, Sue M.; Genter, Mary Beth; Germolec, Dori R.; Leavens, Teresa L.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Safe, Stephen H.; Sulentic, Courtney E. W.; Eidemiller, Betty J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxicology and careers in toxicology, as well as many other scientific disciplines, are undergoing rapid and dramatic changes as new discoveries, technologies, and hazards advance at a blinding rate. There are new and ever increasing demands on toxicologists to keep pace with expanding global economies, highly fluid policy debates, and increasingly complex global threats to public health. These demands must be met with new paradigms for multidisciplinary, technologically complex, and collaborative approaches that require advanced and continuing education in toxicology and associated disciplines. This requires paradigm shifts in educational programs that support recruitment, development, and training of the modern toxicologist, as well as continued education and retraining of the midcareer professional to keep pace and sustain careers in industry, government, and academia. The Society of Toxicology convened the Toxicology Educational Summit to discuss the state of toxicology education and to strategically address educational needs and the sustained advancement of toxicology as a profession. The Summit focused on core issues of: building for the future of toxicology through educational programs; defining education and training needs; developing the “Total Toxicologist”; continued training and retraining toxicologists to sustain their careers; and, finally, supporting toxicology education and professional development. This report summarizes the outcomes of the Summit, presents examples of successful programs that advance toxicology education, and concludes with strategies that will insure the future of toxicology through advanced educational initiatives. PMID:22461448

  5. Applications of Proteomic Technologies to Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proteomics is the large-scale study of gene expression at the protein level. This cutting edge technology has been extensively applied to toxicology research recently. The up-to-date development of proteomics has presented the toxicology community with an unprecedented opportunit...

  6. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  7. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced

    The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference
    Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OH
    April 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!

    The Annual Toxicology and Risk Ass...

  8. 2009 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced

    The 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference
    Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OH
    April 27-30, 2009 - Click to register!

    The Annual Toxicology and Risk Ass...

  9. 2008 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced

    The 2008 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference
    Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OH
    April 14 - 17, 2008 - Click to register!

    The Annual Toxicology and Risk ...

  10. 42 CFR 493.845 - Standard; Toxicology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Toxicology. 493.845 Section 493.845 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.845 Standard; Toxicology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent...

  11. Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of risk from exposure to environmental air pollutants is complex, and involves the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human inhalation studies. Controlled, quantitative studies of exposed humans help determine health-related effects that result from breathing the atmosphere. The major unique feature of the clinical study is the ability to select, control, and quantify pollutant exposures of subjects of known clinical status, and determine their effects under ideal experimental conditions. The choice of outcomes to be assessed in human clinical studies can be guided by both scientific and practical considerations, but the diversity of human responses and responsiveness must be considered. Subjects considered to be among the most susceptible include those with asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cardiovascular disease. New experimental approaches include exposures to concentrated ambient air particles, diesel engine exhaust, combustion products from smoking machines, and experimental model particles. Future investigations of the health effects of air pollution will benefit from collaborative efforts among the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human clinical studies. PMID:10931779

  12. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y.

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Blood transcriptomics: applications in toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Pius; Umbright, Christina; Sellamuthu, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The number of new chemicals that are being synthesized each year has been steadily increasing. While chemicals are of immense benefit to mankind, many of them have a significant negative impact, primarily owing to their inherent chemistry and toxicity, on the environment as well as human health. In addition to chemical exposures, human exposures to numerous non-chemical toxic agents take place in the environment and workplace. Given that human exposure to toxic agents is often unavoidable and many of these agents are found to have detrimental human health effects, it is important to develop strategies to prevent the adverse health effects associated with toxic exposures. Early detection of adverse health effects as well as a clear understanding of the mechanisms, especially at the molecular level, underlying these effects are key elements in preventing the adverse health effects associated with human exposure to toxic agents. Recent developments in genomics, especially transcriptomics, have prompted investigations into this important area of toxicology. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated the potential application of blood gene expression profiling as a sensitive, mechanistically relevant and practical surrogate approach for the early detection of adverse health effects associated with exposure to toxic agents. The advantages of blood gene expression profiling as a surrogate approach to detect early target organ toxicity and the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity are illustrated and discussed using recent studies on hepatotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity. Furthermore, the important challenges this emerging field in toxicology faces are presented in this review article. PMID:23456664

  14. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  15. Division: The Sleeping Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Of the four mathematical operators, division seems to not sit easily for many learners. Division is often described as "the odd one out". Pupils develop coping strategies that enable them to "get away with it". So, problems, misunderstandings, and misconceptions go unresolved perhaps for a lifetime. Why is this? Is it a case of "out of sight out…

  16. Toxicological profile for beryllium. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Beryllium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health-effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature. More comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public-health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in toxicologic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information.

  17. Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity is examined, including the effects of oxygen partial pressure variations on toxicity and oxygen effects on ozone and nitrogen dioxide toxicity. Toxicity of fuels and oxidizers, such as hydrazines, are reported. Carbon monoxide, spacecraft threshold limit values, emergency exposure limits, spacecraft contaminants, and water quality standards for space missions are briefly summarized.

  18. Nanoparticles: pharmacological and toxicological significance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, C; Santos-Martinez, M J; Radomski, A; Corrigan, O I; Radomski, M W

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles are tiny materials (<1000 nm in size) that have specific physicochemical properties different to bulk materials of the same composition and such properties make them very attractive for commercial and medical development. However, nanoparticles can act on living cells at the nanolevel resulting not only in biologically desirable, but also in undesirable effects. In contrast to many efforts aimed at exploiting desirable properties of nanoparticles for medicine, there are limited attempts to evaluate potentially undesirable effects of these particles when administered intentionally for medical purposes. Therefore, there is a pressing need for careful consideration of benefits and side effects of the use of nanoparticles in medicine. This review article aims at providing a balanced update of these exciting pharmacological and potentially toxicological developments. The classes of nanoparticles, the current status of nanoparticle use in pharmacology and therapeutics, the demonstrated and potential toxicity of nanoparticles will be discussed. PMID:17245366

  19. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  20. Predictive models and computational toxicology.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Thomas; Martin, Matthew; Chandler, Kelly; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Judson, Richard; Sipes, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the potential health risks posed by environmental chemicals is a significant challenge elevated by the large number of diverse chemicals with generally uncharacterized exposures, mechanisms, and toxicities. The ToxCast computational toxicology research program was launched by EPA in 2007 and is part of the federal Tox21 consortium to develop a cost-effective approach for efficiently prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals and the application of this information to assessing human toxicology. ToxCast addresses this problem through an integrated workflow using high-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries across more than 650 in vitro assays including biochemical assays, human cells and cell lines, and alternative models such as mouse embryonic stem cells and zebrafish embryo development. The initial phase of ToxCast profiled a library of 309 environmental chemicals, mostly pesticidal actives having rich in vivo data from guideline studies that include chronic/cancer bioassays in mice and rats, multigenerational reproductive studies in rats, and prenatal developmental toxicity endpoints in rats and rabbits. The first phase of ToxCast was used to build models that aim to determine how well in vivo animal effects can be predicted solely from the in vitro data. Phase I is now complete and both the in vitro data (ToxCast) and anchoring in vivo database (ToxRefDB) have been made available to the public (http://actor.epa.gov/). As Phase II of ToxCast is now underway, the purpose of this chapter is to review progress to date with ToxCast predictive modeling, using specific examples on developmental and reproductive effects in rats and rabbits with lessons learned during Phase I. PMID:23138916

  1. Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, Gunnar F.

    2009-08-01

    The first health effects of cadmium (Cd) were reported already in 1858. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred among persons using Cd-containing polishing agent. The first experimental toxicological studies are from 1919. Bone effects and proteinuria in humans were reported in the 1940's. After World War II, a bone disease with fractures and severe pain, the itai-itai disease, a form of Cd-induced renal osteomalacia, was identified in Japan. Subsequently, the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of Cd were described including its binding to the protein metallothionein. International warnings of health risks from Cd-pollution were issued in the 1970's. Reproductive and carcinogenic effects were studied at an early stage, but a quantitative assessment of these effects in humans is still subject to considerable uncertainty. The World Health Organization in its International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO/IPCS (1992) (Cadmium. Environmental Health Criteria Document 134, IPCS. WHO, Geneva, 1-280.) identified renal dysfunction as the critical effect and a crude quantitative evaluation was presented. In the 1990's and 2000 several epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, sometimes at low environmental exposures to Cd, in population groups in Japan, China, Europe and USA (reviewed in other contributions to the present volume). The early identification of an important role of metallothionein in cadmium toxicology formed the basis for recent studies using biomarkers of susceptibility to development of Cd-related renal dysfunction such as gene expression of metallothionein in peripheral lymphocytes and autoantibodies against metallothionein in blood plasma. Findings in these studies indicate that very low exposure levels to cadmium may give rise to renal dysfunction among sensitive subgroups of human populations such as persons with diabetes.

  2. Chemical Engineering Division Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical Engineering Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lecturer was Theodore Vermeulen of the University of California at Berkeley. Other chemical engineers who received awards or special recognition at a recent ASEE annual conference are mentioned. (BB)

  3. Bring Back Short Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Chich

    1985-01-01

    Some benefits of helping learners think in prime numbers are detailed. Reasons for the decay of this ability are described, with short division presented as one activity which should be reintroduced in schools. (MNS)

  4. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  5. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  6. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Retterer, S. T.; Holsapple, M. P.

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY DATABASE (DART)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (DART) is a bibliographic database that contains references and abstracts to literature published from 1989 to the present on agents that may cause birth defects and other reproductive and developmental disorders. In addition to refer...

  8. Reproductive Toxicology: From Science to Public Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male reproductive toxicology research substantially influences policies that protect men's health. US policy directs regulatory agencies to ensure environmental protection for vulnerable groups, including boys and men where factors like age- and sex-specific sensitivities are app...

  9. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  10. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  11. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods. PMID:27319209

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexachloroethane (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report Toxicological Review of Hexachloroethane: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrylamide and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS database.

  13. Computational Toxicology at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, EPA is developin...

  14. Comparative BioInformatics and Computational Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reflecting the numerous changes in the field since the publication of the previous edition, this third edition of Developmental Toxicology focuses on the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and incorporates current technologies for testing in the risk assessment process.

  15. MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

  16. Pathophysiological Progression Model for Selected Toxicological Endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    The existing continuum paradigms are effective models to organize toxicological data associated with endpoints used in human health assessments. A compendium of endpoints characterized along a pathophysiological continuum would serve to: weigh the relative importance of effects o...

  17. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Brian D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2012-09-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was sponsored by Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle, Columbus), to initiate a collaborative research program across multiple Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories aimed at developing a suite of new capabilities for predictive toxicology. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging classes of engineered nanomaterials was chosen as one of two focusing problems for this program. PNNL’s focus toward this broader goal was to refine and apply experimental and computational tools needed to provide quantitative understanding of nanoparticle dosimetry for in vitro cell culture systems, which is necessary for comparative risk estimates for different nanomaterials or biological systems. Research conducted using lung epithelial and macrophage cell models successfully adapted magnetic particle detection and fluorescent microscopy technologies to quantify uptake of various forms of engineered nanoparticles, and provided experimental constraints and test datasets for benchmark comparison against results obtained using an in vitro computational dosimetry model, termed the ISSD model. The experimental and computational approaches developed were used to demonstrate how cell dosimetry is applied to aid in interpretation of genomic studies of nanoparticle-mediated biological responses in model cell culture systems. The combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a highly quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical form in a controlled manner.

  18. MICROTIA AND HEARING DEFICITS IN CD-1 MICE FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TARKA1,2, D.K., G.R. KLINEFELTER1,2, D.W. HERR3, and J.M. ROGERS 1,2. 1University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and USEPA, NHEERL, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division and 3Neurotoxicology Division, Research Triangle Pa...

  19. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  20. Toward a new toxicology - evolution or revolution?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    This essay summarises the author's thoughts on the current paradigm change in toxicology. The driving factors and mechanisms of this change, and obstacles to it, are discussed. Current developments are discussed on the basis of some key assumptions in Thomas Kuhn's famous book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The author's personal view is that there is clear evidence that revolutionary changes in regulatory toxicology are emerging. PMID:19154090

  1. lazar: a modular predictive toxicology framework

    PubMed Central

    Maunz, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Rautenberg, Micha; Vorgrimmler, David; Gebele, Denis; Helma, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    lazar (lazy structure–activity relationships) is a modular framework for predictive toxicology. Similar to the read across procedure in toxicological risk assessment, lazar creates local QSAR (quantitative structure–activity relationship) models for each compound to be predicted. Model developers can choose between a large variety of algorithms for descriptor calculation and selection, chemical similarity indices, and model building. This paper presents a high level description of the lazar framework and discusses the performance of example classification and regression models. PMID:23761761

  2. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: Pharmacology and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Čolović, Mirjana B; Krstić, Danijela Z; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara D; Bondžić, Aleksandra M; Vasić, Vesna M

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is involved in the termination of impulse transmission by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in numerous cholinergic pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The enzyme inactivation, induced by various inhibitors, leads to acetylcholine accumulation, hyperstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and disrupted neurotransmission. Hence, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, interacting with the enzyme as their primary target, are applied as relevant drugs and toxins. This review presents an overview of toxicology and pharmacology of reversible and irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivating compounds. In the case of reversible inhibitors being commonly applied in neurodegenerative disorders treatment, special attention is paid to currently approved drugs (donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) in the pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer’s disease, and toxic carbamates used as pesticides. Subsequently, mechanism of irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition induced by organophosphorus compounds (insecticides and nerve agents), and their specific and nonspecific toxic effects are described, as well as irreversible inhibitors having pharmacological implementation. In addition, the pharmacological treatment of intoxication caused by organophosphates is presented, with emphasis on oxime reactivators of the inhibited enzyme activity administering as causal drugs after the poisoning. Besides, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides can be detoxified in mammals through enzymatic hydrolysis before they reach targets in the nervous system. Carboxylesterases most effectively decompose carbamates, whereas the most successful route of organophosphates detoxification is their degradation by corresponding phosphotriesterases. PMID:24179466

  3. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. PMID:24913753

  4. Role of quinones in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bolton, J L; Trush, M A; Penning, T M; Dryhurst, G; Monks, T J

    2000-03-01

    Quinones represent a class of toxicological intermediates which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including acute cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms by which quinones cause these effects can be quite complex. Quinones are Michael acceptors, and cellular damage can occur through alkylation of crucial cellular proteins and/or DNA. Alternatively, quinones are highly redox active molecules which can redox cycle with their semiquinone radicals, leading to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ultimately the hydroxyl radical. Production of ROS can cause severe oxidative stress within cells through the formation of oxidized cellular macromolecules, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. Formation of oxidatively damaged bases such as 8-oxodeoxyguanosine has been associated with aging and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, ROS can activate a number of signaling pathways, including protein kinase C and RAS. This review explores the varied cytotoxic effects of quinones using specific examples, including quinones produced from benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estrogens, and catecholamines. The evidence strongly suggests that the numerous mechanisms of quinone toxicity (i.e., alkylation vs oxidative stress) can be correlated with the known pathology of the parent compound(s). PMID:10725110

  5. Various aspects of piscine toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Wlasow, Teresa; Demska-Zakes, Krystyna; Gomulka, Piotr; Jarmolowicz, Sylwia

    2010-01-01

    In opposition to toxicology of mammals piscine toxicology is closely connected with the conditions of external environment. The aquatic environment is necessary for embryonic development and after hatching during short or long-lasting larval period of most fish species. An aquatic environment is polluted by many industrial and agricultural wastes. Ammonia as a toxic and common compound in water have negative influence for aquaculture especially in intensive fish culture, recirculation system and hatchery facilities. Acute toxicity of ammonia was investigated in carp Cyprinus carpio L. and developmental stages of chub Squalius cephalus L. Changes in the peripheral blood characteristics and hemopoietic tissues of carp occurred after exposition to ammonia in acute tests and 3, 5 and 10 weeks sublethal concetration. The observed increase of the concentration of most amino acids in fish intoxicated with amonia suggests that the process reflects detoxication of ammonia which takes place both in the brain and muscles after 3 weeks of exposition. Phenol intoxication tests induced considerable unfavorable changes in the blood and dystrophic and necrobiotic lesions in tissues of fish leading to dysfunction both hemopoietic and reproductive processes. In study on fish reproduction disruptors the influence of oxygenated polycyclic hydrocarbons (17-β-estradiol, 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone, 1,6-dihydroxynaphthalene and 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene) and oxygenated monocyclic hydrocarbons (phenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, 4-n-buthylphenol, 4-sec-buthylphenol; 4-tert-buthylphenol) was assessed using histopathological methods. It was established that examined oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons both natural (17-β-estradiol and 4,7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and synthetic can disrupt the differentiation of primary and secondary sex traits in pikeperch Sander lucioperca L. The chronic activity of these “biomimetics of estrogen” can lead to the disappearance of natural fish population. In vivo and in

  6. Toxicology of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Klaunig, James E

    2016-02-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a cyclic siloxane used in the formulation of consumer products as well as an industrial intermediate. A summary of the previous studies on the toxicology of D5 is provided. Toxicokinetic studies with D5 after dermal administration demonstrate a very low uptake of due to rapid evaporation. Following inhalation exposure, exhalation of unchanged D5 and excretion of metabolites with urine are major pathways for clearance in mammals. Due to this rapid clearance by exhalation, the potential for bioaccumulation of D5 is considered unlikely. The available toxicity data on D5 adequately cover the relevant endpoints regarding potential human health hazards. D5 was not DNA reactive or mutagenic in standard in vitro and in vivo test systems. D5 also did not induce developmental and reproductive toxicity in appropriately performed studies. In repeated studies in rats with subacute, subchronic and chronic inhalation exposure, mild effects on the respiratory tract typically seen after inhalation of irritating materials, increases in liver weight (28- and 90-day inhalation studies), and a small increase in the incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma (uterine tumor) in female rats (two-year inhalation chronic bioassay) were observed. The liver effects induced by D5 were consistent with D5 as a weak "phenobarbital-like" inducer of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and these effects are considered to be an adaptive response. Mechanistic studies to elucidate the mode-of-action for uterine tumor induction suggest an interaction of D5 with dopamine signal transduction pathways altering the pituitary control of the estrus cycle. The resulting estrogen imbalance may cause the small increase in uterine tumor incidence at the highest D5-exposure concentration over that seen in control rats. A genotoxic mechanism or a direct endocrine activity of D5 is not supported as a mode-of-action to account for the induction of uterine tumors by the available data. PMID

  7. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  9. The Problem with Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Of the "big four", division is likely to regarded by many learners as "the odd one out", "the difficult one", "the one that is complicated", or "the scary one". It seems to have been that way "for ever", in the perception of many who have trodden the learning pathways through the world of number. But, does it have to be like this? Clearly the…

  10. Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Anticrossproducts and cross divisions.

    PubMed

    de Leva, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines, in the context of conventional vector algebra, the concept of anticrossproduct and a family of simple operations called cross or vector divisions. It is impossible to solve for a or b the equation axb=c, where a and b are three-dimensional space vectors, and axb is their cross product. However, the problem becomes solvable if some "knowledge about the unknown" (a or b) is available, consisting of one of its components, or the angle it forms with the other operand of the cross product. Independently of the selected reference frame orientation, the known component of a may be parallel to b, or vice versa. The cross divisions provide a compact and insightful symbolic representation of a family of algorithms specifically designed to solve problems of such kind. A generalized algorithm was also defined, incorporating the rules for selecting the appropriate kind of cross division, based on the type of input data. Four examples of practical application were provided, including the computation of the point of application of a force and the angular velocity of a rigid body. The definition and geometrical interpretation of the cross divisions stemmed from the concept of anticrossproduct. The "anticrossproducts of axb" were defined as the infinitely many vectors x(i) such that x(i)xb=axb. PMID:18423647

  12. Division XII Business Meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Genova, Francoise; Anderson, Johannes; Federman, Steven R.; Gilmore, Alan C.; Nha, Il-Seong; Norris, Raymond P.; Robson, Ian E.; Stavinschi, Magda G.; Trimble, Virginia L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2010-05-01

    Brief meetings were held to confirm the elections of the incoming Division President, Francoise Genova and Vice President, Ray Norris along with the Organizing Committee which will consist of the incoming Presidents of the 7 Commissions (5,6,14,41,46,50 and 55) plus additional nominated members. The incoming Organizing Committee will thus consist of:

  13. Innovations in testing strategies in reproductive toxicology.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological hazard assessment currently finds itself at a crossroads where the existing classical test paradigm is challenged by a host of innovative approaches. Animal study protocols are being enhanced for additional parameters and improved for more efficient effect assessment with reduced animal numbers. Whilst existing testing paradigms have generally proven conservative for chemical safety assessment, novel alternative in silico and in vitro approaches and assays are being introduced that begin to elucidate molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Issues such as animal welfare, alternative assay validation, endocrine disruption, and the US-NAS report on toxicity testing in the twenty-first century have provided directionality to these developments. The reductionistic nature of individual alternative assays requires that they be combined in a testing strategy in order to provide a complete picture of the toxicological profile of a compound. One of the challenges of this innovative approach is the combined interpretation of assay results in terms of toxicologically relevant effects. Computational toxicology aims at providing that integration. In order to progress, we need to follow three steps: (1) Learn from past experience in animal studies and human diseases about critical end points and pathways of toxicity. (2) Design alternative assays for essential mechanisms of toxicity. (3) Build an integrative testing strategy tailored to human hazard assessment using a battery of available alternative tests for critical end points that provides optimal in silico and in vitro filters to upgrade toxicological hazard assessment to the mechanistic level. PMID:23138915

  14. ACToR - Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, Richard Richard, Ann; Dix, David; Houck, Keith; Elloumi, Fathi; Martin, Matthew; Cathey, Tommy; Transue, Thomas R.; Spencer, Richard; Wolf, Maritja

    2008-11-15

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a database and set of software applications that bring into one central location many types and sources of data on environmental chemicals. Currently, the ACToR chemical database contains information on chemical structure, in vitro bioassays and in vivo toxicology assays derived from more than 150 sources including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), state agencies, corresponding government agencies in Canada, Europe and Japan, universities, the World Health Organization (WHO) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). At the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology, ACToR helps manage large data sets being used in a high-throughput environmental chemical screening and prioritization program called ToxCast{sup TM}.

  15. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, G.

    2007-07-01

    Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavour in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications. This edition contains a paper 'Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal, by Liu Guijian, Zheng Liugen, Nurdan S. Duzgoren-Aydin, Gao Lianfen, Liu Junhua, and Peng Zicheng. Other papers are: Chemistry and fate of simazine; Ethanol production: energy, economic, and environmental losses; Arsenic behaviour from groundwater and soil to crops: impacts on agriculture and food safety; Mercury content of hair in different populations relative to fish consumption; and Toxicology of 1,3-butadiene, chloroprene, and isoprene. 15 ills.

  16. Toxicological Risks During Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Limero, T. F.; Lam, C. W.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of toxicological risk assessment of human space flight is to identify and quantify significant risks to astronaut health from air pollution inside the vehicle or habitat, and to develop a strategy for control of those risks. The approach to completing a toxicological risk assessment involves data and experience on the frequency and severity of toxicological incidents that have occurred during space flight. Control of these incidents depends on being able to understand their cause from in-flight and ground-based analysis of air samples, crew reports of air quality, and known failures in containment of toxic chemicals. Toxicological risk assessment in exploration missions must be based on an evaluation of the unique toxic hazards presented by the habitat location. For example, lunar and Martian dust must be toxicologically evaluated to determine the appropriate control measures for exploration missions. Experience with near-earth flights has shown that the toxic products from fires present the highest risk to crew health from air pollution. Systems and payload leaks also present a significant hazard. The health risk from toxicity associated with materials offgassing or accumulation of human metabolites is generally well controlled. Early tests of lunar and Martian dust simulants have shown that each posses the potential to cause fibrosis in the lung in a murine model. Toxicological risks from air pollutants in space habitats originate from many sources. A number of risks have been identified through near-earth operations; however, the evaluation of additional new risks present during exploration missions will be a challenge.

  17. Comparison of toxicological and radiological aspects of K basins sludge

    SciTech Connect

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-27

    The composition of various K Basins sludge is evaluated for its toxicological and radiological impacts downwind from accidents. It is shown that the radiological risk evaluation guidelines are always more limiting than the toxicological risk evaluation guidelines.

  18. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR CHLOROETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicological data in the published literature on Chloroethane (CE) will be assimilated, reviewed, and integated into a Toxicological Review of CE (assessment document), which seeks to characterize the key cancer, and non cancer health effect hazards from environmental exposures...

  19. Methodology for Uncertainty Analysis of Dynamic Computational Toxicology Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The task of quantifying the uncertainty in both parameter estimates and model predictions has become more important with the increased use of dynamic computational toxicology models by the EPA. Dynamic toxicological models include physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) mode...

  20. Toxicology and drug testing in aviation.

    PubMed

    Green, Kendall B

    2002-01-01

    The occupational physician working in the aviation industry must have some toxicological expertise. Airline production and maintenance operations, while similar to other large manufacturing facilities, use some exotic metals and composites with unique toxicity. Airport operations involve exposure of the ground crew to de-icing chemicals and jet fuels. Moreover, evaluation of drug test results requires a background in pharmacology, physiology, and laboratory methods. Frank response to employees and coordination of plans with industrial hygienists, managers, and employees are necessary when toxicological questions arise. This article also offers a Controversy (Substituted Urine: Offer a Retest or Not?). PMID:11872436

  1. Toxicological investigations with fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Buxtorf, A

    1975-01-01

    The reasons for which toxicological investigations are carried out are: -handling and consumer safety, -the critical attitude of the public towards the use of chemicals in general, -the need to weigh benefit against risk when using chemicals, and -the safety requirements introduced by authorities. The guidelines for toxicological evaluation of chemicals and particularly fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), as well as the extent of which man is possibly exposed to these substances through alimentary intake or through contact with the skin are discussed. It is concluded that there is a very wide safety margin for every conceivable use of FWAs. PMID:1064536

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  3. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    These are the first and second volumes under the new Editor of the series that is a continuation of Residue Reviews. The nine reviews in them are as follows: Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils; Maleic hydrazide residues in tobacco and their toxicological implications; Fate and persistence of aquatic herbicides; Organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables; Biological half-lives of chemicals in fishes; Propylene chlorohydrins; toxicology, metabolism and environmental fate; The pyrolysis of cannabinoids; Pesticide fate from vine to wine; Transport and transformation of organic chemicals in the soil-air-water ecosystem.

  4. SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the Sustainable Technology Division is to advance the scientific understanding, development and application of technologies and methods for prevention, removal and control of environmental risks to human health and ecology. The Division is organized into four bra...

  5. Division X: Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Taylor, Russ; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Chapman, Jessica; Dubner, Gloria; Garrett, Michael; Goss, W. Miller; Torrelles, Jose M.; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Carilli, Chris; Hills, Richard; Shastri, Prajval

    2010-05-01

    The business meeting of Division X in the IAU 2009GA took place in three sessions during the day of August 6, 2009. The meeting, being well attended, started with the approval for the meeting agenda. Then the triennium reports were made in the first session by the president of Division X, Ren-Dong Nan, and by the chairs of three working groups: “Historic Radio Astronomy WG” by Wayne Orchiston, “Astrophysically Important Lines WG” by Masatoshi Ohishi, and “Global VLBI WG” by Tasso Tzioumis (proxy chair appointed by Steven Tingay). Afterwards, a dozen reports from observatories and worldwide significant projects have been presented in the second session. Business meeting of “Interference Mitigation WG” was located in the third session.

  6. Energy Systems Divisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, John

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the JSC Energy Systems Divisions work in propulsion. Specific work in LO2/CH4 propulsion, cryogenic propulsion, low thrust propulsion for Free Flyer, robotic and Extra Vehicular Activities, and work on the Morpheus terrestrial free flyer test bed is reviewed. The back-up slides contain a chart with comparisons of LO2/LCH4 with other propellants, and reviewing the advantages especially for spacecraft propulsion.

  7. Earth Sciences Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989, a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will, in the coming years, be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  8. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  9. Division Quilts: A Measurement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Sarah S.; Lupton, Tina M.; Richardson, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    As teachers seek activities to assist students in understanding division as more than just the algorithm, they find many examples of division as fair sharing. However, teachers have few activities to engage students in a quotative (measurement) model of division. Efraim Fischbein and his colleagues (1985) defined two types of whole-number…

  10. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  11. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SELECTED CHLORINATED PHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicology studies were conducted with the mono-, di-, and pentachlorophenols (CP). Chlorophenols (except PC) demonstrate a relatively low order of toxicity. The order of toxicity in mice and rats (most to least) is: PCP > tetra CPs > mono CPs > tri CPs > di CPs. Short-term (14 d...

  12. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chloroprene (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of Chloroprene provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to chloroprene. Chloroprene (C4H5Cl) is a volatile, flammable liquid used primarily in the manufacture of poly...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Naphthalene (1998 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Naphthalene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Naphthalene and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  15. 42 CFR 493.937 - Toxicology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toxicology. 493.937 Section 493.937 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Proficiency Testing Programs for Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty...

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ACROLEIN (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  17. An Indexing Coverage Study of Toxicological Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Ruth Reinke

    1973-01-01

    The goal of this study was an appraisal of indexing coverage for the interdisciplinary field of toxicology. Information of research significance was limited to primary literature, defined as published documents containing original data from experimental work or case studies. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  18. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  19. Applications of Metabonomics in Pesticide Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomic studies quantitatively measure the small molecule metabolites and their intermediates in the biological samples (serum, urine or tissue extracts) and have gained wide applications in many fields, especially in toxicology. Pesticides are extensively used around the world and pesticide toxicity has become a serious threat to human health. Metabonomic approach has been applied in many aspects of pesticide toxicology research such as eco-environmental toxicity studies, biomarker identification, and mechanism of toxicity studies. Both whole organism animal models and cell culture models are used for metabonomic studies on pesticide toxicology. In the literature, metabonomic analyses on the toxicity of over thirty common pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, have been carried out using magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. The combined toxicity of pesticides or pesticide with heavy metals was also investigated with metabonomic approach. In this article, recent progresses made in applying metabonomic approach in pesticide toxicology are thoroughly reviewed and the challenges with application of this approach are also discussed. PMID:26279326

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Pentachlorophenol (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of Pentachlorophenol provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to pentachlorophenol. Pentachlorophenol is a wood preservative used to prevent decay from fungal organ...

  1. Toxicology M. S. Trains at Practical Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Describes a new master of science degree program in toxicology at the University of Arizona. Outlines the prerequisites for entering the program, the nature of the courses, and the various vocational fields that graduates will be qualified to work in. (JR)

  2. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  3. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  4. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF PHOSGENE (2006 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Phosgene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Phosgene and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  5. Toxicology research for precautionary decision-making and the role of Human & Experimental Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    2015-12-01

    A key aim of toxicology is the prevention of adverse effects due to toxic hazards. Therefore, the dissemination of toxicology research findings must confront two important challenges: one being the lack of information on the vast majority of potentially toxic industrial chemicals and the other being the strict criteria for scientific proof usually required for decision-making in regard to prevention. The present study ascertains the coverage of environmental chemicals in four volumes of Human & Experimental Toxicology and the presentation and interpretation of research findings in published articles. Links in SciFinder showed that the 530 articles published in four selected volumes between 1984 and 2014 primarily dealt with metals (126 links) and other toxicants that have received substantial attention in the past. Thirteen compounds identified by US authorities in 2006 as high-priority substances, for which toxicology documentation is badly needed, were not covered in the journal issues at all. When reviewing published articles, reliance on p values was standard, and non-significant findings were often called 'negative.' This tradition may contribute to the perceived need to extend existing research on toxic hazards that have already been well characterized. Several sources of bias towards the null hypothesis can affect toxicology research, but are generally not considered, thus adding to the current inclination to avoid false positive findings. In this regard, toxicology is particularly prone to bias because of the known paucity of false positives and, in particular, the existence of a vast number of toxic hazards which by default are considered innocuous due to lack of documentation. The Precautionary Principle could inspire decision-making on the basis of incomplete documentation and should stimulate a change in toxicology traditions and in toxicology research publication. PMID:26614810

  6. Billing and reimbursement for a bedside toxicology service at a tertiary care academic center during its first fiscal year.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Timothy J; Crane, Peter W; Kamali, Michael; Reif, Marilynn; Wratni, Rose; Montante, Ronald; Loveland, Tracey

    2015-03-01

    A bedside toxicology consult service may improve clinical care, facilitate patient clearance and disposition, and result in potential cost savings for poisoning exposures. Despite this, there is scant data regarding economic feasibility for such a service. Previously published information suggests low hourly reimbursement at approximately $26.00/h at the bedside for toxicology consultations. A bedside toxicology consultant service was initiated in 2011. Coverage was available 24 h a day for 50 out of 52 weeks. Bedside rounding on toxicology consult patients was available 6/7 days per week. The practice is associated with >800 bed teaching institution in a large upstate NY region with elements of urban and suburban practice. Demographic and billing data was collected for all patients consulted upon from July 1, 2011 to June 31, 2012. In charges of $514,941 were generated during the period of data collection. Monthly average was $42,912. Net reimbursement of charges was 29 % of overall charges at $147,792. In terms of total encounters, net collection rate in which something was reimbursed or "paid" against charges for that encounter was 82.6 % of all encounters at 999/1,210. Average encounter time for inpatients, including critical care, was 1.05 h, and the average time spent for outpatients was 1.18 h. Reimbursement rates appear higher than previously reported. Revenue generated from reimbursement from toxicology consultation can result in recouping a substantial portion of a toxicologist's salary or potentially fund fellowship positions and salaries or toxicology division infrastructure. PMID:25252800

  7. Meal-feeding rodents and toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Carey, Gale B; Merrill, Lisa C

    2012-08-20

    Most laboratory rodents used for toxicology studies are fed ad libitum, with unlimited access to food. As a result, ad libitum-fed rodents tend to overeat. Research demonstrates that ad libitum-fed rodents are physiologically and metabolically different from rodents fed controlled amounts of food at scheduled times (meal-fed). Ad libitum-fed rodents can develop hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diet-induced obesity, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and thyroid tumors, conditions likely to affect the results of toxicology research studies. In contrast, meal-feeding synchronizes biological rhythms and leads to a longer life span, lower body weight, lower body temperature, hypertrophy of the small intestine, and synchronization of hepatic and digestive enzymes. The circadian rhythms present in nearly all living organisms are entrained by light intensity and food intake, and peripheral clocks in all organs of the body, especially the GI tract and liver, are particularly sensitive to food intake. Feeding schedule has been demonstrated to alter the toxicity and metabolism of drugs including sodium valproate, chloral hydrate, acetaminophen, gentamicin, and methotrexate. Feeding schedule alters the expression of genes that code for Phase I, II, and III proteins, thereby altering the rate and amplitude of drug disposition. Rhythms of plasma insulin and glucagon that fluctuate with food ingestion are also altered by feeding schedule; ad libitum feeding promotes hyperinsulinemia which is a precursor for developing diabetes. The emerging field of chronopharmacology, the interaction of biological rhythms and drugs, will lead to optimizing the design and delivery of drugs in a manner that matches biological rhythms, but it is wise for toxicology researchers to consider feeding schedule when designing these experiments. It has been 10 years since the Society for Toxicologic Pathology voiced its position that feeding schedule is an

  8. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program

    SciTech Connect

    Ahokas, Jorma . E-mail: Jorma.ahokas@rmit.edu.au; Donohue, Diana; Rix, Colin; Wright, Paul

    2005-09-01

    RMIT University was the first to offer a comprehensive Masters of Toxicology in Australasia 19 years ago. In 2001 the program was transformed into two stages, leading to a Graduate Diploma and Master of Applied Science in Toxicology. Now, these programs are fully online and suitable for graduates living and working anywhere in the world. The modular distance-learning courses are specifically designed to equip students with essential skills for entering fields such as chemical and drug evaluation; risk assessment of chemicals in the workplace; environmental and food toxicology. RMIT's online course delivery system has made it possible to deliver the toxicology programs, both nationally and internationally. The learning material and interactive activities (tests and quizzes, discussion boards, chat sessions) use Blackboard and WebBoard, each with a different educational function. Students log in to a Learning Hub to access their courses. The Learning Hub enables students to extend their learning beyond the classroom to the home, workplace, library and any other location with Internet access. The teaching staff log in to the Learning Hub to maintain and administer the online programs and courses which they have developed and/or which they teach. The Learning Hub is also a communication tool for students and staff, providing access to email, a diary and announcements. The early experience of delivering a full toxicology program online is very positive. However this mode of teaching continues to present many interesting technical, educational and cultural challenges, including: the design and presentation of the material; copyright issues; internationalisation of content; interactive participation; and the assessment procedures.

  9. The role of the toxicologic pathologist in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    van Tongeren, Susan; Fagerland, Jane A; Conner, Michael W; Diegel, Kelly; Donnelly, Kevin; Grubor, Branka; Lopez-Martinez, Alric; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Sharma, Alok; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah; Turner, Patricia V; Wancket, Lyn M

    2011-10-01

    Toxicologic pathologists contribute significantly to the development of new biopharmaceuticals, yet there is often a lack of awareness of this specialized role. As the members of multidisciplinary teams, toxicologic pathologists participate in all aspects of the drug development process. This review is part of an initiative by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology to educate scientists about toxicologic pathology and to attract junior scientists, veterinary students, and veterinarians into the field. We describe the role of toxicologic pathologists in identifying candidate agents, elucidating bioactive pathways, and evaluating efficacy and toxicity in preclinical animal models. Educational and specialized training requirements and the challenges of working in a global environment are discussed. The biopharmaceutical industry provides diverse, challenging, and rewarding career opportunities in toxicologic pathology. We hope that this review promotes understanding of the important role the toxicologic pathologist plays in drug development and encourages exploration of an important career option. PMID:21878555

  10. Coracoacromial ligament division.

    PubMed

    Johansson, J E; Barrington, T W

    1984-01-01

    The object of this paper is to report on the findings of a retrospective study of 40 patients with 41 shoulders with persistent painful arc syndrome secondary to a chronic coracoacromial ligament inflammation who underwent simple coracoacromial ligament division at the Toronto East General and Orthopaedic Hospital between January 1973 and June 1979. Initial therapy was always nonoperative. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients who did not respond to conservative management and who had a painful arc with tenderness of the coracoacromial ligament. The aim of the coracoacromial ligament division was to relieve impingement by releasing the coracoacromial arch. Patients were carefully examined to rule out associated neck pathology, rotator cuff problems, and lesions of the acromioclavicular joint. Any patients with significantly large osteophytes under the anterior acromion were excluded. Forty patients (41 shoulders) were questioned and examined in followup. There were 29 males and 11 females. The ages ranged from 21 to 72 years (average 43.5 years). In 21 shoulders (51%), there was a history of trauma as the initiating factor. The follow-up ranged from 8 to 76 months (average 36.3 months). According to a described rating system, the results were satisfactory to excellent in 39 of 41 shoulders (95%) and unsatisfactory in two of 41 shoulders (5%). The back to work time ranged from 1 to 16 weeks (average 5.7 weeks).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6742288

  11. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries. PMID:27092031

  12. Systems Toxicology: The Future of Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, John Michael; Hartung, Thomas; Leist, Marcel; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Hoeng, Julia; Hayes, A. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment, in the context of public health, is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. With increasing public health concern regarding the potential risks associated with chemical exposure, there is a need for more predictive and accurate approaches to risk assessment. Developing such an approach requires a mechanistic understanding of the process by which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to toxicity. Supplementing the shortfalls of traditional risk assessment with mechanistic biological data has been widely discussed but not routinely implemented in the evaluation of chemical exposure. These mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. This Symposium Overview article summarizes 4 talks presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the American College of Toxicology. PMID:25804424

  13. Avian Models in Teratology and Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Flentke, George R.; Garic, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent’s embryotoxic effects. Here we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function. PMID:22669661

  14. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology. PMID:22662021

  15. Regulated necrosis and its implications in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Uemura, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research developments have revealed that caspase-dependent apoptosis is not the sole form of regulated cell death. Caspase-independent, but genetically regulated, forms of cell death include pyroptosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, and the recently discovered ferroptosis and autosis. Importantly, regulated necrosis can be modulated by small molecule inhibitors/activators, confirming the cell autonomous mechanism of these forms of cell death. The success of small molecule-mediated manipulation of regulated necrosis has produced great changes in the field of cell death research, and has also brought about significant changes in the fields of pharmacology as well as toxicology. In this review, we intend to summarize the modes of regulated cell death other than apoptosis, and discuss their implications in toxicology. PMID:25865964

  16. Toxicological Investigation of Radioactive Uranium in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trace uranium detection measurement was performed using DNA immobilized on a graphite pencil electrode (DGE). The developed probe was connected to the portable handheld voltammetric systems used for seawater analysis. The sensitive voltammogram was obtained within only 30 s accumulation time, and the anodic stripping working range was attained at 100~800 μg/l U and 10~50 μg/l. The statistic relative standard deviation of 30.0 mg/l with the 15th stripping was 0.2115. Here, toxicological and analytical application was performed in the seawater survey in a contaminated power plant controlling water. The results were found to be applicable for real-time toxicological assay for trace control. PMID:24278591

  17. Regulatory assessment of reproductive toxicology data.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines a regulator's personal approach to the assessment of reproductive toxicology data in the context of the assessment of the overall nonclinical data package for pharmaceutical agents. Using as a framework the International Conference on Harmonisation Common Technical Document headings, guidance is provided on the expectations of regulators for the presentation and discussion of the data by the applicant to facilitate the risk assessment process. Consideration is given to the use of reproductive toxicology data in the assessment process for both clinical trial applications (CTAs) and marketing authorization applications (MAAs). Suggestions for some guiding principles in drafting of the various product information documents (for example the Investigator's Brochure (IB) for CTAs and the Nonclinical Overview and Summary of Product Characteristics for MAAs) are included. PMID:23138923

  18. Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Marin, S; Ramos, A J; Cano-Sancho, G; Sanchis, V

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards produced by certain fungi that can grow on a variety of crops. Consequently, their prevalence in plant raw materials may be relatively high. The concentration of mycotoxins in finished products is usually lower than in raw materials. In this review, occurrence and toxicology of the main mycotoxins are summarised. Furthermore, methodological approaches for exposure assessment are described. Existing exposure assessments, both through contamination and consumption data and biomarkers of exposure, for the main mycotoxins are also discussed. PMID:23907020

  19. The NIEHS Predictive-Toxicology Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Bristol, D W; Wachsman, J T; Greenwell, A

    1996-10-01

    The Predictive-Toxicology Evaluation (PTE) project conducts collaborative experiments that subject the performance of predictive-toxicology (PT) methods to rigorous, objective evaluation in a uniquely informative manner. Sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, it takes advantage of the ongoing testing conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) to estimate the true error of models that have been applied to make prospective predictions on previously untested, noncongeneric-chemical substances. The PTE project first identifies a group of standardized NTP chemical bioassays either scheduled to be conducted or are ongoing, but not yet complete. The project then announces and advertises the evaluation experiment, disseminates information about the chemical bioassays, and encourages researchers from a wide variety of disciplines to publish their predictions in peer-reviewed journals, using whatever approaches and methods they feel are best. A collection of such papers is published in this Environmental Health Perspectives Supplement, providing readers the opportunity to compare and contrast PT approaches and models, within the context of their prospective application to an actual-use situation. This introduction to this collection of papers on predictive toxicology summarizes the predictions made and the final results obtained for the 44 chemical carcinogenesis bioassays of the first PTE experiment (PTE-1) and presents information that identifies the 30 chemical carcinogenesis bioassays of PTE-2, along with a table of prediction sets that have been published to date. It also provides background about the origin and goals of the PTE project, outlines the special challenge associated with estimating the true error of models that aspire to predict open-system behavior, and summarizes what has been learned to date. PMID:8933048

  20. Arsenic Exposure and Toxicology: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael F.; Beck, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu; Lewis, Ari S.; Thomas, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The metalloid arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed in food, water, air, and soil. Arsenic has a long history of use as a homicidal agent, but in the past 100 years arsenic, has been used as a pesticide, a chemotherapeutic agent and a constituent of consumer products. In some areas of the world, high levels of arsenic are naturally present in drinking water and are a toxicological concern. There are several structural forms and oxidation states of arsenic because it forms alloys with metals and covalent bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and other elements. Environmentally relevant forms of arsenic are inorganic and organic existing in the trivalent or pentavalent state. Metabolism of arsenic, catalyzed by arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase, is a sequential process of reduction from pentavalency to trivalency followed by oxidative methylation back to pentavalency. Trivalent arsenic is generally more toxicologically potent than pentavalent arsenic. Acute effects of arsenic range from gastrointestinal distress to death. Depending on the dose, chronic arsenic exposure may affect several major organ systems. A major concern of ingested arsenic is cancer, primarily of skin, bladder, and lung. The mode of action of arsenic for its disease endpoints is currently under study. Two key areas are the interaction of trivalent arsenicals with sulfur in proteins and the ability of arsenic to generate oxidative stress. With advances in technology and the recent development of animal models for arsenic carcinogenicity, understanding of the toxicology of arsenic will continue to improve. PMID:21750349

  1. Biological markers of male reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.L.; Mattison, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    Reproduction is a complex, stepwise series of processes that begins with gametogenesis, continues through gamete interaction, implantation, embryonic development, growth, parturition, and postnatal adaptation, and is completed with the development and sexual maturation of the newly formed organism. These reproductive processes do not take place in a chemically pristine environment, but rather in an environment increasingly contaminated with the products and by-products of the chemical age in which we live. Some environmental pollutants are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to the reproductive system, but most have not been adequately tested for reproductive toxicity. Just as reproduction is complex, biological mechanisms underlying toxicology are similarly complex and involve absorption, distribution, metabolism (toxification and/or detoxification), excretion, and repair. The synthesis of these sciences into the relatively nascent science of reproductive toxicology includes teratology, pharmacology, epidemiology, and occupational and environmental health. Female reproductive function (especially pregnancy outcome) has historically been the focus of attention, but there is increasing interest in the effects of chemical exposure on male reproductive function. Several reports have documented the physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology of male mammalian reproduction, and evaluated susceptibility of the male to the effects of exogenous chemicals.

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  3. Toxicologic pathology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Toxicology is and will be heavily influenced by advances in many scientific disciplines. For toxicologic pathology, particularly relevant are the increasing array of molecular methods providing deeper insights into toxicity pathways, in vivo imaging techniques visualizing toxicodynamics and more powerful computers anticipated to allow (partly) automated morphological diagnoses. It appears unlikely that, in a foreseeable future, animal studies can be replaced by in silico and in vitro studies or longer term in vivo studies by investigations of biomarkers including toxicogenomics of shorter term studies, though the importance of such approaches will continue to increase. In addition to changes based on scientific progress, the work of toxicopathologists is and will be affected by social and financial factors, among them stagnating budgets, globalization, and outsourcing. The number of toxicopathologists in North America, Europe, and the Far East is not expected to grow. Many toxicopathologists will likely spend less time at the microscope but will be more heavily involved in early research activities, imaging, and as generalists with a broad biological understanding in evaluation and management of toxicity. Toxicologic pathology will remain important and is indispensable for validation of new methods, quality assurance of established methods, and for areas without good alternative methods. PMID:23143188

  4. ICPP radiological and toxicological sabotage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, V.R.; Mortensen, F.G.

    1995-10-01

    In June of 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Notice 5630.3A, {open_quotes}Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,{close_quotes} which states that all significant radiological and toxicological hazards at Department facilities must be examined for potential sabotage. This analysis has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP radiological and toxicological hazards include spent government and commercial fuels, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), high-level liquid wastes, high-level solid wastes, and process and decontamination chemicals. The analysis effort included identification and assessment of quantities of hazardous materials present at the facility; identification and ranking of hazardous material targets; development of worst case scenarios detailing possible sabotage actions and hazard releases; performance of vulnerability assessments using table top and computer methodologies on credible threat targets; evaluation of potential risks to the public, workers, and the environment; evaluation of sabotage risk reduction options; and selection of cost effective prevention and mitigation options.

  5. Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

  6. In silico toxicology for the pharmaceutical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G.

    2009-12-15

    The applied use of in silico technologies (a.k.a. computational toxicology, in silico toxicology, computer-assisted tox, e-tox, i-drug discovery, predictive ADME, etc.) for predicting preclinical toxicological endpoints, clinical adverse effects, and metabolism of pharmaceutical substances has become of high interest to the scientific community and the public. The increased accessibility of these technologies for scientists and recent regulations permitting their use for chemical risk assessment supports this notion. The scientific community is interested in the appropriate use of such technologies as a tool to enhance product development and safety of pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics, while ensuring the reliability and accuracy of in silico approaches for the toxicological and pharmacological sciences. For pharmaceutical substances, this means active and impurity chemicals in the drug product may be screened using specialized software and databases designed to cover these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. A major goal for use of these software programs is to enable industry scientists not only to enhance the discovery process but also to ensure the judicious use of in silico tools to support risk assessments of drug-induced toxicities and in safety evaluations. However, a great amount of applied research is still needed, and there are many limitations with these approaches which are described in this review. Currently, there is a wide range of endpoints available from predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship models driven by many different computational software programs and data sources, and this is only expected to grow. For example, there are models based on non-proprietary and/or proprietary information specific to assessing potential rodent carcinogenicity, in silico screens for ICH genetic toxicity assays, reproductive and developmental toxicity, theoretical

  7. Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Project Director Penelope Jeggo

    2003-02-15

    Genetic toxicology represents a study of the genetic damage that a cell can incur, the agents that induce such damage, the damage response mechanisms available to cells and organisms, and the potential consequences of such damage. Genotoxic agents are abundant in the environment and are also induced endogenously. The consequences of such damage can include carcinogenesis and teratogenesis. An understanding of genetic toxicology is essential to carry out risk evaluations of the impact of genotoxic agents and to assess how individual genetic differences influence the response to genotoxic damage. In recent years, the importance of maintaining genomic stability has become increasingly recognized, in part by the realization that failure of the damage response mechanisms underlies many, if not all, cancer incidence. The importance of these mechanisms is also underscored by their remarkable conservation between species, allowing the study of simple organisms to provide significant input into our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. It has also become clear that the damage response mechanisms interface closely with other aspects of cellular metabolism including replication, transcription and cell cycle regulation. Moreover, defects in many of these mechanisms, as observed for example in ataxia telangiectasia patients, confer disorders with associated developmental abnormalities demonstrating their essential roles during growth and development. In short, while a decade ago, a study of the impact of DNA damage was seen as a compartmentalized area of cellular research, it is now appreciated to lie at the centre of an array of cellular responses of crucial importance to human health. Consequently, this has become a dynamic and rapidly advancing area of research. The Genetic Toxicology Gordon Research Conference is biannual with an evolving change in the emphasis of the meetings. From evaluating the nature of genotoxic chemicals, which lay at the centre of the early

  8. Cord Blood Cells for Developmental Toxicology and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Il’yasova, Dora; Kloc, Noreen; Kinev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Tox21 program initiated a shift in toxicology toward in vitro testing with a focus on the biological mechanisms responsible for toxicological response. We discuss the applications of these initiatives to developmental toxicology. Specifically, we briefly review current approaches that are widely used in developmental toxicology to demonstrate the gap in relevance to human populations. An important aspect of human relevance is the wide variability of cellular responses to toxicants. We discuss how this gap can be addressed by using cells isolated from umbilical cord blood, an entirely non-invasive source of fetal/newborn cells. Extension of toxicological testing to collections of human fetal/newborn cells would be useful for better understanding the effect of toxicants on fetal development in human populations. By presenting this perspective, we aim to initiate a discussion about the use of cord blood donor-specific cells to capture the variability of cellular toxicological responses during this vulnerable stage of human development. PMID:26697419

  9. MANDIBULAR REPATTERNING RESULTS FROM IN UTERO ANTAGONISM OF ENDOTHELIN RECEPTORS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BRANNEN, K.C.1,2, E.S. HUNTER1,2, M.B. ROSEN2, and J.M. ROGERS1,2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Mandibular repatte...

  10. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS
    Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  11. STRAIN COMPARISON OF ENDOCRINE RESPONSE IN RATS TO BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) DURING PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    STRAIN COMPARISON OF ENDOCRINE RESPONSE IN RATS TO BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) DURING PREGNANCY.

    S. R. Bielmeier1, D. S. Best2 and M. G. Narotsky2

    1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    2 Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL...

  12. Activities: Understanding Division of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezuk, Nadine S.; Armstrong, Barbara E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of five activities that introduce division of fractions through real-world situations. Discusses problems related to resurfacing a highway, painting dividing stripes on a highway, covering one area A with another area B, looking for patterns, and maximizing the result of a division problem. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  13. Lightning Talks 2015: Theoretical Division

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack S.

    2015-11-25

    This document is a compilation of slides from a number of student presentations given to LANL Theoretical Division members. The subjects cover the range of activities of the Division, including plasma physics, environmental issues, materials research, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and computational methods.

  14. The Division of Family Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Julia A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the marital role division between couples, in the Philadelphia area, concentrating on the division of household tasks, child care, and paid employment. Data support a marital power model with husband's income negatively related and wife's education positively related to shared roles. Blacks are more likely to share roles. (Author)

  15. Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sauer, John Michael; Kleensang, André; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. Mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. Systems toxicology makes use of advanced analytical and computational tools to integrate classical toxicology and quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Three presentations including two case studies involving both in vitro and in vivo approaches described the current state of systems toxicology and the potential for its future application in chemical risk assessment. PMID:26977253

  16. Advancing Risk Assessment through the Application of Systems Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, John Michael; Kleensang, André; Peitsch, Manuel C.; Hayes, A. Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the probability of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from human activities. Mechanistic approaches to risk assessment have been generally referred to as systems toxicology. Systems toxicology makes use of advanced analytical and computational tools to integrate classical toxicology and quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Three presentations including two case studies involving both in vitro and in vivo approaches described the current state of systems toxicology and the potential for its future application in chemical risk assessment. PMID:26977253

  17. Historic development of forensic toxicology in America up to 1978.

    PubMed

    Niyogi, S K

    1980-09-01

    The development of forensic toxicology in the United States is reviewed from colonial times. Medical education started expanding after Independence, but no program in medical jurisprudence existed until 1804, when Dr. James S. Stringham initiated such a teaching program at Columbia University in New York City. Since then, instruction in medical jurisprudence has become more or less a part of the medical school's curriculum. Little has been written in the field of toxicology in contrast to overall European development. With the availability of contributions from European and British authors, the development of chemical toxicology in this country started to take shape, with significant progress occurring after the Civil War. The original contributions in toxicology were done by Drs. Wormley, Reese, and Witthaus. The faults of the coroner system led its replacement in Massachusetts with the office of medical examiner in 1877. The Chief Medical Examiner's Office of New York started functioning in 1918 and a toxicology laboratory was founded under the direction of Dr. Alexander Gettler, whose students spread the ideas of toxicology throughout the country. This institution is regarded as the birthplace of American forensic toxicology. Other significant events include the formation of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences after World War II and the establishment of the American Board of Forensic Toxicology in 1975; both have contributed greatly to the development of forensic toxicology in the United States. PMID:7015839

  18. Physics Division computer facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Physics Division maintains several computer systems for data analysis, general-purpose computing, and word processing. While the VMS VAX clusters are still used, this past year saw a greater shift to the Unix Cluster with the addition of more RISC-based Unix workstations. The main Divisional VAX cluster which consists of two VAX 3300s configured as a dual-host system serves as boot nodes and disk servers to seven other satellite nodes consisting of two VAXstation 3200s, three VAXstation 3100 machines, a VAX-11/750, and a MicroVAX II. There are three 6250/1600 bpi 9-track tape drives, six 8-mm tapes and about 9.1 GB of disk storage served to the cluster by the various satellites. Also, two of the satellites (the MicroVAX and VAX-11/750) have DAPHNE front-end interfaces for data acquisition. Since the tape drives are accessible cluster-wide via a software package, they are, in addition to replay, used for tape-to-tape copies. There is however, a satellite node outfitted with two 8 mm drives available for this purpose. Although not part of the main cluster, a DEC 3000 Alpha machine obtained for data acquisition is also available for data replay. In one case, users reported a performance increase by a factor of 10 when using this machine.

  19. 76 FR 67200 - Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process for the Report on Carcinogens: Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed National Toxicology Program (NTP) Review Process... the National Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... Toxicology Program. BILLING CODE 4140-01-P...

  20. THE FUTURE OF TOXICOLOGY-PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY: AN EXPANDED VIEW OF CHEMICAL TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A chemistry approach to predictive toxicology relies on structure−activity relationship (SAR) modeling to predict biological activity from chemical structure. Such approaches have proven capabilities when applied to well-defined toxicity end points or regions of chemical space. T...

  1. The Whole Wildlife Toxicology Catalog: a Web Portal for Wildlife Toxicology Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, the Smithsonian Institution sponsored a Wildlife Toxicology Workshop attended by over 50 scientists and administrators from academia, government and conservation entities, and the private sector. One of the action items from the meeting was to develop a web portal that ...

  2. ISSUES AND APPLICATIONS IN TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT (TOXICOLOGY CONFERENCE, APRIL 3-26, 2001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues and Applications

    in

    Toxicology and Risk Assessment


    April 23-26, 2001

    Holiday Inn Conference Center

    2800 Presidential Drive

    <...

  3. Life Sciences Division progress report for CYs 1997-1998 [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Reinhold C.

    1999-06-01

    This is the first formal progress report issued by the ORNL Life Sciences Division. It covers the period from February 1997 through December 1998, which has been critical in the formation of our new division. The legacy of 50 years of excellence in biological research at ORNL has been an important driver for everyone in the division to do their part so that this new research division can realize the potential it has to make seminal contributions to the life sciences for years to come. This reporting period is characterized by intense assessment and planning efforts. They included thorough scrutiny of our strengths and weaknesses, analyses of our situation with respect to comparative research organizations, and identification of major thrust areas leading to core research efforts that take advantage of our special facilities and expertise. Our goal is to develop significant research and development (R&D) programs in selected important areas to which we can make significant contributions by combining our distinctive expertise and resources in the biological sciences with those in the physical, engineering, and computational sciences. Significant facilities in mouse genomics, mass spectrometry, neutron science, bioanalytical technologies, and high performance computing are critical to the success of our programs. Research and development efforts in the division are organized in six sections. These cluster into two broad areas of R&D: systems biology and technology applications. The systems biology part of the division encompasses our core biological research programs. It includes the Mammalian Genetics and Development Section, the Biochemistry and Biophysics Section, and the Computational Biosciences Section. The technology applications part of the division encompasses the Assessment Technology Section, the Environmental Technology Section, and the Toxicology and Risk Analysis Section. These sections are the stewards of the division's core competencies. The common

  4. [Meta-analysis in neurobehavioral toxicological studies].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y X; Liang, Y X

    1994-09-01

    Meta-analysis was used to deal with the data collected in neurobehavioral toxicological studies to synthesize their findings quantitatively. Results revealed neurotoxic chemicals could cause changes in cognitive abilities, psychomotor function and emotion of persons exposed. However, each toxicant had its distinct effects on neurobehavior, for example, lead mainly impairs touch sense, memory, emotion and cognitive abilities, mercury does intelligence, concentration and motor stability, and carbon disulfide does eye-hand coordination. It suggested meta-analysis could be directive to selecting the best combination of neurobehavioral tests. PMID:7842892

  5. Toxicology of sulfur in ruminants: review

    SciTech Connect

    Kandylis, K.

    1984-10-01

    This review deals with the toxicology of sulfur in ruminants including toxicity, neurotoxic effects, and mechanism of toxic action of hydrogen sulfide, clinical signs, and treatment. It will report effects of excessive intake of sulfur by ruminants on feed intake, animal performance, ruminal digestion and motility, rumination, and other physiological functions. Poisoning of animals with sulfur from industrial emissions (sulfur dioxide) also is discussed. Excessive quantities of dietary sulfur (above .3 to .4%) as sulfate or elemental sulfur may cause toxic effects and in extreme cases can be fatal. The means is discussed whereby consumption of excessive amounts of sulfur leads to toxic effects. 53 references, 1 table.

  6. [Genetically modified organisms (GMO): toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Ludwicki, J K

    1998-01-01

    The genetically modified organisms (GMO) are one of the major public concerns partially due to the activity of the non-governmental organizations which believe that public opinion must be duly informed on what leaves the laboratories and enters the environment or is proposed as food. This article discusses some major toxicological and nutritional aspects of GMO designed as food for humans. The range of current use of GMOs, potential hazards for humans, safety assessment, allergenic concerns, and some aspects of the use of marker genes are discussed in regard to human safety. The need for relevant regulations is stressed. PMID:9930018

  7. Collaborative development of predictive toxicology applications.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Barry; Douglas, Nicki; Helma, Christoph; Rautenberg, Micha; Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Nikolova, Ivelina; Benigni, Romualdo; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Kramer, Stefan; Girschick, Tobias; Buchwald, Fabian; Wicker, Joerg; Karwath, Andreas; Gütlein, Martin; Maunz, Andreas; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Melagraki, Georgia; Afantitis, Antreas; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Gallagher, David; Poroikov, Vladimir; Filimonov, Dmitry; Zakharov, Alexey; Lagunin, Alexey; Gloriozova, Tatyana; Novikov, Sergey; Skvortsova, Natalia; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry; Chawla, Sunil; Ghosh, Indira; Ray, Surajit; Patel, Hitesh; Escher, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    OpenTox provides an interoperable, standards-based Framework for the support of predictive toxicology data management, algorithms, modelling, validation and reporting. It is relevant to satisfying the chemical safety assessment requirements of the REACH legislation as it supports access to experimental data, (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship models, and toxicological information through an integrating platform that adheres to regulatory requirements and OECD validation principles. Initial research defined the essential components of the Framework including the approach to data access, schema and management, use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, architecture, web service and communications protocols, and selection and integration of algorithms for predictive modelling. OpenTox provides end-user oriented tools to non-computational specialists, risk assessors, and toxicological experts in addition to Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for developers of new applications. OpenTox actively supports public standards for data representation, interfaces, vocabularies and ontologies, Open Source approaches to core platform components, and community-based collaboration approaches, so as to progress system interoperability goals.The OpenTox Framework includes APIs and services for compounds, datasets, features, algorithms, models, ontologies, tasks, validation, and reporting which may be combined into multiple applications satisfying a variety of different user needs. OpenTox applications are based on a set of distributed, interoperable OpenTox API-compliant REST web services. The OpenTox approach to ontology allows for efficient mapping of complementary data coming from different datasets into a unifying structure having a shared terminology and representation.Two initial OpenTox applications are presented as an illustration of the potential impact of OpenTox for high-quality and consistent structure-activity relationship modelling of REACH

  8. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

  9. Collaborative development of predictive toxicology applications

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    OpenTox provides an interoperable, standards-based Framework for the support of predictive toxicology data management, algorithms, modelling, validation and reporting. It is relevant to satisfying the chemical safety assessment requirements of the REACH legislation as it supports access to experimental data, (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship models, and toxicological information through an integrating platform that adheres to regulatory requirements and OECD validation principles. Initial research defined the essential components of the Framework including the approach to data access, schema and management, use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies, architecture, web service and communications protocols, and selection and integration of algorithms for predictive modelling. OpenTox provides end-user oriented tools to non-computational specialists, risk assessors, and toxicological experts in addition to Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for developers of new applications. OpenTox actively supports public standards for data representation, interfaces, vocabularies and ontologies, Open Source approaches to core platform components, and community-based collaboration approaches, so as to progress system interoperability goals. The OpenTox Framework includes APIs and services for compounds, datasets, features, algorithms, models, ontologies, tasks, validation, and reporting which may be combined into multiple applications satisfying a variety of different user needs. OpenTox applications are based on a set of distributed, interoperable OpenTox API-compliant REST web services. The OpenTox approach to ontology allows for efficient mapping of complementary data coming from different datasets into a unifying structure having a shared terminology and representation. Two initial OpenTox applications are presented as an illustration of the potential impact of OpenTox for high-quality and consistent structure-activity relationship modelling of REACH

  10. Time-division SQUID multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Bergren, N. E.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Nam, S. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rudman, D. A.; Huber, M. E.

    2002-02-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of low-temperature bolometers and microcalorimeters based on superconducting transition-edge sensors with a manageable number of readout channels. We discuss the technical tradeoffs between proposed time-division multiplexer and frequency-division multiplexer schemes and motivate our choice of time division. Our first-generation SQUID multiplexer is now in use in an astronomical instrument. We describe our second-generation SQUID multiplexer, which is based on a new architecture that significantly reduces the dissipation of power at the first stage, allowing thousands of SQUIDs to be operated at the base temperature of a cryostat. .

  11. Physics division annual report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  12. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP): an Analysis of the First Year of a Novel Toxicology Education Project.

    PubMed

    Wong, Anselm; Vohra, Rais; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Koutsogiannis, Zeff; Graeme, Kimberlie; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L

    2015-09-01

    The international boundaries to medical education are becoming less marked as new technologies such as multiuser videoconferencing are developed and become more accessible to help bridge the communication gaps. The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP) is aimed at connecting clinicians in countries with established clinical toxicology services to clinicians in countries without clinical toxicologists around the globe. Centers that manage or consult on toxicology cases were registered through the American College of Medical Toxicology website via Survey Monkey®. Data was analyzed retrospectively from February 2014 to January 2015. Google hangouts® was used as the main conferencing software, but some sites preferred the use of Skype®. Registration data included contact details and toxicology background and qualifications. Thirty sites in 19 different countries in Australasia, Europe, Africa, and America were registered. Twenty-eight (93 %) sites were located in a major urban center, one (3.5 %) site in a major rural center and one (3.5 %) a private practice. Expectations of GETUP included sharing toxicology cases and education (30, 100 % of sites), assistance with toxicology management guidelines (2, 7 %), assistance with providing a toxicology teaching curriculum in languages other than English (2, 7 %), and managing toxicology presentations in resource-poor settings, international collaboration, and toxicovigilance (2 sites, 7 %). Twenty-two conferences were performed during the first 12 months with a mean of 3 cases per conference. GETUP has connected countries and clinical units with and without toxicology services and will provide a platform to improve international collaboration in clinical toxicology. PMID:25952764

  13. Historical milestones and discoveries that shaped the toxicology sciences.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Antoinette N; Gilbert, Steven G

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the toxic and healing properties of plants, animals, and minerals has shaped civilization for millennia. The foundations of modern toxicology are built upon the significant milestones and discoveries of serendipity and crude experimentation. Throughout the ages, toxicological science has provided information that has shaped and guided society. This chapter examines the development of the discipline of toxicology and its influence on civilization by highlighting significant milestones and discoveries related to toxicology. The examples shed light on the beginnings of toxicology, as well as examine lessons learned and re-learned. This chapter also examines how toxicology and the toxicologist have interacted with other scientific and cultural disciplines, including religion, politics, and the government. Toxicology has evolved to a true scientific discipline with its own dedicated scientists, educational institutes, sub-disciplines, professional societies, and journals. It now stands as its own entity while traversing such fields as chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and molecular biology. We invite you to join us on a path of discovery and to offer our suggestions as to what are the most significant milestones and discoveries in toxicology. Additional information is available on the history section of Toxipedia (www.toxipedia.org). PMID:19157056

  14. Toward the Rational Use of Exposure Information in Mixtures Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Of all the disciplines of toxicology, perhaps none is as dependent on exposure information as Mixtures Toxicology. Identifying real world mixtures and replicating them in the laboratory (or in silico) is critical to understanding their risks. Complex mixtures such as cigarett...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 2, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 3, 2009, the Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White Hous...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chlordecone (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 22, 2009, the IRIS Summary and Toxicological Review of chlordecone was finalized and loaded onto the IRIS database. The Toxicological Review of chlordecone was reviewed internally by EPA, by other federal agencies and White House Offices, by expert external peer rev...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 28, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Urea and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Of...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On January 12, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Methanol and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Biphenyl and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...

  2. ACToR: Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR) is a set of databases compiling information on chemicals in the environment from a large number of public and in-house EPA sources. ACToR has 3 main goals: (1) The serve as a repository of public toxicology information ...

  3. TOXICOLOGICAL RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMANS: ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the need for the Society of Toxicology (SOT) to develop a policy for ethical research in humans, and a review for publication of these studies. Observations on human beings have been the foundation upon which toxicologic knowledge has been built since the in...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF REFERENCE ARTEMIA III FOR MARINE TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASTM Practice for Using Brine Shrimp Nauplii as Food for Test Animals in Aquatic Toxicology Tests (E 1203) suggests use of Reference Artemis as a reference standard for evaluating other batches of brine shrimp as food for organisms used in toxicology. in 1988, the U.S. EPA was ab...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trimethylbenzenes (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 26, 2012, the draft Toxicological Review of Trimethylbenzenes and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and W...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Vanadium Pentoxide and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and W...

  7. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE CONSULTATION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On Septemeber 30, 2010, the draft Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenc...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 30, 2011, the draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On June 1, 2012, the draft Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House ...

  10. Terminal Behavioral Objectives for Teaching Clinical Toxicology to Clinical Pharmacists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veltri, Joseph C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    As a first step in the development of a competency-based clinical toxicology clerkship, a set of terminal behavioral objectives were developed that reflect the anticipated role that clinical pharmacists should play as part of the clinical toxicology team. The evaluation approaches used at the University of Utah are presented. (LBH)

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of 2-Hexanone (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 25, 2009, the IRIS Summary and Toxicological Review of 2-hexanone was finalized and loaded onto the IRIS database. The Toxicological Review of 2-hexanone was reviewed internally by EPA, by other federal agencies and White House Offices, by expert external peer revie...

  12. Advancing adverse outcome pathways for integrated toxicology and regulatory applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent regulatory efforts in many countries have focused on a toxicological pathway-based vision for human health assessments relying on in vitro systems and predictive models to generate the toxicological data needed to evaluate chemical hazard. A pathway-based vision is equally...

  13. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  14. Division II: Sun and Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melrose, Donald B.; Martinez Pillet, Valentin; Webb, David F.; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Klimchuk, James A.; Kosovichev, Alexander; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; von Steiger, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    This report is on activities of the Division at the General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro. Summaries of scientific activities over the past triennium have been published in Transactions A, see Melrose et al. (2008), Klimchuk et al. (2008), Martinez Pillet et al. (2008) and Bougeret et al. (2008). The business meeting of the three Commissions were incorporated into the business meeting of the Division. This report is based in part on minutes of the business meeting, provided by the Secretary of the Division, Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, and it also includes reports provided by the Presidents of the Commissions (C10, C12, C49) and of the Working Groups (WGs) in the Division.

  15. Division 1137 property control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  16. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1984-07-01

    E (Experimental Physics) Division carries out basic and applied research in atomic and nuclear physics, in materials science, and in other areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Some of the activities are cooperative efforts with other divisions of the Laboratory, and, in a few cases, with other laboratories. Many of the experiments are directly applicable to problems in weapons and energy, some have only potential applied uses, and others are in pure physics. This report presents abstracts of papers published by E (Experimental Physics) Division staff members between July 1983 and June 1984. In addition, it lists the members of the scientific staff of the division, including visitors and students, and some of the assignments of staff members on scientific committees. A brief summary of the budget is included.

  17. Trangenic fish as models in environmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Winn, R N

    2001-01-01

    Historically, fish have played significant roles in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to chemical contamination in aquatic environments. Considering the contributions of transgenic rodent models to biomedicine, it is reasoned that the development of transgenic fish could enhance the role of fish in environmental toxicology. Application of transgenic fish in environmental studies remains at an early stage, but recent introduction of new models and methods demonstrates progress. Rapid advances are most evident in the area of in vivo mutagenesis using fish carrying transgenes that serve as recoverable mutational targets. These models highlight many advantages afforded by fish as models and illustrate important issues that apply broadly to transgenic fish in environmental toxicology. Development of fish models carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has revealed that numerous aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Researchers have revealed that fish exhibit frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo mutation analyses using transgenic fish and have illustrated their potential value as a comparative animal model. Challenges to development and application of transgenic fish relate to the needs for improved efficiencies in transgenic technology and in aspects of fish husbandry and use. By taking advantage of the valuable and unique attributes of fish as test organisms, it is anticipated that transgenic fish will make significant contributions to studies of environmentally induced diseases. PMID:11581523

  18. Toxicological Effects of Fullerenes on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomaker, Justin; Snook, Renee; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The nematode species Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful genetic model organism due to its simplicity and the substantial molecular, genetic, and developmental knowledge about the species. In this study, this species was used to test the toxicological effects of C60 fullerene nanoparticles. In previous studies using rats, a solution of C60 fullerenes in olive oil proved to extend the life of the subjects. The purpose of this experiment was to subject C. elegans to varying concentrations of C60 fullerenes and observe their toxicological effects. Initial findings indicate a link between fullerene exposure and enlargement of the vulva as well as the formation of a small nodule at the base of the tail in some individuals. While the fullerenes are not lethally toxic in C. elegans, results will be presented that pertain to changes in life span and progeny of the nematodes exposed to varying concentrations of fullerenes as well as the mechanisms of toxicity. High magnification imaging via SEM and/or AFM will be used to characterize the fullerene nanoparticles. Testing the toxicity of fullerenes in a wide variety of organisms will lead to a more complete understanding of the effects of fullerenes on living organisms to ultimately understand their effects in humans. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047, DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  19. Postmortem toxicology of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2004-06-10

    Conducting toxicology on post-mortem specimens provides a number of very significant challenges to the scientist. The range of additional specimens include tissues such as decomposing blood and other tissues, hair, muscle, fat, lung, and even larvae feeding on the host require special techniques to isolate a foreign substance and allow detection without interference from the matrix. A number of drugs of abuse are unstable in the post-mortem environment that requires careful consideration when trying to interpret their significance. Heroin, morphine glucuronides, cocaine and the benzodiazepines are particularly prone to degradation. Moreover, redistributive process can significantly alter the concentration of drugs, particularly those with a higher tissue concentration than the surrounding blood. The designer amphetamines, methadone and other potent opioids will increase their concentration in blood post-mortem. These processes together with the development of tolerance means that no concentration of a drug of abuse can be interpreted in isolation without a thorough examination of the relevant circumstances and after the conduct of a post-mortem to eliminate or corroborate relevant factors that could impact on the drug concentration and the possible effect of a substance on the body. This article reviews particular toxicological issues associated with the more common drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opioids and the benzodiazepines. PMID:15172074

  20. Integration of QSAR and in vitro toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, M D

    1998-01-01

    The principles of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are based on the premise that the properties of a chemical are implicit in its molecular structure. Therefore, if a mechanistic hypothesis can be proposed linking a group of related chemicals with a particular toxic end point, the hypothesis can be used to define relevant parameters to establish a QSAR. Ways in which QSAR and in vitro toxicology can complement each other in development of alternatives to live animal experiments are described and illustrated by examples from acute toxicological end points. Integration of QSAR and in vitro methods is examined in the context of assessing mechanistic competence and improving the design of in vitro assays and the development of prediction models. The nature of biological variability is explored together with its implications for the selection of sets of chemicals for test development, optimization, and validation. Methods are described to support the use of data from in vivo tests that do not meet today's stringent requirements of acceptability. Integration of QSAR and in vitro methods into strategic approaches for the replacement, reduction, and refinement of the use of animals is described with examples. PMID:9599692

  1. Toxicological properties of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum).

    PubMed

    Ouzir, Mounir; El Bairi, Khalid; Amzazi, Saaïd

    2016-10-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), used as traditional medicine and natural additive food, has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antidiabetic, antianorexic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihyperlipidemic, galactogogue and anti-inflammatory effects in several human and animal models. Besides, several medicinal pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties, fenugreek have toxic effects as well. The aim of this review is discuss the cumulative evidence, which suggests that consumption of fenugreek induced some serious toxicological side effects. In this review, many teratogenic effects of fenugreek, from congenital malformations to death, were reported in human, rodent, rabbit, and chick. Moreover, results obtained in rats, mice and rabbits show a testicular toxicity and anti-fertility effects in male associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as anti-fertility, antiimplantation and abortifacient activity in females related to saponin compound of fenugreek which suggest that fenugreek is not recommended for use during pregnancy. Indeed, the consumption of fenugreek should be avoided for persons having peanut and chickpeas allergy because of possible cross-reactivity as well as chronic asthma. Accumulating evidence suggest also that fenugreek may have neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral and neuropathological side effects. It is suggested that future studies would be conducted to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the fenugreek toxicological properties. PMID:27498339

  2. Space Toxicology Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Before delineating specific ways that nanotechnology enterprises might contribute to better management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, I will show how ethical considerations and several theories of justice can be applied to nanotechnology strategic plans. The principles that guide an ethical technical enterprise include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, veracity and justice. Veracity (truth) is the underpinning principle; however, beyond this, proponents of nanotechnology must think carefully about balancing conflicting principles. For example, autonomy must yield to beneficence when fearful individuals simply lack knowledge to appreciate nanotechnology's beneficial advances. Justice is a complex topic upon which I will place six models: utilitarian, distributive, free-exchange/choice, individual dignity (social participation), equity vs. greed, and liberation of the poor. After briefly summarizing each model, I will present what I call an iterative-hybrid model of justice to show specifically how our thinking can be applied to nanotechnology enterprises. Within that broad landscape, I will discuss a single feature: how our early effort to understand health risks of carbon nanotubes fits into the iterative model. Finally, I will suggest ways that nanotechnology might advance our management of toxicological risks during spaceflight, but always with an eye toward how such advances might result in a more just world.

  3. Mitochondrial division in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gandre, Shilpa; van der Bliek, Alexander M

    2007-01-01

    The study of mitochondrial division proteins has largely focused on yeast and mammalian cells. We describe methods to use Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative model for studying mitochondrial division, taking advantage of the many wonderful resources provided by the C. elegans community. Our methods are largely based on manipulation of gene expression using classic and molecular genetic techniques combined with fluorescence microscopy. Some biochemical methods are also included. As antibodies become available, these biochemical methods are likely to become more sophisticated. PMID:18314747

  4. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1981-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-Division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in material science. In addition this report describes work on accelerators, microwaves, plasma diagnostics, determination of atmospheric oxygen and of nitrogen in tissue.

  5. E-Division activities report

    SciTech Connect

    Barschall, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes some of the activities in E (Experimental Physics) Division during the past year. E-division carries out research and development in areas related to the missions of the Laboratory. Many of the activities are in pure and applied atomic and nuclear physics and in materials science. In addition, this report describes development work on accelerators and on instrumentation for plasma diagnostics, nitrogen exchange rates in tissue, and breakdown in gases by microwave pulses.

  6. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.V.

    1992-03-01

    This is a brief progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology including Measurement Applications and Development, Pollutant Assessments, Measurement Systems Research, Dosimetry Applications Research, Metabolism and Dosimetry Research and Nuclear Medicine. Biological and Radiation Physics including Atomic, Molecular, and High Voltage Physics, Physics of Solids and Macromolecules, Liquid and Submicron Physics, Analytic Dosimetry and Surface Physics and Health Effects. Chemical Physics including Molecular Physics, Photophysics and Advanced Monitoring Development. Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis including Human Genome and Toxicology, Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication, Environmental Regulations and Remediation and Information Management Technology. Risk Analysis including Hazardous Waste.

  7. Advances in Pediatric Pharmacology, Therapeutics, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Paul, Ian M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Significant advancements have been made in pediatric therapeutics and pharmacology over the last two years. In the United States, passage of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act has made the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and Pediatric Research Equity Act permanent, and ensured that studies will be conducted in neonates. In Europe, the Pediatric Regulation, which went into effect in early 2007, has also provided a framework encouraging an expansion of pediatric research. Because of such regulatory involvement, a greater number of studies are being performed, and more pediatric dosing, efficacy, and safety information is being incorporated into product labels. The goal of this publication is to highlight important advancements made in the field of pediatric pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutics from January 2012 to December 2013. PMID:25037123

  8. Recent developments in preclinical toxicological pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, John M. . E-mail: john.finch@eur.crl

    2005-09-01

    In the late nineteenth century, microscopists developed a quaint method for examining the fine structure of biological specimens: paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. This ancient technology is here to stay for the foreseeable future, because it can and does reveal the truth about biological processes. However, the role of pathology is developing with ever greater worldwide interaction between pathologists, and better communication and agreeing of international standards. Furthermore, recent techniques including immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and image analysis complement the traditional tried and tested tools. There is also in toxicologic pathology a willingness to use pathology methods and skills in new contexts, drug discovery in particular. But even in these days of genetic modification, proteomics and high throughput screening, pathologists continue to rely on dyes extracted from a Central American logwood used in Mexico before the Spanish invasion in 1520.

  9. Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Didier; Melendez-Howell, Leda Maria

    2003-02-01

    The fly agaric is a remarkable mushroom in many respects; these are its bearing, history, chemical components and the poisoning that it provokes when consumed. The 'pantherina' poisoning syndrome is characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. The main species responsible are Amanita muscaria and A. pantherina (Amanitaceae); however, some other species of the genus have been suspected for similar actions. Ibotenic acid and muscimol are the active components, and probably, some other substances detected in the latter species participate in the psychotropic effects. The use of the mushroom started in ancient times and is connected with mysticism. Current knowledge on the chemistry, toxicology, and biology relating to this mushroom is reviewed, together with distinctive features concerning this unique species. PMID:12747324

  10. Wind of Change Challenges Toxicological Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Tralau, Tewes; Riebeling, Christian; Pirow, Ralph; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Seiler, Andrea; Liebsch, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Background: In biomedical research, the past two decades have seen the advent of in vitro model systems based on stem cells, humanized cell lines, and engineered organotypic tissues, as well as numerous cellular assays based on primarily established tumor-derived cell lines and their genetically modified derivatives. Objective: There are high hopes that these systems might replace the need for animal testing in regulatory toxicology. However, despite increasing pressure in recent years to reduce animal testing, regulators are still reluctant to adopt in vitro approaches on a large scale. It thus seems appropriate to consider how we could realistically perform regulatory toxicity testing using in vitro assays only. Discussion and Conclusion: Here, we suggest an in vitro–only approach for regulatory testing that will benefit consumers, industry, and regulators alike. PMID:22871563

  11. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 55 chemicals on six representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, cottontail ink, red fox, and whitetail deer) and eight avian wildlife species (American robin, woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, Cooper`s hawk, and redtailed hawk) (scientific names are presented in Appendix C). These species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The benchmarks presented in this report are values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species.

  12. The use of kestrels in toxicology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Lincer, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Various species of kestrels have become important bioindicators of environmental quality and test species for comparative toxicology in captivity. At least 7 species of kestrels have been used to document the presence of environmental contamination primarily organochlorines and metals, in at least 15 countries. Captive kestrels have been used in studies involving a wide variety of environmental contaminants and toxicants examining: bioaccumulation; lethal toxicity using acute, chronic, and secondary exposures; effects on reproduction, eggshell thickness, and related enzyme systems; and effects on a wide variety of physiological and biochemical parameters. Field studies have examined the response of kestrels to exposure to insecticides. Kestrels should continue to play a vital role as a bioindicator and raptorial 'white mouse', especially because of their relationship to other falconiformes, several of which have been shown to be extremely sensitive to environmental changes.

  13. [Toxicological characteristics of the antitussive preparation glaucine].

    PubMed

    Mironova, M I; Arzamastsev, E V; Bortnikova, V V; Krepkova, L V

    1983-01-01

    A toxicological study was made of the antitussive drug glaucinee hydrochloride, an alkaloid of the isoquinoline series (4,5,7,8-tetramethoxyaporphine hydrochloride) isolated from Glaucinum flavum Crantz. of the Papaveraceae family. Upon a single intraperitoneal injection to different laboratory animals the LD50 was found to be equal to 150--180 mg/kg whereas upon intragastric administration, to 510--620 mg/kg. Under the conditions of chronic experiments (intragastric administration to rats in doses of 5, 25 adn 75 mg/kg daily for 3 months) glaucin hydrochloride did not affect the general status of the animals, hematological characteristics, functions of the liver, cardiovascular and excretory systems, and the morphological indicators of the internal organs as shown by electron microscopy. The drug does not possess any allergizing, mutagenic, embryotoxic or teratogenic properties. The data obtained attest to the possibilities of a wide clinical application of glaucin hydrochloride as an antitussive drug. PMID:6617832

  14. Toxicologic information resources for reptile envenomations.

    PubMed

    McNally, Jude; Boesen, Keith; Boyer, Leslie

    2008-05-01

    The United States is the largest importer of reptiles in the world, with an estimated 1.5 to 2.0 million households keeping one or more reptiles. Snakes account for about 11% of these imports and it has been estimated that as many as 9% of these reptiles are venomous. Envenomations by nonindigenous venomous species are a rare but often serious medical emergency. Bites may occur during the care and handling of legitimate collections found in universities, zoos, or museums. The other predominant source of exotic envenomation is from amateur collectors participating in importation, propagation, and trade of non-native species. This article provides toxicologic information resources for snake envenomations. PMID:18406394

  15. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicology of theranostic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Homan; Mintri, Shrutika; Menon, Archita Venugopal; Lee, Hea Yeon; Choi, Hak Soo; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are considered a promising tool in both diagnosis and therapeutics. Theranostic NPs possess the combined properties of targeted imaging and drug delivery within a single entity. While the categorization of theranostic NPs is based on their structure and composition, the pharmacokinetics of NPs are significantly influenced by the physicochemical properties of theranostic NPs as well as the routes of administration. Consequently, altered pharmacokinetics modify the pharmacodynamic efficacy and toxicity of NPs. Although theranostic NPs hold great promise in nanomedicine and biomedical applications, a lack of understanding persists on the mechanisms of the biodistribution and adverse effects of NPs. To better understand the diagnostic and therapeutic functions of NPs, this review discusses the factors that influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicology of theranostic NPs, along with several strategies for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of the Columbia spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippstein, W. J., Jr.; Coleman, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicology procedures developed for the Space Shuttle program to evaluate and eliminate contaminants in the cabin atmosphere characterized, and results from STS missions 1-5 are reviewed. Shuttle maximum-allowable-concentration standards (SMAC) equal to 10-50 percent of those established for normal 40-h work weeks on the ground have been established for a broad range of substances, and outgassing data are employed in choosing spacecraft construction materials. Gases are removed by the atmospheric revitalization system (CO2-removal bed, catalytic oxidizer, and dehumidifier). Whole-gas and adsorbed-gas samples are employed in ground-based and inflight measurements of contaminants: results are presented in tables. A total of 152 substances, of which 64 were well defined, were detected in STS-1-5. Only the toluene contamination on STS-2 (17 ppm compared to the SMAC of 20 ppm) was considered serious.

  17. Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: Comparative toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N.; Profet, M.; Gold, L.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in broccoli) and ethanol. Trade-offs between synthetic and natural pesticides are discussed. The finding that in high-dose tests, a high proportion of both natural and synthetic chemicals are carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens, and clastogens (30-50{percent} for each group) undermines current regulatory efforts to protect public health from synthetic chemicals based on these tests.

  18. Toxicological implications of extended space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Bernard; Utell, Mark; Morrow, Paul

    1992-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the needs and mechanisms for shielding crewmembers on long-duration space flights from hazards related to chemical toxicants. Specific attention is given to existing data on sources of impaired performance, namely, neurotoxicants, respiratory infections, pulmonary function. The behavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to volatile organic solvents can impair crucial functional parameters of space flight and mission objectives. Respiratory infections contribute to performance decrements of up to 20 percent, and pulmonary function can be impaired by contaminants such as ozone leading to reduced performance. It is concluded that these and other sources of toxicologically induced performance reductions be studied since they impinge on vehicle design and mission objectives.

  19. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping

    2015-03-16

    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed. PMID:25643169

  20. Beyond Cookies: Understanding Various Division Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Cindy; Magruder, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of division derived from multiple models is of great importance for teachers and students. For example, students will benefit from a greater understanding of division contexts as they study long division, fractions, and division of fractions. The purpose of this article is to build on teachers' and students'…

  1. [Toxicologic estimation, an element of therapeutical progress].

    PubMed

    Fournier, P E

    1991-01-01

    The clinical toxicology plays a great part to the progresses of human therapy. It is an essential observation for a good clinical use of drugs and of materials used by physicians. It permits a better knowledge of the dose-effect relationship (in acute either in chronic adverse effects). It specifies the statement of the therapeutic efficacy between the threshold, a placebo effect with adverse disorders as those possibly related to any xenobiotic and the overdose where the nocivity predominates on the therapeutic results. A better detection of some individual responses as adverse or toxic reactions due to a genetic peculiarity belongs to clinical toxicogenetic studies in parallel with pharmacogenetics. The recent evolution of drugs needs a more scientific approach of the therapy for cytotoxic drugs largely used against cancers, in terms of tolerable doses, cumulative actions, interactions and cofactors. On the opposite, the bio-chemical variations of new bio-drugs acting as real bioprotheses of hormones or biomediators need specific toxicological studies according to the progresses and to the limits of biotechnologies. Among numerous drugs issued of chemical research one must separate the reversible functional drugs designed as enzyme-inhibitors or cellular receptors ligands very close to the dominant themes of biochemistry and experimental physiology from chemicals coined by synthetic "chance" which are for the time being plain xenobiotics whose dangers are often poorly evaluated but whose practical applications will take place either in disciplines related to pharmacopea like chemicals used in plant protection, either beginning their commercial trip very far from health concern in industrial preparations and being brought back to medicine as plastics, glues or metallic implants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1842171

  2. The Installation Restoration Program toxicology guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Po-Yung.

    1990-11-01

    One of the objectives of the US Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP) is to provide individuals responsible for the management and implementation of the IRP with information to evaluate the health hazards associated with actual or potential contamination of drinking water supplies. For each chemical in the IRP Toxicology Guide, the environmental fate, exposure pathways, toxicity, sampling and analysis methods and state and federal regulatory status are outlined. The material provided is intended as an overview of key topic areas; no attempt was made to provide a comprehensive review. The Air Force IRP Toxicology Guide is an effort by the Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Research Laboratory to identify those contaminants for which criteria, standards or US EPA-based guidelines are available provide a ground water contaminant information data base for use at USAF installations where there are no relevant federal, state, or local standards, and provide guidelines to aid in the development of USAF policy and program for IRP completion. This volume, regarding identified by the USAF as being of concern to the IRP, is an extension of the previous four volumes addressing a series of 70 compounds relevant to Air Force installations. Specifically, this volume presents information on cadmium, chromium, mercury, zinc, arsenic, nickel and copper. The general organization is similar to that of the previous volumes, and consists of individual chapters for each metal. Due to the complexity of metal chemistry, each chapter is not limited to merely the elemental form of the metal, but rather information on various metal compounds. 140 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Discussion Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures. The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Summary Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics. PMID:24079609

  4. [Development and application of adverse outcome pathway in toxicology research].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Duan, Huawei

    2015-12-01

    Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) was a conceptual construct that integrated existing knowledge concerning the pathway of causal linkages between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and a final adverse effect at individual or population levels. The AOP methodology could be used as a basis for effects extrapolation and was an approach towards providing a framework for collecting and evaluating relevant chemical, biological and toxicological information. The framework would play an important role in risk assessment. We reviewed the concept of AOP, the development and assessment of the framework and the established models in toxicology researches. And the prospects and challenges of its application in toxicology were also introduced. PMID:26887310

  5. National toxicology program chemical nomination and selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Selkirk, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was organized to support national public health programs by initiating research designed to understand the physiological, metabolic, and genetic basis for chemical toxicity. The primary mandated responsibilities of NTP were in vivo and vitro toxicity testing of potentially hazardous chemicals; broadening the spectrum of toxicological information on known hazardous chemicals; validating current toxicological assay systems as well as developing new and innovative toxicity testing technology; and rapidly communicating test results to government agencies with regulatory responsibilities and to the medical and scientific communities. 2 figs.

  6. Building an academic colorectal division.

    PubMed

    Koltun, Walter A

    2014-06-01

    Colon and rectal surgery is fully justified as a valid subspecialty within academic university health centers, but such formal recognition at the organizational level is not the norm. Creating a colon and rectal division within a greater department of surgery requires an unfailing commitment to academic concepts while promulgating the improvements that come in patient care, research, and teaching from a specialty service perspective. The creation of divisional identity then opens the door for a strategic process that will grow the division even more as well as provide benefits to the institution within which it resides. The fundamentals of core values, academic commitment, and shared success reinforced by receptive leadership are critical. Attention to culture, commitment, collaboration, control, cost, and compensation leads to a successful academic division of colon and rectal surgery. PMID:25067922

  7. Building an Academic Colorectal Division

    PubMed Central

    Koltun, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Colon and rectal surgery is fully justified as a valid subspecialty within academic university health centers, but such formal recognition at the organizational level is not the norm. Creating a colon and rectal division within a greater department of surgery requires an unfailing commitment to academic concepts while promulgating the improvements that come in patient care, research, and teaching from a specialty service perspective. The creation of divisional identity then opens the door for a strategic process that will grow the division even more as well as provide benefits to the institution within which it resides. The fundamentals of core values, academic commitment, and shared success reinforced by receptive leadership are critical. Attention to culture, commitment, collaboration, control, cost, and compensation leads to a successful academic division of colon and rectal surgery. PMID:25067922

  8. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. 177.841... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.841 Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. (See also § 177... by other appropriate method, and the marking removed. (b) (c) Division 2.3 (poisonous gas)...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies ...

  10. Linking Mass Spectrometry with Toxicology for Emerging Water Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview presentation will discuss the benefits of combining mass spectrometry with toxicology. These benefits will be described for 3 main areas: (1) Toxicity assays used to test new environmental contaminants previously identified using mass spectrometry, such that furth...

  11. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  12. AN AUTOMATED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR FISH PHYSIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a data acquisition and control (DAC) system that was constructed to manage selected physiological measurements and sample control for aquatic physiology and toxicology. Automated DAC was accomplished with a microcomputer running menu-driven software develope...

  13. NEW PUBLIC DATA AND INTERNET RESOURCES IMPACTING PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, along with efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources and to systematize older toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve predictive capabilities in toxicology.

  14. Using Toxicological Evidence from QSAR Models in Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new generation of QSAR models provides supporting documentation in addition to the predicted toxicological value. Such information enables the toxicologist to explore the properties of chemical substances and to review and increase the reliability of toxicity predictions. Thi...

  15. TOXICO-CHEMINFORMATICS IN SUPPORT OF PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to improve public access to chemical toxicity information resources, coupled with new high-throughput screening (HTS) data and efforts to systematize legacy toxicity studies, have the potential to significantly improve predictive capabilities in toxicology.

  16. COMPARATIVE TOXICOLOGY OF LABORATORY ORGANISMS FOR ASSESSING HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae, daphnia, earthworms, microbes, mixed sewage and plants; wheat 'Stephens', lettu...

  17. The positive approach to negative results in toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J P

    1987-08-01

    Negative results in toxicology studies are often as noteworthy as are results that detect significant toxicological effects. The results of 49.1% of all t tests published in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety in 1985 and 1986 were negative. However, despite the importance and prevalence of negative results in toxicology studies, they are frequently misinterpreted. Negative results from statistical tests that have poor statistical power can only be considered to be inconclusive. Because toxicology studies often use small sample sizes, such studies often have poor power to detect small, but biologically significant, effects. Toxicologists may improve the power of their tests by improving experiment design, increasing alpha, increasing sample size, or limiting the analysis to detection of large differences among samples. Selection of both sample size and alpha level should take considerations of statistical power into account. PMID:3428208

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans: An Emerging Model in Biomedical and Environmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Maxwell C. K.; Williams, Phillip L.; Benedetto, Alexandre; Au, Catherine; Helmcke, Kirsten J.; Aschner, Michael; Meyer, Joel N.

    2008-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as an important animal model in various fields including neurobiology, developmental biology, and genetics. Characteristics of this animal model that have contributed to its success include its genetic manipulability, invariant and fully described developmental program, well-characterized genome, ease of maintenance, short and prolific life cycle, and small body size. These same features have led to an increasing use of C. elegans in toxicology, both for mechanistic studies and high-throughput screening approaches. We describe some of the research that has been carried out in the areas of neurotoxicology, genetic toxicology, and environmental toxicology, as well as high-throughput experiments with C. elegans including genome-wide screening for molecular targets of toxicity and rapid toxicity assessment for new chemicals. We argue for an increased role for C. elegans in complementing other model systems in toxicological research. PMID:18566021

  19. ORAL TOXICOLOGY STUDIES WITH XYLENE ISOMERS AND MIXED XYLENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xylene isomers and mixed xylenes were administered to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate their effects on standard toxicological parameters rnhich included body and organ weights, hematology, serum chemistries, urinalysis and histopathological examination. n the init...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexachloroethane (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hexachloroethane, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies a...

  1. A Standardized Patient-Oriented Approach to Teaching Clinical Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective Design, implement, and evaluate a standardized approach to teaching clinical toxicology for pharmacy students. Design An extensive review of the literature was conducted and a standardized approach to teaching Clinical Toxicology, a 1-credit-hour elective course, was designed, consisting of 9 key questions to address any clinical poisoning. A patient-oriented and problem-solving approach to clinical toxicology was adopted throughout the course. Assessment Average performance on course examinations for the academic years 1996-2001 (N=604) when the course was required and the academic years 2002-2007 (N=37) when the course was changed to an elective was 83.4% and 81.7%, respectively. Conclusions A standardized, patient-oriented approach to teaching clinical toxicology allowed successful conversion of this material from a required course to an elective and facilitated students' exposure and interest in this important area of practice. PMID:19214274

  2. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  3. Environmental Transport Division: 1979 report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Schubert, J.F.; Bowman, W.W.; Adams, S.E.

    1980-03-01

    During 1979, the Environmental Transport Division (ETD) of the Savannah River Laboratory conducted atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine studies, which are described in a series of articles. Separate abstracts were prepared for each. Publications written about the 1979 research are listed at the end of the report.

  4. Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

  5. Psychological Sciences Division: 1985 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Psychological Sciences Div.

    This booklet describes research carried out under sponsorship of the Psychological Sciences Division of the U.S. Office of Naval Research during Fiscal Year 1985. The booklet is divided into three programmatic research areas: (1) Engineering Psychology; (2) Personnel and Training; and (3) Group Psychology. Each program is described by an overview…

  6. Manpower Division Looks at CETA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Manpower Division at the American Vocational Association (AVA) convention in Houston was concerned about youth unemployment and about the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA)--its problems and possibilities. The panel discussion reported here reveals some differing perspectives and a general consensus--that to improve their role in…

  7. 78 FR 17431 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... January 2, 2013 (78 FR 117). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...--Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 22, 2013,...

  8. Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blevins-Knabe, Belinda

    The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

  9. 77 FR 54611 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on June 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the... on June 8, 2012 (77 FR 34067). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division...; Tiburon Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA; Streamline Automation, LLC (dba C3 Propulsion), Huntsville,...

  10. International Division Regional Advisers' Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    An Advisers primary job is to nominate candidates for the five annual ID awards; this involves working with the five International Division award coordinators. Advisers also submit an annual report on activities in their country/ region to their Area Coordinators who, in turn, report on educational technology activities in their Areas. In the…

  11. 75 FR 70031 - Antitrust Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Open... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis... branding program based upon distinctive trademarks to create high customer awareness of, demand for,...

  12. Principals Of Radiation Toxicology: Important Aspects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” Paracelsus Key Words: Radiation Toxins (RT), Radiation Toxicants (RTc), Radiation Poisons (RP), Radiation Exposure (RE), Radiation Toxicology is the science about radiation poisons. [D.Popov et al. 2012,J.Zhou et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins is a specific proteins with high enzymatic activity produced by living irradiated mammals. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxicants is a substances that produce radiomimetics effects, adverse biological effects which specific for radiation. [D.Popov et al. 2012,] Radiation Toxic agent is specific proteins that can produce pathological biological effects specific for physical form of radiation.[D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev 2007] Different Toxic Substances isolated from cells or from blood or lymph circulation. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007,] Radiation Toxins may affects many organs or specific organ, tissue, specific group of cells. [Kudriashov I. et al. 1970, D.Popov et al. 1990,2012,V. Maliev et al. 2007] For example: Radiation Toxins could induce collective toxic clinical states to include: systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),toxic multiple organ injury (TMOI), toxic multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (TMODS),and finally, toxic multiple organ failure (TMOF). [T. Azizova et al. 2005, Konchalovsky et al., 2005, D. Popov et al 2012] However, Radiation Toxins could induce specific injury of organs or tissue and induce Acute Radiation Syndromes such as Acute Radiation Cerebrovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Cardiovascular Syndrome, Acute Radiation Hematopoietic Syndrome, Acute Radiation GastroIntestinal Syndrome. [ D.Popov et al. 1990, 2012, V. Maliev et al. 2007] Radiation Toxins correlates with Radiation Exposure and the dose-response relationship is a fundamental and essential concept in classic Toxicology and Radiation Toxicology.[ D.Popov et al

  13. Toxicological implications of esterases-From molecular structures to functions

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tetsuo . E-mail: satohbri@peach.ifnet.or.jp

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on a keynote lecture at the 10th International Congress of Toxicology sponsored by the International Union of Toxicology and held on July 2004. Current developments in molecular-based studies into the structure and function of cholinesterases, carboxylesterases, and paraoxonases are described. This article covers mechanisms of regulation of gene expression of the various esterases by developmental factors and xenobiotics, as well as the interplay between physiological and chemical regulation of the enzyme activity.

  14. Metabolism and toxicology of pyrethroids with dihalovinyl substituents.

    PubMed Central

    Ruzo, L O; Casida, J E

    1977-01-01

    Replacement of the photolabile and biodegradable isobutenyl substituent of pyrethroids with a dihalovinyl group often leads to improved insecticidal potency and enhanced photostability. This type of structural modification does not greatly alter the ease of detoxification in mammals since other sites in the molecule undergo metabolic attack. The available toxicological information on dihalovinyl pyrethroids indicates that they are suitable replacements for other insecticides with less favorable persistence and toxicological characteristics. PMID:612453

  15. [Sanitary and hygienic expert examination of consumer goods: toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Zav'ialov, N V; Skvortsova, E L; Chemechev, A P

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of toxicological and sanitary-chemical studies of domestic and imported products subject to sanitary-and-epidemiological assessment. It shows the groups of products that are currently the greatest potential danger to health in terms of toxicological and hygienic parameters. Recommendations are given on programs for manufacturing control over the observance of sanitary rules and the antiepidemic (preventive) actions at the enterprises engaged in the production and turnover of social consumer goods. PMID:20135874

  16. Physics division annual report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.

    2001-10-04

    This report summarizes the research performed in 2000 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory and medium energy physics research, and accelerator research and development. As the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee and the nuclear science community create a new long range plan for the field in 2001, it is clear that the research of the Division is closely aligned with and continues to help define the national goals of our field. The NSAC 2001 Long Range Plan recommends as the highest priority for major new construction the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), a bold step forward for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. The accelerator R&D in the Physics Division has made major contributions to almost all aspects of the RIA design concept and the community was convinced that this project is ready to move forward. 2000 saw the end of the first Gammasphere epoch at ATLAS, One hundred Gammasphere experiments were completed between January 1998 and March 2000, 60% of which used the Fragment Mass Analyzer to provide mass identification in the reaction. The experimental program at ATLAS then shifted to other important research avenues including proton radioactivity, mass measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap and measurements of high energy gamma-rays in nuclear reactions with the MSU/ORNL/Texas A&M BaF{sub 2} array. ATLAS provided 5460 beam-research hours for user experiments and maintained an operational reliability of 95%. Radioactive beams accounted for 7% of the beam time. ATLAS also provided a crucial test of a key RIA concept, the ability to accelerate multiple charge states in a superconducting heavy-ion linac. This new capability was immediately used to increase the performance for a scheduled experiment. The medium energy program continued to make strides in examining how the quark-gluon structure of matter

  17. Systems Toxicology: From Basic Research to Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Systems Toxicology is the integration of classical toxicology with quantitative analysis of large networks of molecular and functional changes occurring across multiple levels of biological organization. Society demands increasingly close scrutiny of the potential health risks associated with exposure to chemicals present in our everyday life, leading to an increasing need for more predictive and accurate risk-assessment approaches. Developing such approaches requires a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ways in which xenobiotic substances perturb biological systems and lead to adverse outcomes. Thus, Systems Toxicology approaches offer modern strategies for gaining such mechanistic knowledge by combining advanced analytical and computational tools. Furthermore, Systems Toxicology is a means for the identification and application of biomarkers for improved safety assessments. In Systems Toxicology, quantitative systems-wide molecular changes in the context of an exposure are measured, and a causal chain of molecular events linking exposures with adverse outcomes (i.e., functional and apical end points) is deciphered. Mathematical models are then built to describe these processes in a quantitative manner. The integrated data analysis leads to the identification of how biological networks are perturbed by the exposure and enables the development of predictive mathematical models of toxicological processes. This perspective integrates current knowledge regarding bioanalytical approaches, computational analysis, and the potential for improved risk assessment. PMID:24446777

  18. Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Löwenhielm, P

    1996-09-01

    A computer software, RättsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

  19. Toxicology as a nanoscience? – Disciplinary identities reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Kurath, Monika; Maasen, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    Toxicology is about to establish itself as a leading scientific discipline in addressing potential health effects of materials on the nanosize level. Entering into a cutting-edge field, has an impact on identity-building processes within the involved academic fields. In our study, we analyzed the ways in which the entry into the field of nanosciences impacts on the formation of disciplinary identities. Using the methods of qualitative interviews with particle toxicologists in Germany, Holland, Switzerland and the USA, we could demonstrate that currently, toxicology finds itself in a transitional phase. The development of its disciplinary identity is not yet clear. Nearly all of our interview partners stressed the necessity of repositioning toxicology. However, they each suggested different approaches. While one part is already propagandizing the establishment of a new discipline – 'nanotoxicology'- others are more reserved and are demanding a clear separation of traditional and new research areas. In phases of disciplinary new-orientation, research communities do not act consistently. Rather, they establish diverse options. By expanding its disciplinary boundaries, participating in new research fields, while continuing its previous research, and only vaguely defining its topics, toxicology is feeling its way into the new fields without giving up its present self-conception. However, the toxicological research community is also discussing a new disciplinary identity. Within this, toxicology could develop from an auxiliary into a constitutive position, and take over a basic role in the cognitive, institutional and social framing of the nanosciences. PMID:16646961

  20. Review of the toxicology of styrene.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A

    1989-01-01

    Styrene is used in the production of plastics and resins, which include polystyrene resins, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins, styrene-acrylonitrile resins, styrene-butadiene copolymer resins, styrene-butadiene rubber, and unsaturated polyester resins. In 1985, styrene ranked in the top ten of synthetic organic chemicals produced in the U.S. This review focuses on various aspects of styrene toxicology including acute and chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, effects on hepatic and extrahepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, pharmacokinetic modeling, and covalent interactions with macromolecules. There appear to be many similarities between the toxicity and metabolism of styrene in rodents and humans. Needed areas of future research on styrene include studies on the molecular dosimetry of styrene in terms of both hemoglobin and DNA adducts. The results of such research should improve our ability to assess the relationship between exposure to styrene and surrogate measures of "effective dose", thereby improving our ability to estimate the effects of low-level human exposures. PMID:2653733

  1. A medical-toxicological view of tattooing.

    PubMed

    Laux, Peter; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Blume, Annegret; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bäumler, Wolfgang; Bernstein, Eric; Bocca, Beatrice; Alimonti, Alessandro; Colebrook, Helen; de Cuyper, Christa; Dähne, Lars; Hauri, Urs; Howard, Paul C; Janssen, Paul; Katz, Linda; Klitzman, Bruce; Kluger, Nicolas; Krutak, Lars; Platzek, Thomas; Scott-Lang, Victoria; Serup, Jørgen; Teubner, Wera; Schreiver, Ines; Wilkniß, Elena; Luch, Andreas

    2016-01-23

    Long perceived as a form of exotic self-expression in some social fringe groups, tattoos have left their maverick image behind and become mainstream, particularly for young people. Historically, tattoo-related health and safety regulations have focused on rules of hygiene and prevention of infections. Meanwhile, the increasing popularity of tattooing has led to the development of many new colours, allowing tattoos to be more spectacular than ever before. However, little is known about the toxicological risks of the ingredients used. For risk assessment, safe intradermal application of these pigments needs data for toxicity and biokinetics and increased knowledge about the removal of tattoos. Other concerns are the potential for phototoxicity, substance migration, and the possible metabolic conversion of tattoo ink ingredients into toxic substances. Similar considerations apply to cleavage products that are formed during laser-assisted tattoo removal. In this Review, we summarise the issues of concern, putting them into context, and provide perspectives for the assessment of the acute and chronic health effects associated with tattooing. PMID:26211826

  2. Mapping the Human Toxome by Systems Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Hogberg, Helena T.; Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity testing typically involves studying adverse health outcomes in animals subjected to high doses of toxicants with subsequent extrapolation to expected human responses at lower doses. The low-throughput of current toxicity testing approaches (which are largely the same for industrial chemicals, pesticides and drugs) has led to a backlog of more than 80,000 chemicals to which human beings are potentially exposed whose potential toxicity remains largely unknown. Employing new testing strategies that employ the use of predictive, high-throughput cell-based assays (of human origin) to evaluate perturbations in key pathways, referred as pathways of toxicity, and to conduct targeted testing against those pathways, we can begin to greatly accelerate our ability to test the vast “storehouses” of chemical compounds using a rational, risk-based approach to chemical prioritization, and provide test results that are more predictive of human toxicity than current methods. The NIH Transformative Research Grant project Mapping the Human Toxome by Systems Toxicology aims at developing the tools for pathway mapping, annotation and validation as well as the respective knowledge base to share this information. PMID:24443875

  3. The toxicology of indium tin oxide.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M

    2016-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m(3). In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas and carcinomas were significantly increased at all concentrations. In mice, ITO was not carcinogenic. A few bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas occurring after repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters have to be interpreted as treatment-related. In vitro and in vivo studies on the formation of reactive oxygen species suggest epigenetic effects as cause of the lung tumor development. Repeated intratracheal instillation of ITO to hamsters slightly affected the male sexual organs, which might be interpreted as a secondary effect of the lung damage. Epidemiological and medical surveillance studies, serum/blood indium levels in workers as well as data on the exposure to airborne indium concentrations indicate a need for measures to reduce exposure at ITO workplaces. PMID:27343753

  4. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: international perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Feron, V J; Cassee, F R; Groten, J P

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews major activities outside the United States on human health issues related to chemical mixtures. In Europe an international study group on combination effects has been formed and has started by defining synergism and antagonism. Successful research programs in Europe include the development and application of statistically designed experiments combined with multivariate data analysis and modeling in vitro and in vivo studies on a wide variety of chemicals such as petroleum hydrocarbons, aldehydes, food contaminants, industrial solvents, and mycotoxins. Other major activities focus on the development of safety evaluation strategies for mixtures such as the use of toxic equivalence factors or alternatives such as the question-and-answer approach, fractionation followed by recombination of the mixture in combination with a mixture design, and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis combined with lumping analysis and physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling for studying complex mixtures. A scheme for hazard identification and risk assessment of complex mixtures and a consistent way to generate total volatile organic compound values for indoor air have also been developed. Examples of other activities are carcinogenicity studies on complex mixtures (petroleum middle distillates, foundry fumes, pesticides, heterocyclic amines, diesel exhaust, solid particles), neurotoxicity studies of mixtures of solvents alone or in combination with exposure to physical factors, and toxicity studies of outdoor air pollutants, focusing on particulates. Outside the United States, toxicologists and regulators clearly have a growing interest in the toxicology and risk assessment of chemical mixtures. PMID:9860882

  5. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  6. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented. PMID:18790671

  7. Strategies for toxicological evaluation of mixtures.

    PubMed

    Eide, I

    1996-01-01

    Different strategies for the toxicological evaluation of mixtures are presented. The purpose is to determine the effects of each component (variable) in the mixture, and possible interactions between variables. The examples presented have 3-5 predictor variables and 1-3 responses, and are based on statistical experimental design, multivariate data analysis and modelling. The following examples are presented: (1) inhalation experiments with synthetic vapour mixtures of hydrocarbons formulated by means of mixture design at different vapour concentrations (the experimental) region covers both partial and complete evaporation of the liquid mixtures); (2) combination of refinery streams for fuel blending by means of mixture design with constraints, followed by engine tests and determination of exhaust particles; (3) fractionation of organic extracts of diesel exhaust particles, and recombination of the extracts by means of mixture design, followed by mutagenicity testing of the recombined extracts in the Ames Salmonella assay; (4) spiking complex mixtures with individual compounds using factorial design, and subsequent mutagenicity testing. The data obtained from these four examples were analysed by means of Projections to Latent Structures (PLS). The effects of each variable and possible interactions, were quantified by means of PLS regression coefficients. Furthermore, the empirical models obtained were evaluated by means of correlation coefficients, cross validation and predictions. PMID:9119328

  8. Liver cell models in in vitro toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Guillouzo, A

    1998-01-01

    In vitro liver preparations are increasingly used for the study of hepatotoxicity of chemicals. In recent years their actual advantages and limitations have been better defined. The cell models, slices, and mainly primary hepatocyte cultures, appear to be the most powerful in vitro systems, as liver-specific functions and responsiveness to inducers are retained either for a few days or several weeks depending on culture conditions. Maintenance of phase I and phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities allows various chemical investigations to be performed, including determination of kinetic parameters, metabolic profile, interspecies comparison, inhibition and induction effects, and drug-drug interactions. In vitro liver cell models also have various applications in toxicology: screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds, evaluation of chemoprotective agents, and determination of characteristic liver lesions and associated biochemical mechanisms induced by toxic compounds. Extrapolation of the results to the in vivo situation remains a matter of debate. Presently, the most convincing applications of liver cell models are the studies on different aspects of metabolism and mechanisms of toxicity. For the future, there is a need for better culture conditions and differentiated hepatocyte cell lines to overcome the limited availability of human liver tissues. In addition, strategies for in vitro analysis of potentially toxic chemicals must be better defined. PMID:9599700

  9. Challenges of toxicology for the millennium.

    PubMed

    Wong, S H

    2000-02-01

    In meeting the challenges of toxicology, clinical and forensic toxicologists should expand their services and engage in research and development to meet changing needs. Expanding roles could potentially derive from the threat of terrorism, genotyping for interpretation of potential toxic drug interactions, and criminalistic testings. At the threshold of the next millennium, terrorism via weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has migrated from the war zones to civilian settings. These WMD may be in the form of nuclear, biological, and chemical devices (NBC). Recently, the possible use of chemical/biological weapons in the Middle East conflicts, the use of sarin in a Tokyo subway station, and the unregulated availability of nuclear fuel in some countries all have heightened the potential for international and domestic NBC. In preparation for NBC, both government and civilians in major American cities have been trained for safe handling of patients and casualties. Forensic and clinical toxicologists should be knowledgeable about the clinical pharmacology, safe samples processing, and possible screening and/or analysis of samples exposed to or containing: vesicants; cyanide; and nerve, riot control, and pulmonary agents. These samples may be transported for further analysis and confirmed by designated central laboratories. In criminal/correctional settings, toxicologists should engage in quality assurance and consultation with attorneys, judges, and correctional professionals. With the emergence of pharmacogenetics, genotyping may enhance rational drug therapy for enhanced patient care, and may explain adverse or fatal drug reactions in postmortem analysis. PMID:10688259

  10. Genetic toxicology assessment of HI-6 dichloride.

    PubMed

    Putman, D; San, R H; Bigger, C A; Levine, B S; Jacobson-Kram, D

    1996-01-01

    The oxime HI-6 dichloride [1-(2 hydroxyiminomethyl -1-pyridino)-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino)-2-oxapropane dichloride monohydrate] has shown to be a potent reactivator of cholinesterase activity and may have efficacy for the treatment of organophosphate intoxication [SIPRI, 1976; Schenk et al.; Arch Toxicol 36:71-81, 1976]. As part of a preclinical safety assessment program, the genetic toxicology of HI-6 dichloride was evaluated in a series of assays designed to measure induction of gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. HI-6 dichloride gave negative responses in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in the CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assay. Dose-dependent increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations were noted when HI-6 dichloride was tested in cultured CHO cells and in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay, reputed to measure both gene mutations and chromosomal deletions, was negative in the absence of metabolic activation. Depending on the criteria employed, a negative or equivocal response was seen in the presence of rat liver-derived S-9 mix. An in vivo rat bone marrow metaphase assay performed to further investigate the in vitro clastogenic responses was negative. The results from these studies indicate that HI-6 dichloride does not induce gene mutations in vitro; however, it is clastogenic in vitro but does not appear to be clastogenic in vivo. PMID:8603667

  11. Genetic toxicology assessment of HI-6 dichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, D.; San, R.H.; Bigger, C.A.; Levine, B.S.; Jacobson-Kram, D.

    1996-08-01

    The oxime HI-6 dichloride (1-(2 hydroxyiminomethyl- 1-pyridino)-3- (4-carbamoyl-1- pyridino)-2-oxapropane dichloride monohydrate) has shown to be a potent reactivator of cholinesterase activity and may have efficacy for the treatment of organo-phosphate intoxication (SIPRI, 1976; Schenk et al.; Arch Toxicol 36:71-81, 1976). As part of a pre-clinical safety assessment program, the genetic toxicology of HI-6 dichloride was evaluated in a series of assays designed to measure induction of gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. HI-6 dichloride gave negative responses in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in the CHO/HGPRT gene mutation assay. Dose-dependent increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations when HI-6 dichloride was tested in cultured CHO cells and in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mouse lymphoma gene mutation assay, reputed to measure both gene mutations and chromosomal deletions, was negative in the absence of metabolic activation. Depending on the criteria employed, a negative or equivocal response was seen in the presence of rat liver-derived S-9 mix. An in vivo rat bone marrow metaphase assay performed to further investigate the in vitro clastogenic responses was negative. The results from these studies indicate that HI-6 dichloride does not induce gene mutations in vitro; however, it is clastogenic in vitro but does not appear to be clastogenic in vivo.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology of continuously infused nitroimidazoles

    SciTech Connect

    Eifel, P.J.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and toxicology of misonidazole (MISO) and SR-2508 given by continuous intraperitoneal infusion were studied in female C/sub 3/H mice. The survival (time to death) of animals receiving continuous infusions of SR-2508 and MISO was compared and related to plasma concentration, rate of infusion and total amount of drug delivered. Brain and plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. For SR-2508, plasma concentration was directly proportional to the infusion rate. However, as the infusion rate of MISO was doubled, the plasma concentration of MISO increased approximately 6-fold, reflecting a substantial increase in the apparent half-life. The brain/plasma concentration ratio in animals infused for up to 6 days with SR-2508 remained constant, at approximately 0.09. At plasma concentrations of 0.08-1.5 mM, animals receiving SR-2508 survived approximately 3 times as long as animals exposed to a comparable plasma concentration of MISO. Even at the lowest infusion rates employed in this study, the survival of mice receiving SR-2508 was much shorter than would have been predicted if the toxicity of these two drugs were solely related to the integral brain exposure. The low brain/plasma concentration ratio of SR-2508 was maintained throughout long continuous exposures.

  13. "The future of in vitro toxicology".

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 1959 Russell and Burch stated that "Mammalian tissue cultures have become one of the most important replacement techniques". Although they would likely be disappointed at the slow progress towards the 3Rs, I am sure they would be amazed and excited about the advances made. For example, omic technologies now provide an unbiased holistic view of cellular events and help the development of new mechanistic biomarker sets. New techniques to immortalise cells, such as telomerase overexpression, allow us to create human cell lines without introducing viral oncogenes and thereby provide a source of cells with normal phenotypes. In addition, the truly ground-breaking discovery of inducible pluripotent stem cells allows the possibility of generating target tissues from any individual. There has also been great advances in material science and bio-engineering, creating exciting new microfluidic devices which are well placed for the development of in vitro multi-organ systems. All of these advances have allowed us to better understand the mechanisms of how cells deal with chemical induced cellular perturbations. Utilising this knowledge and these tools, together with biokinetics we can create strategies that will be useful for regulatory purposes. Only in such an integrated interdisciplinary way will we ensure that human in vitro systems become critical toxicological tools, eventually replacing animal models altogether. PMID:25450745

  14. Liver cell models in in vitro toxicology.

    PubMed

    Guillouzo, A

    1998-04-01

    In vitro liver preparations are increasingly used for the study of hepatotoxicity of chemicals. In recent years their actual advantages and limitations have been better defined. The cell models, slices, and mainly primary hepatocyte cultures, appear to be the most powerful in vitro systems, as liver-specific functions and responsiveness to inducers are retained either for a few days or several weeks depending on culture conditions. Maintenance of phase I and phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities allows various chemical investigations to be performed, including determination of kinetic parameters, metabolic profile, interspecies comparison, inhibition and induction effects, and drug-drug interactions. In vitro liver cell models also have various applications in toxicology: screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds, evaluation of chemoprotective agents, and determination of characteristic liver lesions and associated biochemical mechanisms induced by toxic compounds. Extrapolation of the results to the in vivo situation remains a matter of debate. Presently, the most convincing applications of liver cell models are the studies on different aspects of metabolism and mechanisms of toxicity. For the future, there is a need for better culture conditions and differentiated hepatocyte cell lines to overcome the limited availability of human liver tissues. In addition, strategies for in vitro analysis of potentially toxic chemicals must be better defined. PMID:9599700

  15. Application of neurobehavioral toxicology methods to the military deployment toxicology assessment program.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J; Ritchie, G D; Nordholm, A F; Knechtges, P L; Wilson, C L; Lin, J; Alexander, W K; Still, K R

    2000-02-01

    The military Tri-Service (Army, Navy & Marines, Air Force) Deployment Toxicology Assessment Program (DTAP) represents a 30-year (1996-2026) planning effort to implement comprehensive systems for the protection of internationally deployed troops against toxicant exposures. A major objective of DTAP is the implementation of a global surveillance system to identify chemicals with the potential to reduce human performance capacity. Implementation requires prior development of complex human risk assessment models, known collectively as the Neurobehavioral Toxicity Evaluation Instrument (NTEI), based on mathematical interpolation of results from tissue-based and in vivo animal studies validated by human performance assessment research. The Neurobehavioral Toxicity Assessment Group (NTAG) at the Naval Health Research Center Detachment-Toxicology (NHRC-TD), Dayton, OH, and associated academic institutions are developing and cross-validating cellular-level (NTAS), laboratory small animal (NTAB), nonhuman primate (GASP), and human-based (GASH) toxicity assessment batteries. These batteries will be utilized to develop and evaluate mathematical predictors of human neurobehavioral toxicity, as a function of laboratory performance deficits predicted by quantitative structural analysis relationship (QSAR-like) properties of potential toxicants identified by international surveillance systems. Finally, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and pharmacodynamic (PBPD) modeling of NTAS, NTAB, GASP, GASH data will support multi-organizational development and validation of the NTEI. The validated NTEI tool will represent a complex database management system, integrating global satellite surveillance input to provide real-time decision-making support for deployed military personnel. PMID:10711393

  16. Summary of Chemically Induced Pulmonary Lesions in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Darlene; Herbert, Ronald A.; Kissling, Grace E.; Brix, Amy E.; Miller, Rodney A.; Maronpot, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    The lung is the second most common target site of neoplasia of chemicals tested by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Of all peer-reviewed NTP studies to date (N = 545), a total of sixty-four chemicals in sixty-six reports produced significant site-specific neoplasia in the lungs of rats and/or mice. Of the studies associated with lung tumor induction, approximately 35% were inhalation and 35% were gavage studies, with dosed-feed, dosed-water, topical, intraperitoneal, or in utero routes of chemical administration accounting for 18%, 6%, 3%, 1%, and 1% of the studies, respectively. The most commonly induced lung tumors were alveolar/bronchiolar (A/B) adenoma and/or carcinoma for both species. The most frequently observed nonneoplastic lesions included hyperplasia and inflammation in both species. The liver was the most common primary site of origin of metastatic lesions to the lungs of mice; however, skin was most often the primary site of origin of metastatic lesions to the lungs of rats. In summary, A/B adenoma and carcinoma were the most frequently diagnosed chemically induced tumors in the lungs of both rats and mice in the NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis bioassays, and hyperplasia and inflammation were the most common nonneoplastic changes observed. PMID:18441259

  17. Circadian clocks and cell division

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Evolution has selected a system of two intertwined cell cycles: the cell division cycle (CDC) and the daily (circadian) biological clock. The circadian clock keeps track of solar time and programs biological processes to occur at environmentally appropriate times. One of these processes is the CDC, which is often gated by the circadian clock. The intermeshing of these two cell cycles is probably responsible for the observation that disruption of the circadian system enhances susceptibility to some kinds of cancer. The core mechanism underlying the circadian clockwork has been thought to be a transcription and translation feedback loop (TTFL), but recent evidence from studies with cyanobacteria, synthetic oscillators and immortalized cell lines suggests that the core circadian pacemaking mechanism that gates cell division in mammalian cells could be a post-translational oscillator (PTO). PMID:20890114

  18. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  19. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use.

    PubMed

    Lehrmann, Elin; Afanador, Zoan R; Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Gallegos, Gloria; Darwin, William D; Lowe, Ross H; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Cadet, Jean L; Herman, Mary M; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Freed, William J

    2008-03-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and nine opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identified almost twice as many cocaine and cannabis cases as Medical Examiner (ME) case histories, and were crucial in establishing a detailed lifetime substance use history. Toxicology identified 91% cocaine, 68% cannabis, 80% phencyclidine and 100% opioid cases, with hair testing increasing detection for all drug classes. A cocaine or cannabis use history was corroborated by general toxicology with 50% and 32% sensitivity, respectively, and with 82% and 64% sensitivity by hair testing. Hair testing corroborated a positive general toxicology for cocaine and cannabis with 91% and 100% sensitivity, respectively. Case history corroborated hair toxicology with 38% sensitivity for cocaine and 79% sensitivity for cannabis, suggesting that both case history and general toxicology underestimated cocaine use. Identifying ante-mortem substance use in human postmortem cases are key considerations in case diagnosis and for characterization of disorder-specific changes in neurobiology. The sensitivity and specificity of substance use assessments increased when ME case history was supplemented with structured next-of-kin interviews to establish a detailed lifetime substance use history, while comprehensive toxicology, and hair testing in particular, increased detection of recent illicit substance use. PMID:18201295

  20. Evidence from Toxicology: The Most Essential Science for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mandrioli, Daniele; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner

    2015-01-01

    Background The most essential goal of medicine and public health is to prevent harm (primum non nocere). This goal is only fully achieved with primary prevention, which requires us to identify and prevent harms prior to human exposure through research and testing that does not involve human subjects. For that reason, public health policies place considerable reliance on nonhuman toxicological studies. However, toxicology as a field has often not produced efficient and timely evidence for decision making in public health. In response to this, the U.S. National Research Council called for the adoption of evidence-based methods and systematic reviews in regulatory decision making. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) have recently endorsed these methods in their assessments of safety and risk. Objectives In this commentary we summarize challenges and problems in current practices in toxicology as applied to decision making. We compare these practices with the principles and methods utilized in evidence-based medicine and health care, with emphasis on the record of the Cochrane Collaboration. Discussion We propose a stepwise strategy to support the development, validation, and application of evidence-based toxicology (EBT). We discuss current progresses in this field produced by the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) of the National Toxicology Program and the Navigation Guide works. We propose that adherence to the Cochrane principles is a fundamental prerequisite for the development and implementation of EBT. Conclusion The adoption of evidence-based principles and methods will enhance the validity, transparency, efficiency, and acceptance of toxicological evidence, with benefits in terms of reducing delays and costs for all stakeholders (researchers, consumers, regulators, and industry). Citation Mandrioli D, Silbergeld EK. 2016. Evidence from toxicology: the

  1. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, M. . E-mail: martini@telcel.net.ve

    2005-09-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies.

  2. Water Resources Division training catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Foxhoven, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The National Training Center provides technical and management sessions nesessary for the conductance of the U.S. Geological Survey 's training programs. This catalog describes the facilities and staff at the Lakewood Training Center and describes Water Resources Division training courses available through the center. In addition, the catalog describes the procedures for gaining admission, formulas for calculating fees, and discussion of course evaluations. (USGS)

  3. The Arabidopsis Cell Division Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2009-01-01

    Plant cells have evolved a complex circuitry to regulate cell division. In many aspects, the plant cell cycle follows a basic strategy similar to other eukaryotes. However, several key issues are unique to plant cells. In this chapter, both the conserved and unique cellular and molecular properties of the plant cell cycle are reviewed. In addition to division of individual cells, the specific characteristic of plant organogenesis and development make that cell proliferation control is of primary importance during development. Therefore, special attention should be given to consider plant cell division control in a developmental context. Proper organogenesis depends on the formation of different cell types. In plants, many of the processes leading to cell differentiation rely on the occurrence of a different cycle, termed the endoreplication cycle, whereby cells undergo repeated full genome duplication events in the absence of mitosis and increase their ploidy. Recent findings are focusing on the relevance of changes in chromatin organization for a correct cell cycle progression and, conversely, in the relevance of a correct functioning of chromatin remodelling complexes to prevent alterations in both the cell cycle and the endocycle. PMID:22303246

  4. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing.

  5. Perlite toxicology and epidemiology – a review

    PubMed Central

    Niebo, Ron; McConnell, Ernest E.

    2014-01-01

    Perlite is a generic name for an amorphous volcanic alumina–silicate rock that expands by a factor of 4–20 when rapidly heated to 1400–1800 °F (760–980 °C). Both the ore and the expanded product have extensive and widespread commercial applications. Limited data on the toxicology of perlite in animal studies indicate that the LD50 (oral ingestion) is more than 10 g/kg and, from a chronic inhalation study in guinea pigs and rats, that the NOAEL for the inhalation pathway is 226 mg/m3. Health surveillance studies of workers in US perlite mines and expansion plants (including some workers exposed to levels greater than prevailing occupational exposure limits (OELs) conducted over 20 years indicate that the respiratory health of workers is not adversely affected. Studies in Turkish mines and expanding plants had generally similar results, but are more difficult to interpret because of high smoking rates in these populations. A recent mortality study of permanent residents of the island of Milos (Greece) exposed to various mining dusts (including perlite) resulted in non-significant increases in standard mortality ratios for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas a companion morbidity study revealed elevated odds ratios for allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, and COPD when compared to another industrial area of Greece. Residents were exposed to other mining dusts and other possible causes or contributing factors and no ambient monitoring data were presented so it is not possible to use this study for risk calculations of perlite-exposed populations. Perlite is regulated as a “nuisance dust” in most countries. PMID:24601903

  6. Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Dost, F.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Only in recent times, systematic attention has been paid to the occupational health of forest firefighters and workers who manage prescribed fire. Two parts of the effort to learn the impact on worker health are medical observation of those workers, and study of occupational hygiene. It is also necessary to learn what components of smoke are most likely to affect firefighters, and to learn something of the manner in which those substances might compromise health; this review is a step toward that end. The number of possible products of vegetation combustion is almost limitless, and every fuel and condition of burning produces a unique pattern. Nonetheless, it is possible and practical to select a limited number of products that are most likely to be involved in the acute toxicity of smoke. Two products that are almost certainly important are formaldehyde and acrolein. Both appear to occur in all smoke. The toxicology of both is well studied; in particular both are powerful mucosal irritants. Estimates of exposure suggest strongly that concentrations are high enough in smoke to contribute some or all of the irritant activity. There seems to be a reasonable prospect that free radical precursors with half-lives in the tens of minutes are produced when cellulosic materials burn. If so, they will reach the respiratory tract, and liberate free radicals that react immediately on or in pulmonary cells. Ozone is not produced in the fire, but the various hydrocarbons of smoke are substrates for reactions that eventually produce ozone, and that production may continue for miles down-plume. Some measured plume concentrations approach the threshold for human health effects. The effects of the best known component, the particulate material, are unknown in isolation from all of the other substances in smoke. 122 refs.

  7. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (<0.5 mg/L) is beneficial in promoting dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects. PMID:23573940

  8. Lupinus mutabilis: Composition, Uses, Toxicology, and Debittering.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Larenas, F E; Linnemann, A R; Nout, M J R; Koziol, M; van Boekel, M A J S

    2016-07-01

    Lupinus mutabilis has protein (32.0-52.6 g/100 g dry weight) and lipid (13.0-24.6 g/100 g dry weight) contents similar to soya bean (Glycine max). The Ω3, Ω6, and Ω9 contents are 1.9-3.0, 26.5-39.6, and 41.2-56.2 g/100 g lipid, respectively. Lupins can be used to fortify the protein content of pasta, bread, biscuits, salads, hamburgers, sausages, and can substitute milk and soya bean. Specific lupin protein concentrates or isolates display protein solubility (>90%), water-absorption capacity (4.5 g/g dry weight), oil-absorption capacity (3.98 g/g), emulsifying capacity (2000 mL of oil/g), emulsifying stability (100%, 60 hours), foaming capacity (2083%), foaming stability (78.8%, 36 hours), and least gelation concentration (6%), which are of industrial interest. Lupins contain bitter alkaloids. Preliminary studies on their toxicity suggest as lethal acute dose for infants and children 10 mg/kg bw and for adults 25 mg/kg bw. However, alkaloids can also have medical use for their hypocholesterolemic, antiarrhythmic, and immunosuppressive activity. Bitter lupins can be detoxified by biological, chemical, or aqueous processes. The shortest debittering process requires one hour. This review presents the nutritional composition of lupins, their uses (as food, medicine, and functional protein isolates), toxicology, and debittering process scenarios. It critically evaluates the data, infers conclusions, and makes suggestions for future research. PMID:26054557

  9. Perlite toxicology and epidemiology--a review.

    PubMed

    Maxim, L Daniel; Niebo, Ron; McConnell, Ernest E

    2014-04-01

    Perlite is a generic name for an amorphous volcanic alumina-silicate rock that expands by a factor of 4-20 when rapidly heated to 1400-1800 °F (760-980 °C). Both the ore and the expanded product have extensive and widespread commercial applications. Limited data on the toxicology of perlite in animal studies indicate that the LD₅₀ (oral ingestion) is more than 10 g/kg and, from a chronic inhalation study in guinea pigs and rats, that the NOAEL for the inhalation pathway is 226 mg/m³. Health surveillance studies of workers in US perlite mines and expansion plants (including some workers exposed to levels greater than prevailing occupational exposure limits (OELs) conducted over 20 years indicate that the respiratory health of workers is not adversely affected. Studies in Turkish mines and expanding plants had generally similar results, but are more difficult to interpret because of high smoking rates in these populations. A recent mortality study of permanent residents of the island of Milos (Greece) exposed to various mining dusts (including perlite) resulted in non-significant increases in standard mortality ratios for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas a companion morbidity study revealed elevated odds ratios for allergic rhinitis, pneumonia, and COPD when compared to another industrial area of Greece. Residents were exposed to other mining dusts and other possible causes or contributing factors and no ambient monitoring data were presented so it is not possible to use this study for risk calculations of perlite-exposed populations. Perlite is regulated as a "nuisance dust" in most countries. PMID:24601903

  10. Toxicological and cytophysiological aspects of lanthanides action.

    PubMed

    Pałasz, A; Czekaj, P

    2000-01-01

    Lanthanides, also called rare-earth elements, are an interesting group of 15 chemically active, mainly trivalent, f-electronic, silvery-white metals. In fact, lanthanides are not as rare as the name implies, except for promethium, a radioactive artificial element not found in nature. The mean concentrations of lanthanides in the earth's crust are comparable to those of life-important elements like iodine, cobalt and selenium. Many lanthanide compounds show particular magnetic, catalytic and optic properties, and that is why their technical applications are so extensive. Numerous industrial sources enable lanthanides to penetrate into the human body and therefore detailed toxicological studies of these metals are necessary. In the liver, gadolinium selectively inhibits secretion by Kupffer cells and it decreases cytochrome P450 activity in hepatocytes, thereby protecting liver cells against toxic products of xenobiotic biotransformation. Praseodymium ion (Pr3+) produces the same protective effect in liver tissue cultures. Cytophysiological effects of lanthanides appear to result from the similarity of their cationic radii to the size of Ca2+ ions. Trivalent lanthanide ions, especially La3+ and Gd3+, block different calcium channels in human and animal cells. Lanthanides can affect numerous enzymes: Dy3+ and La3+ block Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase, while Eu3+ and Tb3+ inhibit calcineurin. In neurons, lanthanide ions regulate the transport and release of synaptic transmitters and block some membrane receptors, e.g. GABA and glutamate receptors. It is likely that lanthanides significantly and uniquely affect biochemical pathways, thus altering physiological processes in the tissues of humans and animals. PMID:11996100

  11. Toxicological Perspective on Climate Change: Aquatic Toxins.

    PubMed

    Botana, Luis M

    2016-04-18

    In recent years, our group and several others have been describing the presence of new, not previously reported, toxins of high toxicity in vectors that may reach the human food chain. These include tetrodotoxin in gastropods in the South of Europe, ciguatoxin in fish in the South of Spain, palytoxin in mussels in the Mediterranean Sea, pinnatoxin all over Europe, and okadaic acid in the south of the U.S. There seem to be new marine toxins appearing in areas that are heavy producers of seafood, and this is a cause of concern as most of these new toxins are not included in current legislation and monitoring programs. Along with the new toxins, new chemical analogues are being reported. The same phenomenom is being recorded in freshwater toxins, such as the wide appearance of cylindrospermopsin and the large worldwide increase of microcystin. The problem that this phenomenon, which may be linked to climate warming, poses for toxicologists is very important not only because there is a lack of chronic studies and an incomplete comprehension of the mechanism driving the production of these toxins but also because the lack of a legal framework for them allows many of these toxins to reach the market. In some cases, it is very difficult to control these toxins because there are not enough standards available, they are not always certified, and there is an insufficient understanding of the toxic equivalency factors of the different analogues in each group. All of these factors have been revealed and grouped through the massive increase in the use of LC-MS as a monitoring tool, legally demanded, creating more toxicological problems. PMID:26958981

  12. Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoids are the natural constituents of marihuana (cannabis). The main of them are delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9THC)--psychoactive agent, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis is administered either by smoking or orally. 9THC potency and duration of action as well as its and two of its major metabolites concentrations in organism highly depend on the route of administration. A single active dose of 9THC is estimated on 520 mg. 9THC is rapidly metabolised. It is hydroxylated to an active metabolite, I1 -hydroxy-delta9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (11-OH-THC), then oxidised to an inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), which is conjugated with glucuronic acid and predominantly excreted in the urine. The maximum psychological effect persists for 4-6 h after administration despite of very low 9THC blood concentrations. 9THC plasma concentration declined to values of 2-3 ng/ml during 3-4 h after smoking. Such a low concentration of the active compound in human organism create a demand for use of sensitive analytical methods for detection and determination of 9THC and its metabolites. The most effective techniques for 9THC and related compounds determination in biological material are chromatographic ones (gas and liquid) with mass spectrometric detection and different ionization modes. 9THC and its two metabolites (11-OH-THC and THCCOOH) are present in blood and hair, 9THC in saliva, and THCCOOH in urine. 9THC and related compounds are determined in autopsy material, although deaths by overdose of cannabis are exceptionally rare. Fatalities happen most often after intravenous injection of hashish oil. 9THC and its metabolites determination in different biological materials gives the basis for a wide interpretation of analytical results for clinical and forensic toxicology purposes. PMID:16225128

  13. The role of urine toxicology in chronic opioid analgesic therapy.

    PubMed

    Compton, Peggy

    2007-12-01

    The current trend of treating chronic nonmalignant pain with opioid therapy means that pain management nurses are increasingly involved in the care of patients who are prescribed and using potent opioid analgesics on a daily basis. Although demonstrated to be quite effective in certain patients, sanctioned access to these medications brings with it risks for abuse, addiction, and diversion. Urine toxicology analysis is a valuable, yet underutilized, tool to monitor patterns of medication use and potential use of illicit drugs to evaluate the effect of these on health outcomes. This review provides a guide for the use of urine toxicology in the nursing management of chronic pain patients on opioid therapy, detailing the information provided by urine toxicology analysis, the benefits and limitations of urine drug testing, principles of sample collection, and correct interpretation of findings. It is emphasized that the results of urine toxicology analysis should never be used in isolation to identify abuse, addiction, or diversion, and that patterns of medication and other drug use should always be evaluated with respect to evidence of improved functionality. Nurses involved in the care of patients with chronic pain are encouraged to consider urine toxicology analysis as an integral component in care plan for those on chronic opioid therapy, and to knowledgeably implement and interpret this powerful tool in the practice of pain care. PMID:18036504

  14. Chemical Mixtures: Considering the Evolution of Toxicology and Chemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Monosson, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex topic for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. In this article the linkage between the science of toxicology and the needs of governmental regulatory agencies in the United States is explored through an overview of environmental regulations enacted over the past century and a brief history of modern toxicology. One of the goals of this overview is to encourage both regulators and scientists to consider the benefits and limitations of this science–regulatory relationship as they tackle existing issues such as chemical mixtures. It is clear that a) over the past 100 years chemical regulation and toxicologic research, have in large part, shared a common emphasis on characterization and regulation of individual chemicals. But chemical mixtures have been, and continue to be, evaluated at hazardous waste sites around the United States. For this reason the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for chemical mixtures assessment are also reviewed. These guidelines highlight the current practice of mixtures assessment, which relies primarily on the existing single-chemical database. It is also clear that b) the science and assessment of chemical mixtures are moving forward through the combined efforts of regulatory agencies and scientists from a broad range of disciplines, including toxicology. Because toxicology is at this exciting crossroads, particular attention should be paid to the forces (e.g., public demands, regulatory needs, funding, academic interests) that both promote and limit the growth of this expanding discipline. PMID:15811826

  15. Signaling to stomatal initiation and cell division

    PubMed Central

    Le, Jie; Zou, Junjie; Yang, Kezhen; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stomata are two-celled valves that control epidermal pores whose opening and spacing optimizes shoot-atmosphere gas exchange. Arabidopsis stomatal formation involves at least one asymmetric division and one symmetric division. Stomatal formation and patterning are regulated by the frequency and placement of asymmetric divisions. This model system has already led to significant advances in developmental biology, such as the regulation of cell fate, division, differentiation, and patterning. Over the last 30 years, stomatal development has been found to be controlled by numerous intrinsic genetic and environmental factors. This mini review focuses on the signaling involved in stomatal initiation and in divisions in the cell lineage. PMID:25002867

  16. Signaling to stomatal initiation and cell division.

    PubMed

    Le, Jie; Zou, Junjie; Yang, Kezhen; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stomata are two-celled valves that control epidermal pores whose opening and spacing optimizes shoot-atmosphere gas exchange. Arabidopsis stomatal formation involves at least one asymmetric division and one symmetric division. Stomatal formation and patterning are regulated by the frequency and placement of asymmetric divisions. This model system has already led to significant advances in developmental biology, such as the regulation of cell fate, division, differentiation, and patterning. Over the last 30 years, stomatal development has been found to be controlled by numerous intrinsic genetic and environmental factors. This mini review focuses on the signaling involved in stomatal initiation and in divisions in the cell lineage. PMID:25002867

  17. Emerging facets of plastid division regulation.

    PubMed

    Basak, Indranil; Møller, Simon Geir

    2013-02-01

    Plastids are complex organelles that are integrated into the plant host cell where they differentiate and divide in tune with plant differentiation and development. In line with their prokaryotic origin, plastid division involves both evolutionary conserved proteins and proteins of eukaryotic origin where the host has acquired control over the process. The plastid division apparatus is spatially separated between the stromal and the cytosolic space but where clear coordination mechanisms exist between the two machineries. Our knowledge of the plastid division process has increased dramatically during the past decade and recent findings have not only shed light on plastid division enzymology and the formation of plastid division complexes but also on the integration of the division process into a multicellular context. This review summarises our current knowledge of plastid division with an emphasis on biochemical features, the functional assembly of protein complexes and regulatory features of the overall process. PMID:22965912

  18. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Remick, Amera K.; Catlin, Natasha R.; Quist, Erin M.; Steinbach, Thomas J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, “Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists” on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  19. Toxicologic aspects of deaths due to falls from height.

    PubMed

    Fanton, L; Bévalot, F; Schoendorff, P; Lalliard, S; Jdeed, K; Malicier, D

    2007-09-01

    A prospective study of 161 victims of falls from height is reported. The aim was to determine the interest of systematic qualitative and quantitative toxicological analysis in such fatalities. The primary cause of death was suicide (84.5%), followed by accidents (7%) and homicide (1%). In the remaining 7.5%, cause of death was undetermined. In the suicides, there was evidence of psychotropic medicines in 57% of the observations, with a much higher proportion of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in women than in men. Quantitative toxicologic analysis showed overdosing on medication in 16 suicide victims, with toxic levels in 11 of these. Systematic qualitative and quantitative toxicologic analysis made a significant contribution to the diagnosis of suicide by revealing either an unknown psychiatric treatment or a toxic level. PMID:17721181

  20. Proceedings of the 2012 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium

    PubMed Central

    ELMORE, SUSAN A.; BERRIDGE, BRIAN R.; BOYLE, MICHAEL C.; CORA, MICHELLE C.; HOENERHOFF, MARK J.; KOOISTRA, LINDA; LAAST, VICTORIA A.; MORRISON, JAMES P.; RAO, DEEPA; RINKE, MATTHIAS; YOSHIZAWA, KATSUHIKO

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Boston in advance of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology’s 31st annual meeting. The goal of the NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers’ presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for audience voting or discussion. Some lesions and topics covered during the symposium include eosinophilic crystalline pneumonia in a transgenic mouse model; differentiating adrenal cortical cystic degeneration from adenoma; atypical eosinophilic foci of altered hepatocytes; differentiating cardiac schwannoma from cardiomyopathy; diagnosis of cardiac papillary muscle lesions; intrahepatocytic erythrocytes and venous subendothelial hepatocytes; lesions in Rathke’s cleft and pars distalis; pernicious anemia and megaloblastic disorders; embryonic neuroepithelial dysplasia, holoprosencephaly and exencephaly; and INHAND nomenclature for select cardiovascular lesions. PMID:23262640

  1. Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Remick, Amera K; Catlin, Natasha R; Quist, Erin M; Steinbach, Thomas J; Dixon, Darlene

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, "Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists" on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. PMID:26220944

  2. Foundation and progress of Japanese society of toxicologic pathology*.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoichi; Enomoto, Makoto; Hayashi, Yuzo

    2011-03-01

    The Japanese Society of Toxicologic Pathology (JSTP) has a differing conceptual framework from the Japanese Society of Pathology (JSP) and Japanese Society of Toxicology (JST) and was founded in 1985 by the leadership of late Dr. Yasukazu Nishiyama with the cooperation of several founding members and the support of JSP. The aim of the JSTP is to improve the human and animal health using an interdisciplinary scientific approach based on pathology and toxicology. In its development as a professional society, the JSTP has established society rules and activities. The JSTP has grown in terms of membership and financial aspects and is now recognized not only domestically but also internationally as a well-organized scientific society. To maintain the high professional standard and visibility of JSTP, we here provide the historical background of the society as a basis for current members to contribute to the continued improvement of our scientific organization. PMID:22272039

  3. A short history of the toxicology of inhaled particles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Particle toxicology arose in order to understand the mechanisms of adverse effects of 3 major particle types that had historically exerted the greatest toll of ill-health—quartz, coal and asbestos. By the middle of the last century rat inhalation studies had been carried out and the pathology documented, but true mechanistic particle toxicology did not really take off until the 1970s when cell culture techniques became available. By the 1980s glass fibres were a major focus of interest and attempts to develop a structure-toxicity paradigm centred on biopersistence. In the 1990s environmental particles dominated the particle toxicology agenda and the cardiovascular system emerged as a target for inhaled particles, raising new challenges for particle toxicologists. We are currently in the era of nanotoxicology where a large and diverse range of new nanoparticles types are under scrutiny. PMID:22559156

  4. Boxplots for grouped and clustered data in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pallmann, Philip; Hothorn, Ludwig A

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of toxicological papers summarize experimental data as bar charts of means with error bars. While these graphics are easy to generate, they often obscure essential features of the data, such as outliers or subgroups of individuals reacting differently to a treatment. In particular, raw values are of prime importance in toxicology; therefore, we argue they should not be hidden in messy supplementary tables but rather unveiled in neat graphics in the results section. We propose jittered boxplots as a very compact yet comprehensive and intuitively accessible way of visualizing grouped and clustered data from toxicological studies together with individual raw values and indications of statistical significance. A web application to create these plots is available online. PMID:26438403

  5. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  6. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  7. 1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view of 215 Division Street, looking southwest, showing front (east) facade and north side, 213 Division Street is visible at left and 217 Division Street appears at right - 215 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  8. Isoniazid: metabolic aspects and toxicological correlates.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    For over half a century, pyridine-4-carboxy hydrazide (isonicotinyl hydrazide; isoniazid - INH) has been a front-line weapon in the battle against tuberculosis. Its metabolism has been the subject of important research, much of which has focused on the pharmacodynamic and toxicological aspects of certain INH metabolites. Since 1952, when the drug was first introduced, multiple INH metabolites have been identified, including hydrazine (HZ), isonicotinic acid (INA), ammonia, the acetylated derivative N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-isonicotinylhydrazide (AcINH), hydrazones with pyruvic and ketoglutaric acids (INH-PA and INH-KA, respectively), monoacetylhydrazine (AcHZ), diacetylhydrazine (DiAcHZ), and oxidizing free radicals. Their formation is the result of hydrolysis (INA, HZ), cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent oxidation (HZ, NH(3), oxidizing free radicals), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity (AcINH, AcHZ, DiAcHZ). Doubts remain about isonicotinamide (INAAM) as an INH metabolite in mammals. Quantitatively speaking, one of the major metabolites is AcINH, which is produced by the enzyme NAT. It has virtually no antitubercular activity and is far less toxic than INH. Its formation and elimination are genetically controlled, and its elimination profile is trimodal (rapid, intermediate, and slow acetylation). Slow acetylation, which is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, increases the risk for peripheral neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in INH users. Thus far, there is no conclusive pharmacogenetic evidence that the formation of HZ and oxidizing radicals are linked to CYP polymorphisms. This article examines INH, HZ and its mono- and diacetylated metabolites, and ammonia (which in vitro and in vivo studies indicate as another derivative of HZ) in terms of their potential to cause neurotoxic and hepatotoxic effects (the two major forms of INH toxicity observed in animals and humans). INH hepatotoxicity seems to be related mainly to HZ, AcHZ, and other HZ metabolites that are

  9. Applications of scientific imaging in environmental toxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Demerdash, Aref M.

    The national goals of clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems are a few of the primary forces that drive the need for better environmental monitoring. As we approach the end of the 1990s, the environmental questions at regional to global scales are being redefined and refined in the light of developments in environmental understanding and technological capability. Research in the use of scientific imaging data for the study of the environment is urgently needed in order to explore the possibilities of utilizing emerging new technologies. The objective of this research proposal is to demonstrate the usability of a wealth of new technology made available in the last decade to providing a better understanding of environmental problems. Research is focused in two imaging techniques macro and micro imaging. Several examples of applications of scientific imaging in research in the field of environmental toxicology were presented. This was achieved on two scales, micro and macro imaging. On the micro level four specific examples were covered. First, the effect of utilizing scanning electron microscopy as an imaging tool in enhancing taxa identification when studying diatoms was presented. Second, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analyzer were demonstrated as a valuable and effective tool for identifying and analyzing household dust samples. Third, electronic autoradiography combined with FT-IR microscopy were used to study the distribution pattern of [14C]-Malathion in rats as a result of dermal exposure. The results of the autoradiography made on skin sections of the application site revealed the presence of [ 14C]-activity in the first region of the skin. These results were evidenced by FT-IR microscopy. The obtained results suggest that the penetration of Malathion into the skin and other tissues is vehicle and dose dependent. The results also suggest the use of FT-IR microscopy imaging for monitoring the disposition of

  10. Lewisite: its chemistry, toxicology, and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Goldman, M; Dacre, J C

    1989-01-01

    routes for inducing teratogenicity is also problematical. Recently, Lewisite has been shown not to be teratogenic in either rats or rabbits. A monograph on arsenic, succinctly states that "no human epidemiological investigations have been conducted on the carcinogenicity of organic arsenic compounds" (WHO 1981). Indeed, the lack of such evidence eminating from epidemiological sources or from animal studies is resounding. At present, there is no evidence that Lewisite is either carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. A review of toxicological studies of other organic arsenicals has produced no evidence that they might be carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. PMID:2692088

  11. Preparation and characterization of "Libby Amphibole" toxicological testing material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Wilson, Stephen A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Benzel, William M.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) began work in Libby, Mont. in 1999 when an Emergency Response Team was sent to investigate local concern and media reports regarding asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. Since that time, the site has been granted Superfund status and site remediation to a safe level of asbestos has been ongoing. The amphibole asbestos from the Vermiculite Mountain vermiculite deposit near Libby, Mont. (Libby amphibole) is unusual in the sense that it is currently not classified as one of the regulated six asbestos minerals—chrysotile (a serpentine mineral) and the amphibole minerals amosite (asbestiform cummingtonite-grunerite), crocidolite (asbestiform riebeckite), asbestiform anthophyllite, asbestiform tremolite, and asbestiform actinolite. The amphiboles from the Vermiculite Mountain vermiculite deposit, primarily winchite and richterite, are related to tremolite and in the past have been referred to as sodium-rich tremolite or soda tremolite (Larsen, 1942; Boettcher, 1966; Wylie and Verkouteren, 2000; Gunter and others, 2003; Meeker and others, 2003). The public health issues in Libby, Mont. have brought to light many of the inconsistencies in the literature regarding fiber characteristics, nomenclature, and toxicology. To better understand the toxicological characteristics of the Libby amphibole, investigators require a sufficient quantity of material representing the range of fibrous amphiboles present in the vicinity of Vermiculite Mountain to use in toxicology studies. The material collected in 2000 (Meeker and others, 2003) has been exhausted and a second collection and preparation effort, funded by the USEPA, was conducted in 2007. Both the 2000 (LA2000) and 2007 (LA2007) materials were generated to support research needs identified by the USEPA and the National Toxicology Program, and new in-vivo and in-vitro toxicology studies are underway. This Open-File Report describes the process of preparation and summarizes the

  12. Stem cell-derived systems in toxicology assessment.

    PubMed

    Suter-Dick, Laura; Alves, Paula M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bremm, Klaus-Dieter; Brito, Catarina; Coecke, Sandra; Flick, Burkhard; Fowler, Paul; Hescheler, Jürgen; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Jennings, Paul; Kelm, Jens M; Manou, Irene; Mistry, Pratibha; Moretto, Angelo; Roth, Adrian; Stedman, Donald; van de Water, Bob; Beilmann, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Industrial sectors perform toxicological assessments of their potential products to ensure human safety and to fulfill regulatory requirements. These assessments often involve animal testing, but ethical, cost, and time concerns, together with a ban on it in specific sectors, make appropriate in vitro systems indispensable in toxicology. In this study, we summarize the outcome of an EPAA (European Partnership of Alternatives to Animal Testing)-organized workshop on the use of stem cell-derived (SCD) systems in toxicology, with a focus on industrial applications. SCD systems, in particular, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived, provide physiological cell culture systems of easy access and amenable to a variety of assays. They also present the opportunity to apply the vast repository of existing nonclinical data for the understanding of in vitro to in vivo translation. SCD systems from several toxicologically relevant tissues exist; they generally recapitulate many aspects of physiology and respond to toxicological and pharmacological interventions. However, focused research is necessary to accelerate implementation of SCD systems in an industrial setting and subsequent use of such systems by regulatory authorities. Research is required into the phenotypic characterization of the systems, since methods and protocols for generating terminally differentiated SCD cells are still lacking. Organotypical 3D culture systems in bioreactors and microscale tissue engineering technologies should be fostered, as they promote and maintain differentiation and support coculture systems. They need further development and validation for their successful implementation in toxicity testing in industry. Analytical measures also need to be implemented to enable compound exposure and metabolism measurements for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. The future of SCD toxicological tests will combine advanced cell culture technologies and biokinetic measurements to support regulatory and

  13. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  14. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  15. DockScreen: A database of in silico biomolecular interactions to support computational toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed DockScreen, a database of in silico biomolecular interactions designed to enable rational molecular toxicological insight within a computational toxicology framework. This database is composed of chemical/target (receptor and enzyme) binding scores calculated by...

  16. The U.S. "Tox21 Community" and the Future of Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    In early 2008, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program, the NIH Chemical Genomics Center, and the Environmental Protection Agency’s National Center for Computational Toxicology entered into a Memorandum of Understanding to collaborate o...

  17. PREDICTING TOXICOLOGICAL ENDPOINTS OF CHEMICALS USING QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS (QSARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are being developed to predict the toxicological endpoints for untested chemicals similar in structure to chemicals that have known experimental toxicological data. Based on a very large number of predetermined descriptors, a...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  19. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM... Activation Test Method for Endocrine Disruptor Chemical Screening Federal Agency Research, Development... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods...

  20. 76 FR 28785 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National... of Environmental Chemicals in the Development of Diabetes and Obesity Collaborative Transgenerational... from recognized authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology,...

  1. A Graduate Program in Toxicology: Administrative and Educational Benefits of Interdepartmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Lawrence W.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy's Department of Pharmacology offers masters and doctoral programs in toxicology. Its programs and toxicology courses are described, and the administration of these interdisciplinary programs within one department is discussed. (JMD)

  2. In vitro models for toxicological research and testing.

    PubMed

    Frazier, J M

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss some of the issues involved in utilizing in vitro methods in toxicological research and testing. The subject is not new, in vitro methods have been used for many years in this context. However, there has been a significant increase in interest in the topic within the scientific community recently as witnessed by the increase in scientific journals dedicated to the topic, symposia held by scientific societies, and commitment of resources to in vitro toxicological research activities. Toxicologists should be aware of these developments as the future directions of the science will be influenced significantly by in vitro methodology. PMID:8516777

  3. Methods in environmental toxicology (Chapter 20). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Menzer, R.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Fairbrother, A.

    1993-01-01

    By expanding the number of species tested in assessing the toxicology of a chemical one is able to gain considerable insight into its mechanism of action, biodegradability, organ specific toxicity, and acute and potential chronic effects. The expansion of comparative toxicology from reliance on laboratory mammals to the inclusion of feral mammals, fish, birds, and some invertebrates is highly desirable in order to better understand the range of responses to a chemical in its interactions with the various target systems possible in different animals. With the inclusion of additional species in toxicity testing has come the need for the development of protocols to standardize approaches for the use of such new species.

  4. The toxicology investigators consortium case registry-the 2013 experience.

    PubMed

    Rhyee, Sean H; Farrugia, Lynn; Wiegand, Timothy; Smith, Eric A; Wax, Paul M; Brent, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Case Registry was established in 2010 by the American College of Medical Toxicology. The Registry includes all medical toxicology consultations performed at participating sites. This report summarizes the Registry data for 2013. A query of the ToxIC Registry was carried out for the dates of January 1 through December 31, 2013. Specific data reviewed for analysis included demographics (age, gender), source of consultation, reasons for consultation, agents involved in toxicological exposures, signs, symptoms and clinical findings, and treatment. A total of 8,598 cases were entered into the Registry in 2013. Females accounted for 49.2 % of cases, males for 47.7 %, and gender was not reported in 3.1 %. The majority of patients (63.4 %) were adults between the ages of 19 and 65 years. There were 93 fatalities (1.1 %). Most referrals for medical toxicology consultation originated from the emergency department (59.7 %) or inpatient services (16.7 %). Exposures to pharmaceutical products (intentional and unintentional) made up 50.0 % of cases. Illicit drug abuse (8.0 %) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (4.8 %) were the next most frequent reasons for consultation. Similar to past years, nonopioid analgesics, sedative-hypnotics, and opioids were the most commonly encountered agents. Symptoms or clinical findings were documented in 71.1 % of patients. Of all cases, 54.6 % required some form of medical treatment (antidotes, antivenom, chelation, specific types of supportive care). This report serves as a comprehensive survey of medical toxicology practice within participating institutions. Prior trends continued to apply this year and indicate analgesic (opioid and nonopioid), sedative-hypnotic/muscle relaxant agents, illicit drug use, and ADRs continue to be major toxicological problems. Cases requiring medical toxicology consultation in 2013 predominantly involved pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs. Reasons for these drug

  5. In Silico Toxicology – Non-Testing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Raunio, Hannu

    2011-01-01

    In silico toxicology in its broadest sense means “anything that we can do with a computer in toxicology.” Many different types of in silico methods have been developed to characterize and predict toxic outcomes in humans and environment. The term non-testing methods denote grouping approaches, structure–activity relationship, and expert systems. These methods are already used for regulatory purposes and it is anticipated that their role will be much more prominent in the near future. This Perspective will delineate the basic principles of non-testing methods and evaluate their role in current and future risk assessment of chemical compounds. PMID:21772821

  6. Quantification of toxicological effects for dichloromethane. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    The source documents for background information used to develop the report on the quantification of toxicological effects for dichloromethane are the health assessment document (HAD) for dichloromethane and a subsequent addendum to the HAD (U.S. EPA, 1985b). In addition, some references published since 1985 are discussed. To summarize the results of the quantification of toxicological effects, a One-day Health Advisory of 10,000 ug/L for a 10-kg child was calculated, based on an acute oral study in rats reported by Kimura et al. (1971). No suitable data for the derivation of a Ten-day Health Advisory were found in the available literature.

  7. Toxicological profile for methyl t-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Each profile includes: (1) The examination, summary, and interpretation of available toxicologic information and epidemiologic evaluations on a hazardous substance to ascertain the levels of significant human exposure for the substance and the associated acute, subacute, and chronic health effects; (2) A determination of whether adequate information on the health effects of each substance is available or in the process of development to determine levels of exposure that present a significant risk to human health of acute, subacute, and chonic health effects; and (3) Where appropriate, identification of toxicologic testing needed to identify the types or levels of exposure that may present significant risk of adverse health effects in humans.

  8. TOXNET and Beyond: Using the National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-20

    The National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal provides access to numerous databases that can help you explore environmental chemicals and risks. TOXNET and Beyond: Using NLM's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal conveys the fundamentals of searching the NLM's TOXNET system of databases in chemistry, toxicology, environmental health, and related fields. In addition to TOXNET, the course will highlight various resources available through the Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal.

  9. NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ernst I.; Goettee, Jeffrey D.; Desimone, David J.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Miko, David K.

    2012-09-05

    The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

  10. Stochastic models for cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukalin, Evgeny; Sun, Sean

    2013-03-01

    The probability of cell division per unit time strongly depends of age of cells, i.e., time elapsed since their birth. The theory of cell populations in the age-time representation is systematically applied for modeling cell division for different spreads in generation times. We use stochastic simulations to address the same issue at the level of individual cells. Our approach unlike deterministic theory enables to analyze the size fluctuations of cell colonies at different growth conditions (in the absence and in the presence of cell death, for initially synchronized and asynchronous cell populations, for conditions of restricted growth). We find the simple quantitative relation between the asymptotic values of relative size fluctuations around mean values for initially synchronized cell populations under growth and the coefficients of variation of generation times. Effect of initial age distribution for asynchronous growth of cell cultures is also studied by simulations. The influence of constant cell death on fluctuations of sizes of cell populations is found to be essential even for small cell death rates, i.e., for realistic growth conditions. The stochastic model is generalized for biologically relevant case that involves both cell reproduction and cell differentiation.

  11. Structures Division 1994 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center Structures Division is an international leader and pioneer in developing new structural analysis, life prediction, and failure analysis related to rotating machinery and more specifically to hot section components in air-breathing aircraft engines and spacecraft propulsion systems. The research consists of both deterministic and probabilistic methodology. Studies include, but are not limited to, high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue as well as material creep. Studies of structural failure are at both the micro- and macrolevels. Nondestructive evaluation methods related to structural reliability are developed, applied, and evaluated. Materials from which structural components are made, studied, and tested are monolithics and metal-matrix, polymer-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites. Aeroelastic models are developed and used to determine the cyclic loading and life of fan and turbine blades. Life models are developed and tested for bearings, seals, and other mechanical components, such as magnetic suspensions. Results of these studies are published in NASA technical papers and reference publication as well as in technical society journal articles. The results of the work of the Structures Division and the bibliography of its publications for calendar year 1994 are presented.

  12. Toxicology and epidemiology: improving the science with a framework for combining toxicological and epidemiological evidence to establish causal inference.

    PubMed

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L; Breckenridge, Charles B; Smith, Lewis L; Swenberg, James A; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S; Pastoor, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step "Epid-Tox" process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  13. Toxicology and Epidemiology: Improving the Science with a Framework for Combining Toxicological and Epidemiological Evidence to Establish Causal Inference

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Hans-Olov; Berry, Sir Colin L.; Breckenridge, Charles B.; Smith, Lewis L.; Swenberg, James A.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Weiss, Noel S.; Pastoor, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings. Agents that were suggested to have a role in human diseases have been tested in animals to firmly establish a causative link. Bacterial pathogens are perhaps the oldest examples, and tobacco smoke and lung cancer and asbestos and mesothelioma provide two more recent examples. With the advent of toxicity testing guidelines and protocols, toxicology took on a role that was intended to anticipate or predict potential adverse effects in humans, and epidemiology, in many cases, served a role in verifying or negating these toxicological predictions. The coupled role of epidemiology and toxicology in discerning human health effects by environmental agents is obvious, but there is currently no systematic and transparent way to bring the data and analysis of the two disciplines together in a way that provides a unified view on an adverse causal relationship between an agent and a disease. In working to advance the interaction between the fields of toxicology and epidemiology, we propose here a five-step “Epid-Tox” process that would focus on: (1) collection of all relevant studies, (2) assessment of their quality, (3) evaluation of the weight of evidence, (4) assignment of a scalable conclusion, and (5) placement on a causal relationship grid. The causal relationship grid provides a clear view of how epidemiological and toxicological data intersect, permits straightforward conclusions with regard to a causal relationship between agent and effect, and can show how additional data can influence conclusions of causality. PMID:21561883

  14. FORUM - FutureTox II: In vitro Data and In Silico Models for Predictive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    FutureTox II, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in January, 2014. The meeting goals were to review and discuss the state of the science in toxicology in the context of implementing the NRC 21st century vision of predicting in vivo resp...

  15. 77 FR 72858 - Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer and Noncancer Effects): In Support of Summary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... AGENCY Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer and Noncancer Effects): In Support of Summary... toxicological review of inorganic arsenic (cancer and noncancer effects) in support of the IRIS program. SUMMARY... toxicological review of chronic exposure to iAs (cancer and noncancer effects), which EPA intends to post in...

  16. Society of Toxicologic Pathologists (STP) Annual Symposium General Session II: Modem Pathology Methods for Neural Investigations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This half-day session at the 20I0 Joint Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) explored many deceptively simple questions related to toxicologic neuropathology. What is the best met...

  17. FORUM - FutureTox II: In vitro Data and In Silico Models forPredictive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    FutureTox II, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in January, 2014. The meeting goals were to review and discuss the state of the science in toxicology in the context of implementing the NRC 21st century vision of predicting in vivo resp...

  18. Operational Characterization of Divisibility of Dynamical Maps.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joonwoo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2016-07-29

    In this work, we show the operational characterization to the divisibility of dynamical maps in terms of the distinguishability of quantum channels. It is proven that the distinguishability of any pair of quantum channels does not increase under divisible maps, in which the full hierarchy of divisibility is isomorphic to the structure of entanglement between system and environment. This shows that (i) channel distinguishability is the operational quantity signifying (detecting) divisibility (indivisibility) of dynamical maps and (ii) the decision problem for the divisibility of maps is as hard as the separability problem in entanglement theory. We also provide the information-theoretic characterization to the divisibility of maps with conditional min-entropy. PMID:27517760

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  20. Asymmetrical division of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, P G; Wheals, A E

    1980-01-01

    The unequal division model proposed for budding yeast (L. H. Hartwell and M. W. Unger, J. Cell Biol. 75:422-435, 1977) was tested by bud scar analyses of steady-state exponential batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing at 30 degrees C at 19 different rates, which were obtained by altering the carbon source. The analyses involved counting the number of bud scars, determining the presence or absence of buds on at least 1,000 cells, and independently measuring the doubling times (gamma) by cell number increase. A number of assumptions in the model were tested and found to be in good agreement with the model. Maximum likelihood estimates of daughter cycle time (D), parent cycle time (P), and the budded phase (B) were obtained, and we concluded that asymmetrical division occurred at all growth rates tested (gamma, 75 to 250 min). D, P, and B are all linearly related to gamma, and D, P, and gamma converge to equality (symmetrical division) at gamma = 65 min. Expressions for the genealogical age distribution for asymmetrically dividing yeast cells were derived. The fraction of daughter cells in steady-state populations is e-alpha P, and the fraction of parent cells of age n (where n is the number of buds that a cell has produced) is (e-alpha P)n-1(1-e-alpha P)2, where alpha = IN2/gamma; thus, the distribution changes with growth rate. The frequency of cells with different numbers of bud scars (i.e., different genealogical ages) was determined for all growth rates, and the observed distribution changed with the growth rate in the manner predicted. In this haploid strain new buds formed adjacent to the previous buds in a regular pattern, but at slower growth rates the pattern was more irregular. The median volume of the cells and the volume at start in the cell cycle both increased at faster growth rates. The implications of these findings for the control of the cell cycle are discussed. PMID:6991494

  1. The Materials Division: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Lowell, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    The Materials Division at NASA's Lewis Research Center has been engaged in a program to improve the quality of its output. The division, its work, and its customers are described as well as the methodologies developed to assess and improve the quality of the Division's staff and output. Examples of these methodologies are presented and evaluated. An assessment of current progress is also presented along with a summary of future plans.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report,Toxicological Review for Carbon Tetrachloride, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development...

  3. INTEGRATING EPIDEMIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY IN NEUROTOXICITY RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides an overview of the use of data from toxicology and epidemiology studies for neurotoxicity risk assessment. Parameters such as the use of subjects, study designs, exposures, and measured outcomes are compared and contrasted. The main concern for use of d...

  4. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment...

  5. MODELING CHEMICAL FATE AND METABOLISM FOR COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of ORD's Computational Toxicology initiative is to develop the science for EPA to prioritize toxicity-testing requirements for chemicals subject to regulation. Many toxic effects, however, result from metabolism of parent chemicals to form metabolites that are much more...

  6. Computational toxicology and in silico modeling of embryogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is providing a rich source of in vitro data for predictive toxicology. ToxCast™ HTS data presently covers 1060 broad-use chemicals and captures >650 in vitro features for diverse biochemical and receptor binding activities, multiplexed reporter gen...

  7. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs): A framework to support predictive toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    High throughput and in silico methods are providing the regulatory toxicology community with capacity to rapidly and cost effectively generate data concerning a chemical’s ability to initiate one or more biological perturbations that may culminate in an adverse ecological o...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Pentabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (2008 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Decabromodiphenyl Ether and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Data...

  10. SYMPOSIUM IN ITALY: FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

  11. The startle response and toxicology: Methods, use and interpretation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The startle response (SR) is a sensory-evoked motor reflex that has been used successfully in toxicology for decades. Advantages of this procedure include: rapidly objective measurement of a defined neural circuit, measurement of habituation of the response, and a high potential ...

  12. The need for a paradigm shift in toxicology xx.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript briefly reviews the impact of the NAS report “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy” and it’s potential impact on the field of toxicology. ). This report provides a strategic and tactical framework for attaining the goals of deter...

  13. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.D.; Pascal, M.D.; Richardson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, {open_quotes}Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,{close_quotes} and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC`s approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs).

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trimethylbenzenes (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2016, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Trimethylbenzenes. The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release in June 2016. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development pr...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review for Acrylamide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Acrylamide, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process<...

  16. Wiki-based Data Management to Support Systems Toxicology*

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the field of toxicology relies more heavily on systems approaches for mode of action discovery, evaluation, and modeling, the need for integrated data management is greater than ever. To meet these needs, we developed a flexible data management system that assists scientists ...

  17. Residue reviews: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Vol. 92

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, F.A.; Gunther, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Volume 92 of this series consists of four chapters reviewing environmental contamination by chemicals. The most timely article summarizes the toxicological effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T which were determined by direct experimentation. The latter is inevitably contaminated with dioxin. Bibliographies with full citations are provided.

  18. 76 FR 23600 - Availability of Draft Toxicological Profile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... hazardous substances was announced in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12178). In addition... Toxicological Profile for Uranium (Update) for review and comment. These comments can include additional information or reports on studies about the health effects of uranium. Although ATSDR considered key...

  19. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROMETHANE (DCM) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Proc...

  20. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL/ENERGY WORKFORCE ASSESSMENT. PESTICIDES AND TOXICOLOGY PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The topics of pest management and toxicology demand exacting technical and scientific skills, expertise, and experience. As the pressure grows to maintain high crop yields, while keeping the level of pollutants and toxicants within the federal guidelines, the need for appropriate...

  1. Combustion toxicology of epoxy/carbon fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    A combustion toxicology test was developed to screen materials for aerospace applications. The system is called the radiant panel test facility. A description of the facility and some preliminary results from tests on a Navy 3501-6AS composite, a typical composite for fighter aircraft, are presented.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Urea,, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. C...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Biphenyl, that was distributed to other federal agencies and the Executive Office of the President for comment during Interagency Science Discussion (IASD) (Step 6b) of the IRIS assessment development process. Interagenc...

  4. THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PM AND THEIR TOXICOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Project will characterize ambient PM samples from key sources according to their reactivity in redox and electrophilicity assays, and in association with toxicological findings, will provide a basis for identifying PM of the greatest concern for public health in terms of...

  5. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Cylindrospermopsin (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  6. A UNIFYING CONCEPT FOR ASSESSING TOXICOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS: CHANGES IN SLOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Robust statistical methods are important to the evaluation of interactions among chemicals in a mixture. However, different concepts of interaction as applied to the statistical analysis of chemical mixture toxicology data or as used in environmental risk assessment often can ap...

  7. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed. PMID:23581559

  8. Toxicology in Australia: a key component of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Priestly, Brian G; Di Marco, Peter; Sim, Malcolm; Moore, Michael R; Langley, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    Managing public concerns relating to chemical exposures can consume substantial public health resources, particularly as the scientific basis around these issues is often contentious. Toxicology remains underrecognized as a public health discipline in Australia, although Australian toxicologists are making significant contributions from academia, government, and the commercial sector toward assessing the level of risk and protecting the community from environmental hazards. Internationally, the growth of environmental toxicology and the promotion of sound science in risk assessment as a basis for making regulatory decisions have been, to some extent, driven by the outcomes of the 1992 UNCED Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio Summit) and its Chapter 19 Agenda 21 activities. The promotion of safe chemical management practices and the need for global strengthening of capabilities in toxicology are among the initiatives of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS), which was formed after the Rio Summit to manage these programs. This article describes some of the initiatives in capacity building that marked the development of environmental toxicology in Australia since 1992 in response to these international environmental health initiatives. PMID:17763075

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Human health risk concerns for 1,4-dioxane are primarily related to exposure from drinking, ground, ...

  10. A FRAMEWORK FOR A COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM IN ORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    "A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program in ORD" was drafted by a Technical Writing Team having representatives from all of ORD's Laboratories and Centers. The document describes a framework for the development of an program within ORD to utilize approaches d...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced the release of four completed toxicologal reviews and summary documents following an independent peer review on the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessments of four congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers: tetraBDE (B...

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Pentachlorophenol (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Pentachlorophenol, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Pr...

  13. Physiological evaluation of men wearing three different toxicological protective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.; Cadarette, B.S.; Sawka, M.N.; Pandolf, K.B.

    1989-08-01

    This study examined the physiological responses of seven volunteers exercising in the heat while wearing three different toxicological protective systems. The Toxicological Agent Protective (TAP) suit has been available for use for more than 30 years while the other two protective systems are developmental efforts. The Self-Contained Toxicological Environmental Protection Outfit (STEPO) includes either a backpack-rebreather (with CO{sub 2} scrubber) and ice-cooling vest (STEPO-R), or a tether system which supplies breathing/cooling air inside the suit (STEPO-T). After the volunteers were heat acclimated, the three toxicological protection systems were evaluated utilizing a counter-balanced experimental design initially in a hot and then in a cool environment while subjects walked at 1.12 m/s, 0% grade for an attempted two hours. There was no statistical advantage of any one system in terms of exercise time in the cool environment. While evaporated sweating rate was greater for the STEPO-T in the cool environment compared to both STEPO-R and TAP. Development efforts to improve the STEPO system designs continue, and physiological evaluation of new developmental models is underway.

  14. Proceedings of the 2010 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Adams, E. Terence; Auerbach, Scott; Blackshear, Pamela E.; Bradley, Alys; Gruebbel, Margarita M.; Little, Peter B.; Malarkey, David; Maronpot, Robert; McKay, Jennifer S.; Miller, Rodney A.; Moore, Rebecca R.; Morrison, James P.; Nyska, Abraham; Ramot, Yuval; Rao, Deepa; Suttie, Andrew; Wells, Monique Y.; Willson, Gabrielle A.; Elmore, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled “Pathology Potpourri,” was held in Chicago, Illinois, in advance of the scientific symposium sponsored jointly by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP). The goal of the annual NTP Symposium is to present current diagnostic pathology or nomenclature issues to the toxicologic pathology community. This article presents summaries of the speakers' presentations, including diagnostic or nomenclature issues that were presented, along with select images that were used for voting or discussion. Some topics covered during the symposium included a comparison of rat and mouse hepatocholangiocarcinoma, a comparison of cholangiofibrosis and cholangiocarcinoma in rats, a mixed pancreatic neoplasm with acinar and islet cell components, an unusual preputial gland tumor, renal hyaline glomerulopathy in rats and mice, eosinophilic substance in the nasal septum of mice, INHAND nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions of the CNS/PNS, retinal gliosis in a rat, fibroadnexal hamartoma in rats, intramural plaque in a mouse, a treatment-related chloracne-like lesion in mice, and an overview of mouse ovarian tumors. PMID:21177527

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (External Review Draft; December 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NOTE: The IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (external review draft; December 2009) was released for public comment and external peer review in January 2010 (Federal Register Not...

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Mirex (2003 External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is providing for public information a draft Toxicological Review, draft IRIS Summary, and charge to external peer reviewers for EPA's Health Assessment of Mirex. These documents are provided for public viewing during an external scientific peer review period. While EPA is not...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for Chloroform (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Chloroform: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Chloroform and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Proc...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chloroprene (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Chloroprene, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Co...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of 2-Methylnaphthalene (2003, Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of 2-Methylnaphthalene: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for 2-Methylnaphthalene and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  2. TOXICOLOGY OF TRANS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) was administered to male and female CD-1 mice in order to evaluate its effects on standard toxicological parameters. Following an acute LD50 determination (2122 mg/kg in males and 2391 mg/kg in females) and a 14-day range-finding study, a 90-day d...

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexachloroethane (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hexachloroethane, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Pro...

  4. Wiki-Based Data Management to Support Systems Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the field of toxicology relies more heavily on systems approaches for mode of action discovery, evaluation, and modeling, the need for integrated data management is greater than ever. To meet these needs, we have developed a flexible system that assists individual or multiple...

  5. Evaluation of a Continuing Medical Education Program on Toxicologic Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Physicians and other health professionals attended either a two-day voluntary (n=27) or one-day mandatory (n=23) conference on toxicology. Groups did not differ in pretest/posttest scores; two-day participants were significantly more satisfied. Both groups demonstrated significant knowledge gains. (SK)

  6. Manpower Development in Toxicology. EURO Reports and Studies, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report addresses the widely held view that currently available literature in toxicology is inadequate in that there is a need to identify manpower deficiencies in this field and to suggest means to correct these deficiencies. It contains a list of specific recommendations including the organization of a working group, sponsored by the World…

  7. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF PHOSGENE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft Toxicological Review of Phosgene discusses the potential human health effects of chronic exposure to phosgene. While the draft report discusses both cancer and noncancer endpoints, the focus of the document is on noncancer chronic effects due to a lack of adequate info...

  8. Physics division annual report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2007-03-12

    This report highlights the research performed in 2005 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The mission of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the matter that makes up stars, planets and human life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission and 2005 was a year of great progress. One of the most exciting developments is the initiation of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, CARIBU. By combining a Cf-252 fission source, the gas catcher technology developed for rare isotope beams, a high-resolution isobar separator, and charge breeding ECR technology, CARIBU will make hundreds of new neutron-rich isotope beams available for research. The cover illustration shows the anticipated intensities of low-energy beams that become available for low-energy experiments and for injection into ATLAS for reacceleration. CARIBU will be completed in early 2009 and provide us with considerable experience in many of the technologies developed for a future high intensity exotic beam facility. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the isomeric states in {sup 252}No that helps pin down the single particle structure expected for superheavy elements, and a new low-background measurement of {sup 16}N beta-decay to determine the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate that is so important in astrophysical environments. Precise mass measurements shed new light on the unitarity of the quark weak-mixing matrix in the search for physics beyond the standard model. ATLAS operated for 4686 hours of research in FY2005 while achieving 95% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium-Energy Physics, radium isotopes were

  9. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  10. Children's Inventions for Multidigit Multiplication and Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliandro, Christine Koller

    2000-01-01

    Describes an informal research activity in which third grade students invent their own algorithms for multidigit multiplication and division. Discusses teaching implications and action research ideas. (ASK)

  11. Photobase generator assisted pitch division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xinyu; Bates, Christopher M.; Cho, Younjin; Kawakami, Takanori; Nagai, Tomoki; Ogata, Toshiyuki; Sundaresan, Arunkumar K.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Bristol, Robert; Zimmerman, Paul; Willson, C. Grant

    2010-04-01

    The drive to sustain the improvements in productivity that derive from following Moore's law has led the semiconductor industry to explore new technologies that enable production of smaller and smaller features on semiconductor device. Pitch division techniques and double exposure lithography are approaches that print features beyond the fundamental resolution limit of state-of-art lenses by modifying the lithographic process. This paper presents a new technique that enables pitch division in the printing of gratings using only a single exposure that is fully compatible with the current manufacturing tools. This technique employs a classical photoresist polymer together with a photoactive system that incorporates both a photoacid generator (PAG) and a photobase generator (PBG). The PBG is added to the resist formulation in higher molar concentration than the PAG, but has a base production rate that is slower than the acid production rate of the PAG. The PBG functions as a dose-dependent base quencher, which neutralizes the acid in high dose exposure regions but not in the low dose regions. This photoactive system can be exploited in the design of both positive tone and negative tone resist formulations that provide a developed image of a grating that is twice the frequency of the grating on the mask. A simulation of this process was performed for a 52 nm line and space pattern using PROLITH and customized codes. The results showed generation of a 26 nm half pitch relief image after development. Through this new technique, a 45 nm half pitch line and space pattern was experimentally achieved with a mask that produces a 90 nm half pitch aerial image. This corresponds to a k1 factor of 0.13. The principles, the materials design and the first lithographic evaluations of this system are reported.

  12. Characterization of the toxicological hazards of hydrocarbon solvents.

    PubMed

    Mckee, Richard H; Adenuga, M David; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbon solvents are liquid hydrocarbon fractions derived from petroleum processing streams, containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms, with carbon numbers ranging from approximately C5-C20 and boiling between approximately 35-370°C. Many of the hydrocarbon solvents have complex and variable compositions with constituents of 4 types, alkanes (normal paraffins, isoparaffins, and cycloparaffins) and aromatics (primarily alkylated one- and two-ring species). Because of the compositional complexity, hydrocarbon solvents are now identified by a nomenclature ("the naming convention") that describes them in terms of physical/chemical properties and compositional elements. Despite the compositional complexity, most hydrocarbon solvent constituents have similar toxicological properties, and the overall toxicological hazards can be characterized in generic terms. To facilitate hazard characterization, the solvents were divided into 9 groups (categories) of substances with similar physical and chemical properties. Hydrocarbon solvents can cause chemical pneumonitis if aspirated into the lung, and those that are volatile can cause acute CNS effects and/or ocular and respiratory irritation at exposure levels exceeding occupational recommendations. Otherwise, there are few toxicologically important effects. The exceptions, n-hexane and naphthalene, have unique toxicological properties, and those solvents containing constituents for which classification is required under the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) are differentiated by the substance names. Toxicological information from studies of representative substances was used to fulfill REACH registration requirements and to satisfy the needs of the OECD High Production Volume (HPV) initiative. As shown in the examples provided, the hazard characterization data can be used for hazard classification and for occupational exposure limit recommendations. PMID:25868376

  13. [The challenges of the ethics of personalism to clinical toxicology].

    PubMed

    Brusiło, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The fields of philosophical anthropology and the ethics of personalism overlap in the area of many difficult personal situations involving clinical toxicology. These therapeutic situations need an integral, multidimensional, and personal approach for both the patient and the toxicologist. This means that man is treated not only as a physical (biological) being but also there is an appreciation for the mental sphere, which includes rational, emotional, and spiritual elements while not forgetting that the human person is also part of the human community. Studying such an individual's personal decision as suicide, we must realize that it's not just physiological or biochemical poisons but also includes the poisoning of the psyche, as well as poisoning relationships with loved ones (family), poisoning social relations (in school or the workplace) and poisoning the spirit, in other words, there is no meaning in life itself, nor the meaning of God's existence, nor the meaning of faith, hope and love. Not only is there a greater "variety of poisons" than before, they are much more extensive and deep. For example, we can name environmental pollution, industrial poisons, chemical waste, genetic modification, powerful medications, or even the toxic social environment of evil ideas, malicious manipulation of the human mind (destructive religious sects). In approaching the challenges of clinical toxicology, the doctor must not only be a specialist in chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology. What then is of future of toxicology because of this human dimension (anthropological, ethical and spiritual) of this teaching? As today marks the occasion of the 45th anniversary of the Clinic of Toxicology CM UJ, should we shape the ethos of young doctors who want to deal with toxicology seriously? PMID:22010425

  14. Finding toxicological information: An approach for occupational health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Laamanen, Irja; Verbeek, Jos; Franco, Giuliano; Lehtola, Marika; Luotamo, Marita

    2008-01-01

    Background It can be difficult for occupational health professionals to assess which toxicological databases available on the Internet are the most useful for answering their questions. Therefore we evaluated toxicological databases for their ability to answer practical questions about exposure and prevention. We also propose recommended practices for searching for toxicological properties of chemicals. Methods We used a systematic search to find databases available on the Internet. Our criteria for the databases were the following: has a search engine, includes factual information on toxic and hazardous chemicals harmful for human health, and is free of charge. We developed both a qualitative and a quantitative rating method, which was used by four independent assessors to determine appropriateness, the quality of content, and ease of use of the database. Final ratings were based on a consensus of at least two evaluators. Results Out of 822 results we found 21 databases that met our inclusion criteria. Out of these 21 databases 14 are administered in the US, five in Europe, one in Australia, and one in Canada. Nine are administered by a governmental organization. No database achieved the maximum score of 27. The databases GESTIS, ESIS, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, TOXNET and NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards all scored more than 20 points. The following approach was developed for occupational health professionals searching for the toxicological properties of chemicals: start with the identity of the chemical; then search for health hazards, exposure route and measurement; next the limit values; and finally look for the preventive measures. Conclusion A rating system of toxicological databases to assess their value for occupational health professionals discriminated well between databases in terms of their appropriateness, quality of information, and ease of use. Several American and European databases yielded high scores and provide a valuable source for

  15. Distance learning and toxicology: new horizons for Paracelsus.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Jane; Morris, John; Peterson, C Erik

    2005-09-01

    Distance learning offers many advantages to students and teachers of almost any scientific discipline. Toxicology is no exception. For example, should Paracelsus be interested in learning more about toxicology at Drexel University, he would have the opportunity to take two courses in this subject utilizing the content management software, WebCT. The two courses would offer a website from which he could view and/or download his notes for each class. He could correspond with the instructor as well as fellow students, participate in discussions about timely topics, and make presentations to the class, all via electronic communication. Moreover, his examinations would also be computerized. Although he might have the option of attending traditional "face-to-face" lectures with other students in the class, he could also access these lectures at any time from a remote location by using the archive of taped lectures on the class website. Overall, Paracelsus would have access to many tools to enhance his understanding of toxicology, and he probably would never have to worry about parking before class (!). The two WebCT modules in toxicology that we have developed at Drexel represent the successful migration of two courses from a traditional "face-to-face" model of classroom instruction to hybrid models that combine "face-to-face" interaction with online instruction. Student and faculty evaluations of these courses have been very positive. Future plans include linking the two modules together so that students in the advanced class can do "review" or "remedial" work in the basic module. Furthermore, a library of video clips is also planned in which researchers will be discussing their work on various toxicologic topics. Students will be able to access these clips as resources from which to write research papers. PMID:15979660

  16. Distance learning and toxicology: New horizons for Paracelsus

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, Jane . E-mail: djhug1.1@netzero.com; Morris, John; Peterson, C. Erik

    2005-09-01

    Distance learning offers many advantages to students and teachers of almost any scientific discipline. Toxicology is no exception. For example, should Paracelsus be interested in learning more about toxicology at Drexel University, he would have the opportunity to take two courses in this subject utilizing the content management software, WebCT. The two courses would offer a website from which he could view and/or download his notes for each class. He could correspond with the instructor as well as fellow students, participate in discussions about timely topics, and make presentations to the class, all via electronic communication. Moreover, his examinations would also be computerized. Although he might have the option of attending traditional 'face-to-face' lectures with other students in the class, he could also access these lectures at any time from a remote location by using the archive of taped lectures on the class website. Overall, Paracelsus would have access to many tools to enhance his understanding of toxicology, and he probably would never have to worry about parking before class ({exclamation_point}). The two WebCT modules in toxicology that we have developed at Drexel represent the successful migration of two courses from a traditional 'face-to-face' model of classroom instruction to hybrid models that combine 'face-to-face' interaction with online instruction. Student and faculty evaluations of these courses have been very positive. Future plans include linking the two modules together so that students in the advanced class can do 'review' or 'remedial' work in the basic module. Furthermore, a library of video clips is also planned in which researchers will be discussing their work on various toxicologic topics. Students will be able to access these clips as resources from which to write research papers.

  17. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results.

    PubMed

    Yang, R S; Hong, H L; Boorman, G A

    1989-12-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, there is yet no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last 2 years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology. PMID:2690403

  18. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: Experimental approaches, underlying concepts, and some results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.S.; Long, H.L.; Boorman, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    The toxicology of chemical mixtures will be the toxicology of the 1990s and beyond. While this branch of toxicology most closely reflects the actual human exposure situation, as yet there is no standard protocol or consensus methodology for investigating the toxicology of mixtures. Thus, in this emerging science, experimentation is required just to develop a broadly applicable evaluation system. Several examples are discussed to illustrate the different experimental designs and the concepts behind each. These include the health effects studies of Love Canal soil samples, the Lake Ontario Coho salmon, the water samples repurified from secondary sewage in the city of Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Plant, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) effort on a mixture of 25 frequently detected groundwater contaminants derived from hazardous waste disposal sites. In the last instance, an extensive research program has been ongoing for the last two years at the NTP, encompassing general toxicology, immunotoxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biochemical toxicology, myelotoxicology, genetic toxicology, neurobehavioral toxicology, and hepato- and renal toxicology.

  19. The National Toxicology Program Web-based nonneoplastic lesion atlas: a global toxicology and pathology resource.

    PubMed

    Cesta, Mark F; Malarkey, David E; Herbert, Ronald A; Brix, Amy; Hamlin, Melvin H; Singletary, Emily; Sills, Robert C; Bucher, John R; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Toxicologists and pathologists worldwide will benefit from a new, website-based, and completely searchable Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas just released by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP). The atlas is a much-needed resource with thousands of high-quality, zoomable images and diagnostic guidelines for each rodent lesion. Liver, gallbladder, nervous system, bone marrow, lower urinary tract and skin lesion images, and diagnostic strategies are available now. More organ and biological systems will be added with a total of 22 chapters planned for the completed project. The atlas will be used by the NTP and its many pathology partners to standardize lesion diagnosis, terminology, and the way lesions are recorded. The goal is to improve our understanding of nonneoplastic lesions and the consistency and accuracy of their diagnosis between pathologists and laboratories. The atlas is also a useful training tool for pathology residents and can be used to bolster any organization's own lesion databases. Researchers have free access to this online resource at www.ntp.niehs.nih.gov/nonneoplastic. PMID:24488020

  20. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV: Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta.

    PubMed

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species specificity of metabolism and placental structure. For practical and economical reasons, we propose to apply a battery of sequential experiments for analysis of potential toxicants. This should start with using cell lines, followed by testing placenta tissue explants and isolated placenta cells, and finally by application of single and dual side ex vivo placenta perfusion. With each of these steps, the relative workload increases while the number of feasible repeats decreases. Simultaneously, the predictive power enhances by increasing similarity with in vivo human conditions. Toxic effects may be detected by performing proliferation, vitality and cell death assays, analysis of protein and hormone expression, immunohistochemistry or testing functionality of signaling pathways, gene expression, transport mechanisms, and so on. When toxic effects appear at any step, the subsequent assays may be cancelled. Such a system may be useful to reduce costs and increase specificity in testing questionable toxicants. Nonetheless, it requires further standardization and end point definitions for better comparability of results from different toxicants and to estimate the respective in vivo translatability and predictive value. PMID:23548605

  1. Africa's present and future needs in toxicology education: Southern African perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gulumian, Mary . E-mail: mary.gulumian@nioh.nhls.co.za; Ginsburg, Carren; Stewart, Michael J.

    2005-09-01

    Degrees and diplomas as well as certificates that are granted by universities and technikons in South Africa in scientific disciplines, such as forensic medicine, pharmacology, marine and veterinary sciences, environmental health, and occupational hygiene, include toxicology as one of the subjects in their overall syllabus. However, aspects of toxicology included in each of these courses are biased towards that particular subdiscipline and basic level of toxicology may be taught. Educational needs in toxicology in South Africa can be summarized as follows: (a) recognition of toxicology as a discipline in its own right at these tertiary education institutions and (b) creation of opportunities to study and obtain higher degrees in one or more of the many subdisciplines of toxicology. The results from a survey conducted on the toxicology syllabi offered at these tertiary education institutions are used to substantiate these needs.

  2. Deepening Students' Understanding of Multiplication and Division by Exploring Divisibility by Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Mills, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how a focus on understanding divisibility rules can be used to help deepen students' understanding of multiplication and division with whole numbers. It is based on research with seven Year 7-8 teachers who were observed teaching a group of students a rule for divisibility by nine. As part of the lesson, students were shown a…

  3. Moral Reasoning of Division III and Division I Athletes: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Sharon Kay; And Others

    This study sought to examine the potentially corrupting influences of media attention, money, and the accompanying stress on the moral reasoning of student athletes at both Division I and Division III National College Athletics Association (NCAA) schools. Subjects were 718 nonathletes and 277 randomly selected athletes at a Division I school and…

  4. 76 FR 4724 - Emerson Transportation Division, a Division of Emerson Electric, Including Workers Located...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Transportation Division, a division of Emerson Electric, Bridgeton, Missouri. The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 16, 2010 (75 FR 75701). At the request of a State of Arkansas agent, the... Division lived throughout the United States, including Arkansas, but report to the Bridgeton,...

  5. Physics Division annual report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.

    2006-04-06

    This report highlights the research performed in 2004 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The intellectual challenges of this research represent some of the most fundamental challenges in modern science, shaping our understanding of both tiny objects at the center of the atom and some of the largest structures in the universe. A great strength of these efforts is the critical interplay of theory and experiment. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the charge radius of He-6 in an atom trap and its explanation in ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure. Precise mass measurements on critical waiting point nuclei in the rapid-proton-capture process set the time scale for this important path in nucleosynthesis. An abrupt fall-off was identified in the subbarrier fusion of several heavy-ion systems. ATLAS operated for 5559 hours of research in FY2004 while achieving 96% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium Energy Physics, substantial progress was made on a long-term experiment to search for the violation of time-reversal invariance using trapped Ra atoms. New results from HERMES reveal the influence of quark angular momentum. Experiments at JLAB search for evidence of color transparency in rho-meson production and study the EMC effect in helium isotopes. New theoretical results include a Poincare covariant description of baryons as composites of confined quarks and non-point-like diquarks. Green's function Monte Carlo techniques give accurate descriptions of the excited states of light nuclei and these techniques been extended to scattering states for astrophysics studies. A theoretical description of the phenomena of proton radioactivity has been extended to triaxial nuclei. Argonne continues to

  6. 25 CFR 213.29 - Division orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Division orders. 213.29 Section 213.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Rents and Royalties § 213.29 Division orders. (a)...

  7. Teaching Cell Division: Basics and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a concise overview of cell division that includes only the essential concepts necessary for understanding genetics and evolution. Makes recommendations based on published research and teaching experiences that can be used to judge the merits of potential activities and materials for teaching cell division. Makes suggestions regarding the…

  8. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  9. "American Gothic" and the Division of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…

  10. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  11. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  12. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P.; Belland, Robert J.; Cox, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  13. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  14. New Study Designs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease. | The Division of Cancer Prevention is expanding clinical research beyond standard trial designs to find interventions that may play a role in more than one prevalent disease.

  15. Guide to the Division of Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    This brief guide to the Research Programs Division of the National Endowment for the Humanities covers basic information, describes programs, and summarizes policies and procedures. An introductory section describes the division and its mission to encourage the development and dissemination of significant knowledge and scholarship in the…

  16. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division, 1991 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Ed.

    This report documents research and development performed under the sponsorship of the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research in fiscal year 1991. It provides abstracts (title, principal investigator, project code, objective, approach, progress, and related reports) of projects of three program divisions (cognitive…

  17. The Changing Nature of Division III Athletics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    2014-01-01

    Non-selective Division III institutions often face challenges in meeting their enrollment goals. To ensure their continued viability, these schools recruit large numbers of student athletes. As a result, when compared to FBS (Football Bowl Division) institutions these schools have a much higher percentage of student athletes on campus and a…

  18. Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division 1990 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Willard S., Jr., Ed.

    Research and development efforts carried out under sponsorship of the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research during fiscal year 1990 are described in this compilation of project description summaries. The Division's research is organized in three types of programs: (1) Cognitive Science (the human learner--cognitive…

  19. Gravity and the orientation of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A novel culture system for mammalian cells was used to investigate division orientations in populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the influence of gravity on the positioning of division axes. The cells were tethered to adhesive sites, smaller in diameter than a newborn cell, distributed over a nonadhesive substrate positioned vertically. The cells grew and divided while attached to the sites, and the angles and directions of elongation during anaphase, projected in the vertical plane, were found to be random with respect to gravity. However, consecutive divisions of individual cells were generally along the same axis or at 90 degrees to the previous division, with equal probability. Thus, successive divisions were restricted to orthogonal planes, but the choice of plane appeared to be random, unlike the ordered sequence of cleavage orientations seen during early embryo development.

  20. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  1. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H.

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  2. Physics division annual report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, K., ed.; Physics

    2000-12-06

    This report summarizes the research performed in the past year in the Argonne Physics Division. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national heavy-ion user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research with beams of heavy ions, accelerator research and development especially in superconducting radio frequency technology, nuclear theory and medium energy nuclear physics. The Division took significant strides forward in its science and its initiatives for the future in the past year. Major progress was made in developing the concept and the technology for the future advanced facility of beams of short-lived nuclei, the Rare Isotope Accelerator. The scientific program capitalized on important instrumentation initiatives with key advances in nuclear science. In 1999, the nuclear science community adopted the Argonne concept for a multi-beam superconducting linear accelerator driver as the design of choice for the next major facility in the field a Rare Isotope Accelerator (WA) as recommended by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee's 1996 Long Range Plan. Argonne has made significant R&D progress on almost all aspects of the design concept including the fast gas catcher (to allow fast fragmentation beams to be stopped and reaccelerated) that in large part defined the RIA concept the superconducting rf technology for the driver accelerator, the multiple-charge-state concept (to permit the facility to meet the design intensity goals with existing ion-source technology), and designs and tests of high-power target concepts to effectively deal with the full beam power of the driver linac. An NSAC subcommittee recommended the Argonne concept and set as tie design goal Uranium beams of 100-kwatt power at 400 MeV/u. Argonne demonstrated that this goal can be met with an innovative, but technically in-hand, design. The heavy-ion research program focused on GammaSphere, the premier facility for nuclear structure gamma-ray studies. One example of the

  3. DEFINING THE SPERMATOZOA RNA FINGERPRINT FOR THE NORMAL FERTILE MALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defining the spermatozoa RNA fingerprint for the normal fertile male
    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David Dix2, David Miller3, and Stephen A. Krawetz1

    1Departments of Ob/Gyn, CMMG & ISC, Wayne State University, USA.
    2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Pr...

  4. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH AND SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and Screening
    David Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3
    1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK
    2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  5. DETECTION OF A CRITICAL PERIOD NECESSARY FOR ATRAZINE-INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND DELAYS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of a Critical Period Necessary for Atrazine-Induced Mammary Gland Delays in Rats.

    Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2

    1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, R...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.03 - Made by accounting divisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Made by accounting divisions. 1242.03 Section 1242... accounting divisions. The separation shall be made by accounting divisions, where such divisions are maintained, and the aggregate of the accounting divisions reported for the quarter and for the year....

  7. 49 CFR 1242.03 - Made by accounting divisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Made by accounting divisions. 1242.03 Section 1242... accounting divisions. The separation shall be made by accounting divisions, where such divisions are maintained, and the aggregate of the accounting divisions reported for the quarter and for the year....

  8. The adverse outcome pathway concept: a pragmatic tool in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Vinken, Mathieu

    2013-10-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are novel tools in toxicology and human risk assessment with broad potential. AOPs are designed to provide a clear-cut mechanistic representation of critical toxicological effects that span over different layers of biological organization. AOPs share a common structure consisting of a molecular initiating event, a series of intermediate steps and key events, and an adverse outcome. Development of AOPs ideally complies with OECD guidelines. This also holds true for AOP evaluation, which includes consideration of the Bradford Hill criteria for weight-of-evidence assessment and meeting a set of key questions defined by the OECD. Elaborate AOP frameworks have yet been proposed for chemical-induced skin sensitization, cholestasis, liver fibrosis and liver steatosis. These newly postulated AOPs can serve a number of ubiquitous purposes, including the establishment of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships, the development of novel in vitro toxicity screening tests and the elaboration of prioritization strategies. PMID:23978457

  9. Environmental and toxicological aspects of insect growth regulators.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J E

    1976-01-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are a class of new chemicals that interfere with maturation and reproduction in insects. Proposed hypotheses on the biochemical mechanism of action are presented herein. The environmental aspects as metabolism in soils, plants, insects, and animals suggest strongly that these chemicals undergo rapid degradation and metabolism to innocuous metabolites. The toxicological properties determined for registration of the IGR methoprene, isopropyl (E,E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate, reflected no significant effects against any of the species tested. Toxicological evaluations in swine, sheep, hamsters, rats, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs, and cattle revealed no clinical signs of toxicosis. Additionally, teratological studies in swine, sheep, hamsters, rats, and rabbits also resulted in no observable effects in the animals at the levels administered. PMID:789059

  10. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. PMID:26372090

  11. Toxicological evaluation of complex mixtures: fingerprinting and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Eide, Ingvar; Neverdal, Gunhild; Thorvaldsen, Bodil; Arneberg, Reidar; Grung, Bjørn; Kvalheim, Olav M

    2004-11-01

    The present paper describes a strategy for toxicological evaluation of complex mixtures based on chemical "fingerprinting" followed by pattern recognition (multivariate data analysis). The purpose is to correlate chemical fingerprints to measured toxicological endpoints, identify all major contributors to toxicity, and predict toxicity of additional mixtures. The strategy is illustrated with organic extracts of exhaust particles which are characterized by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The complex GC-MS data are resolved into peaks and spectra for individual compounds using an automated curve resolution procedure. Projections to latent structures (PLS) is used for the regression modeling to correlate the GC-MS data to the measured responses; mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella assay. The regression model identifies those peaks that co-vary with the observed mutagenicity. These peaks may be identified chemically from their spectra. Furthermore, the regression model can be used to predict mutagenicity from GC-MS chromatograms of additional samples. PMID:21782741

  12. Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals used in regulatory toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Dean, S W

    1999-10-01

    There is a wealth of information in the published literature which describes a multitude of approaches to enriching the environment of laboratory animals. This paper attempts to review the various methods of enrichment through social contact, enhancement of the environment and diet, and improvements in husbandry. It attempts to place the various enrichment initiatives within the context of a laboratory which conducts regulatory toxicology, describes some of the experiences in the author's own laboratory and attempts to highlight those ideas which might prove practical to implement in the future. The aim is to demonstrate that a creative approach to environmental enrichment is indeed compatible with regulatory toxicology. It is hoped that this will encourage those responsible for the care and welfare of animals in such a laboratory to challenge historical practices and include environmental enrichment as a fundamental necessity of study design. PMID:10778780

  13. Genomics, proteomics and metabonomics in toxicology: hopefully not 'fashionomics'.

    PubMed

    Pognan, Francois

    2004-10-01

    Genomics, proteomics and metabonomics are applied to toxicology either as stand-alone technologies or in combination, with the intention of providing a more efficient assessment of the potential side effects of new chemical entities. Two different approaches are taken: a predictive/proactive strategy based on a statistical analogy of 'signatures' of drugs to many known toxicant gene or metabolite fingerprints; and a mechanistic/reactive strategy based on the in-depth biological analysis of the gene, protein or metabolite profiles induced by one or a few compounds of interest. This article focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies, as well as the many hurdles associated with both these approaches in toxicology that have to be considered before applying them to the assessment of future drugs. PMID:15469409

  14. The National Toxicology Program chemical nomination selection and testing process.

    PubMed

    Heindel, J J

    1988-01-01

    The NTP is an interagency program of the Federal Government which coordinates toxicological programs at the NIH (NIEHS), FDA (NCTR), and CDC (NIOSH) with input from NCI, NIH, OSHA, CPSC, EPA, and ATSDR. The NTP has the capability to completely characterize the toxicologic profile of a chemical, including studies of chemical disposition, genetic toxicity, immunotoxicity, teratology, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and specific organ toxicity. The NTP encourages nominations of chemicals of human health concern from all sectors of the public, including industry, labor, and the general public. The specific process of nomination, evaluation, and selection of chemicals for testing by the NTP is described. It is a multicomponent system with several evaluations and a public peer review step to assure adequate consideration of all nominated chemicals. The results of NTP studies are all peer reviewed and available to the general public as well as to the scientific community. PMID:2980357

  15. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices. PMID:27277872

  16. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gamse, Joshua T; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals. PMID:27618129

  17. Chemistry and toxicology of quinoxaline, organotin, organofluorine, and formamidine acaricides.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, C O

    1976-01-01

    Quinoxaline, organotin, organofluorine, and formamidine compounds are among the newer pesticide chemicals used for acarine control. Included in these four classes are some of the most selective synthetic organic toxicants currently in the acaricide/insecticide arsenal. Oxythioquinox, Plictran (tricyclohexylhydroxytin), Nissol [2-fluoro-N-methyl-N-(1-naphthyl)acetamide], and chlordimeform are examples of quinoxaline, organotin, organofluorine, and formamidine acaricides, respectively. The chemistry and toxicology of these and related compounds are discussed. PMID:789072

  18. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  19. Cellular imaging: a key phenotypic screening strategy for predictive toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinghai J.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating phenotypic screening as a key strategy enhances predictivity and translatability of drug discovery efforts. Cellular imaging serves as a “phenotypic anchor” to identify important toxicologic pathology that encompasses an array of underlying mechanisms, thus provides an effective means to reduce drug development failures due to insufficient safety. This mini-review highlights the latest advances in hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and genetic toxicity tests that utilized cellular imaging as a screening strategy, and recommends path forward for further improvement. PMID:26441648

  20. Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yifei; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system. PMID:25184300