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Sample records for 2s albumin seed

  1. Capillary electrophoresis of seed 2S albumins from Lupinus species.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, B P

    2000-10-13

    Two modes of capillary electrophoresis (CE)--free-solution capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary electrophoresis (SDS-CE) using a non-gel sieving matrix--have been developed for comparative analysis of low-molecular-mass 2S albumin isoforms from lupins. The albumin fraction and 2S albumins were separated in uncoated fused-silica capillary by CZE with 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, containing the sodium salt of phytic acid. The use of phytic acid (0.025 M) as buffer modifier and ion-pairing agent improved migration reproducibility, peak shape and separation efficiency. The reduced 2S albumins were separated by SDS-CE using a high concentration (0.3-0.5 M) mixture of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and borate buffers in uncoated fused-silica capillary. Of the various polymers used as non-gel sieving matrix, SDS-CE with a 10% dextran solution was found to be suitable for separation of 2S albumin polypeptides with molecular masses of 4,000-7,000 and 8,000-11,000. The addition of glycerol or ethylene glycol to the SDS separating buffer improved the resolution of polypeptides. The examined Lupinus species showed species-specific CZE and SDS-CE migration profiles of the 2S albumins.

  2. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of a 2S albumin seed protein from Lens culinaris

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Pankaj; Gaur, Vineet; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2008-08-01

    A 2S albumin from L. culinaris was purified and crystallized and preliminary crystallographic studies were carried out. Lens culinaris (lentil) is a widely consumed high-protein-content leguminous crop. A 2S albumin protein (26.5 kDa) has been identified using NH{sub 2}-terminal sequencing from a 90% ammonium sulfate saturation fraction of total L. culinaris seed protein extract. The NH{sub 2}-terminal sequence shows very high homology to PA2, an allergy-related protein from Pisum sativum. The 2S albumin protein was purified using a combination of size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals of the 2S seed albumin obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and were indexed in space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.6, c = 135.2 Å.

  3. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities. PMID:26505799

  4. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities.

  5. Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, T I; Rogozhin, E A; Sklyar, I V; Musolyamov, A K; Kudryavtsev, A M; Pukhalsky, V A; Smirnov, A N; Grishin, E V; Egorov, T A

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we isolated and characterized novel antifungal proteins from seeds of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.). We showed that they are represented by five isoforms, each consisting of two disulphide-bonded large and small subunits. One of them, To-A1 was studied in detail, including N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits, and shown to display sequence homology with the sunflower 2S albumin. Using different assays we demonstrated that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concentrations with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity. Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions.

  6. Characterization of the emulsification properties of 2S albumins from sunflower seed.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Gary R; Rigby, Neil M; Mills, E N Clare; Belton, Peter S; Fido, Roger J; Tatham, Arthur S; Shewry, Peter R

    2002-03-01

    The ability of 2S albumins from sunflower seeds to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions has been investigated, demonstrating that one of the proteins (SFA8) effectively stabilizes emulsions, while another (SF-LTP) does not stabilize emulsions. The surface tension and surface dilation viscosity of these two proteins were measured, rationalizing the emulsifying ability of SFA8 in terms of its ability to form a strongly elastic monolayer at interfaces. The secondary structure changes that occur upon adsorption of SFA8 to the oil/water interface have also been studied by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that the beta-sheet content of the protein increased upon adsorption at the expense of alpha-helix and random structure. Moreover, FT-IR measurements indicate the presence of intermolecular beta-sheet formation upon adsorption. Fluorescence studies with an oil-soluble fluorescence quencher indicate that the single tryptophan residue present in SFA8 may become located in the oil-phase of the emulsion. This residue is thought to be partially buried in the native protein, and these data suggest that changes in the polypeptide region flanking this residue may play an important role in the molecular rearrangement that occur on or following adsorption to the oil/water interface.

  7. Solution structure of a methionine-rich 2S albumin from sunflower seeds: relationship to its allergenic and emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Shewry, Peter R; Bruix, Marta; Tatham, Arthur S; Santoro, Jorge; Rico, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    The three-dimensional structure in aqueous solution of SFA-8, a 2S albumin 103-residue protein from seeds of sunflower (Helianthus anuus L.), has been determined by NMR methods. An almost complete (1)H resonance assignment was accomplished from analysis of two-dimensional (2D) COSY and 2D TOCSY spectra, and the structure was computed by using restrained molecular dynamics on the basis of 1393 upper limit distance constraints derived from NOE cross-correlation intensities measured in 2D NOESY spectra. In contrast with most other 2S albumins, SFA-8 consists of a single polypeptide chain without any cleavage in the segment of residues 30-46. The computed structures exhibited an rmsd radius of 0.52 A for the backbone structural core (residues 11-30 and 46-101) and 1.01 A for the side chain heavy atoms. The resulting structure consists of five amphipathic helices arranged in a right-handed superhelix, a folding motif first observed in nonspecific lipid transfer (nsLTP) proteins, and common to other 2S albumins. In contrast to nsLTP proteins, neither SFA-8 nor RicC3 (a 2S albumin from castor bean) has an internal cavity that is able to host a lipid molecule, which results from an exchange in the pairing of disulfide bridges in the CXC segment. Both 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins belong to the prolamin superfamily, which includes a number of important food allergens. Differences in the extension and solvent exposition of the so-called "hypervariable loop" (which connects helices III and IV) in SFA-8 and RicC3 may be responsible for the different allergenic properties of the two proteins. SFA-8 has been shown to form highly stable emulsions with oil/water mixtures. We propose that these properties may be determined partly by a hydrophobic patch at the surface of the protein which consists of five methionines that partially hide the Trp76 residue. The flexibility of the loop which contains Trp76 and the hydrophobicity of the whole environment may favor

  8. The antifungal properties of a 2S albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds involve plasma membrane permeabilization and ultrastructural alterations in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Agizzio, Ana Paula; Da Cunha, Maura; Carvalho, André O; Oliveira, Marco Antônio; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2006-10-01

    Different types of antimicrobial proteins were purified from plant seeds, including chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins and 2S albumins. It has become clear that these groups of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants from microbial infection. Recent results from our laboratory have shown that the defense-related proteins from passion fruit seeds, named Pf1 and Pf2 (which show sequence homology with 2S albumins), inhibit fungal growth and glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether 2S albumins from passion fruit seeds induce plasma membrane permeabilization and cause morphological alterations in yeast cells. Initially, we used an assay based on the uptake of SYTOX Green, an organic compound that fluoresces upon interaction with nucleic acids and penetrates cells with compromised plasma membranes, to investigate membrane permeabilization in S. cerevisiae cells. When viewed with a confocal laser microscope, S. cervisiae cells showed strong SYTOX Green fluorescence in the cytosol, especially in the nuclei. 2S albumins also inhibited glucose-stimulated acidification of the medium by S. cerevisiae cells, which indicates a probable impairment of fungal metabolism. The microscopical analysis of the yeast cells treated with 2S albumins demonstrated several morphological alterations in cell shape, cell surface, cell wall and bud formation, as well as in the organization of intracellular organelles. PMID:25193649

  9. Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds, Is a Member of the 2S Albumin Family

    PubMed Central

    Freire, José E. C.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.; Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Batista, Adelina B.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Lima, João P. M. S.; Almeida, Ricardo V. M.; Sousa, Antônio J. S.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C. O.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin. PMID:25789746

  10. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  11. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection.

  12. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein.

  13. Complexes of green tea polyphenol, epigalocatechin-3-gallate, and 2S albumins of peanut.

    PubMed

    Vesic, Jelena; Stambolic, Ivan; Apostolovic, Danijela; Milcic, Milos; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2015-10-15

    2S albumins of peanuts are seed storage proteins, highly homologous in structure and described as major elicitors of anaphylactic reactions to peanut (allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most biologically potent polyphenol of green tea. Non-covalent interactions of EGCG with proteins contribute to its diverse biological activities. Here we used the methods of circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching titration, isothermal titration calorimetry and computational chemistry to elucidate interactions of EGCG and 2S albumins. Similarity in structure and overall fold of 2S albumins yielded similar putative binding sites and similar binding modes with EGCG. Binding affinity determined for Ara h 2 was in the range described for complexes of EGCG and other dietary proteins. Binding of EGCG to 2S albumins affects protein conformation, by causing an α-helix to β-structures transition in both proteins. 2S albumins of peanuts may be good carriers of physiologically active green tea catechin. PMID:25952873

  14. Studies of the role of the propeptides of the Arabidopsis thaliana 2S albumin.

    PubMed Central

    D'Hondt, K; Van Damme, J; Van Den Bossche, C; Leejeerajumnean, S; De Rycke, R; Derksen, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Krebbers, E

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the possible roles of the Arabidopsis thaliana 2S albumin propeptides with respect to sorting, processing, and stability of the protein in plant cells, five gene constructions deleting or modifying the propeptides were made based on one of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis 2S albumin. These constructions were introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Using subcellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry on ripe seeds, it was demonstrated that none of the propeptides was necessary for the sorting of the protein. Detailed protein-chemical analysis of the mature gene products indicated that, for all of the modified 2S albumin precursors made, the proteins were stably folded and correctly processed. However, the latter is less efficient when the internal fragment between the small and the large subunit is missing or when this internal fragment is changed. In an attempt to establish a rapid assay system for modified 2S albumin precursors, yeast cells were transformed with the same gene constructs. It was demonstrated that the processing machinery in yeast cells differs from that in plants, and, in a perhaps related observation, differences in stability of a particular modified protein were observed. PMID:8108508

  15. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications.

  16. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  17. Cloning and characterization of 2S albumin, Car i 1, a major allergen in pecan.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-04-27

    Although pecans are associated with IgE-mediated food allergies, the allergens responsible remain to be identified and characterized. The 2S albumin gene was amplified from the pecan cDNA library. Dot-blots were used to screen the recombinant protein with pecan allergic patients' serum. The affinity purified native protein was analyzed by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Cross-reactivity with walnut was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three different patients' serum pool. The 3-dimensional homology model was generated, and the locations of the pecan epitopes were compared with those of known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot-blot, 22 (79%) bound to 2S albumin, designated as Car i 1. Edman sequencing and the MS/MS sequencing of native 2S albumin confirmed the identity of recombinant (r) Car i 1. Both pecan and walnut protein extracts inhibited the IgE-binding to rCar i 1. Sequential epitope mapping indicated weak, moderate, and strong reactivity against 12, 7, and 5 peptides, respectively. Of the 11 peptides recognized by all serum pools, 5 peptides were strongly reactive and located in 3 discrete regions of the Car i 1 (amino acids 43-57, 67-78, and 106-120). Three-dimensional modeling revealed IgE-reactive epitopes to be solvent accessible and share significant homology with other tree nuts providing a possible basis for previously observed cross-reactivity. PMID:21395309

  18. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  19. The protein structure determines the sensitizing capacity of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) in a rat food allergy model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is not exactly known why certain food proteins are more likely to sensitize. One of the characteristics of most food allergens is that they are stable to the acidic and proteolytic conditions in the digestive tract. This property is thought to be a risk factor in allergic sensitization. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the protein structure of 2S albumin (Ber e1), a major allergen from Brazil nut, on the sensitizing capacity in vivo using an oral Brown Norway rat food allergy model. Disulphide bridges of 2S albumin were reduced and alkylated resulting in loss of protein structure and an increased pepsin digestibility in vitro. Both native 2S albumin and reduced/alkylated 2S albumin were administered by daily gavage dosing (0.1 and 1 mg) to Brown Norway rats for 42 days. Intraperitoneal administration was used as a positive control. Sera were analysed by ELISA and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Oral exposure to native or reduced/alkylated 2S albumin resulted in specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses whereas only native 2S albumin induced specific IgE in this model, which was confirmed by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. This study has shown that the disruption of the protein structure of Brazil nut 2S albumin decreased the sensitizing potential in a Brown Norway rat food allergy model, whereas the immunogenicity of 2S albumin remained preserved. This observation may open possibilities for developing immunotherapy for Brazil nut allergy. PMID:24180644

  20. The protein structure determines the sensitizing capacity of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) in a rat food allergy model.

    PubMed

    Van Bilsen, Jolanda Hm; Knippels, Léon Mj; Penninks, André H; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem F; De Jongh, Harmen Hj; Koppelman, Stef J

    2013-11-04

    : It is not exactly known why certain food proteins are more likely to sensitize. One of the characteristics of most food allergens is that they are stable to the acidic and proteolytic conditions in the digestive tract. This property is thought to be a risk factor in allergic sensitization. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the protein structure of 2S albumin (Ber e1), a major allergen from Brazil nut, on the sensitizing capacity in vivo using an oral Brown Norway rat food allergy model. Disulphide bridges of 2S albumin were reduced and alkylated resulting in loss of protein structure and an increased pepsin digestibility in vitro. Both native 2S albumin and reduced/alkylated 2S albumin were administered by daily gavage dosing (0.1 and 1 mg) to Brown Norway rats for 42 days. Intraperitoneal administration was used as a positive control. Sera were analysed by ELISA and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Oral exposure to native or reduced/alkylated 2S albumin resulted in specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses whereas only native 2S albumin induced specific IgE in this model, which was confirmed by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. This study has shown that the disruption of the protein structure of Brazil nut 2S albumin decreased the sensitizing potential in a Brown Norway rat food allergy model, whereas the immunogenicity of 2S albumin remained preserved. This observation may open possibilities for developing immunotherapy for Brazil nut allergy.

  1. Cor a 14, the allergenic 2S albumin from hazelnut, is highly thermostable and resistant to gastrointestinal digestion

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Sabine; Bublin, Merima; Dubiela, Pawel; Hummel, Karin; Wortmann, Judith; Hofer, Gerhard; Keller, Walter; Radauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Scope Allergens from nuts frequently induce severe allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physicochemical characteristics of natural Cor a 14, the 2S albumin from hazelnut. Methods and results Cor a 14 was purified from raw hazelnuts using a combination of precipitation and chromatographic techniques. The protein was analyzed using gel electrophoresis, MS, and far‐UV circular dichroism (CD) analyses. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding of native, heat‐treated, and in vitro digested Cor a 14 was studied. We identified two different Cor a 14 isoforms and showed microclipping at the C‐terminus. CD spectra at room temperature showed the typical characteristics of 2S albumins, and temperatures of more than 80°C were required to start unfolding of Cor a 14 demonstrating its high stability to heat treatment. In vitro digestion experiments revealed that Cor a 14 is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Native and heat‐treated protein was recognized by sera from hazelnut allergic patients. However, denaturation of the allergen led to significantly reduced IgE binding. Conclusion We identified two different isoforms of Cor a 14 displaying high stability under heating and gastric and duodenal conditions. Data from IgE‐binding experiments revealed the existence of both, linear and conformational epitopes. PMID:26178695

  2. Solution structure and stability against digestion of rproBnIb, a recombinant 2S albumin from rapeseed: relationship to its allergenic properties.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Palomares, Oscar; Bruix, Marta; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Rico, Manuel; Santoro, Jorge

    2004-12-28

    NMR spectroscopy has been used to determine the solution structure of the precursor form of the recombinant napin BnIb, rproBnIb, a 2S albumin, 109-residue protein from the seeds of Brassica napus. More than 90% of the side-chain proton resonances were unambiguously assigned from the analysis of two-dimensional correlation (COSY), total correlation (TOCSY), and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) spectra. The final structures were computed by using restrained molecular dynamics on the basis of 1316 upper-limit distance constraints derived from NOE cross-correlation intensities. The computed structures exhibited a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) radius of 0.66 A for the backbone and 1.16 A for the side-chain heavy atoms of the structural core. The resulting structure consists of five amphipathic helices arranged in a right-handed super helix, a folding motif found in other proteins of the prolamin superfamily. As in the case of the mature protein, the recombinant precursor behaves as a plant food allergen. To trace out the origin and characteristics of its allergenic properties, rproBnIb was assayed against simulated gastric fluid and found to be very resistant to proteolysis. Also, heat treatment of the protein followed up to 85 degrees C by circular dichroism showed a very limited unfolding, which was recovered after cooling to 20 degrees C, indicating a high thermal stability. These results suggest that rproBnIb, as other 2S albumins, may be able to reach the gut immune system intact. A comparison of the putative epitopes against IgE antibodies of the three members of the prolamine family [2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors] indicates that there are not common surfaces of interaction with IgE. Though the epitopes appear to be located in different regions of the proteins, they do comply with the requirements of being solvent-exposed and flexible.

  3. Characterization of mustard 2S albumin allergens by bottom-up, middle-down, and top-down proteomics: a consensus set of isoforms of Sin a 1.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The mustard allergen Sin a 1 belongs to the 2S-albumin family of seed-storage proteins. Because of its high abundance in mustard seeds and the potential to elicit severe allergenic reactions, Sin a 1 is considered to be a major allergen in mustard. Eight Sin a 1 isoforms have been identified using DNA cloning and sequencing, and we aim in this study to thoroughly investigate sequence heterogeneity using a novel combination of bottom-up, middle-down, and top-down proteomics. The characterization of purified Sin a 1 extract shows that sequence diversity is far more pronounced than previously assumed. We identified in total 24 sequence polymorphisms including 17 yet unpublished point mutations. Using middle-down and top-down approaches on the subunit and protein level of Sin a 1, we were able to detect eight consensus isoforms of Sin a 1(including four novel isoforms), which we detect in the majority of the four different mustard samples included in this study. In addition, we provide for the first time data on relative abundance of the main Sin a 1 isoforms and identify phytic acid as a potential ligand of Sin a 1. Together, these data can form the basis for a more detailed investigation of the effect of Sin a 1 polymorphic sites on allergenicity of isoforms. PMID:25660635

  4. Albumin-Mediated Biomineralization of Paramagnetic NIR Ag2S QDs for Tiny Tumor Bimodal Targeted Imaging in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Hao, Guangyu; Yao, Chenfei; Yu, Jiani; Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Bingbo

    2016-07-01

    Bimodal imaging has captured increasing interests due to its complementary characteristics of two kinds of imaging modalities. Among the various dual-modal imaging techniques, MR/fluorescence imaging has been widely studied owing to its high 3D resolution and sensitivity. There is, however, still a strong demand to construct biocompatible MR/fluorescence contrast agents with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent emissions and high relaxivities. In this study, BSA-DTPA(Gd) derived from bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a novel kind of biotemplate is employed for biomineralization of paramagnetic NIR Ag2S quantum dots (denoted as Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs). This synthetic strategy is found to be bioinspired, environmentally benign, and straightforward. The obtained Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs have fine sizes (ca. 6 nm) and good colloidal stability. They exhibit unabated NIR fluorescent emission (ca. 790 nm) as well as high longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 12.6 mM(-1) s(-1)) compared to that of commercial Magnevist (r1 = 3.13 mM(-1) s(-1)). In vivo tumor-bearing MR and fluorescence imaging both demonstrate that Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs have pronounced tiny tumor targeting capability. In vitro and in vivo toxicity study show Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs are biocompatible. Also, biodistribution analysis indicates they can be cleared from body mainly via liver metabolism. This protein-mediated biomineralized Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs presents great potential as a novel bimodal imaging contrast agent for tiny tumor diagnosis. PMID:27300300

  5. The vacuolar targeting signal of the 2S albumin from Brazil nut resides at the C terminus and involves the C-terminal propeptide as an essential element.

    PubMed Central

    Saalbach, G; Rosso, M; Schumann, U

    1996-01-01

    Genetic constructs in which different N- and C-terminal segments of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) 2S albumin were fused to secretory yeast invertase were transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants to investigate the vacuolar targeting signal of the 2S albumin. None of the N-terminal segments, including the complete precursor containing all propeptides, was able to direct the invertase to the vacuoles. However, a short C-terminal segment comprising the last 20 amino acids of the precursor was sufficient for efficient targeting of yeast invertase to the vacuoles of the transformed tobacco plants. Further analyses showed that peptides of 16 and 13 amino acids of the C-terminal segment were still sufficient, although they had slightly lower efficiency. When segments of 9 amino acids or shorter were analyzed, a decrease to approximately 30% was observed. These segments included the C-terminal propeptide of four amino acids (Ile-Ala-Gly-Phe). When the 2S albumin was expressed in tobacco, it was also localized to the vacuoles of mesophyll cells. If the C-terminal propeptide was deleted from the 2S albumin precursor, all of this truncated 2S albumin was secreted from the tobacco cells. These results indicate that the C-terminal propeptide is necessary but not sufficient for vacuolar targeting. In addition, an adjacent segment of at least 12 amino acids of the mature protein is needed to form the complete signal for efficient targeting. PMID:8938406

  6. Albumins, glyoxysomal enzymes and globulins in dry seeds of cucumis sativus: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Köller, W; Frevert, J; Kindl, H

    1979-02-01

    1) Albumins and globulins were prepared from dry seeds of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) by differential extraction. The globulin fraction was analyzed by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions in the presence and absence of mercaptoethanol. The subunit (Mr = 54000) of the tetramer (Mr = 240000) was shown to be composed of two different peptides. Microheterogeneity rendered the exact interpretation of the analysis difficult. 2) Glyoxysomal proteins were already present in dry seeds: malate synthase, isocitrate lyase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, catalase and crotonase could be detected unequivocally. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic and immunological properties of malate synthase and isocitrate lyase were not distinguishable from that of enzymes assigned to glyoxysomes of fully developed cotyledons. 3) Homogenates prepared from seeds by cautious cell disintegration were subjected to sucrose density gradient centrifugation and yielded microbody and protein body fractions, among other things.

  7. Metabolic pathways in tropical dicotyledonous albuminous seeds: Coffea arabica as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Joët, Thierry; Laffargue, Andréina; Salmona, Jordi; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Descroix, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; de Kochko, Alexandre; Dussert, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    The genomic era facilitates the understanding of how transcriptional networks are interconnected to program seed development and filling. However, to date, little information is available regarding dicot seeds with a transient perisperm and a persistent, copious endosperm. Coffea arabica is the subject of increasing genomic research and is a model for nonorthodox albuminous dicot seeds of tropical origin. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of the main coffee seed storage compounds, namely cell wall polysaccharides, triacylglycerols, sucrose, and chlorogenic acids. For this purpose, we integrated transcriptomic and metabolite analyses, combining real-time RT-PCR performed on 137 selected genes (of which 79 were uncharacterized in Coffea) and metabolite profiling. Our map-drawing approach derived from model plants enabled us to propose a rationale for the peculiar traits of the coffee endosperm, such as its unusual fatty acid composition, remarkable accumulation of chlorogenic acid and cell wall polysaccharides. Comparison with the developmental features of exalbuminous seeds described in the literature revealed that the two seed types share important regulatory mechanisms for reserve biosynthesis, independent of the origin and ploidy level of the storage tissue. PMID:19207685

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the role of K2S in MHD hot stream seed recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. E.; Kohl, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for recent analytical and experimental studies of the role of K2S in MHD hot stream seed recovery. The existing thermodynamic data base was found to contain large uncertainties and to be nonexistent for vapor phase K2S. Knudsen cell mass spectrometric experiments were undertaken to determine the vapor species in equilibrium with K2S(c). K atoms and S2 molecules ere found to be the major vapor phase species in vacuum, accounting for greater than 99 percent of the vapor phase. Combustion gas deposition studies using No. 2 Diesel fuel were also undertaken and revealed that condensed phase K2SO3 may potentially be an important compound in the MHD stream at near-stoichiometric combustion.

  9. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  10. Expression of Jug r 1, the 2S albumin allergen from walnut (Juglans regia), as a correctly folded and functional recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Rancé, Fabienne; Didier, Alain; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Jug r 1, the 2S albumin allergen from walnut, was isolated from ripe nuts as a native allergen and expressed in Escherichia coli using the Gateway technology as a recombinant allergen. The recombinant Jug r 1 (15 kDa) differs from the native allergen by the absence of cleavage of the polypeptide chain in two covalently associated light (3.5 kDa) and heavy (8 kDa) chains. Recombinant rJug r 1 adopts the canonical alpha-helical fold of plant 2S albumins as checked on CD spectra. Four IgE-binding epitopic stretches were identified along the amino acid sequence of Jug r 1 and localized on the molecular surface of the modeled allergen. Both native and recombinant allergens exhibit similar IgE-binding activity and similarly trigger the degranulation of a FcepsilonRI-expressing rat basophilic leukaemia cell line previously treated by IgE-containing sera. Native Jug r 1 resists to heat denaturation and to the proteolytic attack of trypsin and chymotrypsin but is readily hydrolyzed in the presence of pepsin at acidic pH after 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C in vitro. Recombinant Jug r 1 could be used for a component-resolved diagnosis of food-allergy.

  11. Controllable synthesis and adjustable antineoplastic activity of bovine serum albumin-conjugated PbS/Ag2S core/shell nano-composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Cao, Ying; Zhou, Bei; Wang, Cai-Feng

    2012-08-01

    Series of mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated PbS/Ag(2)S core/shell nano-composites with different Pb/Ag ratios had been successfully synthesized by an ion-exchange method under the gentle conditions using BSA-conjugated PbS nano-crystals as precursors, which were prepared by a biomimetic method. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation demonstrated that BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and size of final products. Additionally, the real-time TEM observation, X-ray powder diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis were applied to monitor the synthesis process. The results indicated that the shell thickness and ratio of Pb to Ag could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. Both metabolic and morphological methods revealed that the proliferation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells could be inhibited by BSA-conjugated PbS/Ag(2)S core/shell nano-composites, and the antineoplastic activity was Pb/Ag ratio-dependent. It might be explained by a Trojan horse-type mechanism. Summarily, the present study would be helpful to find a new core/shell nano-composite with higher and controllable antineoplastic activity due to the synergistic reaction of different metal ions.

  12. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  13. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, John D

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  14. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-01-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge. PMID:3972438

  15. Effects of multiple oral dosing on IgE synthesis in mice: oral sensitization by albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) containing lectins.

    PubMed

    Restum-Miguel, N; Prouvost-Danon, A

    1985-03-01

    The IgE antibody response was studied in DBA/2 mice; the mice were pretreated orally with albumin extracts from seeds of Jack fruit (Jackalbumin) and subsequently immunized subcutaneously with Jackalbumin mixed with ovalbumin (OA) and a synthetic adjuvant, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). The allergenicity of Jackalbumin was evaluated by its capacity to induce a specific IgE response which was measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and by degranulation of washed peritoneal mast cells following antigen challenge (Jackalbumin or OA). Antibody against the crude extracts and anti-lectin (FIISP) IgE responses were also tested by PCA. After being fed eight doses of 1 mg Jackalbumin, DBA/2 mice became immunized: i.e. specific IgE antibody responses were observed and the peritoneal mast cells became sensitized. An increase in IgE response was verified in mice that were pre-fed and subsequently immunized. The results indicated that: the albumin extracts from Jack seeds, containing lectins, can be allergenic by the oral route; multiple oral doses with these extracts can induce an enhancement of the IgE response on subsequent subcutaneous immunization; antigenically, Jackalbumin does not seem to cross-react with OA; the lectins contained in the albumin fraction from Artocarpus seeds were also shown to be allergenic; the IgE titres showed an inverse correlation to the degree of purification of the lectin used for PCA challenge.

  16. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a variety of conditions in addition to malnutrition , a decrease in albumin needs to be evaluated ... can also be seen in inflammation , shock, and malnutrition . They may be seen with conditions in which ...

  17. Optical background emission and structure in fuel/air flames seeded with diethyl sulfide, (C2H5)2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Theodore D., III; Fay, Ann K.; Trees, D.; Seshadri, K.; Lund, K.

    1996-11-01

    The future need of safe disposal of chemical warfare agents and the increasing use of sulfur rich fuels make a quantitative understanding of the chemical reactions of similar containing compounds and their monitoring necessary. This report describes observations of the spectral emissions from the combustion of two different diffusion flames in a Seshadri type counterflow burner. These CH4/air and H2/air diffusion flames show almost identical flame structures in filtered CID camera and unfiltered color film pictures. Both display techniques show a single flame structure which is brightest in the near infrared. This structure exists as a thin band on the air inlet side of the burner close to the stagnation region. The location and spectral dependence of this radiation suggests spontaneous emission from vibration/rotation bands of the OH, e.g. the (3,0) lines centered at 950 nm and (4,0) lines at 730 nm. To explore the effects of sulfur containing hydrocarbons on the flame, (C2H5)2S was added to the inlet air stream. The sulfur containing flames (with both CH4 and H2 as fuel) show the same emission bands as the unseeded flames with significant increases in spectral emission with increasing concentration of (C2H5)2S in the oxidizer. As the mole fraction of (C2H5)2S in air is increased from 0.3% to 2.0%, four new spectral bands successively appear, progressing from the stagnation region to the air inlet. Each of these thin bands radiates in the blue, i.e. wavelengths shorter than 500 nm. A single thin band close to the stagnation region increases with the (C2H5)2S mole fraction and may be due to SH or SH2 emissions. Radiation from the other three thin layers (about 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm on the air inlet side) all increase with increasing (C2H5)2S concentration. Consequently, they may be typical sulfur combustion products, such as CS, CS2 or SO2. At selected (C2H5)2S concentrations, a bright red band appears, possibly S2 emission.

  18. Detection of sesame seed DNA in foods using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2007-04-01

    The detection of potentially allergenic foods, such as sesame seeds, in food products is a major concern for the food-processing industry. A real-time PCR method was designed to determine if sesame seed DNA is present in food products. The PCR reaction amplifies a 66-bp fragment of the sesame seed 2S albumin gene, which is detected with a sesame-specific, dual-labeled TaqMan probe. This reaction will not amplify DNA derived from other seeds present in baked goods, such as pumpkin, poppy, and sunflower seeds. Additionally, this assay will not cross-react with DNA from several tree nut species, such as almond, Brazil nut, cashew, hazelnut, and walnut, as well as four varieties of peanut. This assay is sensitive enough to detect 5 pg of purified sesame seed DNA, as well as sesame seed DNA in a spiked wheat cracker sample.

  19. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  20. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  1. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. PMID:26152712

  2. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Chengxiang; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chew, Fook Tim; Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Seed storage reserves mainly consist of starch, triacylglycerols, and storage proteins. They not only provide energy for seed germination and seedling establishment, but also supply essential dietary nutrients for human beings and animals. So far, the regulatory networks that govern the accumulation of seed storage reserves in plants are still largely unknown. Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an important role in mediating the accumulation of seed storage reserves in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The dry weight of ttg1-1 embryos significantly increases compared with that of wild-type embryos, which is accompanied by an increase in the contents of starch, total protein, and fatty acids in ttg1-1 seeds. FUSCA3 (FUS3), a master regulator of seed maturation, binds directly to the TTG1 genomic region and suppresses TTG1 expression in developing seeds. TTG1 negatively regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins partially through transcriptional repression of 2S3, a gene encoding a 2S albumin precursor. TTG1 also indirectly suppresses the expression of genes involved in either seed development or synthesis/modification of fatty acids in developing seeds. In addition, we demonstrate that the maternal allele of the TTG1 gene suppresses the accumulation of storage proteins and fatty acids in seeds. Our results suggest that TTG1 is a direct target of FUS3 in the framework of the regulatory hierarchy controlling seed filling and regulates the accumulation of seed storage proteins and fatty acids during the seed maturation process. PMID:26152712

  3. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  4. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  5. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions for which the test may be performed: Burns (widespread) Wilson disease If you are receiving large amounts of intravenous fluids, the result of this test may be inaccurate. Albumin will be decreased during pregnancy.

  6. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  7. [Albumin in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Tamion, F

    2010-09-01

    Human serum albumin is a small (66kD) globular protein representing over 60 % of the total plasma protein content. It is made up of 585 amino 6 acids and contains 35 cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges that contribute to its overall tertiary structure. It has a free cysteine-derived thiol group at Cys-34, which accounts for 80 % of its redox activity. Physiologically, serum albumin exists in a reduced form with a free thiol contributing to its antioxidant properties. It is synthesized primarily in the liver and is an acute-phase protein. It is a multifunctional plasma protein ascribed ligand-binding and transport properties as well as antioxidants and enzymatic functions. It maintains colloid osmotic pressure, modulates inflammatory response and may influence oxidative damage. Hypoalbuminemia is common in the intensive care unit and may be due to decreased synthesis by the liver and/or to increased losses or increased proteolysis and clearance. Although albumin was long used to control vascular collapse in critically ill patients, the evidence suggests that it does not offer a benefit over crystalloid solutions in vascular collapse. However, human serum albumin is an important circulating antioxidant and it may be beneficial in critically ill patients to limit oxidative damage. A number of studies suggest that in specific groups of hypoalbuminemic critically ill patients, albumin administration may have beneficial effects on organ function, although the exact mechanisms remain undefined. Further trials are needed to confirm theses observations and to clearly demonstrate whether albumin should be administered in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia. PMID:20675098

  8. Transendothelial albumin flux: evidence against active transport of albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors studied whether albumin is actively transported across cultured pulmonary endothelium by comparing the transendothelial flux of /sup 125/I-albumin from the luminal-to-abluminal side to the flux from the abluminal-to-luminal side. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatinized polycarbonated filters separating abluminal from luminal compartments. Each compartment had an albumin concentration of 1 g/100 ml to equalize oncotic pressure gradients. The effect of hydrostatic pressure was eliminated by maintaining an equal level of fluid in both compartments. The transendothelial flux of albumin across the monolayer was measured by placing /sup 125/I-albumin tracer either on the luminal or the abluminal side. Equal fluxes of /sup 125/I-albumin from luminal-to-abluminal side and from abluminal-to-luminal side were observed. The results indicate that the pulmonary endothelium behaves symmetrically for albumin, indicating the absence of active transport of albumin.

  9. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  10. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  11. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  12. Albumins and their processing machinery are hijacked for cyclic peptides in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Mylne, Joshua S; Colgrave, Michelle L; Daly, Norelle L; Chanson, Aurelie H; Elliott, Alysha G; McCallum, Emily J; Jones, Alun; Craik, David J

    2011-05-01

    The cyclic peptide sunflower trypsin inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1) blocks trypsin and is a promising drug lead and protein engineering scaffold. We show that SFTI-1 and the newfound SFT-L1 are buried within PawS1 and PawS2, precursors for seed storage protein albumins. Proalbumins are matured by asparaginyl endopeptidase, which we show is required to liberate both ends of SFTI-1 as well as to mature PawS1 albumin. Thus, these peptides emerge from within an albumin precursor by the action of albumin's own processing enzyme.

  13. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO2−4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO2−4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously. PMID:25914702

  14. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO(2-) 4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO(2-) 4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  15. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO(2-) 4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO(2-) 4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously. PMID:25914702

  16. Expression of Differentiated Functions in Hepatoma Cell Hybrids: High Frequency of Induction of Mouse Albumin Production in Rat Hepatoma-Mouse Lymphoblast Hybrids*

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; Weiss, Mary C.

    1974-01-01

    We have studied the production of serum albumin by somatic hybrids between well-differentiated 2s and 1s rat hepatoma cells (Faza), which produce serum albumin, and sub-diploid mouse leukemic lymphoblasts (Lc), which do not produce albumin. We determined the rat or mouse origin of the albumin by double immunodiffusion, using immuno-adsorbed noncrossreacting antisera. Each of 12 karyologically identified 2s hybrid clones (Lc2F) produces both rat and mouse albumin. Moreover, unlike 1s hybrids reported previously, eight of nine 1s hybrids (LcF) also produce mouse albumin; six of them produce rat albumin as well. One clone from the 1s cross produces only rat albumin. Images PMID:4362639

  17. Proteomic identification of allergenic seed proteins, napin and cruciferin, from cold-pressed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed

    Puumalainen, T J; Puustinen, A; Poikonen, S; Turjanmaa, K; Palosuo, T; Vaali, K

    2015-05-15

    In Finland and France atopic children commonly react to seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape in skin prick tests (SPT) and open food challenges. These seeds are not as such in dietary use and therefore the routes of sensitization are unknown. Possible allergens were extracted from commercial cold-pressed and refined rapeseed oils and identified by gel-based tandem nanoflow liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Napin (a 2S albumin), earlier identified as a major allergen in the seeds of oilseed rape and turnip rape, and cruciferin (an 11S globulin), a new potential seed allergen, were detected in cold-pressed oils, but not in refined oils. Pooled sera from five children sensitized or allergic to oilseed rape and turnip rape seeds reacted to these proteins from cold-pressed oil preparations and individual sera from five children reacted to these proteins extracted from the seeds when examined with IgE immunoblotting. Hence cold-pressed rapeseed oil might be one possible route of sensitization for these allergens.

  18. Accumulation and degradation of thiamin-binding protein and level of thiamin in wheat seeds during seed maturation and germination.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Katsumi; Nishida, Naoko; Adachi, Takashi; Ueda, Motoko; Mitsunaga, Toshio; Kawamura, Yukio

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the levels of thiamin-binding globulin and thiamin in wheat seeds during maturation and germination were studied. The thiamin-binding activity of the seed proteins increased with seed development after flowering. The thiamin content of the seeds also increased with development. Thiamin-binding activity decreased during seed germination. On the other hand, immunological analysis using an antibody directed against the thiamin-binding protein isolated from wheat seeds showed that the thiamin-binding globulin accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds during maturation, and then the protein was degraded and disappeared during seed germination. These results suggested that the thiamin-binding globulin of wheat seeds was synthesized and accumulated in the aleurone layer of the seeds with seed development, similar to the thiamin-binding albumin in sesame seeds, and that thiamin bound to the thiamin-binding globulin in the dormant wheat seeds for germ growth during germination.

  19. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  20. Effects of pH on protein components of extracted oil bodies from diverse plant seeds and endogenous protease-induced oleosin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Chen, Yajing; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2016-06-01

    Plant seeds are used to extract oil bodies for diverse applications, but oil bodies extracted at different pH values exhibit different properties. Jicama, sunflower, peanut, castor bean, rapeseed, and sesame were selected to examine the effects of pH (6.5-11.0) on the protein components of oil bodies and the oleosin hydrolysis in pH 6.5-extracted oil bodies. In addition to oleosins, many extrinsic proteins (globulins, 2S albumin, and enzymes) were present in pH 6.5-extracted oil bodies. Globulins were mostly removed at pH 8.0, whereas 2S albumins were removed at pH 11.0. At pH 11.0, highly purified oil bodies were obtained from jicama, sunflower, peanut, and sesame, whereas lipase remained in the castor bean oil bodies and many enzymes in the rapeseed oil bodies. Endogenous protease-induced hydrolysis of oleosins occurred in all selected plant seeds. Oleosins with larger sizes were hydrolysed more quickly than oleosins with smaller sizes in each plant seed.

  1. Effective selenium detoxification in the seed proteins of a hyperaccumulator plant: the analysis of selenium-containing proteins of monkeypot nut (Lecythis minor) seeds.

    PubMed

    Németh, Anikó; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    A shotgun proteomic approach was applied to characterize the selenium (Se)-containing proteins of the selenium hyperaccumulator monkeypot nut (Lecythis minor) seeds. The exceptionally high Se content (>4,000 mg kg(-1)) of the sample enabled a straightforward procedure without the need for multiple preconcentration and fractionation steps. The proteins identified were sulfur-rich seed proteins, namely, 11S globulin (Q84ND2), 2S albumin (B6EU54), 2S sulfur-rich seed storage proteins (P04403 and P0C8Y8) and a 11S globulin-like protein (A0EM48). Database directed search for theoretically selenium-containing peptides was assisted by manual spectra evaluation to achieve around 25% coverage on sulfur analogues. Remarkable detoxification mechanisms on the proteome level were revealed in the form of multiple selenomethionine-methionine substitution and the lack of selenocysteine residues. The degree of selenomethionine substitution could be characterized by an exponential function that implies the inhibition of protein elongation by selenomethionine. Our results contribute to the deeper understanding of selenium detoxification procedures in hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:25373701

  2. Purification and characterization of moschins, arginine-glutamate-rich proteins with translation-inhibiting activity from brown pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Parkash, A; Tso, W W

    2002-10-01

    From fresh brown pumpkin seeds, two proteins with a molecular mass of 12kDa and an N-terminal sequence rich in arginine and glutamate residues were obtained. The protein designated alpha-moschin closely resembled the fruitfly programmed-cell death gene product and the protein designated beta-moschin demonstrated striking similarity to prepro 2S albumin in N-terminal sequence. alpha- and beta-moschins inhibited translation in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 17 microM and 300nM, respectively.

  3. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  4. Albumin receptor effect may be due to a surface-induced conformational change in albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.G.; Burrington, C.M.

    1989-06-15

    To determine whether equilibrium binding between albumin and hepatocytes involves a cell surface receptor for albumin, we incubated freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with /sup 125/I-albumin and determined the amount of albumin associated with the cells as a function of the total albumin concentration. The resulting two-phase binding curve showed the rat albumin-hepatocyte interaction to consist of a saturable binding interaction with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microM and 2 X 10(6) sites/cell in addition to a weak, nonsaturable binding interaction. However, the saturable binding of albumin to hepatocytes did not appear to result from the presence of an albumin receptor on the cell surface; the interaction was the same for different species of albumin, for chemically modified albumins, and for fragments of albumin representing mutually exclusive domains of the molecule. The saturable binding was, instead, found to involve a subpopulation of albumin with an enhanced affinity for the cell surface. We show that this subpopulation of albumin is generated upon contact with either solid surfaces or cell surfaces and can be transferred from one surface to another. We propose that the two-phase Scatchard binding curve and the ''albumin receptor effect'' reflect two populations of albumin that bind to the cell surface with different affinities rather than one population of albumin that binds to two classes of binding sites.

  5. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  6. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  7. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions.

  8. Albumin fiber scaffolds for engineering functional cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Sharon; Shapira, Assaf; Regev, Omri; Nseir, Nora; Zussman, Eyal; Dvir, Tal

    2014-06-01

    In recent years attempts to engineer contracting cardiac patches were focused on recapitulation of the myocardium extracellular microenvironment. We report here on our work, where for the first time, a three-dimensional cardiac patch was fabricated from albumin fibers. We hypothesized that since albumin fibers' mechanical properties resemble those of cardiac tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) and their biochemical character enables their use as protein carriers, they can support the assembly of cardiac tissues capable of generating strong contraction forces. Here, we have fabricated aligned and randomly oriented electrospun albumin fibers and investigated their structure, mechanical properties, and chemical nature. Our measurements showed that the scaffolds have improved elasticity as compared to synthetic electrospun PCL fibers, and that they are capable of adsorbing serum proteins, such as laminin leading to strong cell-matrix interactions. Moreover, due to the functional groups on their backbone, the fibers can be chemically modified with essential biomolecules. When seeded with rat neonatal cardiac cells the engineered scaffolds induced the assembly of aligned cardiac tissues with high aspect ratio cardiomyocytes and massive actinin striation. Compared to synthetic fibrous scaffolds, cardiac cells cultured within aligned or randomly oriented scaffolds formed functional tissues, exhibiting significantly improved function already on Day 3, including higher beating rate (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively), and higher contraction amplitude (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively). Collectively, our results suggest that albumin electrospun scaffolds can play a key role in contributing to the ex vivo formation of a contracting cardiac muscle tissue.

  9. [Metabolic control of seed germination].

    PubMed

    Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time.

  10. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  11. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    PubMed

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed. PMID:24354916

  12. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  13. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  14. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  15. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  16. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  17. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  18. Cell micropatterning on an albumin-based substrate using an inkjet printing technique.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2009-12-15

    Positioning of cells in a desired pattern on a substrate is an important technique for cell-based technologies, including the fundamental investigation of cell functions, tissue-engineering applications, and the fabrication of cell-based biosensors and cell arrays. Recently, the inkjet printing technique was recognized as a promising approach to the creation of cellular patterns on substrates, and it has been achieved by the printing of living cells or cell adhesive proteins. In this article, we created complex cellular patterns by using an albumin-based substrate and inkjet printing technique. Albumin was cross-linked using ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. Subsequent casting of the cross-linked albumin solution onto glass plates prevented cells from adhering to their surfaces. Through screening various chemical reagents, we found that these cross-linked albumin surfaces dramatically changed into cell adhesive surfaces after immersion in cationic polymer solutions. Based on this finding, cell adhesive regions were prepared with a desired pattern by printing the polyethyleneimine (PEI) solution onto a cross-linked albumin substrate using a modified commercial inkjet printer. Various cellular patterns including figures, letters, and gradients could be fabricated by seeding mouse L929 fibroblast cells or mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells onto the printed PEI-patterned substrate. Compared with the printing of fragile living cells or proteins, printing of stable PEI circumvents clogging of printer head nozzles and enables reproducible printing. Therefore, the present method will allow the creation of complex cell patterns.

  19. Serum albumin and risk of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron. R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Summary The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in patients with albuminuria. However, whether a low serum albumin concentration is associated with increased risk of VTE has been a matter of controversy. We determined the association of serum albumin with VTE incidence in two large, prospective, population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n = 15,300) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (n = 5,400). Validated VTE occurrence (n=462 in ARIC and n=174 in CHS) was ascertained during follow-up. In both studies, after adjustment for age, sex, race, use of hormone replacement therapy, estimated GFR, history of cancer, and diabetes, serum albumin tended to be associated inversely with VTE. The adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation lower albumin was 1.18 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.31) in ARIC and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.29) in CHS. The hazard ratio for albumin below (versus above) the fifth percentile was 1.28 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.84) in ARIC and 1.80 (95% CI = 1.11, 2.93) in CHS. In conclusion, low serum albumin was a modest marker of increased VTE risk. The observed association likely does not reflect cause and effect, but rather that low serum albumin reflects a hyperinflammatory or hypercoagulable state. Whether this association has clinical relevance warrants further study. PMID:20390234

  20. [At what concentration should albumin be prescribed?].

    PubMed

    Mantz, J

    1996-01-01

    Human albumin is available either as a 4 or a 20% solution. Only the latter is a plasma expander which increases volaemia by an amount corresponding to the four-fold of the infused volume. In addition, the sodium load by the latter per gramme of albumin is five times lower as both solutions have the same sodium content. Therefore, when the administration of albumin is indicated, the 20% solution should be preferred, as well as for volume expansion as for other uses, due to a decreased sodium load. However, this recommendation has not been substantiated by comparative studies.

  1. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  2. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  3. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  4. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  5. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Using Real-Time PCR in Tung Tree during Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaojiao; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Yicun; Zhan, Zhiyong; Cui, Qinqin; Wang, Yangdong

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an accurate and widely used technique to analyze expression levels of selected genes. It is very necessary to select appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of 11 reference genes including eight traditional housekeeping genes and three novel genes in different tissues/organs and developing seeds from four cultivars of tung tree. All 11 reference genes showed a wide range of Ct values in all samples, indicating that they differently expressed. Three softwares – geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper – were used to determine the stability of these references except for ALB (2S albumin), which presented a little divergence. The results from the three softwares showed that ACT7 (Actin7a), UBQ (Ubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and EF1α (elongation factor 1-α) were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested tung samples and tung developing seeds, while ALB (2S albumin) was unsuitable as internal controls. ACT7, EF1β (elongation factor1-beta), GAPDH and TEF1 (transcription elongation factor 1) were the top four choices for different tissues/organs whereas LCR69 did not favor normalization of RT-qPCR in these tissues/organs. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of FAD2 and FADX were realized using stable reference genes. The relative quantification of the FAD2 and FADX genes varied according to the internal controls and the number of internal controls. The results further proved the importance of the choice of reference genes in the tung tree. These stable reference genes will be employed in normalization and quantification of transcript levels in future expression studies of tung genes. PMID:22912794

  6. Large fragments of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Geisow, M J; Beaven, G H

    1977-03-01

    Large fragments of human serum albumin were produced by treatment of the native protein with pepsin at pH3.5. Published sequences of human albumin [Behrens, Spiekerman & Brown (1975) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34, 591; Meloun, Moravek & Kostka (1975) FEBSLett.58, 134-137]were used to locate the fragments in the primary structure. The fragments support both the sequence and proposed disulphide-linkage pattern (Behrens et al., 1975). As the pH of a solution of albumin is lowered from pH4 to pH3.5, the protein undergoes a reversible conformational change known as the N-F transition. The distribution of large fragments of human albumin digested with pepsin in the above pH region was critically dependent on pH. It appeared that this distribution was dependent on the conformation of the protein at low pH, rather than the activity of pepsin. The yields of the large fragments produced by peptic digestion at different values of pH suggested that the C-terminal region of albumin unfolds or separates from the rest of the molecule during the N-F transition. The similarity of peptic fragments of human and bovine albumin produced under identical conditions supports the proposed similar tertiary structure of these molecules.

  7. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  8. Controlling H{sub 2}S emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    With its signature rotten egg smell, hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is not only odorous, but corrosive and toxic, too. It is produced naturally, by the anaerobic decomposition of sulfur-bearing materials, and synthetically, by a host of chemical process operations, including hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization and coking. Many processes have been developed to convert H{sub 2}S to innocuous forms, such as elemental sulfur and sulfates. Selecting the best one depends on the overall composition and variability of the gas stream, the concentration of H{sub 2}S present, and the absolute quantity of H{sub 2}S to be removed. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of seven H{sub 2}S removal systems. Described are: the Claus process, chemical oxidants, caustic scrubbers, adsorption, H{sub 2}S scavengers, amine absorption units, and liquid-phase oxidation systems.

  9. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  10. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  11. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  12. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  13. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  14. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-03-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin (/sup 32/P)cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements.

  15. Human podocytes perform polarized, caveolae-dependent albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Okamura, Kayo; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Doctor, R Brian; Blaine, Judith

    2014-05-01

    The renal glomerulus forms a selective filtration barrier that allows the passage of water, ions, and small solutes into the urinary space while restricting the passage of cells and macromolecules. The three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier include the vascular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocyte epithelium. Podocytes are capable of internalizing albumin and are hypothesized to clear proteins that traverse the GBM. The present study followed the fate of FITC-labeled albumin to establish the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis and processing by podocytes. Confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of immortalized human podocytes showed FITC-albumin endocytosis occurred preferentially across the basal membrane. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis demonstrated that the majority of FITC-albumin entered podocytes through caveolae. Once internalized, FITC-albumin colocalized with EEA1 and LAMP1, endocytic markers, and with the neonatal Fc receptor, a marker for transcytosis. After preloading podocytes with FITC-albumin, the majority of loaded FITC-albumin was lost over the subsequent 60 min of incubation. A portion of the loss of albumin occurred via lysosomal degradation as pretreatment with leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, partially inhibited the loss of FITC-albumin. Consistent with transcytosis of albumin, preloaded podocytes also progressively released FITC-albumin into the extracellular media. These studies confirm the ability of podocytes to endocytose albumin and provide mechanistic insight into cellular mechanisms and fates of albumin handling in podocytes.

  16. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  17. Albumin extinction without methylation of its gene.

    PubMed

    Ott, M O; Sperling, L; Weiss, M C

    1984-03-01

    In earlier work we identified at the 5' end of the rat albumin gene an Msp I site whose undermethylation appears to be necessary but not sufficient for stable expression of the gene in rat hepatoma cells. Here, we ask whether the block to expression of albumin production, which occurs when rat hepatoma cells are hybridized with cells that do not produce the protein, could be the result of de novo methylation of this site. In two types of somatic hybrids, rat hepatoma-mouse L cell fibroblasts, and rat hepatoma-dedifferentiated variant rat hepatoma cells, extinction occurs and is maintained during the first 5-15 generations after fusion. During this time the Msp I site of the now inactive rat albumin gene remained unmethylated.

  18. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  19. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  20. Centrifugal partition chromatography as a tool for preparative purification of pea albumin with enhanced yields.

    PubMed

    Bérot, Serge; Le Goff, Elisabeth; Foucault, Alain; Quillien, Laurence

    2007-01-15

    A new procedure including the use of centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is proposed to purify PA1b and its isoforms. These pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed proteins are toxic against weevils and can be used as an environment-friendly insecticide. CPC was applied to a whole albumin fraction prepared from pea flour. The butanol:aqueous TFA system used in CPC allowed the separation of PA1b from other albumins and a degree of purification above 95%. Compared to analytical procedures based on methanol extraction, anion exchange and then reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), CPC recovered PA1b in much better yield, which is indispensable for large-scale purification of a biodegradable insecticide.

  1. Alkaline biofiltration of H2S odors.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very common odor nuisance which is best controlled by chemical or biological scrubbing. Under alkaline pH, the amount of H2S that can be solubilized in a scrubbing liquid increases significantly, and therefore, gas-liquid mass transfer limitations can be reduced. To date, biological scrubbing of H2S has been limited to neutral or acidic pH, despite the potential benefit of reduced mass transfer limitations at alkaline pH. In the present paper, an alkaliphilic sulfoxidizing bacterial consortium was deployed in a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter treating H2S at pH 10. The gas contact time ranged from 1 to 6 s, and H2S inlet concentrations, from 2.5 to 18 ppm(v). The results showed that under most conditions, H2S removal exceeded 98% and the degradation end-product was sulfate. At the highest H2S concentrations and shortest gas contacttimes, when the loading exceeded 30 g m(-3) h(-1), the H2S removal efficiency decreased significantly due to biological reaction limitation, and incompletely oxidized sulfides were measured in the trickling liquid. An analysis of the process demonstrated that operating the biotrickling filter at high pH results in an enhancement of the mass transfer by a factor of 1700-11 000. Overall, alkaline biotrickling filtration was shown to be very effective at low concentration of H2S and very short gas contact time. This is the first demonstration of a biotrickling filter for air pollution control operated at high pH.

  2. Green synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic, fluorescence and antimicrobial activities of Cochlospermum gossypium capped Ag2S nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ayodhya, Dasari; Veerabhadram, Guttena

    2016-04-01

    The study describes a simple and green method for the synthesis of silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S NPs) using gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) (GK). The synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, zeta potential and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The optical properties and quantum confinement effect of the products were confirmed by means of spectroscopic measurements. The morphologies and sizes were characterized by SEM and TEM. The Ag2S NPs were spherical in shape with an effective diameter size of 25 nm. The photocatalytic property of Ag2S NPs was evaluated by the degradation of fluorescein (FL) dye under solar light. The effect of Ag2SNPs on the photocatalytic degradation of FL dye and influence of other parameters such as Ag2S loading, H2O2, temperature and under solar light irradiation was also evaluated. The degradation reaction follows the pseudo-first order kinetics. The apparent reaction rate was used to calculate the apparent activation energy (Ea=13.95 kJ/mol) of the degradation process. The activation thermodynamic parameters (ΔG*, ΔH* and ΔS*) were obtained from variable temperature kinetic studies. The interaction between Ag2S NPs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by using fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. The synthesized Ag2S NPs were showing good antimicrobial activity.

  3. Trajectories of Serum Albumin Predict Survival of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Lin; Yang, Tse-Yen; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Lin; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although initial serum albumin level is highly associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we consider that the dynamic change and trend of albumin after initiation of PD are also essential. We enrolled patients who received PD for more than 3 months from January 1999 to March 2014. We categorized these patients into 2 groups by the difference in serum albumin level (Δalbumin = difference between peak with initial albumin level = peak albumin level − initial albumin level) after PD. The patients with Δalbumin < 0.2 g/dL (median level) were considered as group A (n, number = 238) and those with Δalbumin ≥ 0.2 g/dL were considered as group B (n = 278). Further, we stratified these patients into quartiles: Q1 Δalbumin < −0.2 g/dL; Q2, −0.2 ≦∼ <0.2 g/dL; Q3, 0.2 ≦∼ <0.6 g/dL; and Q4, ≥0.6 g/dL. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of initial albumin and Δalbumin. Group A patients presented with higher levels of serum albumin (3.71 ± 0.54 vs 3.04 ± 0.55 g/dL; P < 0.001) and hematocrit as well as better initial residual renal function. However, those in group A had lower serum albumin increment and downward-sloped trends after dialysis. In contrast, the albumin trend was upward sloped and the increment of albumin was remarkable in group B, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Overtime, group A patients had poorer survival and experienced more frequent and longer hospitalizations. Group Q1 patients with least albumin increment had worst survival. Group Q4 patients with lowest initial albumin also had poor survival. Age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, BMI, initial albumin, and Δalbumin could affect patient outcomes independently. Regression analysis showed a better outcome can be obtained if the initial albumin level is at least above 3.15 g/dL. (Initial albumin level

  4. Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.

    2000-11-01

    An updated thermodynamic database for Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3 sulfides and sulfosalts applicable to temperatures above 119°C is developed to calculate phase relations for polybasite-pearceite- and fahlore-bearing assemblages. It is based on pre-existing and new constraints on activity-composition, Ag-Cu and As-Sb partitioning, and other relations, and on experiments (200-300°C, evacuated silica tubes) conducted to define the stability of the polybasite-pearceite [(Ag 1- x,Cu x) 16(Sb 1- y,As y) 2S 11] + ZnS sphalerite assemblage with respect to assemblages containing (Ag,Cu) 2S sulfides coexisting with (Cu, Ag) 10Zn 2(Sb,As) 4S 13 fahlore sulfosalts. It was found that the thermodynamics of mixing of bcc- and hcp-(Ag,Cu) 2S solutions, which are fast-ion conductors, may be described by using site multiplicities of metals α Ag,Cu > 2 and temperature-dependent regular solution parameters. We obtained estimates for the Gibbs energies of formation for Ag 16Sb 2S 11 and Cu 16Sb 2S 11 polybasite endmembers from the simple sulfides (Ag 2S, Cu 2S, and Sb 2S 3) of -30.79 and -4.07 kJ/gfw at 200°C, and -32.04 and -0.59 kJ/gfw at 400°C, respectively, that are about one half kJ/gfw more positive and about 6 kJ/gfw more negative than those estimated by Harlov and Sack (1995b). The corresponding estimates for formation energies of Ag 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13 and Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13 fahlores (-20.29 and -105.29 kJ/gfw at 200°C and -23.72 and -105.76 kJ/gfw at 400°C) are comparable to, and roughly 110 kJ/gfw more positive than, the corresponding estimates of Ebel and Sack (1994). We also determined that the Gibbs energies of the As-Sb exchange reactions: 1/4Ag 10Zn2Sb4S13+1/2Ag 16As2S11=1/2Ag 16Sb2S11+1/4Ag 10Zn2As4S13Sb-fahlorepearceitepolybasiteAs-fahlore and Ag3SbS3+1/2Ag 16As2S11=1/2Ag 16Sb2S11+Ag3AsS3pyrargyritepearceitepolybasiteproustite are, respectively, 8.75 and 0.40 kJ/gfw in the range 150-350°C, and these predictions are consistent with As-Sb partitioning relations

  5. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-12-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  6. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. PMID:24952825

  7. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  8. Drug Delivery Vehicles Based on Albumin-Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Stenzel, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Albumin has been a popular building block to create nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes. The performance of albumin as a drug carrier can be enhanced by combining protein with polymers, which allows the design of carriers to encompass a broader spectrum of drugs while features unique to synthetic polymers such as stimuli-responsiveness are introduced. Nanoparticles based on polymer-albumin hybrids can be divided into two classes: one that carries album as a bioactive surface coating and the other that uses albumin as biocompatible, although nonbioactive, building block. Nanoparticles with bioactive albumin surface coating can either be prepared by self-assembly of albumin-polymer conjugates or by postcoating of existing nanoparticles with albumin. Albumin has also been used as building block, either in its native or denatured form. Existing albumin nanoparticles are coated with polymers, which can influence the degradation of albumin or impact on the drug release. Finally, an alternative way of using albumin by denaturing the protein to generate a highly functional chain, which can be modified with polymer, has been presented. These albumin nanoparticles are designed to be extremely versatile so that they can deliver a wide variety of drugs, including traditional hydrophobic drugs, metal-based drugs and even therapeutic proteins and siRNA.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040 Albumin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An albumin immunological test system is a device that consists...

  10. Uptake of oleate from albumin solutions by rat liver. Failure to detect catalysis of the dissociation of oleate from albumin by an albumin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Weisiger, R A; Ma, W L

    1987-01-01

    The hepatic removal of albumin-bound substances from plasma requires that they dissociate from albumin. Using indirect methods, we and others have proposed that dissociation may be catalyzed by interaction of albumin with the liver cell surface. This study looked for direct evidence of catalysis by comparing the rate of dissociation of oleate from albumin in vitro with the rate observed within the sinusoids of perfused rat liver. No evidence for catalysis was found. The rate of hepatic oleate removal from dilute albumin solutions did not exceed but instead closely paralleled the rate predicted from the in vitro dissociation rate constant (0.14s-1). These results suggest that under some conditions the liver can remove unbound material from the sinusoids faster than it can be replenished by dissociation from albumin, resulting in dissociation-limited removal. However, dissociation of oleate does not appear to be catalyzed by the liver. PMID:3031131

  11. [When should we give albumin in patients with cirrhosis?].

    PubMed

    Bochatay, L; Elkrief, L; Spahr, L

    2015-09-01

    The beneficial effects of the use of albumin, either alone or combines with other treat- ments, have been demonstrated in patients with various complications of cirrhosis. Therefore, albumin should be administred in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in association with antibiotics, and in association with terlipressin in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Albumin use reduces the occurrence of paracentesis-related circulatory dysfunction, in patients with large ascites undergoing paracentesis. So far, the beneficial effect of albumin has not been demonstrated, neither for infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis nor for hepatic encephalopathy. This article provides an overview of the data evaluating the effects of albumin in patients with cirrhosis.

  12. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships. PMID:22295174

  13. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  14. Albumin use is beneficial in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Faisal M; Marotta, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    There are several indications for the use of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and its role has existed in clinical practice for many decades. While the drug enjoys immense popularity, it yet attracts intensive debate amongst clinicians and pharmacologists alike. Regardless of its pharmacological properties, its clinical use in cirrhotic patients has its fair share of proponents and opponents. At present, in the setting of cirrhosis this debate centers around the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, in patients with ascites treated with large volume paracentesis, and in those with hepato-renal syndrome. With the evolving evidence it has become imperative to shed old dogmas and address this issue in the light of evidence-based medicine. This article gives a representative view of albumin use in the above conditions across both sides of the clinical divide.

  15. Comparative enzymology of (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine and (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamate

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Kung, Hank F.; Li, Jianyong; Ploessl, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer cells have a strong requirement for glutamine. As an aid for understanding this phenomenon the 18F-labeled 2S,4R stereoisomer of 4-fluoroglutamine [(2S,4R)4-FGln] was previously developed for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). In the present work, comparative enzymological studies of unlabeled (2S,4R)4-FGln and its deamidated product (2S,4R)4-FGlu were conducted as an adjunct to these PET studies. Our findings are as follows: Rat kidney preparations catalyze the deamidation of (2S,4R)4-FGln. (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are substrates of various aminotransferases. (2S,4R)4-FGlu is a substrate of glutamate dehydrogenase, but not of sheep brain glutamine synthetase. The compound is, however, a strong inhibitor of this enzyme. Rat liver cytosolic fractions catalyze a γ-elimination reaction with (2S,4R)4-FGlu, generating α-ketoglutarate. Coupling of a deamidase reaction with this γ- elimination reaction provides an explanation for the previous detection of 18F− in tumors exposed to [18F](2S,4R)4-FGln. One enzyme contributing to this reaction was identified as alanine aminotransferase, which catalyzes competing γ-elimination and aminotransferase reactions with (2S,4R)4-FGlu. This appears to be the first description of an aminotransferase catalyzing a γ-elimination reaction. The present results demonstrate that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu are useful analogues for comparative studies of various glutamine- and glutamate-utilizing enzymes in normal and cancerous mammalian tissues, and suggest that tumors may metabolize (2S,4R)4-FGln in a generally similar fashion to glutamine. In plants, yeast and bacteria a major route for ammonia assimilation involves the consecutive action of glutamate synthase plus glutamine synthetase (glutamate synthase cycle). It is suggested that (2S,4R)4-FGln and (2S,4R)4-FGlu will be useful probes in studies of ammonia assimilation by the glutamate synthase pathway in these organisms. Finally, glutamine

  16. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  17. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  18. Structural and electronic features of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Koji; Mitsui, Akio; Mori, Masahiro; Onodera, Yohei; Shiotani, Shinya; Koyama, Yukinori; Orikasa, Yuki; Murakami, Miwa; Shimoda, Keiji; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-02-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses used as solid electrolytes are modeled by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy data. The ratio of PSx polyhedral anions based on the Raman spectroscopic results is reflected in the glassy structures of the 67Li2S-33P2S5, 70Li2S-30P2S5, and 75Li2S-25P2S5 glasses, and the plausible structures represent the lithium ion distributions around them. It is found that the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra increases at a high Li2S content, and the free volume around PSx polyhedra decreases. It is conjectured that Li+ ions around the face of PSx polyhedra are clearly affected by the polarization of anions. The electronic structure of the DFT/RMC model suggests that the electron transfer between the P ion and the bridging sulfur (BS) ion weakens the positive charge of the P ion in the P2S7 anions. The P2S7 anions of the weak electrostatic repulsion would causes it to more strongly attract Li+ ions than the PS4 and P2S6 anions, and suppress the lithium ionic conduction. Thus, the control of the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra without the electron transfer between the P ion and the BS ion is expected to facilitate lithium ionic conduction in the above solid electrolytes.

  19. Structural and electronic features of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Koji; Mitsui, Akio; Mori, Masahiro; Onodera, Yohei; Shiotani, Shinya; Koyama, Yukinori; Orikasa, Yuki; Murakami, Miwa; Shimoda, Keiji; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-01-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses used as solid electrolytes are modeled by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy data. The ratio of PSx polyhedral anions based on the Raman spectroscopic results is reflected in the glassy structures of the 67Li2S-33P2S5, 70Li2S-30P2S5, and 75Li2S-25P2S5 glasses, and the plausible structures represent the lithium ion distributions around them. It is found that the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra increases at a high Li2S content, and the free volume around PSx polyhedra decreases. It is conjectured that Li+ ions around the face of PSx polyhedra are clearly affected by the polarization of anions. The electronic structure of the DFT/RMC model suggests that the electron transfer between the P ion and the bridging sulfur (BS) ion weakens the positive charge of the P ion in the P2S7 anions. The P2S7 anions of the weak electrostatic repulsion would causes it to more strongly attract Li+ ions than the PS4 and P2S6 anions, and suppress the lithium ionic conduction. Thus, the control of the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra without the electron transfer between the P ion and the BS ion is expected to facilitate lithium ionic conduction in the above solid electrolytes. PMID:26892385

  20. The role of albumin in nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Mobarhan, S

    1988-12-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is considered one of the hallmarks of protein-calorie malnutrition and chronic liver disease. Recently, serum albumin has also been proposed as a critical predictor of the response to nutritional support and tolerance to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Albumin is essential for maintenance of plasma colloidal osmotic pressure, prevention of edema, and transport of certain drugs and nutrients. Experimental studies have shown that rapid plasma expansion and reduced plasma protein concentration and osmotic pressure induce a net secretion of sodium and water into the small intestinal lumen. However, the effects of chronic hypoalbuminemia per se on intestinal absorption, independent of malnutrition, have not been fully studied. It is documented that both chronic illness and malnutrition may profoundly affect intestinal anatomical structure and function, inducing some degree of malabsorption. In the last few years, some have advocated albumin infusion to improve clinical response to patients with hypoalbuminemia receiving parenteral nutritional support or to reduce intestinal intolerance and diarrhea in patients receiving enteral tube feeding. A review of the literature shows that both clinical and experimental data to support these suggestions are scarce and further investigations are needed. Hypoalbuminemia is one of many parameters of malnutrition, and it is unlikely that correction of a single parameter for a short time would lead to major clinical benefits. PMID:3147998

  1. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction.

  2. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction. PMID:19689242

  3. [Albumin and artificial colloids for massive bleeding].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and massive bleeding has to be counteracted by efficient volume restoration against rapid loss of intravascular volume. There are two phases of volume management for massive bleeding, uncontrolled phase and controlled phase. During initial uncontrolled phase, rapid infusion of crystalloid with RCC (red cell concentrate) is the first choice of volume management to prevent shock and profound decline of hemoglobin level. After shifting to the next controlled phase, artificial colloids and RCC become the next choice for efficient volume restoration. Although albumin has not been proven to improve prognosis in clinical studies, anti-inflammatory effect could be expected. Albumin infusion may be followed in this phase, and also albumin concentrate may be beneficial to reduce subsequent tissue edema due to massive infusion of crystalloid and artificial colloid. A new generation of hydroxyethyl starch is a promising blood substitute, designed with minimum side effect. Although renal damage especially in septic patient and coagulation disorder are theoretically suspected, beneficial effect as volume expansion overwhelms these stochastic side effects. Since the side effect depends on the dose and how much it remains in the body, a purposeful use during volume expansion phase should be recommended.

  4. Antineoplastic Activity Comparison of Bovine Serum Albumin--Conjugated Sulfides Semiconductor Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Huang, Jing-Chun; Wu, Sha-Sha; Wang, Cai-Feng; Yu, Xue-Hong; Cao, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Although tumor is one of the most frequently occurring diseases and a leading cause of death, nanotechnology, one of the frontier sciences, is exhibiting its great potential to tumor treatments. The aim of this study was to design a facile and environmentally-friendly method to prepare bovine serum albumin-conjugated heavy metal sulfides nano-materials, including Ag2S, PbS and CdS. Here, bovine serum albumin was introduced in order to direct the synthesis of nano-materials by using its template effect and supply more sites for further modification in future. The crystal structure and morphology were analyzed by XRD and TEM, respectively. Additionally, the antineoplastic activity of nano-materials was compared by cell viability analysis, optical and electron microscopy observation after exposure of the human hepatoma cell line. The results showed that the inhibition effect of heavy metal sulfides on tumor cells was in the order of nano-PbS > bulk CdS > nano-Ag2S > nano-CdS > bulk PbS > bulk Ag2S. It could be concluded that heavy metal sulfides had significantly negative impact on human hepatoma cells growth but it could not be obviously generalized that nano-particles were always more effective to kill tumor cells than bulk materials. The size and surface reactivity might be the important factors causing the difference.

  5. Inclusive radiative {psi}(2S) decays

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.

    2009-10-01

    Using e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the direct photon spectrum in the decay {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}gg. We determine the ratio of the inclusive direct photon decay rate to that of the dominant three-gluon decay rate {psi}(2S){yields}ggg (R{sub {gamma}}{identical_to}{gamma}({gamma}gg)/{gamma}(ggg)) to be R{sub {gamma}}(z{sub {gamma}}>0.4)=0.070{+-}0.002{+-}0.019{+-}0.011, with z{sub {gamma}} defined as the scaled photon energy relative to the beam energy. The errors shown are statistical, systematic, and that due to the uncertainty in the input branching fractions used to extract the ratio, respectively.

  6. MAGI2/S-SCAM outside brain.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shunta; Kodaka, Manami; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Hata, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinase with an inverted arrangement of protein-protein interaction domains (MAGI)2 (also called synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM), atrophin-1-interacting protein 1, activin receptor-interacting protein 1) is a scaffold protein that binds a wide variety of receptors, cell adhesion molecules and signalling molecules. It also interacts with other scaffold proteins and adaptors, and forms a protein network that supports cell junctions. As it is highly expressed in brain, the study on its roles in synaptic organization initially preceded. However, mounting evidence indicates that MAGI2/S-SCAM functions as a tumour suppressor and plays essential roles to maintain the integrity of cell structures in non-neuronal tissues. We review the articles regarding to MAGI2/S-SCAM outside brain and discuss future perspectives for the research of MAGI family proteins.

  7. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  8. Mechanisms of albumin uptake by proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N

    2001-01-01

    The likely role of albumin in the induction tubulo-interstitial injury in proteinuria has stimulated considerable interest in the entry of albumin into the proximal tubule and its subsequent uptake by proximal tubular cells. Currently, there is considerable controversy over the degree of glomerular permeability to albumin. After filtration, however, albumin binds to megalin and cubulin, two giant receptors in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells. Albumin is subsequently re-absorbed by proximal tubular cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process subject to complex regulation. The interaction of albumin with proximal tubule cells also leads to the generation of intracellular signals. The understanding of these pathways may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of renal scarring in proteinuria. PMID:11158855

  9. Albumin Metabolism in Rabbits and Rats with Transplanted Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wraight, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Albumin distributions and turnover rates have been studied using 131I labelled tracer material in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma and rats bearing SP7 fibrosarcoma in comparison with control animals. Albumin concentrations were reduced in the tumour bearing animals but plasma volumes increased as the tumours developed. Relative increases were seen in the extravascular distribution of albumin, due partly to albumin pooling in and around the tumours and possibly also to general increases in capillary permeability. In the rats there was a considerable increase in the catabolic rate of albumin which was not related to urinary protein loss. The tumour bearing rabbits showed evidence both of increased catabolism and of decreased synthesis and the combination of the two effects resulted in a greater lowering of albumin concentration than was seen in the rats. Possible mechanisms for these findings and their significance in human malignant disease are discussed. PMID:5115834

  10. [Second structure of the protein factions from lotus seeds].

    PubMed

    Cai, Lian-Hui; Zeng, Hong-Yan; Cai, Xi-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Following the sequential Osborne extraction procedure, the proteins of lotus seeds were classified. The secondary structures of albumin, globulin, prolamine and glutelin fractions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR images of amide I and III bands from the four protein fractions were analyzed using Fourier deconvolution and curve-fitting technique. The results showed that there were minor differences in every corresponding peak position and peak area percent of secondary structure between albumin and globulin as well as between prolamin and glutelin. But there were differences in every corresponding peak position between albumin (or globulin) and prolamin (or glutelin). Especially the area percents of the corresponding nonrandom structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) of albumin and globulin were significantly larger than those of prolamin and glutelin. The contents of nonrandom structures of albumin and globulin extracted with 0.1 mol x L(-1) NaCl solution were about 55% and those of prolamine and glutelin fractions were only at round 40%, indicating that the secondary structures of the salt-extraction protein were ordered and stable.

  11. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  12. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Cistola, D P

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, less than or equal to 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and greater than 90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data. PMID:3455761

  13. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  14. Albumin-bound bilirubin in subchoroidal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; Lee, P F; Ray, S; Feman, S; van Heuven, W A

    1979-01-01

    The most unique property of subchoroidal fluid was found to be the high bilirubin level. One distinct yellow band in the same position as albumin was observed when it was subjected to electrophoresis on agarose film. The yellow compound was very soluble in chloroform. Its identity to bilirubin was confirmed by its absorption maximum at 445 nm, and a positive reaction with Ehrlich's diazo reagent. Subretinal fluid and liquid vitreous often had a yellowish appearance after ocular hemorrhage. However, their bilirubin level was not elevated above that of serum. Our data indicated that the degradation of RBCs may be an important causative factor of persistant detachment. PMID:758891

  15. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  16. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-08-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of /sup 131/I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The /sup 125/I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the /sup 131/I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of /sup 131/I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure.

  17. Green synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic, fluorescence and antimicrobial activities of Cochlospermum gossypium capped Ag2S nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ayodhya, Dasari; Veerabhadram, Guttena

    2016-04-01

    The study describes a simple and green method for the synthesis of silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S NPs) using gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) (GK). The synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, zeta potential and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The optical properties and quantum confinement effect of the products were confirmed by means of spectroscopic measurements. The morphologies and sizes were characterized by SEM and TEM. The Ag2S NPs were spherical in shape with an effective diameter size of 25 nm. The photocatalytic property of Ag2S NPs was evaluated by the degradation of fluorescein (FL) dye under solar light. The effect of Ag2SNPs on the photocatalytic degradation of FL dye and influence of other parameters such as Ag2S loading, H2O2, temperature and under solar light irradiation was also evaluated. The degradation reaction follows the pseudo-first order kinetics. The apparent reaction rate was used to calculate the apparent activation energy (Ea=13.95 kJ/mol) of the degradation process. The activation thermodynamic parameters (ΔG*, ΔH* and ΔS*) were obtained from variable temperature kinetic studies. The interaction between Ag2S NPs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by using fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. The synthesized Ag2S NPs were showing good antimicrobial activity. PMID:26894846

  18. Effects of serum-isolated vs synthetic bilirubin-albumin complexes on dye-binding methods for estimating serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ihara, H; Nakamura, H; Aoki, Y; Aoki, T; Yoshida, M

    1991-07-01

    Bush and Reed reported (Clin Chem 1987;33:821-3) that the reaction of albumin with bromcresol purple but not with bromcresol green underestimated the concentration of albumin in synthetically obtained bilirubin-albumin (Bd) by 29%. Their unproven assumption was that chemically synthesized Bd behaved in a manner indistinguishable from the natural Bd in icteric serum. Here we verify that Bd, whether synthetically obtained or isolated from serum, causes an underestimation of albumin in the bromcresol purple but not in the bromcresol green method. The molar ratio of Bd from either source to underestimated albumin approximates 1.0, suggesting that one molecule of Bd would react equivalently to a molecule of albumin in the bromcresol purple method. This underestimation might falsely suggest hypoalbuminemia in patients with increased serum Bd. PMID:1855300

  19. QI2S - Quick Image Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghmouchi, Jamin; Aviely, Peleg; Ginosar, Ran; Ober, Giovanna; Bischoff, Ole; Nadler, Ron; Guiser, David; Citroen, Meira; Freddi, Riccardo; Berekovic, Mladen

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the Earth Observation mission will be driven by many factors, and the deveploment of new processing paradigms to facilitate data downlink, handling and storage will be a key factor. Next generation EO satellites will generate a great amount of data at a very high data rate, both radar and optical. Real-time onboard processing can be the solution to reduce data downlink and management on ground. Radiometric, geometric, and atmospheric corrections of EO data as well as material/object detection in addition to the well-known needs for image compression and signal processing can be performed directly on board and the aim of QI2S project is to demonstrate this. QI2S, a concept prototype system for novel onboard image processing and image interpretation which has been designed, developed and validated in the framework of an EU FP7 project, targets these needs and makes a significant step towards exceeding current roadmaps of leading space agencies for future payload processors. The QI2S system features multiple chip components of the RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip, which targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. It integrates advanced DSP cores with a multibank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high-speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The processor is being developed within the European FP7 Framework Program and will be qualified to the highest space standards.

  20. What Are Chia Seeds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men For Women For Seniors What Are Chia Seeds? Published February 05, 2014 Print Email When you ... number of research participants. How to Eat Chia Seeds Chia seeds can be eaten raw or prepared ...

  1. Bean Seed Imbibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Enables students to examine the time course for seed imbibition and the pressure generated by imbibing seeds. Provides background information, detailed procedures, and ideas for further investigation. (DDR)

  2. Binding and hydrolysis of soman by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nachon, Florian; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Verdier, Laurent; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Brasme, Bernardo; Gillon, Emilie; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Masson, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Human plasma and fatty acid free human albumin were incubated with soman at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. Four methods were used to monitor the reaction of albumin with soman: progressive inhibition of the aryl acylamidase activity of albumin, the release of fluoride ion from soman, 31P NMR, and mass spectrometry. Inhibition (phosphonylation) was slow with a bimolecular rate constant of 15 +/- 3 M(-1) min (-1). MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry of the soman-albumin adduct showed that albumin was phosphonylated on tyrosine 411. No secondary dealkylation of the adduct (aging) occurred. Covalent docking simulations and 31P NMR experiments showed that albumin has no enantiomeric preference for the four stereoisomers of soman. Spontaneous reactivation at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, measured as regaining of aryl acylamidase activity and decrease of covalent adduct (pinacolyl methylphosphonylated albumin) by NMR, occurred at a rate of 0.0044 h (-1), indicating that the adduct is quite stable ( t1/2 = 6.5 days). At pH 7.4 and 22 degrees C, the covalent soman-albumin adduct, measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, was more stable ( t1/2 = 20 days). Though the concentration of albumin in plasma is very high (about 0.6 mM), its reactivity with soman (phosphonylation and phosphotriesterase activity) is too slow to play a major role in detoxification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound soman. Increasing the bimolecular rate constant of albumin for organophosphates is a protein engineering challenge that could lead to a new class of bioscavengers to be used against poisoning by nerve agents. Soman-albumin adducts detected by mass spectrometry could be useful for the diagnosis of soman exposure. PMID:18163544

  3. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Investigation of bovine serum albumin glycation by THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, Olga P.; Nazarov, Maxim M.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.

    2016-04-01

    Protein glycation is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions resulting to loss in the structure and biological functions of proteins. The transmission THz spectroscopy has been used for measuring of bovine serum albumin glycation dynamics. It was found that amplitude of albumin THz absorption depends on type of sugars and incubation time.

  5. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  6. Facile cell patterning on an albumin-coated surface.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Uemura, Toshimasa; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2008-08-19

    Fabrication of micropatterned surfaces to organize and control cell adhesion and proliferation is an indispensable technique for cell-based technologies. Although several successful strategies for creating cellular micropatterns on substrates have been demonstrated, a complex multistep process and requirements for special and expensive equipment or materials limit their prevalence as a general experimental tool. To circumvent these problems, we describe here a novel facile fabrication method for a micropatterned surface for cell patterning by utilizing the UV-induced conversion of the cell adhesive property of albumin, which is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. An albumin-coated surface was prepared by cross-linking albumin with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether and subsequent casting of the cross-linked albumin solution on the cell culture dish. While cells did not attach to the albumin surface prepared in this way, UV exposure renders the surface cell-adhesive. Thus, surface micropatterning was achieved simply by exposing the albumin-coated surface to UV light through a mask with the desired pattern. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells were inoculated on the patterned albumin substrates, and cells attached and spread in a highly selective manner according to the UV-irradiated pattern. Although detailed investigation of the molecular-level mechanism concerning the change in cell adhesiveness of the albumin-coated surface is required, the present results would give a novel facile method for the fabrication of cell micropatterned surfaces. PMID:18627191

  7. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  8. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  9. Albumin Naskapi variant in North American Indians and Eti Turks.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S G; Wolf, S I; Ozdemir, Y; Yüregir, G T; Isbir, T; Blumberg, B S

    1980-09-01

    Both conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a new type of electrophoretic screening procedure indicate that the polymorphic albumin variants Naskapi, found chiefly in the Naskapi Indians of Quebec, and Mersin, found in the Eti Turks of southeastern Turkey, are molecularly identical or very similar and that the amino acid substitution site in these variants is located between residues 330 and 446. This discovery is consistent with a genetic relationship between the Eti Turks and American Indians. We also report a new variant found in the Eti Turks, albumin Adana, which migrates similarly to albumin B on conventional gels but which our new system shows to differ from the common albumin A and albumin B by a substitution between residues 549 and 585.

  10. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. PMID:27431015

  11. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  12. Search for {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}(2S) via fully reconstructed {eta}{sub c}(2S) decays

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Gong, D. T.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tan, B. J. Y.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.

    2010-03-01

    We report a search for the decay {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}{eta}{sub c}(2S) in a sample of 25.9x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) events collected with the CLEO-c detector. No signals are observed in any of the 11 exclusive {eta}{sub c}(2S) decay modes studied, or in their sum. Product branching fraction upper limits are determined as a function of {Gamma}[{eta}{sub c}(2S)] for the 11 individual modes.

  13. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Christian J; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. PMID:26136776

  14. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  15. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B.

    2002-01-01

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and its binding can be blocked by albumin plus nitrotyrosine (NO-tyrosine) or abolished by excess NOA. We detected NOA-Au into perivascular spaces as early as 30 sec after the beginning of its perfusion. NOA, unlike native albumin, leaves the vascular lumina via both endothelial caveolae and open junctions. By cross-linking and ligand blotting analysis, we showed that NOA interacted with the same albumin binding proteins of 16–18, 30–32, 60, and 74 kDa as native albumin. ELISA performed on tissue homogenates obtained from the same specimens showed that NOA transport was 2- to 4-fold greater than native albumin. The augmented transendothelial transport of NOA reflects its transcytosis as well as its exit from the microcirculation via open junctions. The increased transport of NOA may serve as an important mechanism that protects a vascular bed against the damaging effects of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite. PMID:12370442

  16. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  17. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  18. The ρ(1S, 2S), ψ(1S, 2S), Υ(1S, 2S) and ψ t (1S, 2S) Mesons in a Double Pole QCD Sum Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maior de Sousa, M. S.; da Silva, R. Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    We use the method of double pole QCD sum rule, which is basically a fit with two exponentials of the correlation function, where we can extract the masses and decay constants of mesons as a function of the Borel mass. We apply this method to study the mesons: ρ(1S,2S), ψ(1S,2S), Υ(1S,2S), and ψ t (1S,2S). We also present predictions for the toponiuns masses ψ t (1S,2S) of m(1S)=357 GeV and m(2S)=374 GeV.

  19. In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lang, Lixin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ali, Iqbal U; Teng, Gaojun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue ((18)F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After local injection, both (18)F-AlF-NEB and EB form complexes with endogenous albumin in the interstitial fluid and allow for visualizing the lymphatic system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and/or optical imaging of LNs was performed in three different animal models including a hind limb inflammation model, an orthotropic breast cancer model, and a metastatic breast cancer model. In all three models, the LNs can be distinguished clearly by the apparent blue color and strong fluorescence signal from EB as well as a high-intensity PET signal from (18)F-AlF-NEB. The lymphatic vessels between the LNs can also be optically visualized. The easy preparation, excellent PET and optical imaging quality, and biosafety suggest that this combination of (18)F-AlF-NEB and EB has great potential for clinical application to map sentinel LNs and provide intraoperative guidance. PMID:25535368

  20. In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Lang, Lixin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Ali, Iqbal U.; Teng, Gaojun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue (18F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After local injection, both 18F-AlF-NEB and EB form complexes with endogenous albumin in the interstitial fluid and allow for visualizing the lymphatic system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and/or optical imaging of LNs was performed in three different animal models including a hind limb inflammation model, an orthotropic breast cancer model, and a metastatic breast cancer model. In all three models, the LNs can be distinguished clearly by the apparent blue color and strong fluorescence signal from EB as well as a high-intensity PET signal from 18F-AlF-NEB. The lymphatic vessels between the LNs can also be optically visualized. The easy preparation, excellent PET and optical imaging quality, and biosafety suggest that this combination of 18F-AlF-NEB and EB has great potential for clinical application to map sentinel LNs and provide intraoperative guidance. PMID:25535368

  1. Molecular interactions between albumin and proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J

    1998-01-01

    In glomerular diseases the filtration of excess proteins into the proximal tubule, together with their subsequent reabsorption may represent an important pathological mechanism underlying progressive renal scarring. The most prominent protein in glomerular filtrate, albumin, is reabsorbed by receptor-mediated endocytosis by proximal tubular cells. It binds both to scavenger-type receptors and to megalin in the proximal tubule. Some of these receptors appear to be shared with other cell types, particularly endothelial cells. The endocytic uptake of albumin is subjected to complex hormonal and enzymatic regulation. In addition to being reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, albumin may act as a signalling molecule in these cells, and may induce the expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. Modulation of the interaction of albumin with proximal tubular cells may eventually prove to be of therapeutic importance in the treatment of renal diseases. PMID:9807019

  2. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  3. Study on Serum Albumin in Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, S; Nessa, A; Islam, M T; Das, R K; Rahman, M H

    2015-07-01

    Various hormones can cause marked changes in pregnant woman's appearance. Decreased level of serum albumin occurs in third trimester of pregnancy, which may be associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. So, this study was carried out to evaluate and assess the level of serum albumin in third trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. This study enrolled 100 pregnant women of third trimester of pregnancy and 100 aged matched non-pregnant women from Mymensingh district. In this study serum albumin level in study group were 33.41 ± 4.62gm/l and in control group were 37.09 ± 4.21 gm/l, which was statistically decreased. The lower level of serum albumin in third trimester of pregnancy is the major concern of development of physiological edema during pregnancy and may be associated with pre-eclampsia.

  4. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other body fluids. Measurement of albumin aids in the diagnosis of kidney and intestinal diseases. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  5. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  6. Palmitate uptake by hepatocyte monolayers. Effect of albumin binding.

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, A B; Shurmantine, W O; Luxon, B A; Forker, E L

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of 14C-palmitate by rat liver cell monolayers is depressed by binding of the fatty acid to albumin. When the uptake flux is divided by the concentration of free palmitate in the bathing medium, however, the resulting clearance is approximately 14 times greater in the presence of albumin than in its absence. These findings are not accounted for by the different diffusion rates of free and bound palmitate across an unstirred fluid layer, nor attributable to nonequilibrium binding. Instead we argue that the most plausible explanation is accelerated dissociation of albumin-palmitate complexes mediated by the cell surface--an interpretation that also explains the uptake kinetics of other albumin-bound organic anions by perfused rat liver. Images PMID:3949983

  7. Albumin leakage in online hemodiafiltration, more convective transport, more losses?

    PubMed

    Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Abad, Soraya; Aragoncillo, Inés; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has now demonstrated some benefits in reducing mortality. It seems that rising convective volumes improve the outcomes, but the risks of it, such as albumin leakage, are not well defined yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the albumin leakage using two different filters with 20 and 30 L of post-dilution OL-HDF. In this cross-sectional study, 20 prevalent patients receiving post-dilution OL-HDL were included. We analyzed two dialyzers: FX1000, FMC and Polyflux 210H, Gambro. During four consecutive dialysis sessions, monitors were programmed using control-volume to obtain 20 or 30 L with both dialyzers. We collected albumin samples of the effluent at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and performed area under the curve (AUC) determinations for evaluating the losses. Mean patient age was 60 ± 9 years, and 70% were men. Albumin leakage was significant higher with Polyflux 210H when compared to FX 1000 FMC. A convective volume of 30 L produced greater albumin leakage than 20 L with both filters, though only with the FX 1000 FMC was it significant (minimum albumin leakage during first hour with FX 1000 FMC 20 L: 79.2 [0.0-175.7] mg; 30 liters: 403.3 [63.5-960.7] mg; with PF 210 Gambro 20 L: 869.1 [420.0-3214.7] mg; 30 L: 1841.7 [443.8-3417.5] mg). During OL-HDF, convective transport causes albumin leakage at least during the first hour. The albumin concentration in the effluent differs according to the type of filter used and the convective volume.

  8. An inhibitor to erythrocyte agglutination in bovine albumin preparations.

    PubMed

    Gunson, H H; Phillips, P K

    1975-01-01

    Three out of 28 commercial preparations of bovine serum albumin have been encountered which have an inhibitory effect on the assay of anti-Rh-o(D) using the Technicon AutoAnalyser. The inhibitory property, which can also be demonstrated by standard manual serological techniques, appears to be directed towards the second stage of the agglutination reaction. An automated screening procedure for bovine serum albumin preparations and some properties of the inhibitor are described.

  9. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  10. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  11. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  12. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  13. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  14. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  15. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  16. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy food trends - salvia; Healthy snacks - Chia seeds; Weight loss - Chia seeds; Healthy diet - Chia seeds; Wellness - Chia ... fiber. Some think chia seeds may help with weight loss and other risk factors, but this has not ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius

    PubMed Central

    MALIK, AJAMALUDDIN; AL-SENAIDY, ABDULRAHMAN; SKRZYPCZAK-JANKUN, EWA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin constitutes 35–50 mg/ml of plasma proteins and performs various physiological activities including the regulation of osmotic pressure on blood, maintaining buffering of the blood pH, carrying different fatty acids and other small molecules, such as bilirubin, hormones, drugs and metal ions, as well as participating in immunological responses. Serum albumin is an extensively used protein in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well tailored to successfully survive in extremely hot and dry climates. Plasma osmolality in the camel increases during water-deprived conditions. In such circumstances serum albumin is crucial in the regulation of blood pressure. The study of biochemical, biophysical and immunological aspects of camel serum albumin (CSA) are likely to provide molecular insights into camel physiology and may render it an alternative to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in all cases. However, these proteins are currently not available or cannot be utilized due to a variety of considerations. In this study, 12 mg of highly pure CSA was obtained from 1 ml plasma. Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of SDS-PAGE yielded one band and RP-HPLC results revealed a single sharp peak, indicating homogenous preparation of the CSA. The charge/mass ratio and surface hydrophobicity of the CSA was similar to that of BSA. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protein confirmed the identity of CSA. PMID:24137219

  18. Efficient delivery of therapeutic agents by using targeted albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Safavi, Maryam Sadat; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are one of the most important drug carriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs, especially for the treatment of malignancies. This potential is due to their high binding capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and the possibility of surface modification. Accumulation of albumin-bound drugs in the tumor interstitium occurs by the enhanced permeability and retention effect, which is also facilitated by the 60-kDa glycoprotein transcytosis pathway and binding to secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine located in the tumor extracellular matrix. In addition, specific ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, folic acid, transferrin, and peptides can be conjugated to the surface of albumin nanoparticles to actively target the drug to its site of action. The albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane, is one of the several therapeutic nanocarriers that have been approved for clinical use. By the development of Abraxane that demonstrates a higher response rate and improved tolerability and therapeutic efficiency in comparison with solvent-based formulation, and with consideration of its commercial success, albumin is attracting the interest of many biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies. This chapter explores the current targeted and nontargeted albumin-based nanoparticles that are in various stages of development for the delivery of therapeutic agents in order to enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  19. Effect of angiotensin on glomerular filtration of albumin.

    PubMed

    Eisenbach, G M; Van Liew, J B

    1975-01-01

    Angiotensin-induced proteinuria was examined at the glomerular-tubular level in rats. Ultra-micro-disc electrophoresis was employed to determine albumin concentration of rat proximal tubular fluid samples under control conditions and during the infusion of 0.15 mug/min X 100 g body weight angiotensin II using micropuncture techniques. Under control conditions proximal tubular albumin concentration was 1.32 +/- 0.79 (SD) mg/100 ml (n = 71). There was no correlation between albumin concentration and (TF/P)-inulin ratio indicating an albumin reabsorption in the proximal tubule parallel to fluid reabsorption under control conditions. During angiotensin infusion using re-collection techniques, there is an average increase of 26 times in tubular albumin concentration, indicating an increase in albumin filtered. There was no change in GFR, SNGFR, transit time, (TF/P)-inulin ratio, an increase in urine flow rate, sodium excretion, protein excretion, mean arterial blood pressure during angiotensin infusion. Since effective glomerular filtration pressure was not increased during angiotensin it is concluded that angiotensin-induced proteinuria is due to an increase in filtered protien mediated by a change in glomerular permeability to proteins.

  20. Surface molecularly imprinted magnetic microspheres for the recognition of albumin.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Fatma; Denizli, Adil

    2014-08-01

    A new approach, combining metal coordination with the molecular imprinting technique, was developed to prepare affinity materials. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres in monosize form were used for specific recognition toward the target protein. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nanopowder. Surface imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres based on metal coordination were prepared and used for the selective recognition of human serum albumin. Iminodiacetic acid was used as the metal coordinating agent and human serum albumin was anchored by Cu(2+) ions on the surface of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres by metal coordination. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were coated with a polymer formed by condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres was 37.7 mg/g polymer at pH 6.0. The selectivity experiments of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres prepared with different concentrations in the presence of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin and cytochrome C were performed in order to determine the relative selectivity coefficients.

  1. The Relationship between Albumin-Binding Capacity of Recombinant Polypeptide and Changes in the Structure of Albumin-Binding Domain.

    PubMed

    Bormotova, E A; Gupalova, T V

    2015-07-01

    Many bacteria express surface proteins interacting with human serum albumin (HSA). One of these proteins, PAB from anaerobic bacteria, contains an albumin-binding domain consisting of 45 amino acid residues known as GA domain. GA domains are also found in G proteins isolated from human streptococcal strains (groups C and G) and of albumin-binding protein isolated from group G streptococcal strains of animal origin. The GA domain is a left-handed three-helix bundle structure in which amino acid residues of the second and third helixes are involved in albumin binding. We studied the relationship between HSA-binding activity of the recombinant polypeptide isolated from group G streptococcus of animal origin and structure of the GA domain is studied. Structural changes in GA domain significantly attenuated HAS-binding capacity of the recombinant polypeptide. Hence, affinity HSA-binding polypeptide depends on stability of GA domain structure.

  2. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  3. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  4. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  5. Anaphylaxis to buckwheat in an atopic child: a risk factor for severe allergy to nuts and seeds?

    PubMed

    Varga, Eva-Maria; Kollmann, Dagmar; Zach, Maximilian; Bohle, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is known to cause severe anaphylactic reactions in adult individuals. However, type I allergy to buckwheat is rarely seen in children. We report on a 7-year-old boy who developed a grade III anaphylactic reaction after consumption of a cake containing buckwheat flour. Prior to this incident, the boy had developed severe allergic reactions to hazelnuts and suffered from an oral allergy syndrome to poppy seed. Analysis of the patient's IgE reactivity by immunoblotting experiments revealed that he was sensitized to members of the 2S albumin and 11S globulin protein families in buckwheat. Additionally, cross-reactivity was found between the 11S globulins in buckwheat, poppy and hazelnut. IgE inhibition experiments indicated that the 11S globulin in buckwheat was the initial sensitizing protein. We conclude that 11S globulins in buckwheat have the potential to induce IgE antibodies cross-reactive with 11S globulins in other, botanically unrelated foods and may induce anaphylactic reactions.

  6. H2S: A Novel Gasotransmitter that Signals by Sulfhydration.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bindu D; Snyder, Solomon H

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a member of the growing family of gasotransmitters. Once regarded as a noxious molecule predominantly present in the atmosphere, H2S is now known to be synthesized endogenously in mammals. H2S participates in a myriad of physiological processes ranging from regulation of blood pressure to neuroprotection. Its chemical nature precludes H2S from being stored in vesicles and acting on receptor proteins in the fashion of other chemical messengers. Thus, novel cellular mechanisms have evolved to mediate its effects. This review focuses on sulfhydration (or persulfidation), which appears to be the principal post-translational modification elicited by H2S.

  7. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  8. Chemiluminescent Detection of Enzymatically Produced H2S

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, T. Spencer; Pluth, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important biological signaling molecule. To better understand the multifaceted biological roles of H2S, the development of selective and sensitive biocompatible assays for H2S is becoming increasingly important. Motivated by these challenges, our laboratory is developing new methods to further detect and monitor biological H2S. Here, we describe in detail our recent advances in the development and the use of chemiluminescence-based H2S sensors to assist other investigators with use of these chemical tools. We highlight the use of these tools use by displaying their selectivity and high sensitivity toward H2S and provide examples of assays we have developed to detect enzymatically produced H2S. PMID:25725517

  9. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns.

  10. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  11. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. PMID:26311600

  12. The seed nuclear proteome

    PubMed Central

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight. PMID:23267364

  13. Identification of H2S3 and H2S produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Koike, Shin; Shibuya, Norihiro; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Lefer, David; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have a higher number of sulfane sulfur atoms than hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has various physiological roles. We recently found H2Sn in the brain. H2Sn induced some responses previously attributed to H2S but with much greater potency than H2S. However, the number of sulfur atoms in H2Sn and its producing enzyme were unknown. Here, we detected H2S3 and H2S, which were produced from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3 MP) by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), in the brain. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed that H2S3 and H2S were produced from 3 MP in the brain cells of wild-type mice but not 3MST knockout (3MST-KO) mice. Purified recombinant 3MST and lysates of COS cells expressing 3MST produced H2S3 from 3 MP, while those expressing defective 3MST mutants did not. H2S3 was localized in the cytosol of cells. H2S3 was also produced from H2S by 3MST and rhodanese. H2S2 was identified as a minor H2Sn, and 3 MP did not affect the H2S5 level. The present study provides new insights into the physiology of H2S3 and H2S, as well as novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which these molecules are involved. PMID:26437775

  14. A facile chemical conversion synthesis of Sb2S3 nanotubes and the visible light-driven photocatalytic activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a simple chemical conversion and cation exchange technique to realize the synthesis of Sb2S3 nanotubes at a low temperature of 90°C. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Sb2S3 ones benefits from the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Sb2S3. The as-grown Sb2S3 nanotubes have been transformed from a weak crystallization to a polycrystalline structure via successive annealing. In addition to the detailed structural, morphological, and optical investigation of the yielded Sb2S3 nanotubes before and after annealing, we have shown high photocatalytic activities of Sb2S3 nanotubes for methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation. This approach offers an effective control of the composition and structure of Sb2S3 nanomaterials, facilitates the production at a relatively low reaction temperature without the need of organics, templates, or crystal seeds, and can be extended to the synthesis of hollow structures with various compositions and shapes for unique properties. PMID:22448960

  15. The role of endogenous H2S in cardiovascular physiology.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde; Simonsen, Ulf

    2011-09-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H2S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in smooth muscle cells (SMC) and 3- mercaptopyruvate sulfuresterase (3MST) and CSE in the endothelial cells. In pulmonary and systemic arteries, H2S induces relaxation and/or contraction dependent on the concentration of H2S, type of vessel and species. H2S relaxes SMC through a direct effect on KATP-channels or Kv-channels causing hyperpolarization and closure of voltage-dependent Ca2+-channels followed by a reduction in intracellular calcium. H2S also relaxes SMC through the release of endothelium- derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and nitric oxide (NO) from the endothelium. H2S contracts SMC through a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) availability by reacting with NO forming a nitrosothiol compound and through an inhibitory effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as a reduction in SMC cyclic AMP concentration. Evidence supports a role for H2S in oxygen sensing. Furthermore, reduced endogenous H2S production may also play a role in ischemic heart diseases and hypertension, and treatment with H2S donors and cysteine analogues may be beneficial in treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Sources and sinks of atmospheric H/sub 2/S

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeschke, W.; Claude, H.; Herrmann, J.

    1980-10-20

    In recent years, trace concentrations of H/sub 2/S have been measured employing a fluorescence analytical method. Automatization of the method caused enhancement of its analytical capacity. Thus it became possible to observe variations of the H/sub 2/S concentration during days, months, and years at different sampling sites. The obtained data showed that swamps and tidal flats are natural sources of H/sub 2/S. Their contributions to the atmospheric sulfur cycle are compared with those of volcanic activity measured at Etna (Italy) and with those of anthropogenic activity measured in the environment of Frankfurt (Germany). The observed daily and seasonal variations of the H/sub 2/S concentrations showed that photochemical reactions are probably the main sink of atmospheric H/sub 2/S. The measured data of a vertical H/sub 2/S concentration profile were used to calculate a mean removal coefficient for H/sub 2/S of 2.27 x 10/sup -5/ s/sup -1/, corresponding to a mean lifetime of 12.2 hours. The removal coefficient is compared with the reaction constants of some photochemical processes which may determine the atmospheric removal of H/sub 2/S. This comparison leads to the conclusion that the reaction of H/sub 2/S with OH radicals is the main sink of atmospheric H/sub 2/S.

  17. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    PubMed

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

  18. Albumin-based nanocomposite spheres for advanced drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Misak, Heath E; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Gopu, Janani S; Man, Ka-Poh; Zacharias, Nora M; Wooley, Paul H; Yang, Shang-You

    2014-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system incorporating human serum albumin, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, and therapeutic agent(s) was developed for potential application in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and skin cancer. An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation (O/OSE) method was modified to produce a drug delivery system with a diameter of 0.5–2 μm. The diameter was mainly controlled by adjusting the viscosity of albumin in the discontinuous phase of the O/OSE method. The drug-release study showed that the release of drug and albumin was mostly dependent on the albumin content of the drug delivery system, which is very similar to the drug occlusion-mesopore model. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that increasing the albumin content in the drug delivery system increased cell viability, possibly due to the improved biocompatibility of the system. Overall, these studies show that the proposed system could be a viable option as a drug delivery system in the treatment of many illnesses, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and skin and breast cancers. PMID:24106002

  19. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  20. Albumin microvascular leakage in brains with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Ryuji; Chiba, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Nishi, Nozomu; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Ueno, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    Their aim was to examine whether microvascular leakage of endogenous albumin, a representative marker for blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, was induced in the periventricular area of diabetic db/db mice because periventricular white matter hyperintensity formation in magnetic resonance images was accelerating in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Using light and electron microscopes, and semi-quantitative analysis techniques, immunoreactivity of endogenous albumin, indicating vascular permeability, was examined in the periventricular area and spinal cord of db/db mice and db/+m control mice. Greater immunoreactivity of albumin was observed in the vessel wall of the periventricular area of db/db mice than in controls. Additionally, weak immunoreactivity was observed in the spinal cord of both db/db mice and controls. The number of gold particles, indicating immunoreactivity of albumin, in the perivascular area of db/db mice was significantly higher than that of control mice, but there was no significant difference in the number of particles in the spinal cord between db/db mice and controls. These findings suggest that albumin microvascular leakage, or BBB breakdown, is induced in the periventricular area of diabetic mice. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:833-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27333535

  1. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism. PMID:24101203

  2. Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Feng-zhen; Shen, Zhi-cheng

    2013-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism.

  3. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals.

  4. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals. PMID:26525702

  5. Scaffold materials from glycosylated and PEGylated bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; David, Allan E; Choi, Young-Suk; Wu, Yonnie; Buschle-Diller, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    Bovine serum albumin has been PEGylated and glycosylated to create mimetic materials for the extracellular matrix (ECM) with potential tissue engineering applications. Different surfaces for cell adhesion were achieved by crosslinking the initial albumin product and forming either a coating or a sponge-like three-dimensional morphology to mimic the mesh structure of natural ECM. The biocompatibility of the albumin matrix with mammalian cells was evaluated using cell culture assays with NIH 3T3 cells. The results indicated that glycoprotein composition and specific morphology of the assembly can improve the cell growth environment. These ECM mimetic structures might eventually be considered to serve as alternatives for the more expensive collagen and elastin based ECM substances currently in use in tissue engineering. PMID:25691091

  6. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  7. H2S and Blood Vessels: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangdong; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomedical importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been fully recognized in the cardiovascular system as well as in the rest of the body. In blood vessels, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is a major H2S-producing enzyme expressed in both smooth muscle and endothelium as well as periadventitial adipose tissues. Regulation of H2S production from CSE is controlled by a complex integration of transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational mechanisms in blood vessels. In smooth muscle cells, H2S regulates cell apoptosis, phenotypic switch, relaxation and contraction, and calcification. In endothelial cells, H2S controls cell proliferation, cellular senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. H2S interacts with nitric oxide and acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor and an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S generated from periadventitial adipose tissues acts as an adipocyte-derived relaxing factor and modulates the vascular tone. Extensive evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of the CSE/H2S system in various blood vessel diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aortic aneurysm. The important roles signaling in the cardiovascular system merit further intensive and extensive investigation. H2S-releasing agents and CSE activators will find their great applications in the prevention and treatment of blood vessel-related disorders. PMID:26162830

  8. Observations of the H2S toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the 1(10) - 1(01) transition of interstellar H2S and its isotopes toward OMC-1 are reported. The fractional abundance of H2S in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecular reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. The (HDS)/(H2S) abundance ratio in the hot core is estimated at 0.02 or less.

  9. Unraveling the Interaction between FcRn and Albumin: Opportunities for Design of Albumin-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Kine Marita Knudsen; Bern, Malin; Nilsen, Jeannette; Noordzij, Hanna Theodora; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be responsible for transporting antibodies of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class from the mother to the fetus or neonate as well as for protecting IgG from intracellular catabolism. However, it has now become apparent that the same receptor also binds albumin and plays a fundamental role in homeostatic regulation of both IgG and albumin, as FcRn is expressed in many different cell types and organs at diverse body sites. Thus, to gain a complete understanding of the biological function of each ligand, and also their distribution in the body, an in-depth characterization of how FcRn binds and regulates the transport of both ligands is necessary. Importantly, such knowledge is also relevant when developing new drugs, as IgG and albumin are increasingly utilized in therapy. This review discusses our current structural and biological understanding of the relationship between FcRn and its ligands, with a particular focus on albumin and design of albumin-based therapeutics. PMID:25674083

  10. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Herwig; Brummaier, Tobias; Piringer, Bettina; Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Hartl, Andreas; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Schmid, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  11. Statin-sensitive endocytosis of albumin by glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Jeanette; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Grubb, Blair D; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Brunskill, Nigel J; Christensen, Erik I; Topham, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    Glomerular podocytes are critical regulators of glomerular permeability via the slit diaphragm and may play a role in cleaning the glomerular filter. Whether podocytes are able to endocytose proteins is uncertain. We studied protein endocytosis in conditionally immortalized mouse and human podocytes using FITC-albumin by direct quantitative assay and by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in mouse podocytes. Furthermore, in vivo uptake was studied in human, rat, and mouse podocytes. Both mouse and human podocytes displayed specific one-site binding for FITC-albumin with K(d) of 0.91 or 0.44 mg/ml and B(max) of 3.15 or 0.81 microg/mg cell protein, respectively. In addition, they showed avid endocytosis of FITC-albumin with K(m) of 9.48 or 4.5 mg/ml and V(max) of 474.3 or 97.4 microg.mg cell protein(-1).h(-1), respectively. Immunoglobulin and transferrin were inefficient competitors of this process, indicating some specificity for albumin. Accumulation of endocytosed albumin could be demonstrated in intracellular vesicles by fluorescence confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Endocytosis was sensitive to pretreatment with simvastatin. In vivo accumulation of albumin was found in all three species but was most pronounced in the rat. We conclude that podocytes are able to endocytose protein in a statin-sensitive manner. This function is likely to be highly significant in health and disease. In addition, protein endocytosis by podocytes may represent a useful, measurable phenotypic characteristic against which potentially injurious or beneficial interventions can be assessed. PMID:17032937

  12. Engineering Bispecificity into a Single Albumin-Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Alm, Tove; Hober, Sophia; Löfblom, John

    2011-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed. PMID:21991353

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  14. Preparation and Characterization of 125I Labeled Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ashwitha Rai, K. S.; Jyothi; Rasmi, R. R.; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V. B.; Shenoy, K. B.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer (125I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125I-BSA with high integrity. PMID:25767326

  15. Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) gas sensors from viral-templated nanocrystalline gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chung Hee; Zhang, Miluo; Myung, Nosang V.; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-01

    A facile, site-specific viral-templated assembly method was used to fabricate sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors at room temperature. A gold-binding M13 bacteriophage served to organize gold nanoparticles into linear arrays which were used as seeds for subsequent nanowire formation through electroless deposition. Nanowire widths and densities within the sensors were modified by electroless deposition time and phage concentration, respectively, to tune device resistance. Chemiresistive H2S gas sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensitivity of 654%/ppmv, theoretical lowest detection limit of 2 ppbv, and 70% recovery within 9 min for 0.025 ppmv. The role of the viral template and associated gold-binding peptide was elucidated by removing organics using a short O2 plasma treatment followed by an ethanol dip. The template and gold-binding peptide were crucial to electrical and sensor performance. Without surface organics, the resistance fell by several orders of magnitude, the sensitivity dropped by more than a factor of 100 to 6%/ppmv, the lower limit of detection increased, and no recovery was detected with dry air flow. Viral templates provide a novel, alternative fabrication route for highly sensitive, nanostructured H2S gas sensors.

  16. Physiology of Oil Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ketring, D. L.; Morgan, P. W.

    1971-01-01

    Germination, ethylene production, and carbon dioxide production by dormant Virginia-type peanuts were determined during treatments with plant growth regulators. Kinetin, benzylaminopurine, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid induced extensive germination above the water controls. Benzylaminopurine and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid increased the germination of the more dormant basal seeds to a larger extent above the controls than the less dormant apical seeds. Coumarin induced a slight stimulation of germination while abscisic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide did not stimulate germination above the controls. In addition to stimulating germination, the cytokinins also stimulated ethylene production by the seeds. In the case of benzylaminopurine, where the more dormant basal seeds were stimulated to germinate above the control to a larger extent than the less dormant apical seeds, correspondingly more ethylene production was induced in the basal seeds. However, the opposite was true of kinetin for both germination and ethylene production. When germination was extensively stimulated by the cytokinins, maximal ethylene and carbon dioxide evolution occurred at 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Abscisic acid inhibited ethylene production and germinaton of the seeds while carbon dioxide evolution was comparatively high. The crucial physiological event for germination of dormant peanut seeds was enhancement of ethylene production by the seeds. PMID:16657647

  17. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation.

  18. Effect of glycation of albumin on its renal clearance in normal and diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, G.J.; Jerums, G.

    1988-03-01

    Two independent techniques have been used to study the renal clearances of nonenzymatically glycated albumin and nonglycated albumin in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 16 to 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. In the first technique, serum and urinary endogenous glycated and nonglycated albumin were separated using m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography and subsequently quantified by radioimmunoassay. Endogenous glycated albumin was cleared approximately twofold faster than nonglycated albumin in normal and diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the glycated albumin/nonglycated albumin clearance ratios (Cga/Calb) in normal and diabetic rats, respectively (2.18 +/- 0.39 vs 1.83 +/- 0.22, P greater than 0.05). The second technique measured the renal clearance of injected 125I-labelled glycated albumin and 125I-labelled albumin. The endogenous results were supported by the finding that 125I-labelled glycated albumin was cleared more rapidly than 125I-labelled albumin in normal (P less than 0.01) and diabetic (P less than 0.05) rats. The Cga/Calb ratio calculated for the radiolabelled albumins was 1.4 and 2.0 in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. This evidence suggests that nonenzymatic glycation of albumin increases its renal clearance to a similar degree in normal and diabetic rats.

  19. Neuronal uptake of serum albumin is associated with neuron damage during the development of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zanhua; Liu, Jinjie; Wang, Suping; Liu, Sibo; Zhao, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that brain blood barrier dysfunction following the onset of seizures may lead to serum albumin extravasation into the brain. However, the effect of albumin extravasation on the development of epilepsy is yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have predominantly focused on the effect of albumin absorption by astrocytes; however, the present study investigated the effects of neuronal uptake of albumin in vitro and in kainic acid-induced Sprague-Dawley rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, electroencephalogram recordings were conducted to record seizure onset, Nissl and Evans blue staining were used to detect neuronal damage and albumin extravasation, respectively, and double immunofluorescence was used to explore neuronal absorption of albumin. Cell counting was also conducted in vitro to determine whether albumin contributes to neuronal death. The results of the present study indicated that extravasated serum albumin was absorbed by neurons, and the neurons that had absorbed albumin died and were dissolved 28 days after seizure onset in vivo. Furthermore, significant neuronal death was detected after albumin absorption in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggested that albumin may be absorbed by neurons following the onset of seizures. Furthermore, the results indicated that neuronal albumin uptake may be associated with neuronal damage and death in epileptic seizures. Therefore, attenuating albumin extravasation following epileptic seizures may reduce brain damage and slow the development of epilepsy. PMID:27446263

  20. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  1. Crystal growth simulations of H(2)S hydrate.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2010-07-29

    In this paper, we report a molecular simulation study exploring the crystal growth behavior of H(2)S hydrates within two-phase (H(2)S hydrate crystal and H(2)S aqueous solution) and three-phase (H(2)S hydrate crystal, liquid H(2)S, and H(2)S aqueous solution) systems. The microscopic mechanisms of growth, as well as the interfacial properties during the heterogeneous crystal growth process, are probed. We find that the H(2)S hydrate can be grown at a higher rate than methane hydrates under comparable conditions (Vatamanu, J.; Kusalik, P. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 15896). The three-phase simulations, which also allow us to identify the simulation conditions on the experimental phase diagram, demonstrate that the present models reasonably reproduce the phase behavior of this system. We find that the crystal interface has a strong affinity for water molecules. We observed a relatively low level of defects in the newly formed H(2)S hydrate crystal.

  2. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS+/− mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS+/− mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  3. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  4. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  5. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  6. Polysulfides Link H2S to Protein Thiol Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Romy; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Bäsell, Katrin; Becher, Dörte; Antelmann, Haike; Nagy, Péter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is suggested to act as a gaseous signaling molecule in a variety of physiological processes. Its molecular mechanism of action was proposed to involve protein S-sulfhydration, that is, conversion of cysteinyl thiolates (Cys-S−) to persulfides (Cys-S-S−). A central and unresolved question is how H2S—that is, a molecule with sulfur in its lowest possible oxidation state (−2)—can lead to oxidative thiol modifications. Results: Using the lipid phosphatase PTEN as a model protein, we find that the “H2S donor” sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) leads to very rapid reversible oxidation of the enzyme in vitro. We identify polysulfides formed in NaHS solutions as the oxidizing species, and present evidence that sulfane sulfur is added to the active site cysteine. Polysulfide-mediated oxidation of PTEN was induced by all “H2S donors” tested, including sodium sulfide (Na2S), gaseous H2S, and morpholin-4-ium 4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate (GYY4137). Moreover, we show that polysulfides formed in H2S solutions readily modify PTEN inside intact cells. Innovation: Our results shed light on the previously unresolved question of how H2S leads to protein thiol oxidation, and suggest that polysulfides formed in solutions of H2S mediate this process. Conclusion: This study suggests that the effects that have been attributed to H2S in previous reports may in fact have been mediated by polysulfides. It also supports the notion that sulfane sulfur rather than sulfide is the actual in vivo agent of H2S signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1749–1765. PMID:23646934

  7. Measurement of absolute cross sections for excitation of the 2s(2) S-1 -> 2s2p P-1 degrees transition in O+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Berrington, K. A.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for the 1s(2)2s(2) S-1 -> 1s(2)2s2p P-1(o) transition in O+4 located at 19.689 eV. Use is made of the electron energy-loss method, using a merged electron-ion beam geometry. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements in the S-1 -> P-1(o) transition are in the range 18 eV ( below the threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with other previous electron energy-loss measurements and with results of a 26 term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in all experimental and theoretical results near the threshold for this S-1 -> P-1(o) transition.

  8. Structure characterization of protein fractions from lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera) seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hong-Yan; Cai, Lian-Hui; Cai, Xi-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ju; Li, Yu-Qin

    2011-08-01

    Protein fractionation of lotus seed was carried out and the structures of the protein fractions were studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) was used to investigate changes in molecular structures of the protein fractions. FTIR and UV-vis spectra showed the protein fractions had different protein molecular structures. FTIR spectra showed β-sheets and β-turns as the major secondary structures in the individual protein fractions, while the amounts of α-helix and random coil structures among the different fractions did not significantly change. The amounts of β-sheet structures of albumin and globulin were significantly higher than ones of prolamin and glutelin, implying albumin and globulin had high stabilities because of the high content in β-sheet structures. The observed similarity in the amounts of α-helix, random coil, β-sheet and β-turn structures shared by albumin and globulin indicated that their interior conformations were similar.

  9. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  10. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements.

    PubMed

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  11. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  12. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  13. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  14. Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-03-15

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. Evidence of transcellular albumin transport after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Childs, Ed W; Udobi, Kahdi F; Hunter, Felicia A; Dhevan, Vijian

    2005-06-01

    Hemorrhagic shock-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is characterized by an increase in microvascular permeability. This increase in permeability is thought to occur mainly via passive transport through interendothelial cell junctions. However, recent data have suggested that a transcellular (caveolae) transport mechanism(s) may also play a role after shock. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of caveolae transport after hemorrhagic shock. After a control period, blood was withdrawn to reduce the mean arterial pressure to 40 mmHg for 1 h in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Mesenteric postcapillary venules in a transilluminated segment of small intestine were examined to determine changes in permeability. Rats received an intravenous injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine albumin during the control period. The fluorescent light intensity emitted from the fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine albumin was recorded with digital microscopy within the lumen of the microvasculature and was compared with the intensity of light in the extravascular space. The images were downloaded to a computerized image analysis program that quantitates changes in light intensity. This change in light intensity represents albumin extravasation. Our results demonstrated a marked increase in albumin leak after hemorrhagic shock that was significantly attenuated with two different inhibitors of transcellular transport, N-ethylmaleimide and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. These data suggest that caveolae transport plays a significant role in microvascular permeability after hemorrhagic shock. PMID:15897811

  1. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  4. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY…

  5. Impact of albumin on drug delivery--new applications on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Elsadek, Bakheet; Kratz, Felix

    2012-01-10

    Over the past decades, albumin has emerged as a versatile carrier for therapeutic and diagnostic agents, primarily for diagnosing and treating diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases. Market approved products include fatty acid derivatives of human insulin or the glucagon-like-1 peptide (Levemir(®) and Victoza(®)) for treating diabetes, the taxol albumin nanoparticle Abraxane(®) for treating metastatic breast cancer which is also under clinical investigation in further tumor indications, and (99m)Tc-aggregated albumin (Nanocoll(®) and Albures(®)) for diagnosing cancer and rheumatoid arthritis as well as for lymphoscintigraphy. In addition, an increasing number of albumin-based or albumin-binding drugs are in clinical trials such as antibody fusion proteins (MM-111) for treating HER2/neu positive breast cancer (phase I), a camelid albumin-binding nanobody anti-HSA-anti-TNF-α (ATN-103) in phase II studies for treating rheumatoid arthritis, an antidiabetic Exendin-4 analog bound to recombinant human albumin (phase I/II), a fluorescein-labeled albumin conjugate (AFL)-human serum albumin for visualizing the malignant borders of brain tumors for improved surgical resection, and finally an albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin (INNO-206) entering phase II studies against sarcoma and gastric cancer. In the preclinical setting, novel approaches include attaching peptides with high-affinity for albumin to antibody fragments, the exploitation of albumin-binding gadolinium contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and physical or covalent attachment of antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer drugs to albumin that are permanently or transiently attached to human serum albumin (HSA) or act as albumin-binding prodrugs. This review gives an overview of the expanding field of preclinical and clinical drug applications and developments that use albumin as a protein carrier to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug or to target the drug

  6. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established.

  7. The earliest seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~ 5 minutes per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5–10 μg/mL (which is more than 3 times lower than clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  9. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  10. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

  11. Role of bovine serum albumin in the nutrition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, M; Wilson, A R; Solotorovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin promotes the growth of small inocula of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in media containing unesterified fatty acids. Albumin binds fatty acids present in concentrations toxic for the organisms. In the present study, additional roles of albumin were investigated. When present in a basal medium, fatty acid-free albumin could be utilized by M. tuberculosis as a sole source of carbon. Since albumin could not substitute for the amino acids in basal medium as a nitrogen source, it was concluded that the protein component in albumin was not utilized as a nutrient by the organisms. An ether extract of fatty acid-free albumin supported a small but significant amount of growth. Analysis of the lipids in fatty acid-free albumin by gas chromatography revealed the presence of 686 microgram of fatty acid per g of albumin. Although a small amount of growth occurred when a lipid extract of albumin was present in the medium, growth stimulation was dependent in major part on the presence of undenatured albumin in the medium. Lipids, when bound to albumin, can serve as a nontoxic source of carbon and energy. PMID:120697

  12. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  16. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-06-15

    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  17. Sun drying of seedless and seeded grapes.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sun drying behaviour of seedless and seeded grapes was investigated. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of seedless and seeded grapes of berry size of 1.72 cm and 2.20 cm thicknesses from the initial moisture contents of 78.2% and 79.5% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 22% (w.b.) were 176 and 228 h in open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 12 thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models were compared using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), mean relative percent error (P), reduced chi-square (χ (2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the sun drying curves of seedless and seeded grapes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick's diffusion model by 1.02 × 10(-11) and 1.66 × 10(-11) m(2)/s for seeded and seedless grapes. PMID:23572844

  18. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  19. The role of H2S bioavailability in endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Szabo, Csaba; Ichinose, Fumito; Ahmed, Asif; Whiteman, Matthew; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (EDF) reflects pathophysiological changes in the phenotype and functions of endothelial cells that result from and/or contribute to a plethora of cardiovascular diseases. We review the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of EDF, one of the fastest advancing research topics. Conventionally treated as an environment pollutant, H2S is also produced in endothelial cells and participates in the fine regulation of endothelial integrity and functions. Disturbed H2S bioavailability has been suggested to be a novel indicator of EDF progress and prognosis. EDF manifests in different forms in multiple pathologies, but therapeutics aimed at remedying altered H2S bioavailability may benefit all. PMID:26071118

  20. The role of H2S bioavailability in endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Szabo, Csaba; Ichinose, Fumito; Ahmed, Asif; Whiteman, Matthew; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction reflects pathophysiological changes in the phenotype and functions of endothelial cells that result from and/or contribute to a plethora of cardiovascular diseases. Here we review the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, one of the fastest advanced and hottest research topics. Conventionally treated as an environment pollutant, H2S is also produced in endothelial cells and participates in the fine regulation of endothelial integrity and functions. Disturbed H2S bioavailability has been suggested to be a novel indicator of the progress and prognosis of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction appears to exhibit in different forms in different pathologies but therapeutics aimed at remedying the altered H2S bioavailability may benefit all. PMID:26071118

  1. Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of H2S and D2S at 49-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, Xiuyan; Suto, Masako

    1987-01-01

    Photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of H2S and D2S were measured in the 49-240 nm region using synchrotron radiation as a light source. Fluorescence from photoexcitation of H2S appears at 49-97 nm, but not in the long wavelength region. Fluorescence spectra were dispersed, and used to identify the emitters to be H2S(+) (A), SH(+)(A), and H(n greater than 2). The fluorescence quantum yield is about 6 percent. Photoexcitation of D2S at 49-96 nm produces fluorescence with a quantum yield of about 5 percent. The emitters are identified from the fluorescence spectra to be D2S(+)(A), SD(+)(A), and D(n greater than 2). The Franck-Condon factors for the SH(+) and SD(+) (A-X) transitions were determined. The SD(A-X) fluorescence was observed from photoexcitation of D2S at 100-151 nm, for which the fluorescence cross section and quantum yield were measured.

  2. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  3. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C.; Pankey, Edward A.; Reddy, Vishwaradh G.; Edward, Justin A.; Swan, Kevin W.; Peak, Taylor C.; Mostany, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03–0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat. PMID:26071540

  4. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  5. Renal Type A Intercalated Cells Contain Albumin in Organelles with Aldosterone-Regulated Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells. PMID:25874770

  6. Crystal Structure of a Ube2S-Ubiquitin Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Sonja; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Feiler, Christian; Rape, Michael; Kuriyan, John

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination occurs through the sequential formation and reorganization of specific protein-protein interfaces. Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes, such as Ube2S, catalyze the formation of an isopeptide linkage between the C-terminus of a “donor” ubiquitin and a primary amino group of an “acceptor” ubiquitin molecule. This reaction involves an intermediate, in which the C-terminus of the donor ubiquitin is thioester-bound to the active site cysteine of the E2 and a functionally important interface is formed between the two proteins. A docked model of a Ube2S-donor ubiquitin complex was generated previously, based on chemical shift mapping by NMR, and predicted contacts were validated in functional studies. We now present the crystal structure of a covalent Ube2S-ubiquitin complex. The structure contains an interface between Ube2S and ubiquitin in trans that resembles the earlier model in general terms, but differs in detail. The crystallographic interface is more hydrophobic than the earlier model and is stable in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Remarkably, the docked Ube2S-donor complex converges readily to the configuration seen in the crystal structure in 3 out of 8 MD trajectories. Since the crystallographic interface is fully consistent with mutational effects, this indicates that the structure provides an energetically favorable representation of the functionally critical Ube2S-donor interface. PMID:26828794

  7. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation. PMID:26893056

  8. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  9. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  10. Uptake and metabolism of polymerized albumin by rat liver. Role of the scavenger receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.L.; Roll, F.J.; Jones, A.L.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus binds avidly to albumin polymers, which in turn may mediate viral attachment to liver cells. This hypothesis is critically dependent on prior results obtained using glutaraldehyde-polymerized human serum albumin as a model for naturally occurring albumin species. We used the perfused rat liver to characterize the uptake, cellular distribution, and metabolism of glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin. /sup 125/I-glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin was efficiently removed from the perfusate by the liver (29% extraction). However, few autoradiographic grains were located over hepatic parenchymal cells (6%). Instead, most glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin appeared to be removed by endothelial (59%) or Kupffer (31%) cells. Hepatic uptake was strongly inhibited by formaldehyde-treated monomeric albumin, a known ligand of the endothelial scavenger receptor for chemically modified proteins. After uptake, most glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin was rapidly degraded and released into the perfusate (74% within 60 min). This process was blocked by chloroquine and leupeptin, suggesting that it involves lysosomal acid hydrolases. We conclude that glutaraldehyde-polymerized albumin is efficiently cleared and degraded by the endothelial scavenger pathway. Glutaraldehyde-polymerized albumin therefore appears to be a poor model for predicting the hepatic handling of naturally occurring albumin species bound to hepatitis B virions. Even if viral particles were to follow this pathway, few would enter parenchymal hepatocytes.

  11. Comparison of albumin receptors expressed on bovine and human group G streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Raeder, R; Otten, R A; Boyle, M D

    1991-01-01

    The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G streptococci was extracted and affinity purified. The protein was characterized for species reactivity, and monospecific antibodies were prepared to the purified receptor. The bovine group G albumin receptor was compared functionally, antigenically, and for DNA homology with the albumin-binding protein expressed by human group G streptococci. In agreement with previous reports, the albumin-binding activity of human strains was mediated by a unique domain of the type III immunoglobulin G-Fc-binding molecule, protein G. The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G strains was found to lack any immunoglobulin G-binding potential but displayed a wider profile of species albumin reactivity than protein G. Both albumin receptors could inhibit the binding of the other to immobilized human serum albumin, and each displayed similar binding properties. Antigenic comparison of the two albumin receptors demonstrated a low level of cross-reactivity; however comparison at the DNA level, using an oligonucleotide probe specific for the albumin-binding region of protein G, demonstrated that the two albumin receptors expressed by human and bovine group G streptococcal strains do not display significant homology. Images PMID:1846128

  12. Quantitation of the residual DNA from rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Dai, Huixia; Liu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Liping; Pang, Jianlei; Ou, Jiquan; Yang, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    Residual DNA in recombinant protein pharmaceuticals can potentially cause safety issues in clinical applications; thus, maximum residual limit has been established by drug safety authorities. Assays for residual DNA in Escherichia coli, yeast, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression systems have been established, but no rice residual DNA assay for rice expression systems has been designed. To develop an assay for the quantification of residual DNA that is produced from rice seed, we established a sensitive assay using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We found that a 40-cycle qPCR exhibited a linear response when the template concentration was in the range of 2×10(4) to 0.2pg of DNA per reaction in TaqMan and SYBR Green I assays. The amplification efficiency was 103 to 104%, and the amount of residual DNA from recombinant human serum albumin from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) was less than 3.8ng per dosage, which was lower than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results indicate that the current purification protocol could efficiently remove residual DNA during manufacturing and processing. Furthermore, this protocol could be viable in other cereal crop endosperm expression systems for developing a residual DNA quantitation assay using the highly conserved 5S rRNA gene of the crops.

  13. Quantitation of the residual DNA from rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Dai, Huixia; Liu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Liping; Pang, Jianlei; Ou, Jiquan; Yang, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    Residual DNA in recombinant protein pharmaceuticals can potentially cause safety issues in clinical applications; thus, maximum residual limit has been established by drug safety authorities. Assays for residual DNA in Escherichia coli, yeast, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression systems have been established, but no rice residual DNA assay for rice expression systems has been designed. To develop an assay for the quantification of residual DNA that is produced from rice seed, we established a sensitive assay using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We found that a 40-cycle qPCR exhibited a linear response when the template concentration was in the range of 2×10(4) to 0.2pg of DNA per reaction in TaqMan and SYBR Green I assays. The amplification efficiency was 103 to 104%, and the amount of residual DNA from recombinant human serum albumin from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) was less than 3.8ng per dosage, which was lower than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results indicate that the current purification protocol could efficiently remove residual DNA during manufacturing and processing. Furthermore, this protocol could be viable in other cereal crop endosperm expression systems for developing a residual DNA quantitation assay using the highly conserved 5S rRNA gene of the crops. PMID:24388867

  14. Serum albumin analysis for type II diabetes detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Cao, Gang; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Zufang; Li, Ling; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy combined with membrane electrophoresis (ME) was firstly employed to detect albumin variation in type II diabetic development. Albumin was first purified from human serum by ME and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS spectral analysis. SERS spectra were obtained from blood albumin samples of 20 diabetic patients and 19 healthy volunteers. Subtle but discernible changes in the acquired mean spectra of the two groups were observed. Tentative assignment of albumin SERS bands indicated specific structural changes of albumin molecule with diabetic development. Meanwhile, PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms were employed to classify the two kinds of albumin SERS spectra, yielding the diagnostic sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.7%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that the EM-SERS method in combination with multivariate statistical analysis has great potential for the label-free detection of albumin variation for improving type II diabetes screening.

  15. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression.

  16. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression. PMID:26668316

  17. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  18. Seed output and the seed bank in Vallisneria americana (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Lokker, C; Lovett-Doust, L; Lovett-Doust, J

    1997-10-01

    Seed banks and sexual reproduction are known to be significant in colonization and re-establishment of some aquatic macrophyte communities. For highly clonal aquatic macrophytes, however, there is a lack of information on seed production and seed fate as compared with annual sexual species. The seed bank for three populations of Vallisneria americana in the Huron-Erie corridor of the Great Lakes was sampled and quantified in the spring of 1994, and related to seed production in the previous season at these sites. Seed deposition rates during 1994 were also assessed. Sites varied in the proportion of plants flowering and in their tertiary sex ratios, but did not differ in seed numbers produced per unit area. The size of the seed bank was not significantly related to the previous season's seed output, and estimates of seed deposition in the following year tended to be approximately tenfold greater than seed densities found in the seed bank. The stages between seed production and subsequent seed germination are generally very dynamic, with dispersal, mortality, and predation as likely regulating factors. The potential for seedling establishment in V. americana needs to be assessed more fully before the role of seeds in population processes can be determined. PMID:21708549

  19. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  20. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  1. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  2. Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)-curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSA-CCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSA-CCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSA-CCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by β-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes.

  3. Tamoxifen and curcumin binding to serum albumin. Spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Maliszewska, M.; Pożycka, J.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Góra, A.; Sułkowska, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is widely used for the breast cancer treatment and is known as chemopreventive agent. Curcumin (CUR) is natural phenolic compound with broad spectrum of biological activity e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and chemopreventive. Combination of tamoxifen and curcumin could be more effective with lower toxicity than each agent alone in use for the treatment or chemoprevention of breast cancer. Binding of drugs to serum albumin is an important factor, which determines toxicity and therapeutic dosage of the drugs. When two drugs are administered together the competition between them for the binding site on albumin can result in a decrease in bound fraction and an increase in the concentration of free biologically active fraction of drug.

  4. Novel lipid hybrid albumin nanoparticle greatly lowered toxicity of pirarubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenqi; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Pirarubicin (THP) is an effective anthracycline for the treatment of solid tumor. However, its potential side effects are prominent and clinical use is restricted. We aimed to develop a novel pirarubicin-oleic acid complex albumin nanoparticle (THP-OA-AN) in order to reduce the toxicity of THP. Oleic acid, human serum albumin (HSA), and egg yolk lecithin E80 was used to prepare THP-OA-AN. Prepared THP-OA-AN was characterized and animal experiments were conducted to assess its tumor suppression effect, distribution, and toxicity. Comparison between THP and THP-OA-AN showed that, with retained antitumor efficiency, the toxicity of THP-OA-AN is significantly reduced regarding bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This study developed a safe and effective formulation of THP, which has greater potential for clinic use in the tumor therapy.

  5. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin.

    PubMed

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S; Brandt, Nikolay N; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Chikishev, Andrey Yu

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND–protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications. PMID:25901656

  6. Iodide and albumin kinetics in normal canine wrists and knees

    SciTech Connect

    Simkin, P.A.; Benedict, R.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The clearance rates of free iodide and of radioiodinated serum albumin were measured in the knee and wrist joints of 9 normal adult dogs. Iodide clearance from the knee was 3 times greater than that from the wrist. In contrast, radioiodinated serum albumin clearance from the knee was only slightly greater than that from the wrist. Interpreted as respective indices of effective synovial plasma flow and lymphatic drainage, these values indicate that the filtration fraction is normally greater in microvessels of the wrist than in those of the knee. These findings complement the results of companion studies of Starling forces that indicate a higher pressure microvascular bed in the wrist than in the knee.

  7. Recent Topics in Chemical and Clinical Research on Glycated Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The present review discusses how the glycation sites of lysine residues in HSA are modified with glucose, whereas the glycation sites of lysine residues are located inside of HSA as well as the direct comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c using human blood. Moreover, the most recent clinical researches on GA are described. PMID:25614014

  8. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery. PMID:27274282

  9. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S.; Brandt, Nikolay N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Chikishev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND-protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  10. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery.

  11. Vaporization thermodynamics of K2S and K2SO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The vaporization reactions, vapor pressures, and thermodynamics of potassium sulfide and potassium sulfite were studied for purposes of providing fundamental data for the seed cycle in magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation. Rate of effusion studies, supported by tube furnace experiments, X-ray powder diffraction, mass spectrometry and appropriate chemical analyses and tests, revealed that potassium sulfite disproportionates at high temperatures to form potassium sulfide and potassium sulfate. Potassium sulfide was observed to vaporize incongruently, the initial vapors beng predominantly potassium atoms, with minor species being S2 and various K-S molecules. The ratio of K/S2 in the vapor is very large initially and decreases steadily with prolonged heating. Several materials were evaluated for purposes of containing K2S/K2SO3 at temperatures or = 800 C: Pt, Mo, W, quartz, machinable glass, BN, high density graphite, pyrolytic coated graphite, and alumina. Of these, only alumina was observed to be chemically inert to both K2S but reacted with K2SO3. The other materials were not suitable for either substance. Thermodynamic calculations based on measured vapor pressures and approximate free energy functions are described. Results from isothermal total mass loss experiments and from thermogravimetric experiments are also included.

  12. Expression of albumin in nonhepatic tissues and its synthesis by the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Homans, R; Fuerman, Y; Levin, I; Barash, H; Silanikove, N; Mabjeesh, S J

    2005-02-01

    Albumin is a well-characterized product of the liver. In the present study, objectives were to determine if the albumin gene is also expressed in various nonhepatic tissues in the bovine; whether mammary gland epithelial cells synthesize albumin; and how its synthesis is affected by bovine mastitis. Albumin expression was monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Tissues examined were: liver, mammary gland, tongue, intestine, lymph gland, testicle, ovary, and uterus. All tissues except the ovary expressed the albumin gene, albeit less so than the liver. The highest level of expression (other than liver) was found in the lymph nodes but expression was also found in the mammary gland. Incubation of mammary gland explants with the labeled amino acid L-[(35)S] methionine resulted in formation of labeled immunoprecipitable albumin, newly synthesized in the explant. Immunoprecipitable albumin in the medium verified that newly synthesized albumin was also secreted into the medium. This shows that the gland itself is a source of milk albumin. Albumin mRNA expression was approximately 4 times higher in mammary gland tissue from 6 mastitic cows compared with expression in mammary tissue from 6 healthy glands. Further, secretion of albumin was increased 3.5-fold from explants of mastitic mammary glands compared with secretion from explants of healthy mammary glands. Addition of lipopolysaccharide increased the synthesis and secretion of albumin in mammary gland cells in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to lipopolysaccharide accelerated albumin synthesis in a time-dependent manner up to 48 h. These results lead us to suggest that the secretion of albumin by the mammary gland is part of the innate nonspecific defense system. PMID:15653522

  13. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  14. Asymmetric ( UC)albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-10-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, UC-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, ( UC)albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space.

  15. Binding of several benzodiazepines to bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicote, Roberta G.; Pacheco, María E.; Bruzzone, Liliana

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of lorazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters Δ H, Δ G and Δ S were calculated. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were also investigated. The distances between the donor (BSA) and the acceptors (benzodiazepines) were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and conformational changes of BSA were observed from synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  16. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Oliveros, María R; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2013-01-01

    Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins. Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%). Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.

  17. Seed dispersal in fens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  18. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Wajant, Harald

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  19. Drug binding in sera deficient in lipoproteins, albumin or orosomucoid.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, E; Kierulf, P; Skuterud, B; Bredesen, J E; Lunde, P K

    1983-01-01

    The relative role of lipoproteins, albumin and orosomucoid in the serum binding variation of various drugs was examined by separate removal of these proteins. Lipoproteins were removed from serum by ultracentrifugation, albumin by affinity chromatography and orosomucoid by immunoprecipitation. Removal of the lipoproteins did not affect the serum binding of the acidic (phenytoin) and neutral (digitoxin) drugs tested, nor the basic drugs disopyramide, quinidine or propranolol. A reduction in binding of amitryptyline, nortriptyline, doxepin and desmethyldoxepin was observed. Removal of albumin did, with some exception for nortriptyline, not affect the serum binding of the basic drugs tested. A pronounced reduction in the binding of phenytoin and digitoxin was observed. Removal of orosomucoid did not affect the binding of the acidic and neutral drugs tested. A reduction in the binding of all the basic drugs tested was observed, especially for disopyramide whose binding almost disappeared. Quinidine, propranolol, phenytoin and digitoxin all bound to isolated lipoproteins, but the removal of lipoproteins had no effect on the total serum binding for these drugs. Hence, the use of deficient sera provides valuable information as to the quantitative role of the various proteins in drug binding, whereas studies using purified proteins are often necessary to examine the mechanisms of the drug protein interactions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6626414

  20. Effect of tribology processes on adsorption of albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Wang, Linghe; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2016-03-01

    As soon as artificial joint replacements are implanted into patients, the adsorption of proteins can occur. Joint implants operate in a protein-rich and relatively corrosive environment under tribological contact. The contacted area acted as an anodic part and the rest of the surface was more cathodic. Therefore, the adsorption of proteins is different in and outside the wear track. Adsorbed proteins would denature during rubbing and a tribofilm could form. The tribofilm can lubricate the surface and act as a barrier to corrosion damage. However, to observe the adsorption of proteins in situ has always been a challenge. Scanning Kelvin probe force microscope (SKPFM) was used to study the adsorption of albumin on the surface of CoCrMo alloy under simulated tribology movement. Fluorescence microscopy (FM) was employed to reveal the protein molecules in the wear scar. It was found that albumin molecules can decrease the surface potential and accelerate the corrosion process. In the wear track, albumin denatured and changed the surface potential as time progressed.

  1. [Detection of autoantibodies to polymerized human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Manns, M; Müller, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1984-11-01

    Binding activity of antibodies against polymerized human serum albumin (pHSA) was measured in the serum of 348 patients with various hepatic and non-hepatic diseases and in the serum of 108 control persons. The methods used were passive hemagglutination (PH) with antigen loaded human erythrocytes and radial immunodiffusion (ID). In the PH-method only HBsAg-positive sera reacted. Blocking experiments with pHSA, polymerized bovine serum albumin (pBSA) and monomeric human serum albumin (mHSA) showed, that the PH-method measures HBsAG associated receptors for pHSA. In HBeAG-positive cases titers were significantly higher than in anti-HBe-positive sera. Using the ID-method it could be shown, that 40% of sera of patients with liver diseases (n = 272), 37% of patients with LED (n = 27), 72% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 32), 6% of patients with glomerulonephritis (n = 17) and 2% of normal persons (n = 108) reacted. These sera reacted in the immunodiffusion assay with pHSA and pBSA but not with mHSA. Autoantibodies against non species specific determinants of pHSA which are not specific for liver diseases and possibly due to disturbed immunoregulation can be demonstrated by immunodiffusion. They may possibly be modulators of the pHSA mediated binding of hepatitis B-virus to hepatocytes.

  2. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

    1989-05-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

  3. A Membrane Reactor for H2S Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, D.

    1996-12-31

    This program consisted of experimental evaluation of new metal- membrane compositions, experimental evaluation of the corrosion resistance of structural alloys and coatings for use in fabricating membrane reactors, development and evaluation of new membrane reactor designs, and economic analysis of the membrane reactor-based process for H{sub 2}S thermolysis and membrane-reactor fabrication. The results are described. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that the membrane-reactor process will ultimately be a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and environmentally acceptable means for the separation and treatment of H{sub 2}S from hot coal-gasifier streams. We estimate that the proposed process will separate and decompose H{sub 2}S at a cost that is one-half to one-fifth that of conventional technology for this application-amine scrubbers coupled with the Claus process.

  4. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions. PMID:27507473

  5. Crystal splitting in the growth of Bi2S3.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2006-12-01

    Bi2S3 nanostructures with a sheaflike morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. These structures may form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By control of the synthetic parameters, different shapes are obtained, analogous to those which have been observed to occur by crystal splitting in minerals. These new and complex Bi2S3 nanostructures are characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and electron and X-ray diffraction.

  6. Photocatalytic Au-Bi2S3 heteronanostructures.

    PubMed

    Manna, Goutam; Bose, Riya; Pradhan, Narayan

    2014-06-23

    Au-Bi2S3 heteronanostructure photocatalysts were designed in which the coupling of a metal plasmon and a semiconductor exciton aids the absorption of solar light, enhances charge separation, and results in improved catalytic activity. Furthermore, these nanostructures show a unique pattern of structural combination, with Au nanoparticles positioned at the center of Bi2S3 nanorods. The chemistry of formation of these nanostructures, their epitaxy at the junction, and their photoconductance were studied, as well as their photoresponse properties. PMID:24844409

  7. Assay Methods for H2S Biogenesis and Catabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ruma; Chiku, Taurai; Kabil, Omer; Libiad, Marouane; Motl, Nicole; Yadav, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced from sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and homocysteine, or a catabolite, 3-mercaptopyruvate, by three known enzymes: cystathionine β-synthase, γ-cystathionase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. Of these, the first two enzymes reside in the cytoplasm and comprise the transsulfuration pathway, while the third enzyme is found both in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondrion. The following mitochondrial enzymes oxidize H2S: sulfide quinone oxidoreductase, sulfur dioxygenase, rhodanese, and sulfite oxidase. The products of the sulfide oxidation pathway are thiosulfate and sulfate. Assays for enzymes involved in the production and oxidative clearance of sulfide to thiosulfate are described in this chapter. PMID:25725523

  8. Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-11-10

    We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m.

  9. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited F-doped SnO2/Cu2S electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinh Quy, Vu Hong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kang, Soon-Hyung; Choi, Cheol-Jong; Rajesh, John Anthuvan; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2016-06-01

    Copper sulfide (Cu2S) films were deposited on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates via the electrodeposition (ED) of copper (Cu) nanoparticles followed by sulfurization. The Cu nanoparticles were deposited on FTO substrates for various ED times ranging from 10 to 30 min at a constant -0.4 V. The FTO/Cu films consisted of flower-like nanoparticles comprised of randomly-clustering nanoflakes. The Cu nanoparticles electrodeposited for 10 min (FTO/Cu (10 min)) were dispersed sparsely over the FTO substrate, whereas the FTO/Cu (20 and 30 min) provided increased coverage. Unlike FTO/Cu2S (10 min), the FTO/Cu2S (20 and 30 min) consisted of vertically-standing large Cu2S nanosheets with numerous small nanosheets in between. This was attributed to the sufficient number of Cu seed nanoflakes, which not only facilitate ion transport of the redox couple but also increased the surface area, leading to significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QD-SSC) with FTO/Cu2S (20 min) exhibited a significantly improved cell efficiency of 4.58%, compared to those with Pt and FTO/Cu2S (10 min). The QD-SSC with the FTO/Cu2S (30 min) showed similar cell efficiency to that with the FTO/Cu2S (20 min), despite the larger surface area because of its amorphous crystallographic structure offsetting the electrocatalytic activity.

  10. Adsorption of insoluble polysulfides Li2S(x) (x = 1, 2) on Li2S surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiao; Hubble, Dion; Balbuena, Perla B; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2015-04-14

    In lithium-sulfur batteries, the growth of insulating discharge product Li2S film affects the cathode microstructure and the related electron as well as lithium ion transport properties. In this study, chemical reactions of insoluble lithium polysulfides Li2Sx (x = 1, 2) on crystal Li2S substrate are investigated by a first-principles approach. First-principles atomistic thermodynamics predicts that the stoichiometric (111) and (110) surfaces are stable around the operating cell voltage. Li2Sx adsorption is an exothermic reaction with the (110) surface being more active to react with the polysulfides than the stoichiometric (111) surface. There is no obvious charge transfer between the adsorbed molecule and the crystal Li2S substrate. Analysis of the charge density difference suggests that the adsorbate interacts with the substrate via a strong covalent bond. The growth mechanism of thermodynamically stable surfaces is investigated in the present study. It is found that direct Li2S deposition is energetically favored over Li2S2 deposition and reduction process. PMID:25752296

  11. Cellular Specificity of the Blood–CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Liddelow, Shane A.; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C.; Noor, Natassya M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood–CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood–CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of

  12. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  13. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  14. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  15. Observations of H2S toward OMC-1.

    PubMed

    Minh, Y C; Ziurys, L M; Irvine, W M; McGonagle, D

    1990-09-01

    Interstellar hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its isotopic variant (H2(34)S) have been observed toward several positions in OMC-1 via their 1(10)-1(01) transitions near 168 GHz using the FCRAO 14 m telescope. We derive total column densities toward Orion(KL) for the extended ridge, for the plateau, and for the hot core, in addition to values for other positions in OMC-1. The fractional abundance of H2S (approximately 10(-9)) in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems to be difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecule reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. This enhancement may be a result of grain surface chemistry and/or of high-temperature gas-phase chemistry. From the nondetection of HDS in its 2(11)-2(12) transition, we estimate the abundance ratio [HDS]/H2S] < or = 0.02 in the hot core.

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. H2S during circulatory shock: Some unresolved questions

    PubMed Central

    McCook, Oscar; Radermacher, Peter; Volani, Chiara; Asfar, Pierre; Ignatius, Anita; Kemmler, Julia; Möller, Peter; Szabó, Csaba; Whiteman, Matthew; Wood, Mark E.; Wang, Rui; Georgieff, Michael; Wachter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Numerous papers have been published on the role of H2S during circulatory shock. Consequently, knowledge about vascular sulfide concentrations may assume major importance, in particular in the context of “acute on chronic disease”, i.e., during circulatory shock in animals with pre-existing chronic disease. This review addresses the questions i) of the “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock, and, ii) to which extent injury and pre-existing co-morbidity may affect the expression of H2S producing enzymes under these conditions. In the literature there is a huge range on sulfide blood levels during circulatory shock, in part as a result of the different analytical methods used, but also due to the variable of the models and species studied. Clearly, some of the very high levels reported should be questioned in the context of the well-known H2S toxicity. As long as “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock are unknown and/or undetectable “on line” due to the lack of appropriate techniques, it appears to be premature to correlate the measured blood levels of hydrogen sulfide with the severity of shock or the H2S therapy-related biological outcomes. The available data on the tissue expression of the H2S-releasing enzymes during circulatory shock suggest that a “constitutive” CSE expression may play a crucial role of for the maintenance of organ function, at least in the kidney. The data also indicate that increased CBS and CSE expression, in particular in the lung and the liver, represents an adaptive response to stress states. PMID:24650697

  18. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  19. Protein binding of fentanyl and its metabolite nor-fentanyl in human plasma, albumin and α-1 acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bista, Sudeep Raj; Haywood, Alison; Hardy, Janet; Lobb, Michael; Tapuni, Angela; Norris, Ross

    2015-03-01

    1.Fentanyl is a highly lipophilic opioid commonly used to treat cancer pain. Plasma protein binding (PPB) of fentanyl in human plasma is reported as 80-85%, however it is unclear whether fentanyl binds primarily to albumin (ALB) or α-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) and no studies have been conducted on the metabolite, nor-fentanyl. Fentanyl is also known to bind to plasticware and ultrafiltration (UF) devices which impacts adversely on binding experiments. 2.PPB of fentanyl and nor-fentanyl to ALB and AAG in isotonic phosphate buffer solution and seeded human plasma was quantified. PPB was also performed in plasma samples obtained from cancer patients receiving transdermal fentanyl. The adsorption of fentanyl and nor-fentanyl to UF devices and plasticware commonly used in PPB studies was also assessed. 3.Fentanyl was shown to bind primarily to ALB as opposed to AAG, with nor-fentanyl exhibiting negligible binding to plasma proteins. Total PPB of fentanyl was 86-89% in seeded human plasma. PPB in 56 cancer patient samples was 95.1 ± 3.52% for fentanyl and 32.4 ± 21.9% for nor-fentanyl. 4.UF was shown to be a reliable and convenient method for PPB studies, thereby removing the need for complex testing for adsorption of the drug to plasticware during UF.

  20. New experimental evidences of Au-Cu2S core-shell nanoparticles and atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Subarna; Casillas, Gilberto; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Velazquez-Salazar, J. Jesus; Yacaman, Miguel Jose

    2013-03-01

    Au-Cu2S core-shell nanoparticles present different properties than their monometallic counterparts, opening a wide range of possibilities for different applications. Au-Cu2S core-shell nanostructures have raised interest for their many applications in photoelectronic, sensing, catalysis and so on. Au and Au-Cu2S core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by using a modified polyol method. First Au seeds were prepared by reducing HAuCl4.xH2O in ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a polymer surfactant. Then Cu2S shells were overgrown on Au core seeds by reducing CuSO4 in EG with PVP. The morphology and structural characteristics of Au and Au-Cu2S nanostructures were studied in detail using scanning electron microcopy HITACHI S-5500 and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), a resolution 0.19 nm. Moreover, the Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) technique allowed us to probe the structure at the atomic level of these nanoparticles revealing new structural information. We determined the structure of the four main polyhedral morphologies obtained in the synthesis: decahedral, icosahedral, triangular plates, and rods. This project was supported by grants from the National Center for Research Resources (5 G12RR013646-12) and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (G12MD007591).

  1. Amino acid substitutions in inherited albumin variants from Amerindian and Japanese populations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Isobe, T.; Putnam, F.W.; Fujita, M.; Satoh, C.; Neel, J.V.

    1987-11-01

    The authors report an effort to determine the basis for the altered migration of seven inherited albumin variants detected by one-dimensional electrophoresis in population surveys involving tribal Amerindians and Japanese children. An amino acid substitution has thus far been determined for four of the variants. The randomness in the albumin polypeptide of these and the other sixteen independently ascertained amino acid substitutions of albumin and proalbumin thus far established was analyzed; the clustering of eight of these at two positions in the six-amino acid propeptide sequence seems noteworthy. By comparison with other proteins studied by electrophoresis, albumin exhibits average variability. It is a paradox that individuals who, for genetic reasons, lack albumin exhibit no obvious ill effects; yet, electrophoretic variants of albumin are no more numerous than are variants of proteins, the absence of which results in severe disease.

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  3. Seed Dormancy and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Bentsink, Leónie; Koornneef, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    Seed dormancy allows seeds to overcome periods that are unfavourable for seedling established and is therefore important for plant ecology and agriculture. Several processes are known to be involved in the induction of dormancy and in the switch from the dormant to the germinating state. The role of plant hormones, the different tissues and genes involved, including newly identified genes in dormancy and germination are described in this chapter, as well as the use transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analyses to study these mechanistically not well understood processes. PMID:22303244

  4. Importance of albumin in cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse allergens.

    PubMed

    Cabañas, R; López-Serrano, M C; Carreira, J; Ventas, P; Polo, F; Caballero, M T; Contreras, J; Barranco, P; Moreno-Ancillo, A

    2000-01-01

    Different allergenic proteins have been involved in cross-reactivity among animals. Albumins seem to be cross-sensitizing allergenic components. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of albumin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. One hundred and seventeen patients sensitized to cat were tested for IgE reactivity using skin prick tests and RAST assays with cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts and their purified albumin extracts. RAST-inhibition studies were carried out to assess cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse and among their purified albumins. It was found that 22% of patients exhibited specific IgE to cat albumin; 41% of patients sensitized to cat were also sensitized to dog and horse. Out of these patients, 21% had IgE to three albumins and 17% to two. Reciprocal inhibitions were observed among cat, dog and horse albumins and also among cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts, using in the latter experiment sera from patients not sensitized to albumins. IgE binding to horse extract was inhibited 30% by its homologous albumin and IgE binding to cat and dog extracts in almost 15% by their respective albumins. It was concluded that albumins from these three animals share some epitopes that account for the cross-reactivity observed in around one-third of patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. Nevertheless, more than 50% of specific IgE that cross-reacts among these three animals is directed to allergens other than albumin. PMID:10879993

  5. Recognition of oxidized albumin and thyroid antigens by psoriasis autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Rasheed, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) induced epitopes on human-serum-albumin (HSA) and thyroid antigens in psoriasis autoimmunity. Methods: This study was performed in the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia between May 2014 and February 2015. The study was designed to explore the role of ROS-induced epitopes in psoriasis autoimmunity. Singlet-oxygen (or ROS)-induced epitopes on protein (ROS-epitopes-albumin) was characterized by in-vitro and in-vivo. Thyroid antigens were prepared from rabbit thyroid, and thyroglobulin was isolated from thyroid extract. Immunocross-reactions of protein-A purified anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-immunoglobulin G (IgGs) with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin, and their oxidized forms were determined. Binding characteristics of autoantibodies in chronic plaque psoriasis patients (n=26) against ROS-epitopes-HSA and also with native and oxidized thyroid antigens were screened, and the results were compared with age-matched controls (n=22). Results: The anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-IgGs showed cross-reactions with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin and with their oxidized forms. High degree of specific binding by psoriasis IgGs to ROS-epitopes-HSA, ROS-thyroid antigen and ROS-thyroglobulin was observed. Immunoglobulin G from normal-human-controls showed negligible binding with all tested antigens. Moreover, sera from psoriasis patients had higher levels of carbonyl contents compared with control sera. Conclusion: Structural alterations in albumin, thyroid antigens by ROS, generate unique neo-epitopes that might be one of the factors for the induction of autoantibodies in psoriasis. PMID:26620982

  6. Analysis of Aged Human Serum Albumin Affinity for Doxazosin.

    PubMed

    Chudzik, Mariola; Równicka-Zubik, Joanna; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Pawelczak, Bartosz; Sulkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) caused by old age and coexisting diseases result in differences in the binding of doxazosin (DOX). DOX is a postsynaptic α1- adrenoreceptor antagonist used for treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In elderly people suffering from various renal or hepatic diseases the significant portion of N-form of human serum albumin (normal) is converted to A-form (aged). The differences in binding of doxazosin to N- and Aform of albumin are an important factor, which may determines therapeutic dosage and toxicity of the test drug. To indicate these differences, the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy was used. The association constant (Ka) obtained from fluorescence quenching demonstrated that doxazosin has higher affinity for AHSA than for HSA. In order to describe the cooperativity in binding process, the values of the Hill's coefficient has been analysed. For DOX-HSA system (λex 295 nm) Hill's coefficient is close to 1 and it indicates that there is a single class of binding sites. For DOX-HSA (λex 275 nm) and DOX-AHSA (λex 275 nm and λex 295 nm) systems we observed positive cooperativity (nH>1). A greater red shift of fluorescence emission maximum of AHSA than HSA in the presence of DOX was observed. This suggests that the binding of DOX to AHSA was accompanied by a stronger increase in polarity around the fluorophores in comparison to HSA. The binding interaction between DOX and HSA has been also studied by molecular docking simulation.

  7. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  8. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  9. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage. PMID:25747382

  10. The impact of foliar boron sprays on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Nalini; Gupta, Bhavana

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted under glass house condition to study the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on reproductive biology and seed quality of black gram (Vigna mungo). Black gram (V. mungo L. var. DPU-88-31) was grown under controlled sand culture condition at deficient and sufficient B levels. After 32 days of sowing B deficient plants were sprayed with three concentrations of B (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% borax) at three different stages of reproductive development, i.e. prior to flowering, initiation of bud formation and after bud formation. Deficient B supply decreased the anther and pollen size, pollen tube growth, pollen viability as well as stigmatic receptivity which were increased by foliar B application. Foliar spray at all the three concentrations and at all stages increased the yield parameters like number of pods, pod size and number of seeds formed per plant. Foliar B application also improved the seed yield and seed quality in terms of storage seed proteins (albumin, globulin, glutenin and prolamin) and carbohydrates (sugars and starch) in black gram. The foliar application of B in appropriate doses (particularly 0.1%) after bud formation made quantitative and qualitative improvement in seed yield of black gram by supplementing additional/critical B requirements for reproductive development. PMID:22947393

  11. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  12. Three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; He, Xiao-Min; Munson, Sibyl H.; Twigg, Pamela D.; Gernert, Kim M.; Broom, M. Beth; Miller, Teresa Y.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been solved at 6.0 A resolution by the method of multiple isomorphous replacement. Crystals were grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol in the infrequently observed space group P42(1)2 and diffracted X-rays to lattice d-spacings of less than 2.9 A. The electron density maps are of high quality and revealed the structure as a predominantly alpha-helical globin protein in which the course of the polypeptide can be traced. The binding loci of several organic compounds have been determined.

  13. Highly sensitive bovine serum albumin biosensor based on liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Kumar, Ajay; Ganguly, Prasun; Biradar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive liquid crystal (LC) based bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein biosensor is designed. A uniform homeotropic alignment of nematic LC was observed in BSA free substrate which changed into homogeneous in presence of BSA. The change in the LC orientation is found to depend strongly on BSA concentration. This change in the LC alignment is attributed to the modification in the surface conditions which is verified by contact angle measurements. We have detected an ultra low concentration (0.5 μg/ml) of BSA. The present study demonstrates the utilization of LC in the realization of high sensitivity biosensors.

  14. Magic Wavelength for the Hydrogen 1S-2S Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Akio

    2016-05-01

    The state of the art precision measurement of the transition frequencies of neutral atoms is performed with atoms trapped by the magic wavelength optical lattice that cancels the ac Stark shift of the transitions. Trapping with magic wavelength lattice is also expected to improve the precision of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency, which so far has been measured only with the atomic beam. In this talk, I discuss the magic wavelength for the hydrogen 1S-2S transition, and the possibility of implementing the optical lattice trapping for hydrogen. Optical trapping of hydrogen also opens the way to perform magnetic field free spectroscopy of antihydrogen for the test of CPT theorem.

  15. Hot gas, regenerative, supported H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from moderately high temperature (usually 200.degree. C.-550.degree.C.) gas streams comprise a porous, high surface area aluminosilicate support, suitably a zeolite, and most preferably a sodium deficient zeolite containing 1 to 20 weight percent of binary metal oxides. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O contained in the support. The sorbent effectively removes H.sub.2 S from the host gas stream in high efficiency and can be repetitively regenerated at least 10 times without loss of activity.

  16. Conformational Transitions and Glycation of Serum Albumin in Patients with Minimal-Change Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sae Yong; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Jong Oh; Kim, Tae Yeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Cheong, Mi Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cheong, Chae Joon

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of study on the structural changes of serum albumin in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). To determine whether glycation and/or conformational transitions of albumin are involved in the pathogenesis of albuminuria, nine patients with MCD were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study for comparison of these parameters in serum albumin during the remission and relapse of nephrotic syndrome. Methods Circular dichroism measurements were made with purified albumin. Ellipticities at each wavelength were transformed to mean residue ellipticity. Monosaccharide composition was analyzed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results There was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between the sera of control patients and those with nephrotic syndrome. However, the proportion of the random configuration was slightly higher in the plasma albumin of patients in relapse than in those in remission. The proportion of the random configuration was lower in the albumin of the serum than in the urine of patients with nephrotic syndrome, but there was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between their plasma and urine. Conclusion Our results suggest that conformational changes in albumin are involved in albuminuria in patients with MCD. PMID:15481604

  17. Influence of Millimeter Electromagnetic Waves on Fluorescence of Water-Saline Solutions of Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardevanyan, P. O.; Antonyan, A. P.; Shahinyan, M. A.; Mikaelyan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of electromagnetic waves of the millimeter region on the conformation and fluorescence characteristics of human serum albumin was studied. It is shown that the irradiation of the albumin solution leads to an increase of the fluorescence intensity depending on the duration of irradiation. At an irradiation frequency of 48 GHz the fluorescence intensity of albumin hardly changes at all, while at 41.8 and 51.8 GHz it increases. It is also shown that when the irradiation frequency is 51.8 GHz, the intensity of the albumin solution fluorescence increases with increase of the irradiation time.

  18. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  19. Albumin has no role in the uptake of copper by human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    McArdle, H.J.; Guthrie, J.R.; Ackland, M.L.; Danks, D.M.

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism of copper uptake by cells has been the subject of controversy for some time. This paper examines the possibility of a role for albumin in the uptake of copper by fibroblasts. Although the cells could accumulate copper from a copper-albumin complex, there was no evidence for either copper-albumin or albumin receptors on the cell surface. The possibility of a surface exchange mechanism for copper was examined. While copper uptake showed saturation with increasing concentrations of labelled copper-albumin, adding unlabelled copper to the incubation medium did not inhibit uptake. Adding albumin or histidine to the copper-albumin complex resulted in an inhibition of copper uptake. The results can only be explained by the cell taking up free copper from the incubation medium, with the albumin then releasing its copper to maintain the equilibrium between free and bound metal. Since, in vivo there is essentially no free copper in serum, it is concluded that albumin is most unlikely to play a role in the uptake of copper by fibroblasts.

  20. A retrospective analysis of 25% human serum albumin supplementation in hypoalbuminemic dogs with septic peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Farrah B.; Read, Robyn L.; Powell, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the influence of 25% human serum albumin (HSA) supplementation on serum albumin level, total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), hospital stay, and survival in dogs with septic peritonitis. Records of 39 dogs with septic peritonitis were evaluated. In the HSA group, initial and post-transfusion TP, albumin, COP, and HSA dose were recorded. In the non-supplemented group, repeated values of TP, albumin, and COP were recorded over their hospitalization. Eighteen dogs survived (53.8% mortality). Repeat albumin values were higher in survivors (mean 23.9 g/L) and elevated repeat albumin values were associated with HSA supplementation. Repeat albumin and TP were higher in the HSA supplemented group (mean 24 g/L and 51.9 g/L, respectively) and their COP increased by 5.8 mmHg. Length of hospitalization was not affected. Twenty-five percent HSA increases albumin, TP, and COP in canine patients with septic peritonitis. Higher postoperative albumin levels are associated with survival. PMID:26028681

  1. Automated continuous flow determination of urine albumin by competition with dye-detergent binding.

    PubMed

    Lever, M; Walmsley, T A

    1978-02-15

    A continuous flow automated method for urine albumin was developed based on the ability of albumin to displace bromophenol blue from a bromophenol blue detergent complex. The method is almost specific for albumin, giving a slight response with an alpha-globulin fraction from serum. Results agreed closely with rocket electrophoresis albumin estimates on urine samples, but significantly less closely with "total urine protein" estimates by an acid protein precipitation, followed by biuret colour reaction, procedure. This method is being used to replace the indefinite "total protein" test for most routine purposes.

  2. Total syntheses of (2S)-antafumicins A and B.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Y; Ukita, T; Miyagawa, H; Tsurushima, T; Irie, H; Nishimura, K; Ueno, T

    1994-09-01

    To clarify the absolute configurations of antafumicins A and B, which are antifungal substances from Aspergillus niger NH-401, the total synthesis of (2S)-antafumicins was accomplished by starting from (S)-malic acid in 12 steps. Based upon the physicochemical data of the synthetic samples, the absolute configurations of naturally occurring antafumicins A and B were determined as (2R,4S)- and (2R,4R)-4-(3-acetyl-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxy-4-butanolide, respectively.

  3. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Thomas C; Dorman, David; Gardner, Donald; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Application of PAL protocols was performed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as experimental data permitted. The data base includes human experimental studies, worker exposure evaluations, as well as case studies on acute and repeated exposure. The data base of animal studies is substantial covering multiple species and addressing acute, repeated, and subchronic exposure scenarios. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in November 2006. No reliable data were found on oral exposure, making it impractical to estimate PALs for drinking water. Since H2S exists as a gas, partitioning to air is likely to occur with an environmental release. H2S inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 1.2 ppm; PAL 2 = 7.0 ppm; and PAL 3 = 27 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.85 ppm and PAL 2 = 3.0 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d and 90-d are not recommended due to insufficient data. Long-term data were insufficient to estimate 2-year inhalation PALs.

  4. H2S mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low temperature methods of natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) in mixture with methane, CH4, altogether deemed as sub-quality or “sour” gas. We propose a unique method for activating this “sour” gas to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3, and an energy carrier, such as H2. For this purpose, we computationally investigated H2S mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species via direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4+H2S complex results in a barrier-less relaxation via a conical intersection to form a ground state CH3SH+H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH can further be heterogeneously coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons while the H2 can be used as a fuel. This process is very different from a conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced controllability over the process conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the currently industrially used methane steam reforming (SMR). PMID:24150813

  5. The oxidation of H 2S in Black Sea waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millero, Frank J.

    The oxidation of H 2S with oxygen was measured in Black Sea waters at 25°C. The measurements were made on mixtures of deep waters and surface waters. The oxidation rates were found to be 10 times faster than the rates for surface seawater (Black Sea and Gulf Stream) with added H 2S. Since the rates were the same for filtered (0.2 μm) and unfiltered waters, the increase in the rates appears to be abiotic and caused by solutes dissolved in the deep waters. Laboratory measurements indicate that dissolved Fe 2+ is the likely cause of the rate increase. The oxidation of Fe(II) yields particulate Fe(III) that can catalyse the oxidation and also oxidize H 2S. Preliminary measurements of the rates of oxidation of SO 32- and S 2O 32- in oxygenated deep Black Sea waters are also presented. These measurements indicate that particulate Fe(III) also may accelerate the rates of oxidation of SO 32-.

  6. Thermodynamics and kinetics of defects in Li2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradabadi, Ashkan; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2016-05-01

    Li2S is the final product of lithiation of sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. In this work, we study formation and diffusion of defects in Li2S. It is found that for a wide range of voltages (referenced to metal Li) between 0.17 V and 2.01 V, positively charged interstitial Li (Li+) is the most favorable defect type with a fixed formation energy of 1.02 eV. The formation energy of negatively charged Li vacancy ( VL i - ) is also constant, and it is only 0.13 eV higher than that of Li+. For a narrow range of voltages between 0.00 V and 0.17 V, the formation energy of neutral S vacancy is the lowest and it decreases with decreasing the cell voltage. The energy barrier for Li+ diffusion (0.45 eV), which takes place via an exchange mechanism, is 0.18 eV higher than that for VL i - (0.27 eV), which takes place via a single vacancy hopping. Considering formation energies and diffusion barriers, we find that ionic conductivity in Li2S is due to both Li+ and VL i - , but the latter mechanism being slightly more favorable.

  7. Superconductivity in semimetallic Bi3O2S3

    DOE PAGES

    Li, L.; Parker, D.; Babkevich, P.; Yang, L.; Ronnow, H. M.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-03-12

    We report in this paper a further investigation on the thermodynamic and transport properties, and an assessment of theoretical calculations, for the BiS2-layered Bi3O2S3 superconductor. The polycrystalline sample is synthesized with a superconducting transition temperature of Tconset=5.75K and Tczero=4.03K (≈Tcmag) that drops to 3.3 K by applying a hydrostatic pressure of 6 kbar. Density-of-states (DOS) calculations give substantial hybridization between Bi, O, and S, with Bi the largest component of DOS, which supports the idea that the BiS2 layer is relevant for producing electron-phonon coupling. An analysis of previously published specific heat data for Bi3O2S3 is additionally suggestive of amore » strong electron-phonon interaction in the Bi-O-S system. The analysis of the Seebeck coefficient results strongly suggests that Bi3O2S3 is a semimetal. In fact, we found the semimetallic or narrow band gap behavior may occur in certain other materials in the BiS2-layered class of materials, such as Bi4O4S3.« less

  8. Internally consistent database for sulfides and sulfosalts in the system Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-FeS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3: Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Richard O.

    2005-03-01

    The thermodynamic database for Ag 2S-Cu 2S-ZnS-FeS-Sb 2S 3-As 2S 3 sulfides and sulfosalts applicable to temperatures above 119°C has been updated based on the results of recent petrologic, experimental, and theoretical studies. Solution and end-member properties of fahlore [˜(Ag,Cu) 10(Fe,Zn) 2(Sb,As) 4S 13] have been adjusted to allow for (1) revisions of the description of Fe-Zn partitioning with sphalerite that incorporate sphalerite activity-composition relations derived from the cluster variation method (CVM) model of a previous study, (2) the assumption that the miscibility gaps observed in high-Ag fahlores from the Husky Mine (Yukon, Canada) approximate a temperature of 170°C, and (3) an increase in the Ag-Cu partitioning between fahlore and polybasite (Ag,Cu) 16(Sb,As) 2S 11 required to reproduce compositions of fahlore in the polybasite + Sb-fahlore + ZnS sphalerite assemblage reported in previous experimental studies. The resulting minor parameter adjustments produce a database that demonstrably reproduces the composition data reported for a wide-range of sulfide ore deposits. They result in revised estimates for the Gibbs energies of formation of end-member fahlore components from the simple sulfides that, except for Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13, are less temperature dependent than those previously inferred (at 200 and 400°C: -23.27 and -24.84 kJ/gfw for Ag 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13, -115.18 and -116.57 kJ/gfw for Cu 10Zn 2Sb 4S 13, -85.14 and -75.20 kJ/gfw for Cu 10Fe 2Sb 4S 13, and -3.81 and 9.10 kJ/gfw for Ag 10Fe 2Sb 4S 13). The database is extended to PbS-bearing supersystems containing the galena + fahlore + sphalerite assemblage. Predicted initial Ag-contents of galena calculated from this database agree with those inferred from petrological studies of Ag-Pb-Zn ores from the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, USA and Julcani, Peru.

  9. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  10. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  11. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  12. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  13. Two new flavonoids from the seeds of Derris scandens.

    PubMed

    Munikishore, Rachakunta; Rammohan, Aluru; Padmaja, Adivireddy; Gunasekar, Duvvuru; Deville, Alexandre; Bodo, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    Two new flavonoids, (2S)-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavanone (1) and 2'-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-4'-O-[(E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl]chalcone (2), together with a known pterocarpene, flemichapparin B (3), and a known rotenoid, dehydrodeguelin (4), were isolated from the seeds of Derris scandens. Their structures were determined by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral studies. PMID:23156994

  14. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  15. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  16. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  17. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  18. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  19. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  20. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  1. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  2. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  3. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  4. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  5. Interaction of drugs with bovine and human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, Anna

    2002-09-01

    The study on the interaction of antithyroid drugs: 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (Methimazole, MMI) and 6 n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) with two kinds of serum albumin: bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) has been undertaken. Fluorescence emission spectra of serum albumin in the presence of MMI or PTU, recorded at the excitation wavelengths 280 and 295 nm, clearly show that the studied drugs act as quenchers. A decrease in fluorescence intensity at 340 or 350 nm, when excited at 280 or 295 nm, respectively, is attributed to changes in the environment of the protein fluorophores caused to the presence of the ligand. The 295 nm lights excites tryptophan residues, while the 280 nm lights excites both tryptophan and tyrosine residues. A comparison of quenching effects, when protein is excited at 295 and 280 nm, reveals that the tryptophanyl group interacts with the ligand. The differences in interactions of pyrimidine derivatives with HSA and BSA were observed using spectrofluorimetry technique. As the HSA structure contains only one tryptophanyl residue (Trp 214), while BSA has two ones (Trp 135 and Trp 214), the similar decrease of fluorescence points at the subdomain IIA, where Trp 214 was located, as a binding site of the studied drugs.

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of albumin in urine.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P W; MacNeil, M L; Smith, S J; Miller, D T

    1991-02-01

    Because of increased interest in the assay of albumin in urine and the sensitivity required to quantify concentrations associated with (a) increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease among people with diabetes and (b) renal damage caused by exposure to nephrotoxic substances, we conducted a pilot study of the variation of these measurements within and among five laboratories that use various immunoassays. These assays included two different enzyme immunoassays, two different immunoturbidimetric assays, a fluorescent immunoassay, and a zone immunoelectrophoresis assay. The results indicate considerable variation both within and among laboratories for measurements at or near the normal range. Variability is equally attributable to the precision of individual immunoassays and to the variation of the mean values obtained by each laboratory. Individual laboratory CVs ranged from 5.8% to 18.2% for mid- and high-concentration samples treated with preservative and from 8.4% to 23.6% for mid- and high-concentration samples containing no preservative. The relative bias of individual laboratory means ranged from -56.4% to 20.5% for the two preserved materials and from -32.6% to 0.8% for the two materials containing no preservative. To reduce the chance of misdiagnosing the risk associated with above-normal albumin concentrations in urine, we need to address the problems contributing to imprecision and inaccuracy, particularly laboratory-to-laboratory variability.

  7. Adsorption of charged albumin subdomains on a graphite surface.

    PubMed

    Raffaini, Giuseppina; Ganazzoli, Fabio

    2006-03-01

    We report some new molecular dynamics simulation results about the adsorption on a hydrophobic graphite surface of two albumin subdomains, each formed by three different alpha-helices, considering the correctly charged side groups at pH = 7 instead of the neutral ones as done in our previous exploratory paper (Raffaini and Ganazzoli, Langmuir 2003;19:3403-3412). We find that the presence of charges affects somewhat the initial adsorption stage on the electrostatically neutral surface, but not the final one. Thus, we recover the result that a monolayer of aminoacids is eventually formed, with a rough parallelism of distant strands to optimize both the intramolecular and the surface interactions. This feature is consistent with the adsorption on the hydrophobic surface being driven by dispersion forces only, and with the "soft" nature of albumin. Additional optimizations of the final monolayer carried out at pH = 3 and 11 do not modify appreciably this picture, suggesting that adsorption on graphite is basically independent of pH. The enhanced hydration of the final adsorption state due to the (delocalized) charges of the side groups is also discussed in comparison with similar results of the neutralized subdomains.

  8. In vitro evaluation of doxorubicin-incorporated magnetic albumin nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zeybek, Ayça; Şanlı-Mohamed, Gülşah; Ak, Güliz; Yılmaz, Habibe; Şanlıer, Şenay H

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic albumin nanospheres that incorporate doxorubicin (M-DOX-BSA-NPs) were prepared previously by our research group to develop magnetically responsive drug carrier system. This nanocarrier was synthesized as a drug delivery system for targeted chemotherapy. In this work, cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded/unloaded or magnetic/non-magnetic nanoparticles and free DOX against PC-3 cells and A549 cells were determined with the MTT test and the results were compared with each other. DOX-loaded magnetic albumin nanospheres (M-DOX-BSA-NPs) were found more cytotoxic than other formulations. The quantitative data obtained from flow cytometry analysis further verified the higher targeting and killing ability of M-DOX-BSA-NPs than free DOX on both of the cancer cell lines. Additionally, the results of cell cycle analysis have showed that M-DOX-BSA-NPs affected G1 and G2 phases. Finally, cell images were obtained using spin-disk confocal microscopy, and cellular uptake of M-DOX-BSA-NPs was visualized. The findings of this study suggest that M-DOX-BSA-NPs represent a potential doxorubicin delivery system for targeted drug transport into prostate and lung cancer cells.

  9. Albumin-associated free fatty acids induce macropinocytosis in podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jun-Jae; Huber, Tobias B.; Gödel, Markus; Jarad, George; Hartleben, Björn; Kwoh, Christopher; Keil, Alexander; Karpitskiy, Aleksey; Hu, Jiancheng; Huh, Christine J.; Cella, Marina; Gross, Richard W.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells in the kidney glomerulus that play important structural and functional roles in maintaining the filtration barrier. Nephrotic syndrome results from a breakdown of the kidney filtration barrier and is associated with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Additionally, podocytes undergo changes in morphology and internalize plasma proteins in response to this disorder. Here, we used fluid-phase tracers in murine models and determined that podocytes actively internalize fluid from the plasma and that the rate of internalization is increased when the filtration barrier is disrupted. In cultured podocytes, the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) associated with serum albumin stimulated macropinocytosis through a pathway that involves FFA receptors, the Gβ/Gγ complex, and RAC1. Moreover, mice with elevated levels of plasma FFAs as the result of a high-fat diet were more susceptible to Adriamycin-induced proteinuria than were animals on standard chow. Together, these results support a model in which podocytes sense the disruption of the filtration barrier via FFAs bound to albumin and respond by enhancing fluid-phase uptake. The response to FFAs may function in the development of nephrotic syndrome by amplifying the effects of proteinuria. PMID:25915582

  10. A new approach: Li2S-P2S5 thin-films prepared by thermal evaporation as solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung Pil; Kakati, Nitul; Kim, In Yea; Lee, Seok Hee; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-08-01

    Li2S-P2S5 thin-film solid electrolytes are synthesized by using room-temperature thermal evaporation for use as lithium-ion conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. The local structures of 75.51Li2S:24.49P2S5 and 77.64Li2S:22.36P2S5 prepared in this way have hetero units that facilitate lithium-ion mobility. The lithium-ion conductivity at room temperature for the 77.64Li2S:22.36P2S5 thin-film (4.0 × 10-6 S cm-1) is higher than that for the 75.51Li2S:24.49P2S5 thin-film (1.2 × 10-6 S cm-1). The increased ion conductivity in the 77.64Li2S:22.36P2S5 film is due to the additional local P2S7 4- structure that forms a glassy state during the thermal evaporation process. The local structure can lead to a high mobility of Li+ ions in the Li2S-P2S5 system due to the non-bridging sulfide ions. Lithium-ion-conducting thin-films prepared by using thermal evaporation, as reported in this study, are promising solid electrolytes.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SALTS UPON THE IONISATION OF EGG ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, S. P. L.; Linderstrøm-Lang, K.; Lund, Ellen

    1927-01-01

    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulæ and

  12. Influence of annealing on ionic transfer and storage stability of Li2S-P2S5 solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junjun; Kim, Hyea; Lee, Dong-Chan; Hu, Renzhong; Wu, FeiXiang; Zhao, Hailei; Alamgir, Faisal M.; Yushin, Gleb

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the impact of annealing treatment on the ionic transfer and storage stability of 70Li2S-30P2S5 glass-ceramic solid electrolyte (SE) pellets are investigated. The ionic conductivity is enhanced from 1 to 1.5 mS cm-1, while the total interfacial resistance of Li/SE/Li cell is reduced by over an order of magnitude with increasing annealing temperature up to 250 °C. Higher annealing temperature induced formation of a low conductivity Li4P2S6 phase, which increased ionic and interfacial resistances. Storage stability is also improved by annealing treatments. Preparation of exemplary Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) electrodes involving mechanical milling with SE particles undesirably induces formation of a TiS2 phase at the interfaces. Annealing the cells at 250 °C induces further reaction between LTO and SE, increasing TiS2 content and reducing cell rate performance. High reactivity between metal oxides and sulfide-based SE may be an obstacle for the preparation of high performance rechargeable solid state Li ion batteries.

  13. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts. PMID:26851257

  14. Effects of ethanol and hyperosmotic perfusates on albumin synthesis and release

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, M.A.; Oratz, M.; Schreiber, S.S.; Mongelli, J.

    1986-11-01

    Sucrose and ethanol inhibit albumin synthesis; sucrose via an osmotic mechanism and ethanol during its metabolism. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of both of these agents on albumin synthesis and secretion, and to see if ethanol inhibition could be related to an osmotic effect. Male, fed rabbits served as liver donors in all studies. There were a total of 35 studies: 13 control; 10 ethanol (39 to 52 mM); 4 cycloheximide (0.5 mM), and 8 sucrose (1%). Plasma volume was measured with /sup 125/I-albumin (human) and extracellular volume measured with either /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid or (/sup 14/C)sucrose. During perfusion, rabbit albumin content in the perfusate was measured immunologically every 15 to 30 min for 225 min. Interstitial albumin efflux was measured by the rate of appearance in the perfusate of /sup 125/I-albumin given to 10 other rabbits 3 days prior to hepatic removal and perfusion. During the initial 75 min of perfusion, 74% of the in vivo equilibrated exchangeable /sup 125/I-albumin appeared in the perfusate, and during this period the rabbit albumin that entered the perfusate was taken to represent efflux from the interstitial volume plus synthesis. Rabbit albumin appearing in the perfusate during the later period of 150 min was taken to represent mainly synthesis and was used to calculate the amount of albumin that would be synthesized in 75 min. The difference between these two values would be hepatic interstitial albumin appearing in the perfusate.

  15. Stimulation of albumin gene transcription by insulin in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C.E.; Kalinyak, J.E.; Hutson, S.M.; Jefferson, L.S.

    1987-02-01

    The first goal of the work reported here was to prepare single-stranded DNA sequences for use in studies on the regulation of albumin gene expression. A double-stranded rat albumin cDNA clone was subcloned into the bacteriophage vector M13mp7. Single-stranded recombinant clones were screened for albumin sequences containing either the mRNA strand or the complementary strand. Two clones were selected that contained the 1200 nucleotide long 3' end of the albumin sequence. DNA from the clone containing the mRNA strand was used as a template for DNA polymerase I to prepare a radiolabeled, single-stranded cDNA to albumin mRNA. This radiolabeled cDNA probe was used to quantitate the relative abundance of albumin mRNA in samples of total cellular RNA. DNA from the clone containing the complementary strand was used to measure relative rates of albumin gene transcription in isolated nuclei. The second goal was to use the single-stranded DNA probes to investigate the mechanism of the insulin-mediated stimulation of albumin synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Addition of insulin to hepatocytes maintained in a chemically defined, serum-free medium for 40 h in the absence of any hormones resulted in a specific 1.5- to 2.5-fold stimulation of albumin gene transcription that was maximal at 3 h and was maintained above control values for at least 24 h. The rate of albumin gene transcription in nuclei isolated from livers of diabetic rats was reduced to 50% of the value recorded in control nuclei. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that insulin regulates synthesis of albumin at the level of gene transcription.

  16. Role of human albumin in the management of complications of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Mauro; Ricci, Carmen S; Zaccherini, Giacomo

    2014-12-01

    Albumin is a negatively charged, relatively small protein synthesized by liver cells. Is the most abundant protein in extracellular fluid and accounts for about 70% of the plasma colloid osmotic pressure. Therefore it plays a crucial role in regulating fluid distribution in the body. In addition, albumin possesses functional domains with important non-oncotic properties, such as potent anti-oxydant and scavenging activities, binding of highly toxic reactive metal species and a great amount of endogenous and exogenous substances. We have recently learned that albumin in cirrhosis undergoes a number of post-transcriptional changes that greatly impair its non-oncotic properties. The overall assessment of these changes clearly shows that the relative abundance of the native form of albumin is significantly reduced in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and that these abnormalities worsen in parallel with the increasing severity of the disease. Thus, it is time to abandon the concept of serum albumin concentration and refer to the effective albumin concentration, that is the native intact albumin. Given the pathophysiological context in which we use human albumin in patients with cirrhosis, who are characterized by peripheral vasodilation and a low-grade but sustained inflammatory state, the use of albumin in patients with cirrhosis should aim at enhancing effective hypovolemia and exploiting its antioxidant and scavenging activities. The indications for the use of albumin in cirrhosis that clearly emerge from evidence-based medicine are represented by conditions characterized by an acute aggravation of effective hypovolemia and inflammation, such as such post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Other indications to the use of albumin that still require further studies are represented by bacterial infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy and long-term treatment of

  17. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  18. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. PMID:26812088

  19. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  20. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  1. Plasma Effects on the Metastable Neutral HYDROGEN(2S) Atom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, John Ferns, Jr.

    Atomic radiative processes which occur in plasmas have long been of interest of plasma physicists. The process we are investigating is atomic dipole transitions, specifically transitions from the metastable 2s to the 2p in hydrogen, which are induced by processes which occur in the plasma. An experiment was done to measure the rate of transitions from 2s to 2p in hydrogen. This experiment was divided into two sections. The first was to measure the transition rate in a near equilibrium plasma. The second section measured the transition rate when RF oscillations were imposed on the plasma. The results of the first part of the experiment show that microscopic fluctuating electric fields which are produced by the motions of the charged particles induce transitions from 2s to 2p in hydrogen. The magnitude of this effect is compared to predicted transition rates due to collisions with electrons and ions and to rates predicted for an equilibrium plasma. In the second part of the experiment, the plasma was shown to act as a filter, preventing transitions from being caused by the RF unless the RF was in the range where plasma waves could be launched. The interpretation we give for this effect is that when the oscillations are inducing transitions, it is because plasma waves are being launched in the plasma and it is these waves which are inducing the transitions. These results have a couple of important applications. The results for the equilibrium part of the experiment can be used to explain a limit in the current which is produced by the Lamb-shift polarized ion source. The other important application is the possible use of the effect seen in the RF case as a non-perturbing diagnostic for plasma waves. Since dipole transition rates are proportional to E('2) and very sensitive near resonance, this effect could prove to be more accurate and more sensitive than methods currently used.

  2. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  3. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  4. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  5. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  6. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  7. Interaction of graphene oxide with albumins: Effect of size, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Šimšíková, M

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and the biomolecules is fundamentally essential, especially for disease- and drug-related peptides and proteins. In this study, the interaction between GO and albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, and bovine alpha-lactalbumin) has been performed by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence quenching mechanism between GO and aromatic acids residues with intrinsic fluorescence was determined as mainly static quenching in combination with dynamic quenching. The optimal conditions for the most effective affinity between albumins and GO have been estimated at neutral pH and room temperature. The strong impact of the size of graphene oxide on the interaction between proteins and graphene oxide has been confirmed, as well. The interaction between GO and albumins has been examined as electrostatic and hydrophobic. The electrostatic interaction was confirmed by pH effect, while the hydrophobic interaction was proved by the presence of Poloxamer188. The CD spectra of albumins exhibit decreasing helicity in the secondary structure of albumins upon the addition of GO. However, no significant changes in position and shape of characteristic negative bands have been noted. Mentioned changes indicate the successful interaction between GO and proteins, the predominantly α-helical structure of albumins has been preserved. PMID:26873532

  8. Inhibition of the metabolic degradation of filtered albumin is a major determinant of albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (<4%) are excreted in urine. Small (<4%) but significant amounts of LMWDPs may have prolonged elimination (>24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute <1% of the total excretion of LMWDPs of albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states.

  9. Interaction of graphene oxide with albumins: Effect of size, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Šimšíková, M

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and the biomolecules is fundamentally essential, especially for disease- and drug-related peptides and proteins. In this study, the interaction between GO and albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, and bovine alpha-lactalbumin) has been performed by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence quenching mechanism between GO and aromatic acids residues with intrinsic fluorescence was determined as mainly static quenching in combination with dynamic quenching. The optimal conditions for the most effective affinity between albumins and GO have been estimated at neutral pH and room temperature. The strong impact of the size of graphene oxide on the interaction between proteins and graphene oxide has been confirmed, as well. The interaction between GO and albumins has been examined as electrostatic and hydrophobic. The electrostatic interaction was confirmed by pH effect, while the hydrophobic interaction was proved by the presence of Poloxamer188. The CD spectra of albumins exhibit decreasing helicity in the secondary structure of albumins upon the addition of GO. However, no significant changes in position and shape of characteristic negative bands have been noted. Mentioned changes indicate the successful interaction between GO and proteins, the predominantly α-helical structure of albumins has been preserved.

  10. Glycation alters ligand binding, enzymatic, and pharmacological properties of human albumin.

    PubMed

    Baraka-Vidot, Jennifer; Planesse, Cynthia; Meilhac, Olivier; Militello, Valeria; van den Elsen, Jean; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe

    2015-05-19

    Albumin, the major circulating protein in blood plasma, can be subjected to an increased level of glycation in a diabetic context. Albumin exerts crucial pharmacological activities through its drug binding capacity, i.e., ketoprofen, and via its esterase-like activity, allowing the conversion of prodrugs into active drugs. In this study, the impact of the glucose-mediated glycation on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of human albumin was investigated. Aggregation product levels and the redox state were quantified to assess the impact of glycation-mediated changes on the structural properties of albumin. Glucose-mediated changes in ketoprofen binding properties and esterase-like activity were evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy and p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis assays, respectively. With the exception of oxidative parameters, significant dose-dependent alterations in biochemical and functional properties of in vitro glycated albumin were observed. We also found that the dose-dependent increase in levels of glycation and protein aggregation and average molecular mass changes correlated with a gradual decrease in the affinity of albumin for ketoprofen and its esterase-like property. In parallel, significant alterations in both pharmacological properties were also evidenced in albumin purified from diabetic patients. Partial least-squares regression analyses established a significant correlation between glycation-mediated changes in biochemical and pharmacological properties of albumin, highlighting the important role for glycation in the variability of the drug response in a diabetic situation.

  11. Tyrosine-411 is a major site of iodination of human albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. Jr.; Duesler, A.S.; Gurian, P.L.; Davidson, L.K.

    1986-05-01

    Lightly iodinated human albumin is widely used in tracer studies of albumin catabolism and circulatory dynamics. The authors sought to learn the location of the iodine on the albumin molecule both to identify accessible regions of the protein and to provide information on the disposition of the label in albumin breakdown products. Monomeric 1/2-Cys human albumin was iodinated with /sup 125/I as I/sub 2/ at pH 7.5 to an average of either 0.33 or 1.6 atoms per molecule of albumin. Cleavage with cyanogen bromide without splitting S-S bonds showed that for each preparation 15%, 21% and 64% of the iodine label was contained in the isolated peptide segments 1-123, 124-298 and 299-585, respectively. Segment 299-585 was cleaved exhaustively with trypsin at pH 8.8 and the resulting small peptides separated by reversed-phase HPLC at pH 2.2. The majority of the radioactivity was recovered in one peptide, which upon purification showed the composition (Thr, Tyr, Lys). The only segment of human albumin from which this peptide could have arisen by tryptic cleavage is Tyr-Thr-Lys, occurring at residues 411-413 near the tip of Loop 7 in the third domain. Hence it appears probable that tyrosine-411 is the primary site for iodination of human serum albumin. This residue is highly reactive to diisopropylfluorophosphate and to nitration.

  12. Protease inhibition by oleic acid transfer from chronic wound dressings to albumin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel; Mashchak, Andrew; Goheen, Steven C

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds to inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of oleic acid by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. The mechanism of oleic acid uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-oleic acid complexes under liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-oleic acid complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:oleic acid. Liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of oleic acid per mole albumin. Comparing oleic acid formulated wound dressings for dose dependent ability to lower elastase activity, we found cotton gauze>hydrogel>hydrocolloid. In contrast, the cationic serine protease cathepsin G was inhibited by oleic acid within a narrow range of oleic acid-cotton formulations. 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of oleic acid necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Oleic acid bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the selective lowering of cationic serine protease activity useful in topical application for chronic inflammatory pathogenesis.

  13. Gadofosveset-Based Biomarker of Tissue Albumin Concentration: Technical Validation in Vitro and Feasibility in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Owen C; Bane, Octavia; Scott, Marietta LJ; Tanner, Steven F; Waterton, John C; Sourbron, Steven P; Carroll, Timothy J; Buckley, David L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is currently no adequate method of mapping physiologic and pathophysiologic tissue albumin concentrations in human subjects. The objective of this study was to devise and evaluate a biomarker of regional albumin concentration using gadofosveset-enhanced MRI. Theory and Methods A binding and relaxation model was devised and evaluated in vitro in solutions of albumin at 3.0 Tesla (T) and 4.7T. The method was evaluated in the heart in seven volunteers at 3.0T. Results MRI-derived estimates of albumin concentration were in good agreement with true values over the range 0.1–1.0 mM (Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.85 and 0.88 for 3.0T and 4.7T, respectively). The mean calculated albumin concentration in the myocardium for the volunteers was 0.02 mM (range, 0.01–0.03 mM). Conclusion Accurate estimates of albumin concentration in vitro suggest this may be a viable noninvasive alternative to existing techniques. In the myocardium the MRI-derived estimates of albumin concentration indicate the practical feasibility of the technique but were below expected values. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR relaxometry has potential in providing biomarkers of regional albumin concentration; further evaluation is required before it can be used reliably in vivo. Magn Reson Med 73:244–253, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24515975

  14. Unexpected Normal Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Clinical States with Low Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Regina; Sela, Shifra; Zeitun, Teuta; Geron, Ronit; Kristal, Batya

    2016-01-01

    Background In clinical states associated with systemic oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), oxidative modifications of serum albumin impair its quantification, resulting in apparent hypoalbuminemia. As the maintenance of oncotic pressure/colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a major function of albumin, this study examined the impact of albumin oxidation on COP, both in-vivo and in-vitro. Methods Patients with proteinuria and patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) with systemic inflammation and OS were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from 134 subjects: 32 healthy controls (HC), proteinuric patients with high (n = 17) and low (n = 31) systemic inflammation and from 54 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) with the highest levels of OS and inflammation. Results In-vitro oxidized albumin showed significantly higher COP values than non-oxidized albumin at identical albumin levels. In vivo, in hypoalbuminemic HD patients with the highest OS and inflammation, COP values were also higher than expected for the low albumin levels. The contribution to COP by other prevalent plasma proteins, such as fibrinogen and immunoglobulins was negligible. We imply that the calculation of COP based on albumin levels should be revisited in face of OS and inflammation. Hence, in hypoalbuminemic proteinuric patients with systemic OS and inflammation the assumption of low COP should be verified by its measurements. PMID:27453993

  15. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters. PMID:27550886

  16. PHOS-Select Iron Affinity beads enrich peptides for detection of organophosphorus adducts on albumin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Dubrovskii, Yaroslav A; Podolskaya, Ekaterina P; Murashko, Ekaterina A; Babakov, Vladimir; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Albumin is covalently modified by organophosphorus toxicants (OP) on tyrosine 411, but less than 1% of albumin is modified in humans by lethal OP doses that inhibit 95% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase. A method that enriches OP-modified albumin peptides could aid analysis of low dose exposures. Soman or chlorpyrifos oxon treated human plasma was digested with pepsin. Albumin peptides were enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads at pH 11 and eluted with pH 2.6 buffer. Similarly, mouse and guinea pig albumin modified by chlorpyrifos oxon were digested with pepsin and enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads. Peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. PHOS-select Iron Affinity beads specifically enriched albumin peptides VRY411TKKVPQVST and LVRY411TKKVPQVST in a pepsin digest of human plasma. The unmodified as well as OP-modified peptides bound to the beads. The binding capacity of 500 μl beads was the pepsin digest of 2.1 μL human plasma. The limit of detection was 0.2% of OP-modified albumin peptide in 0.43 μL plasma. Enrichment of OP-modified albumin peptides by binding to Fe3+ beads is a method with potential application to diagnosis of OP pesticide and nerve agent exposure in humans, mice, and guinea pigs. PMID:24187955

  17. Pollination, seed set and seed predation on a landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Steffan-Dewenter, I; Münzenberg, U; Tscharntke, T

    2001-08-22

    We analysed the combined effects of pollination and seed predation on seed set of Centaurea jacea in 15 landscapes differing in structural complexity. In the centre of each landscape, a patch of Centaurea plants was established for standardized measurements of flower visitation, seed predation and seed set. Both the number of flower-visiting bees and the proportion of flower heads damaged by seed predators increased with landscape complexity, which was measured as the proportion of semi-natural habitats. The mean number of seeds per flower head did not increase with the proportion of semi-natural habitats, presumably because of the counterbalancing effects of pollination and seed predation. For a subset of undamaged flower heads, the number of seeds per flower head was positively correlated with the number of flower visits. Further reasons for the unexpected failure to detect a correlation between landscape complexity and seed set appeared to be changes in flower-visitor behaviour and the contrasting responses of honeybees and wild bees to habitat context. Landscape analyses at eight spatial scales (radius of landscape sectors, 250-3000 m) showed that different groups perceived the landscape at different spatial scales. Changes in pollinator numbers could be explained only at small scales (up to 1000 m), while the seed predators also responded to large scales (up to 2500 m).

  18. Nutritive value of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) meal: utilization by growing pigs of semipurified diets in which rubber seed meal partially replaced soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, G M; Pond, W G; Peo, E R

    1990-02-01

    Thirty-six four-way cross (Chester White X Landrace X Large White X Yorkshire) growing barrows and gilts were used to investigate the effects of replacing graded levels of protein from soybean meal with equivalent levels of protein from rubber seed meal in 16% CP semipurified diets on the performance characteristics, hematocrit, plasma metabolites and N utilization of pigs. The first diet (control) was largely cornstarch-soybean meal in which the soybean meal supplied all of the CP. In other diets, rubber seed meal replaced 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively, of the protein of soybean meal in the control diet. Twenty gilts were used in a 28-d growth trial and 16 barrows were used in an 8-d digestion trial (4-d collection). There were no differences (P greater than .05) in ADG, ADF intake and in the feed:gain ratios, even though there was a trend for lower ADG and gain:feed ratio as the level of rubber seed meal increased in the diet. There were no differences in hematocrit, but plasma protein and albumin tended to be depressed when rubber seed meal provided more than 10% of the dietary protein. Apparent digestibilities of GE, DM and N were lower with rubber seed meal at 20% of the protein than with any other diet, but apparent N retained and the percent of digested N retained were not depressed significantly (P greater than .05). Although rubber seed meal protein is of poorer quality than soybean meal protein for growing pigs, at least 10% of dietary protein can be provided by rubber seed meal without adversely affecting growth and N utilization.

  19. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  20. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  1. Magnetic Ordering in FeSc2 S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    FeSc2S4 is a cubic spinel where orbitally active Fe2+ ions occupy the A-site diamond sublattice. Despite a high spin (S=2) state and Curie Weiss temperature of 45 K thermodynamic measurements show no indication of a phase transition and the material has been proposed as a unique example of a spin-orbital liquid. This ground state might arise from competition between on site spin-orbit coupling and Kugel-Khomskii exchange. We report neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of FeSc2S4 which bring this picture into question. They reveal a previously unreported magnetically ordered state below 11 K. No structural distortions are visible with neutron or x-ray scattering. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic excitation spectrum was also explored and found to be minimal. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  2. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Rozell, E. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The S2S Search Interface Framework provides tools and services to build customized user interfaces. It also serves as a focal point for repository managers to develop science data services and reusable components for search interfaces. The framework has been used to design a faceted browsing platform for web services, including OpenSearch and SAWSDL. This exemplar faceted browsing platform has been applied in our development of search interfaces for 1) an international open government dataset catalog and 2) a metadata catalog for biological and chemical oceanography. S2S was designed from the ground up using open standards and technologies. The framework was initially created to develop "data dashboard" interfaces on top of OpenSearch services, but has been generalized to support web services and standards with semantic annotation capabilities. We apply OWL, a W3C standard for ontologies on the Web, to create a vocabulary for the description of framework metadata. Our faceted browsing platform is heavily focused on the use of jQuery; we have created reusable user interface "widgets" that leverage OpenLayers and MapServer technology in geospatial selection and visualization, which can be used in this and future platforms. The use of open standards and technologies has enabled rapid iterations over software development lifecycles, and has kept the framework agile as new use cases and ideas have emerged.

  3. Quantum Criticality in FeSc2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ish, Daniel; Balents, Leon

    2015-03-01

    Despite possessing a local spin 2 moment on the iron site and a Curie-Weiss temperature of 45 K , the A site spinel FeSc2S4 does not magnetically order down to 50mK. Previous theoretical work by Chen and Balents advanced an explanation for this observation in the form of the ``J2- λ'' model which places FeSc2S4 close to a quantum critical point on the disordered side of a quantum phase transition between a Néel ordered phase and a ``Spin-Orbital Liquid'' in which spins and orbitals are entangled, quenching the magnetization. We present new theoretical studies of the optical properties of the J2- λ model, including a computation of the dispersion relation for the quasiparticle excitations and the form of the collective response to electric field. We argue that the latter directly probes a low energy excitation continuum characteristic of quantum criticality, and that our results reinforce the consistency of this model with experiment.

  4. Biologically active protein fragments containing specific binding regions of serum albumin or related proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, biologically active protein fragments can be constructed which contain only those specific portions of the serum albumin family of proteins such as regions known as subdomains IIA and IIIA which are primarily responsible for the binding properties of the serum albumins. The artificial serums that can be prepared from these biologically active protein fragments are advantageous in that they can be produced much more easily than serums containing the whole albumin, yet still retain all or most of the original binding potential of the full albumin proteins. In addition, since the protein fragment serums of the present invention can be made from non-natural sources using conventional recombinant DNA techniques, they are far safer than serums containing natural albumin because they do not carry the potentially harmful viruses and other contaminants that will be found in the natural substances.

  5. Estimation of postmortem interval through albumin in CSF by simple dye binding method.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Ankita K; Menon, Shobhana K

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of postmortem interval is a very important question in some medicolegal investigations. For the precise estimation of postmortem interval, there is a need of a method which can give accurate estimation. Bromocresol green (BCG) is a simple dye binding method and widely used in routine practice. Application of this method in forensic practice may bring revolutionary changes. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid was aspirated from cisternal puncture from 100 autopsies. A study was carried out on concentration of albumin with respect to postmortem interval. After death, albumin present in CSF undergoes changes, after 72 h of death, concentration of albumin has become 0.012 mM, and this decrease was linear from 2 h to 72 h. An important relationship was found between albumin concentration and postmortem interval with an error of ± 1-4h. The study concludes that CSF albumin can be a useful and significant parameter in estimation of postmortem interval.

  6. Albumin administration in the acutely ill: what is new and where next?

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Russell, James A; Jacob, Matthias; Martin, Greg; Guidet, Bertrand; Wernerman, Jan; Ferrer, Ricard; Roca, Ricard Ferrer; McCluskey, Stuart A; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-07-16

    Albumin solutions have been used worldwide for the treatment of critically ill patients since they became commercially available in the 1940s. However, their use has become the subject of criticism and debate in more recent years. Importantly, all fluid solutions have potential benefits and drawbacks. Large multicenter randomized studies have provided valuable data regarding the safety of albumin solutions, and have begun to clarify which groups of patients are most likely to benefit from their use. However, many questions remain related to where exactly albumin fits within our fluid choices. Here, we briefly summarize some of the physiology and history of albumin use in intensive care before offering some evidence-based guidance for albumin use in critically ill patients.

  7. Laser welding with an albumin stent: experimental ureteral end-to-end anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hua; Shaffer, Brian S.; Prahl, Scott A.; Gregory, Kenton W.

    2000-05-01

    Porcine ureters were anastomosed using an albumin stent and diode laser in vitro. The albumin stent provided precise apposition for an end to end anastomosis and enhanced welding strength. The anastomosis seam was lasered with an 810 nm diode laser using continuous wave and pulse light through a hand-held 600 micrometer noncontact optical fiber. Tensile strength, burst pressures, operative times, total energy and thermal damaged were measured in this study. The results demonstrated that using an albumin stent to laser weld ureteral anastomoses produces strong weld strengths. The liquid albumin solder also provided satisfactory welding strength. There were no significant differences of tissue thermal damage between the albumin stent alone, liquid solder alone and both combination groups. Thermal damage to tissue depended on laser setting and energy. This study determined the appropriate laser setting parameters to perform in vivo ureteral end to end anastomosis.

  8. Iron absorption in humans: bovine serum albumin compared with beef muscle and egg white

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, R.F.; Lynch, S.R.; Trinidad, T.P.; Dassenko, S.A.; Cook, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the influence of bovine serum albumin and beef meat on nonheme iron absorption in humans and on dialyzable iron in vitro. The addition of serum albumin to a maize gruel had no significant effect on nonheme Fe absorption whereas the addition of beef meat caused a threefold increase. When added to a bread meal, serum albumin caused a modest 60% increase in nonheme Fe absorption and beef meat had no effect. When added to a protein-free meal, serum albumin reduced Fe absorption by 47% compared with a 72% reduction on addition of egg white. The bioavailability of nonheme Fe from meals containing serum albumin was consistently overestimated by the in vitro technique. We conclude that the facilitation of nonheme Fe absorption by meat is not a general property of all animal protein but is better explained by the action of one or more specific animal tissues.

  9. Protein degradation by ruminal microorganisms from sheep fed dietary supplements of urea, casein, or albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R J; Broderick, G A; Brammall, M L

    1987-01-01

    Ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14C]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. Dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). Greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly Butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. Albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relative to that of casein (0.03) than in ruminal fluid and was similar to that found in isolates from urea- and casein-fed sheep. Hence, there appears to be no mechanism by which ruminal bacteria can alter their proteolytic activity to utilize resistant soluble protein more effectively. PMID:3579280

  10. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone.

  11. Fluorescence study of binding of adenosine derivatives to phospholipid membranes — effect of serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, Anna; Kłoczko, Magdalena; Sułkowski, Wiesław

    2001-05-01

    To increase stability against serum albumin and to minimize permeability increases caused by interaction with serum albumin, two types of liposomes consisting of various molar ratio lecithin/cholesterol were prepared. The adenosine derivatives were encapsulated in liposome vesicles of two sizes: 100 and 450 nm, prepared by modified reverse-phase evaporation method. The dependence of the stability of liposomes on the presence of serum albumin was studied by use of spectrofluorimetric technique. In the presence of serum albumin the studied ligands encapsulated into various types of liposome vesicles were released and this resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence spectrum of serum albumin in the region of tryptophan emission. Increase in the cholesterol content of the liposomes resulted in decreased leakage of the entrapped drugs, the effect of liposome size on leakage being less important.

  12. Release of albumin from oligoester plastic matrices: effect of magnesium oxide and bivalent stearates.

    PubMed

    Kladnícková, I; Dittrich, M; Klein, T; Pokorová, D

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable implantable matrices containing bovine serum albumin were prepared from oligoesters by melting, and subsequently tested on in vitro albumin release. The linear poly (DL-lactic acid) and the branched terpolymer of DL-lactic acid, glycolic acid, and mannitol were synthesized. Products were of similar molecular weight and possessed different thermal and swelling characteristics. Oligoesters were loaded with 4% albumin and plasticized by 30% triacetin. Other additives added into the matrices as albumin stabilizers were divalent stearates and magnesium oxide. The influences of oligomer molecules constitution, divalent ion stearates or magnesium oxide addition, and triacetin concentration on the albumin release were quantified. SDS-PAGE revealed protein hydrolysis during the dissolution tests.

  13. A comparative analysis on the binding characteristics of various mammalian albumins towards a multitherapeutic agent, pinostrobin

    PubMed Central

    FEROZ, Shevin R.; SUMI, Rumana A.; MALEK, Sri N.A.; TAYYAB, Saad

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of pinostrobin (PS), a multitherapeutic agent with serum albumins of various mammalian species namely, goat, bovine, human, porcine, rabbit, sheep and dog was investigated using fluorescence quench titration and competitive drug displacement experiments. Analysis of the intrinsic fluorescence quenching data revealed values of the association constant, Ka in the range of 1.49 – 6.12 × 104 M−1, with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Based on the PS–albumin binding characteristics, these albumins were grouped into two classes. Ligand displacement studies using warfarin as the site I marker ligand correlated well with the binding data. Albumins from goat and bovine were found to be closely similar to human albumin on the basis of PS binding characteristics. PMID:25519455

  14. Albumin administration in the acutely ill: what is new and where next?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Albumin solutions have been used worldwide for the treatment of critically ill patients since they became commercially available in the 1940s. However, their use has become the subject of criticism and debate in more recent years. Importantly, all fluid solutions have potential benefits and drawbacks. Large multicenter randomized studies have provided valuable data regarding the safety of albumin solutions, and have begun to clarify which groups of patients are most likely to benefit from their use. However, many questions remain related to where exactly albumin fits within our fluid choices. Here, we briefly summarize some of the physiology and history of albumin use in intensive care before offering some evidence-based guidance for albumin use in critically ill patients. PMID:25042164

  15. Effect of heat processing on in vitro protein digestibility and some chemical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds.

    PubMed

    Giami, S Y; Adindu, M N; Hart, A D; Denenu, E O

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dry heat (roasting) and moist heat (boiling) on in vitro protein digestibility, protein fractions and other chemical properties of African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seed that affect their utilization as a source of human food were investigated. Chemical analyses showed that the crude protein and fat contents of the unprocessed (raw) seeds were 20. 1% and 13.7%, respectively. The level of phytic acid in the raw seed (1.19 mg/g) was lower than the levels found in some commonly consumed pulses in Nigeria. Albumin and globulin protein fractions were found to be the major seed proteins of African breadfruit seed, constituting 67.8% of the total protein of the raw seed. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between crude protein, ash and fat contents of the raw and heat processed samples. Boiling proved more effective than roasting for improving protein digestibility and for reducing the levels of trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and polyphenols of the samples. The complete removal of these antinutrients, however, would require a more severe heat treatment of the seed, which in turn would profoundly reduce the nutritional value and availability of proteins, as demonstrated by the low values obtained for in vitro protein digestibility, protein fractions and protein extractability.

  16. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  17. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. PMID:25317938

  18. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  19. S-SEED Simulator

    2008-11-21

    This code simulates the transient response of two self-electrooptic-effect devices (SEEDs) connected in series to form an S-SEED pair as used in all-optical high-speed switching. Both optical beam propagation and carrier motion is assumed to be normal to the epi plane, so the code is inherently 1D in nature. For each SEED, an optical input in W/cm**2 is specified as a function of time (usually a step function input). The signal is absorbed during amore » double pass through the intrinsic region, with a spatially-dependent absorption coefficient that is dependent on the transient local electric field. This absorption generates electron-hole pairs that then contribute to the device current, and a transient optical output is predicted. Carriers in the semiconductor layers are generated through thermal excitation or optical absorption, move under the action of diffusion and self-consistent electric fields updated at each time step by a 1D Poisson solver, and recombine at density-dependent rates. The different epi layers are independently specified by position, thickness, doping type and density, and thus space charge effects and junction capacitance are included automatically.« less

  20. Role of albumin in diseases associated with severe systemic inflammation: Pathophysiologic and clinical evidence in sepsis and in decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Antonio; Wernerman, Jan; Arroyo, Vicente; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Levy, Mitchell

    2016-06-01

    The metabolism of albumin in inflammatory states such as sepsis or major surgery is complex and still not well characterized. Nevertheless, in inflammatory states, albumin synthesis has been observed to increase. By contrast, in decompensated cirrhosis, a disease characterized by systemic inflammation, albumin synthesis by the liver may decrease to 30% to 50% of normal values. Furthermore, in these conditions, there are high capillary leakage and altered albumin kinetics. The discussion regarding the effect of exogenous albumin administration on intravascular volume in inflammatory states should therefore address albumin turnover. To add complexity to our understanding of the effects of albumin, there are many data indicating that the therapeutic action of albumin is mediated not only through the impact on plasma volume expansion but also through a modulatory effect on inflammation and oxidative stress. All these characteristics are relevant to diseases associated with systemic inflammation including sepsis and decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26831575

  1. Preparation and Characterization of PEG-albumin-curcumin Nanoparticles Intended to Treat Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thadakapally, R.; Aafreen, Arshiya; Aukunuru, J.; Habibuddin, M.; Jogala, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present research was to prepare novel serum stable long circulating polymeric nanoparticles for curcumin with a modification to the well known and novel nanoparticle albumin bound technology. polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles were prepared using serum albumin and poly ethylene glycol using desolvation technique. Nanoparticles were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and surface morphology. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Physical state of the drug in the formulations was known by differential scanning colorimetry. In vitro release and solubility of the drug from nanoparticles were determined. In vivo Drug release, tissue uptake and kupffer cell uptake was determined with optimized nanoformulation in rats after intravenous administration. Cell viability assay was determined using breast cancer cell line MD-MB-231. Entrapment efficiency for prepared nanoparticle was above 95%. The polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited an interesting release profile with small initial burst followed by slower and controlled release. Solubility of the drug from the formulation was increased. A sustained release of drug from nanoparticles was observed for 35 days in both in vitro and in vivo studies with the optimized formulation. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles showed lesser liver and kupffer cell uptake as compared to that of curcumin-albumin nanoparticles suggesting the bestowment of stealthness to nanoparticles with pegylation. Also, the antiproliferative activity of polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticle formulation was more as compared to native curcumin. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles thus developed can be conveniently used in breast cancer with improved efficacy compared to conventional therapies and as an alternate to nanoparticle albumin bound technology which is used in producing Abraxane, albumin

  2. Effect of albumin on net copper accumulation by fibroblasts and hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, G.L.; Palida, F.A.; Hadi, M.; Lonergan, P.A.; Ettinger, M.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The liver accumulates copper rapidly and preferentially from plasma. The effects of albumin on net copper accumulation by fibroblasts and hepatocytes were compared to determine whether preferential uptake involves hepatocyte-specific sequestering of copper. Although albumin inhibits the initial rates (30 s) of copper transport by fibroblasts and hepatocytes similarly, the effects of albumin on net copper accumulation (4 h) by these cell types were strikingly different. Fibroblasts accumulate only approximately 15% as much copper when equimolar albumin is present as from albumin-free media; hepatocytes accumulate about the same amount of copper with or without extracellular albumin present. Copper efflux data show that the special capacity of hepatocytes to accumulate copper in the presence of extracellular albumin is due to greater copper retention by hepatocytes than fibroblasts. The ability of hepatocytes to accumulate copper does not seem to be due to albumin-receptor-mediated uptake, since albumin was not co-transported with copper. The data are consistent with an equilibrium model of copper accumulation in which intracellular and extracellular copper are in equilibrium with intracellular and extracellular ligands. A high-affinity, copper-binding fraction that was previously identified in cytosols from hepatocytes was low or absent in fibroblasts. This may contain a liver-specific protein(s) that helps hepatocytes sequester and retain copper from albumin or serum-containing media. Irrespective of the exact species involved, the data are consistent with rapid, preferential copper uptake by the liver being due in part to a liver-specific, intracellular copper-binding protein(s) with a high binding affinity for copper.

  3. Concentration-dependent reversible self-oligomerization of serum albumins through intermolecular β-sheet formation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpan; Prajapati, Roopali; Chatterjee, Surajit; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2014-12-16

    Proteins inside a cell remain in highly crowded environments, and this often affects their structure and activity. However, most of the earlier studies involving serum albumins were performed under dilute conditions, which lack biological relevance. The effect of protein-protein interactions on the structure and properties of serum albumins at physiological conditions have not yet been explored. Here, we report for the first time the effect of protein-protein and protein-crowder interactions on the structure and stability of two homologous serum albumins, namely, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), at physiological conditions by using spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Concentration-dependent self-oligomerization and subsequent structural alteration of serum albumins have been explored by means of fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy at pH 7.4. The excitation wavelength (λex) dependence of the intrinsic fluorescence and the corresponding excitation spectra at each emission wavelength indicate the presence of various ground state oligomers of serum albumins in the concentration range 10-150 μM. Circular dichroism and thioflavin T binding assay revealed formation of intermolecular β-sheet rich interfaces at high protein concentration. Excellent correlations have been observed between β-sheet content of both the albumins and fluorescence enhancement of ThT with protein concentrations. SEM images at a concentration of 150 μM revealed large dispersed self-oligomeric states with sizes vary from 330 to 924 nm and 260 to 520 nm for BSA and HSA, respectively. The self-oligomerization of serum albumins is found to be a reversible process; upon dilution, these oligomers dissociate into a native monomeric state. It has also been observed that synthetic macromolecular crowder polyethylene glycol (PEG 200) stabilizes the self-associated state of both the albumins which is contrary to expectations that the

  4. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule.

  5. Changes of protein solutions during storage: a study of albumin pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Cathrine; Skotland, Tore

    2010-03-05

    During the production of air-filled albumin microspheres, to be used as an ultrasound contrast agent, it was observed that some albumin lots could not be used owing to albumin precipitation. In order to understand the reason for these lot-to-lot variations, 24 lots of 5% (w/v) human albumin pharmaceutical preparations were analysed. The results revealed that the good albumin lots all contained <0.03 mol of free SH groups per mol of albumin. The precipitation observed with other lots was most probably due to higher amounts of free SH groups. The lower amount of free SH groups in the good lots correlated with: (i) a yellow colour of the solutions and a UV-visible spectrum similar to that observed for non-enzymatic glycosylation; (ii) a decreased fructosamine content; (iii) an increased mobility against the anode in isoelectric focusing; and (iv) an increased truncation of the two N-terminal amino acids. No, or only small, differences were observed for the amounts of albumin dimer, albumin aggregates and protein impurities, and these could not account for the albumin precipitation. The differences observed between the albumin lots were most probably due to varying storage times and/or storage conditions, and incubation experiments revealed changes in all parameters that differed between the good and bad lots. Increasing the storage temperature or exposing the solutions to light resulted in a faster decrease of free SH groups and increase of the yellow colouration. It is likely that at least some of the changes observed were due to reactive degradation products formed from the stabilizer N-acetyl-L-tryptophan. The results presented should also be of interest regarding the storage of monoclonal antibodies and other proteins used in pharmaceuticals.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of PEG-albumin-curcumin Nanoparticles Intended to Treat Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thadakapally, R; Aafreen, Arshiya; Aukunuru, J; Habibuddin, M; Jogala, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present research was to prepare novel serum stable long circulating polymeric nanoparticles for curcumin with a modification to the well known and novel nanoparticle albumin bound technology. polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles were prepared using serum albumin and poly ethylene glycol using desolvation technique. Nanoparticles were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, particle size and surface morphology. Drug excipient compatibility was determined using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Physical state of the drug in the formulations was known by differential scanning colorimetry. In vitro release and solubility of the drug from nanoparticles were determined. In vivo Drug release, tissue uptake and kupffer cell uptake was determined with optimized nanoformulation in rats after intravenous administration. Cell viability assay was determined using breast cancer cell line MD-MB-231. Entrapment efficiency for prepared nanoparticle was above 95%. The polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles exhibited an interesting release profile with small initial burst followed by slower and controlled release. Solubility of the drug from the formulation was increased. A sustained release of drug from nanoparticles was observed for 35 days in both in vitro and in vivo studies with the optimized formulation. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles showed lesser liver and kupffer cell uptake as compared to that of curcumin-albumin nanoparticles suggesting the bestowment of stealthness to nanoparticles with pegylation. Also, the antiproliferative activity of polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticle formulation was more as compared to native curcumin. Polyethylene glycol-albumin-curcumin nanoparticles thus developed can be conveniently used in breast cancer with improved efficacy compared to conventional therapies and as an alternate to nanoparticle albumin bound technology which is used in producing Abraxane, albumin

  7. Effect of serum-derived albumin scaffold and canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on osteogenesis in canine segmental bone defect model

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Daeyoung; Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Rhew, Daeun; Kim, Wan Hee

    2015-01-01

    Composite biological and synthetic grafts with progenitor cells offer an alternative approach to auto- or allografts for fracture repair. This study was conducted to evaluate osteogenesis of autologous serum-derived albumin (ASA) scaffolds seeded with canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in a canine segmental bone defect model. ASA scaffold was prepared with canine serum using cross-linking and freeze-drying procedures. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) was mixed at the cross-linking stage. Ad-MSCs were seeded into the scaffold and incubated for one day before implantation. After 16 weeks, the grafts were harvested for histological analysis. The dogs were divided into five groups: control, ASA scaffolds with and without Ad-MSCs, and ASA scaffolds including β-TCP with and without Ad-MSCs. ASA scaffolds with Ad-MSCs had a significantly larger area of increased opacity at the proximal and distal host cortex-implant interfaces in radiographs 16 weeks after implantation compared to the groups with β-TCP (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric analysis showed that ASA scaffolds with Ad-MSCs had significantly greater new bone formation than other groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Ad-MSCs seeded into ASA scaffolds enhanced osteogenesis in the bone defect model, but that β-TCP in the ASA scaffold might prevent penetration of the cells required for bone healing. PMID:26119162

  8. Role of sensitization to mammalian serum albumin in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Asero, Riccardo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-10-01

    Serum albumin (SA) constitutes an intriguing puzzle that is involved in allergic sensitizations from different sources and induces different clinical manifestations. In this article, we describe the role of sensitization to SAs in inducing allergic diseases and the complex interactions and cross-reactivity between SA resulting from its presence in various mammalian tissues and fluids. SAs alone are an uncommon cause of allergic sensitization in airways, but these allergenic proteins likely play a significant role as cross-reacting allergens in individuals sensitized to several types of animal dander. SAs are a minor allergen in milk but a major allergen in meats. Recently, bovine SA has been added to the culture medium of spermatozoids used for artificial insemination. As a consequence, some case reports have shown that bovine SA may be a causative agent in severe anaphylaxis after standard intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:21809117

  9. Structural studies on serum albumins under green light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Comorosan, Sorin; Polosan, Silviu; Popescu, Irinel; Ionescu, Elena; Mitrica, Radu; Cristache, Ligia; State, Alina Elena

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents two new experimental results: the protective effect of green light (GL) on ultraviolet (UV) denaturation of proteins, and the effect of GL on protein macromolecular structures. The protective effect of GL was revealed on two serum albumins, bovine (BSA) and human (HSA), and recorded by electrophoresis, absorption, and circular dichroism spectra. The effect of GL irradiation on protein structure was recorded by using fluorescence spectroscopy and electrophoresis. These new effects were modeled by quantum-chemistry computation using Gaussian 03 W, leading to good fit between theoretical and experimental absorption and circular dichroism spectra. A mechanism for these phenomena is suggested, based on a double-photon absorption process. This nonlinear effect may lead to generation of long-lived Rydberg macromolecular systems, capable of long-range interactions. These newly suggested systems, with macroscopic quantum coherence behaviors, may block the UV denaturation processes. PMID:20473754

  10. Stereoselective interaction of cinchona alkaloid isomers with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Mingmao; Jiang, Longguang; Song, Ling

    2015-08-15

    The dependence of the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and two cinchona alkaloids, quinine (QN) and quinidine (QD), on the absolute configuration of these stereoisomers has been comprehensively studied. The FTIR spectra showed that QN and QD interacted with both CO and C-N groups of BSA, resulting in changes to the secondary structure of the protein. Fluorescence quenching of BSA by the stereoisomers revealed lower efficiency for QD in quenching the Trp emission of BSA when compared to QN. Further analysis accurately described the different binding behaviors and recognition discrepancies of QN and QD towards BSA, which was reflected through binding affinities, driving forces, energy changes and conformational changes during the ligand-protein interactions. Synchronous fluorescence further proved that QD was farther from Trp and Tyr than that of QN. This work could provide basic data for clarifying the binding interaction, metabolism and distribution of cinchona alkaloid stereoisomers in vivo.

  11. Preparation of bovine serum albumin nanospheres as drug targeting carriers.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Takayama, K; Ueda, H; Machida, Y; Nagai, T

    1987-12-01

    Bovine serum albumin nanospheres (BSA-NS) of mean diameter about 170 nm were prepared by means of the tanning method with glutaraldehyde, and their efficacy as drug targeting carriers was evaluated. To gain insight of biodegradability, BSA microspheres (BSA-MS) were first administered to rats and their distributions in the lungs and liver were observed by a scanning electron microscope. A large amount of BSA-MS was found in the lungs and their surface was slightly degraded at 1 week after the administration. For investigating biocompatibility, the weight increase of the spleen and liver was measured after the administration of the BSA-NS to mice. The spleen weight of the group receiving BSA-NS was equivalent to that of the control group, though the liver weight was significantly increased. It was observed that conjugates of BSA-NS with antibody selectively concentrated on the surface of Sepharose beads which were coated with antigen.

  12. Role of sensitization to mammalian serum albumin in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Asero, Riccardo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-10-01

    Serum albumin (SA) constitutes an intriguing puzzle that is involved in allergic sensitizations from different sources and induces different clinical manifestations. In this article, we describe the role of sensitization to SAs in inducing allergic diseases and the complex interactions and cross-reactivity between SA resulting from its presence in various mammalian tissues and fluids. SAs alone are an uncommon cause of allergic sensitization in airways, but these allergenic proteins likely play a significant role as cross-reacting allergens in individuals sensitized to several types of animal dander. SAs are a minor allergen in milk but a major allergen in meats. Recently, bovine SA has been added to the culture medium of spermatozoids used for artificial insemination. As a consequence, some case reports have shown that bovine SA may be a causative agent in severe anaphylaxis after standard intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization.

  13. Human serum albumin crystals and method of preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) crystals are provided in the form of tetragonal plates having the space groups P42(sub 1)2, the crystals being grown to sizes in excess of 0.5 mm in two dimensions and a thickness of 0.1 mm. Growth of the crystals is carried out by a hanging drop method wherein a precipitant solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a phosphate buffer is mixed with an HSA solution, and a droplet of mixed solution is suspended over a well of precipitant solution. Crystals grow to the desired size in 3 to 7 days. Concentration of reagents, pH and other parameters are controlled within prescribed limits. The resulting crystals exhibit a size and quality such as to allow performance of x ray diffraction studies and enable the conduct of drug binding studies as well as genetic engineering studies.

  14. Anisotropic energy flow and allosteric ligand binding in albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric interactions in proteins generally involve propagation of local structural changes through the protein to a remote site. Anisotropic energy transport is thought to couple the remote sites, but the nature of this process is poorly understood. Here, we report the relationship between energy flow through the structure of bovine serum albumin and allosteric interactions between remote ligand binding sites of the protein. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy is used to probe the flow of energy through the protein backbone following excitation of a heater dye, a metalloporphyrin or malachite green, bound to different binding sites in the protein. We observe ballistic and anisotropic energy flow through the protein structure following input of thermal energy into the flexible ligand binding sites, without local heating of the rigid helix bundles that connect these sites. This efficient energy transport mechanism enables the allosteric propagation of binding energy through the connecting helix structures.

  15. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  16. Heme-based catalytic properties of human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ascenzi, P; di Masi, A; Fanali, G; Fasano, M

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA): (i) controls the plasma oncotic pressure, (ii) modulates fluid distribution between the body compartments, (iii) represents the depot and carrier of endogenous and exogenous compounds, (iv) increases the apparent solubility and lifetime of hydrophobic compounds, (v) affects pharmacokinetics of many drugs, (vi) inactivates toxic compounds, (vii) induces chemical modifications of some ligands, (viii) displays antioxidant properties, and (ix) shows enzymatic properties. Under physiological and pathological conditions, HSA has a pivotal role in heme scavenging transferring the metal-macrocycle from high- and low-density lipoproteins to hemopexin, thus acquiring globin-like reactivity. Here, the heme-based catalytic properties of HSA are reviewed and the structural bases of drug-dependent allosteric regulation are highlighted. PMID:27551458

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of interaction between mangiferin and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hui; Lan, Jingfeng; Guan, Min; Sheng, Fenling; Zhang, Haixia

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of interaction between mangiferin (MA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solution was investigated by fluorescence spectra, synchronous fluorescence spectra, absorbance spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The binding constants and binding sites of MA to BSA at different reaction times were calculated. And the distance between MA and BSA was estimated to be 5.20 nm based on Föster's theory. In addition, synchronous fluorescence and FT-IR measurements revealed that the secondary structures of the protein changed after the interaction of MA with BSA. As a conclusion, the interaction between the anti-diabetes Chinese medicine MA and BSA may provide some significant information for the mechanism of the traditional chinese medicine MA on the protein level to cure diabetes or other diseases.

  18. Three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; He, Xiao-Min; Twigg, Pamela D.; Casale, Elena

    1991-01-01

    The binding locations to human serum albumin (HSA) of several drug molecules were determined at low resolution using crystallographic methods. The principal binding sites are located within subdomains IIA and IIIA. Preliminary studies suggest that an approach to increasing the in vivo efficacy of drugs which are rendered less effective or ineffective by virtue of their interaction with HSA, would be the use of competitive displacement in drug therapies and/or the development of a general inhibitor to the site within subdomain IIIA. These findings also suggest that the facilitated transfer of various ligands across organ/circulatory interfaces such as liver, kidney, and brain may be associated with binding to the IIIA subdomain.

  19. Interaction between pirenoxine and bovine serum albumin in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhixi; Yu, Xianyong; Yao, Qing; Yi, Pinggui

    2014-08-01

    This work concerns the interaction of prenoxine sodium (PRX) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was conducted by spectroscopic means: fluorescence spectra, ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and circular dichroism spectra (CD spectra) in physiological conditions. The results revealed the PRX can quench the fluorescence of BSA remarkably in aqueous solution. The quench mechanism has been obtained after corrected the fluorescence intensities for inner filter effects. The binding constants (Ka) were calculated according to the relevant fluorescence data at different temperatures. Moreover, from a series of analyses, we have obtained the binding sites, the binding distance and binding force. The effect of PRX on the conformation of BSA has been analyzed using synchronous fluorescence under experimental conditions. In addition, the CD spectra proved that the secondary structure of BSA changed in the presence of PRX in aqueous solution.

  20. The effects of radioiodination and fluorescent labelling on albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.E.; Janatova, J.; Andrade, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of fluorescamine -, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -, and radioiodine-labelled bovine serum albumin is critically evaluated. Electrophoretic mobility and ion-exchange chromatography, together with measures of degree of conjugation and sulfhydryl content, are used to assess the changes due to conjugation. Fluorescamine labelling results in drastic changes in chromatographic behavior and electrophoretic mobility. FITC labelling also results in significant changes in chromatographic and electrophoretic properties. Radioiodination leads to minor changes in chromatographic properties and oxydation of sulfhydryl groups, with little or no change in electrophoretic properties. All three labels have some degree of lability and show increased levels of free label with time, even after extensive initial purification. It is concluded that the two fluorescent labels and possibly the radioiodine labelling method used here are unsuitable for certain studies of BSA, such as its adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces.

  1. [Study on the interaction of doxycycline with human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao-Ying; Chen, Lin; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the interaction of doxycycline (DC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by the inner filter effects, displacement experiments and molecular docking methods, based on classic multi-spectroscopy. With fluorescence quenching method at 298 and 310 K, the binding constants Ka, were determined to be 2. 73 X 10(5) and 0. 74X 10(5) L mol-1, respectively, and there was one binding site between DC and HSA, indicating that the binding of DC to HSA was strong, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change, AH and enthropy change, delta S) were calculated to be -83. 55 kJ mol-1 and -176. 31 J mol-1 K-1 via the Vant' Hoff equation, which indicated that the interaction of DC with HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Based on the Föster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the specific binding distance between Trp-214 (acceptor) and DC (donor) was 4. 98 nm, which was similar to the result confirmed by molecular docking. Through displacement experiments, sub-domain IIA of HSA was assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DC. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of DC to HSA induced the conformation change of HSA and increased the disclosure of some part of hydrophobic regions that had been buried before. The results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that DC bound to HSA led to the slight unfolding of the polypeptide chain of HSA. Furthermore, the binding details between DC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking methods, which revealed that DC was bound at sub-domain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and pi-pi interactions. The experimental results provide theoretical basis and reliable data for the study of the interaction between small drug molecule and human serum albumin PMID:25095435

  2. Albumin-genipin solder for laser tissue welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauto, Antonio; Foster, John; Avolio, Albert; Poole-Warren, Laura

    2004-07-01

    Background. Laser tissue soldering (LTS) is an alternative technique to suturing for tissue repair. One of the major drawbacks of LTS is the weak tensile strength of the solder welds when compared to sutures. In this study, the possibility was investigated for a low cytotoxic crosslinker, acting on amino groups, to enhance the bond strength of albumin solders. Materials and Methods. Solder strips were welded onto rectangular sections of sheep small intestine by a diode laser. The laser delivered in continuous mode mode a power of 170 +/- 10 mW at λ=808 nm, through a multimode optical fiber (core size = 200 μm) to achieve a dose of 10.8 +/- 0.5 J/mg. The solder thickness and surface area were kept constant throughout the experiment (thickness = 0.15 +/- 1 mm, area = 12 +/- 1.2 mm2). The solder incorporated 62% bovine serum albumin, 0.38% genipin, 0.25% indocyanin green dye (IG) and water. Tissue welding was also performed with a similar solder, which did not incorporate genipin, as a control group. The repaired tissue was tested for tensile strength by a calibrated tensiometer. Results. The tensile strength of the "genipin" solder was twice as high as the strength of the BSA solder (0.21 +/- 0.04 N and 0.11 +/- 0.04 N respectively; p~10-15 unpaired t-test, N=30). Discussion. Addition of a chemical crosslinking agent, such as genipin, significantly increased the tensile strength of adhesive-tissue bonds. A proposed mechanism for this enhanced bond strength is the synergistic action of mechanical adhesion with chemical crosslinking by genipin.

  3. Sunflower seed allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  4. Proteolytic and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity in Germinating Jojoba Seeds (Simmondsia chinensis).

    PubMed

    Samac, D; Storey, R

    1981-12-01

    Changes in proteolytic activity (aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, endopeptidase) were followed during germination (imbibition through seedling development) in extracts from cotyledons of jojoba seeds (Simmondsia chinensis). After imbibition, the cotyledons contained high levels of sulfhydryl aminopeptidase activity (APA) but low levels of serine carboxypeptidase activity (CPA). CPA increased with germination through the apparent loss of a CPA inhibitor substance in the seed. Curves showing changes in endopeptidase activity (EPA) assayed at pH 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 during germination were distinctly different. EPA at pH 4, 5, 6, and 7 showed characteristics of sulfhydryl enzymes while activity at pH 8 was probably due to a serine type enzyme. EPA at pH 6 was inhibited early in germination by one or more substances in the seed. Activities at pH 5 and later at pH 6 were the highest of all EPA throughout germination and increases in these activities were associated with a rapid loss of protein from the cotyledons of the developing seedling.Jojoba cotyledonary extracts were found to inhibit the enzymic activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin but not the protease from Aspergillus saotoi. The heat-labile trypsin inhibitor substance(s) was found in commercially processed jojoba seed meal and the albumin fraction of seed proteins. Trypsin inhibitor activity decreased with germination.

  5. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell.

  6. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    PubMed Central

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4–8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  7. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1984-07-01

    The identification of the poisoning mechanism(s) responsible for performance losses of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) when operating on sulfur containing gases was analyzed. The focusing was on out of cell and in cell experiments on single mechanistic issues, followed by incorporation of the results into a model that correlates cell potential decline to contaminants(s) concentration. When coupled with gas cleanup cost projections, the model can be used to conduct trade off studies which lead to the selection of optimum feed gas compositions for MCFC power plants. The degree to which H2S and other contaminants must be removed from typical MCFC fuels has a profound effect on the cost of cleaning the fuel gas, especially if contaminant levels lower than 0.1 ppM are required. The anticipated product from the overall program is a justifiable specification for gas cleanup requirements for MCFC power plants.

  8. Modification of polytetrafluoroethylene surfaces using H2S plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesel, Alenka; Kovac, Janez; Zaplotnik, Rok; Modic, Martina; Mozetic, Miran

    2015-12-01

    A process for modifying the surface properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer using sulfur-containing gaseous plasma is presented in this paper. Samples of PTFE foils were treated in pure H2S gaseous plasma sustained by an electrode-less radio-frequency discharge in the E-mode. The samples were kept at a floating potential. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy were used to determine the evolution of the surface functionalities and morphology. An extremely thin film of chemically bonded sulfur was formed on the surface after a few seconds of plasma treatment, whereas a treatment duration of more than a minute resulted in the deposition of pure sulfur. The deposited film remained as thin as a few nanometers, even after half an hour of treatment.

  9. Phonon drag of electrons in Ag{sub 2}S

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, S. A.; Aliev, F. F. Gasanov, Z. S.; Abdullayev, S. M.; Selim-zade, R. I.

    2010-06-15

    The temperature dependences of the heat-conductivity coefficient {chi} and the thermopower 6h of Ag{sub 2}S are investigated in the range of 4.2-300 K. It is found that the value of 6h sharply increases (6h {infinity} T{sup -3}) with decreasing T at T < 100 K and passes through a maximum at 16-18 K. The heat-conductivity coefficient passes through a maximum at {approx}30 K. The sharp increase in 6h is found to be caused by the effect of long-wavelength-phonon drag of electrons. It is shown that the shift of the 6h and {chi} peaks, as well as the temperature dependence of the phonon thermopower 6h{sub ph} {infinity} T{sup -3}, agrees with the Herring theory.

  10. User's Manual for TMY2s - Typical Meteorological Years

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This user's manual describes typical meteorological year (TMY) data sets derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Because they are based on more recent and accurate data and will make possible more accurate performance and economic analyses of energy systems, these data sets are ecommended for use in place of earlier TMY data sets derived from the 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. To distinguish between the old and new TMY data sets, the new TMY data sets are referred to as TMY2s. TMY and TMY2 data sets cannot be used interchangeably because of differences in time (solar versus local), formats, elements, and units. Unless they are revised, computer programs designed for TMY data will not work with TMY2 data.

  11. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  12. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  13. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  14. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other...

  15. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other...

  16. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  17. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other...

  18. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  19. 9 CFR 95.15 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines..., blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; requirements for unrestricted entry. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other animal materials intended for use...

  20. 9 CFR 95.16 - Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines... Blood meal, blood albumin, intestines, and other animal byproducts for industrial use; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Blood meal, blood albumin, bone meal, intestines, or other...

  1. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  2. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  3. Comparison of Calcium Phosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Dermal Penetration Enhancers for Albumin.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Narges; Javar, H A

    2015-01-01

    Dermal drug delivery is highly preferred by patients due to its several advantages. Protein therapeutics have attracted huge attention recently. Since dermal delivery of proteins encounter problems, in this investigation, zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles were compared as enhancers for dermal permeation of albumin. Albumin was applied simultaneously with zinc oxide nanoparticles or calcium phosphate nanoparticles on pieces of mouse skin. Skin permeation of albumin over time was determined using a diffusion cell. Skin distribution of the nanoparticles and albumin over time was determined by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and calcium phosphate nanoparticles acted as enhancers for skin permeation of albumin. Cumulative permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles after 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 h, were 0±0, 11.7±3.3, 21.1±3.5, 40.2±3.6 and 40.2±3.6 mg, respectively and in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles were 0±0, 20.9±7.4, 33.8±5.5, 33.8±3.7 and 33.8±3.7 mg, respectively. After 0.5 h, little amount of albumin was permeated in presence of every kind of the nanoparticles. After 0.5 or 1 h, the permeated albumin in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was more than that in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles and after 1.5 h the permeated albumin in presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles was more than that in presence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Images of skin distribution of the two nanoparticles over time, were somewhat different and distribution of albumin correlated with the distribution of the nanoparticles alone. The profiles of albumin permeation (in presence of each of the nanoparticles) versus time was delayed and linear for both nanoparticles while the slope for calcium phosphate nanoparticles was higher than zinc oxide nanoparticles. The enhancer effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles was stronger while the enhancer effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles was

  4. Commercial Seed Lots Exhibit Reduced Seed Dormancy in Comparison to Wild Seed Lots of Echinacea purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Chen, Ying; Scalzo, Richard; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Davis, Jeanine M.; Hancock, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Seed germination patterns were studied in E. purpurea (L.) Moench grouped by seed source, one group of seven lots from commercially cultivated populations and a second group of nine lots regenerated from ex situ conserved wild populations. Germination tests were conducted in a growth chamber in light (40 μmol·m−2·s−1) or darkness at 25 °C for 20 days after soaking the seeds in water for 10 minutes. Except for two seed lots from wild populations, better germination was observed for commercially cultivated populations in light (90% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 95%) and in darkness (88% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 97%) than for wild populations in light (56% mean among seed lots, ranging from 9% to 92%) or in darkness (37% mean among seed lots, ranging from 4% to 78%). No germination difference was measured between treatments in light and darkness in the commercially cultivated populations, but significant differences were noted for treatments among wild populations. These results suggest that repeated cycles of sowing seeds during cultivation without treatments for dormancy release resulted in reduced seed dormancy in E. purpurea. PMID:16429595

  5. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of teicoplanin in patients with hyperglycaemic hypoalbuminaemia: Impact of albumin glycosylation on the binding of teicoplanin to albumin.

    PubMed

    Enokiya, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Yuichi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Okuda, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    There is large interindividual variability in serum teicoplanin (TEIC) concentrations after administration of a loading dose, and the factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of TEIC are disputed. The aim of this study was to clarify changes in the pharmacokinetics of TEIC that occur in patients with hyperglycaemia as well as the impact of albumin glycosylation on the pharmacokinetics of TEIC. This study consisted of retrospective and prospective investigations. The pharmacokinetic parameters of TEIC were retrospectively compared between patients receiving TEIC treatment. Ninety-four patients were divided into four groups according to their serum albumin and blood glucose concentrations [(i) hyperglycaemic hypoalbuminaemia (albumin<3.0g/dL) (n=16); (ii) non-hyperglycaemic hypoalbuminaemia (n=29); (iii) hyperglycaemic normoalbuminaemia (albumin≥3.0g/dL) (n=9); and (iv) non-hyperglycaemic normoalbuminaemia (n=40)]. In addition, the concentration of glycosylated albumin was prospectively determined in 28 patients. At 12h after administration of a loading dose, patients with hyperglycaemic hypoalbuminaemia displayed significantly lower serum TEIC concentrations (P<0.05) and higher TEIC volume of distribution (Vd) (P<0.05) than the other three groups, whereas TEIC clearance did not differ significantly among the groups. In addition, the percentage of glycosylated albumin was significantly correlated with the association constant (Ka) of TEIC for albumin (r=0.53, P=0.004) and the Vd (r=0.41, P=0.031). These results suggest that hyperglycaemic hypoalbuminaemia lowers the serum TEIC concentration, which is attributable to the decreased Ka and increased Vd of TEIC by albumin glycosylation.

  6. Transport of H2S and HS(-) across the human red blood cell membrane: rapid H2S diffusion and AE1-mediated Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Michael L

    2013-11-01

    The rates of H2S and HS(-) transport across the human erythrocyte membrane were estimated by measuring rates of dissipation of pH gradients in media containing 250 μM H2S/HS(-). Net acid efflux is caused by H2S/HS(-) acting analogously to CO2/HCO3(-) in the Jacobs-Stewart cycle. The steps are as follows: 1) H2S efflux through the lipid bilayer and/or a gas channel, 2) extracellular H2S deprotonation, 3) HS(-) influx in exchange for Cl(-), catalyzed by the anion exchange protein AE1, and 4) intracellular HS(-) protonation. Net acid transport by the Cl(-)/HS(-)/H2S cycle is more efficient than by the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)/CO2 cycle because of the rapid H2S-HS(-) interconversion in cells and medium. The rates of acid transport were analyzed by solving the mass flow equations for the cycle to produce estimates of the HS(-) and H2S transport rates. The data indicate that HS(-) is a very good substrate for AE1; the Cl(-)/HS(-) exchange rate is about one-third as rapid as Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange. The H2S permeability coefficient must also be high (>10(-2) cm/s, half time <0.003 s) to account for the pH equilibration data. The results imply that H2S and HS(-) enter erythrocytes very rapidly in the microcirculation of H2S-producing tissues, thereby acting as a sink for H2S and lowering the local extracellular concentration, and the fact that HS(-) is a substrate for a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger indicates that some effects of exogenous H2S/HS(-) may not result from a regulatory role of H2S but, rather, from net acid flux by H2S and HS(-) transport in a Jacobs-Stewart cycle.

  7. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  8. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  9. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  10. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  11. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules...

  12. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  13. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  14. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  15. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  16. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  17. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  18. Familial hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia. A disorder of endogenous catabolism of albumin and immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, T A; Terry, W D

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of albumin and IgG was investigated in two siblings, products of a first-cousin marriage, a female aged 34 yr and a male aged 17, who had a marked reduction in their respective serum concentrations of IgG (1.3 and 3.1 mg/ml) and albumin (19 and 21 mg/ml). The metabolism of radioiodinated IgG and albumin was studied in the two patients. The total circulating and body pools of IgG were less than 28% of normal. The IgG synthetic rates were within the normal range. However, the IgG survival was short, with their respective fractional catabolic rates increased fivefold to 31% and 36% of the intravenous pool per day (normal, 6.7 +/- 2%/d). Furthermore, the patients had reduced total body pools, normal synthetic rates, and increased fractional catabolic rates for albumin. There was no proteinuria or abnormality of renal or liver function. In addition, the patients did not have circulating antibodies directed toward IgG, IgA, or albumin. Furthermore, both patients had normal fecal 51Cr-labeled albumin tests, thus excluding excessive gastrointestinal protein loss. We propose that these siblings have a previously unrecognized familial disorder characterized by reduced serum concentrations of IgG and albumin caused by a defect in endogenous catabolism, leading to a short survival of these proteins that is associated in this family with chemical diabetes and a skeletal deformity. Images PMID:2254461

  19. Renal FcRn reclaims albumin but facilitates elimination of IgG.

    PubMed

    Sarav, Menaka; Wang, Ying; Hack, Bradley K; Chang, Anthony; Jensen, Mark; Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The widely distributed neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) contributes to maintaining serum levels of albumin and IgG in adults. In the kidney, FcRn is expressed on the podocytes and the brush border of the proximal tubular epithelium. Here, we evaluated the role of renal FcRn in albumin and IgG metabolism. Compared with wild-type controls, FcRn(-/-) mice had a lower t((1/2)) for albumin (28.7 versus 39.9 h) and IgG (29.5 versus 66.1 h). Renal loss of albumin could account for the former, suggested by the progressive development of hypoalbuminemia in wild-type mice transplanted with FcRn-deficient kidneys. Furthermore, serum albumin levels returned to normal in FcRn(-/-) recipients of wild-type kidneys after removing the native FcRn-deficient kidneys. In contrast, renal loss could not account for the enhanced elimination of IgG in FcRn(-/-) mice. These mice had minimal urinary excretion of native and labeled IgG, which increased to wild-type levels in FcRn(-/-) recipients of a single FcRn-sufficient kidney (t((1/2)) of IgG was 21.7 h). Taken together, these data suggest that renal FcRn reclaims albumin, thereby maintaining the serum concentration of albumin, but facilitates the loss of IgG from plasma protein pools.

  20. Calmodulin Involvement in Stress-Activated Nuclear Localization of Albumin in JB6 Epithelial Cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Negash, Sewite; Smallwood, Heather S.; Ramos, Kenneth S.; Thrall, Brian D.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2004-06-15

    We report that in response to oxidative stress, albumin is translocated to the nucleus where it binds in concert with known transcription factors to an antioxidant response element (ARE), which controls the expression of glutathione-S-transferase and other antioxidant enzymes, functioning to mediate adaptive cellular responses. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this adaptive cell response, we have identified linkages between calcium signaling and the nuclear translocation of albumin in JB6 epithelial cells. Under resting conditions, albumin and the calcium regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM), co-immunoprecipitate using antibodies against either protein, indicating a tight association. Calcium activation of CaM disrupts the association between CaM and albumin, suggesting that transient increases in cytosolic calcium levels function to mobilize intracellular albumin to facilitate its translocation into the nucleus. Likewise, nuclear translocation of albumin is induced by exposure of cells to hydrogen peroxide or a phorbol ester, indicating a functional linkage between reactive oxygen species, calcium, and PKC-signaling pathways. Inclusion of an antioxidant enzyme (i.e., superoxide dismutase) blocks nuclear translocation, suggesting that the oxidation of sensitive proteins functions to coordinate the adaptive cellular response. These results suggest that elevated calcium transients, and associated increases in reactive oxygen species, contribute to adaptive cellular responses through the mobilization and nuclear translocation of cellular albumin to mediate the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant responsive elements.

  1. Caveolae may enable albumin to enter human renal glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Takahito; Takei, Takashi; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Uchida, Keiko; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-06-01

    Caveolae on human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) are increased in glomerular disease and correlate with the degree of albuminuria. To assess the mechanism by which caveolae contribute to albuminuria, we investigated whether albumin enters into HRGECs through caveolae. HRGECs were incubated with Alexa Fluor 488 labeled BSA or transferrin, followed by immunofluorescence localization with antibody to caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the main structural protein of caveolae, or clathrin, the major structural protein of clathrin coated pits, to assess whether BSA colocalized with Cav-1. HRGECs were also incubated with albumin and caveolae disrupting agents, including methyl beta cyclodextrin (MBCD) and nystatin, to determine whether disrupting caveolae interfered with albumin endocytosis into HRGECs. HRGECs were also incubated with albumin after transfection with Cav-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Labeled BSA colocalized with Cav-1, but not with clathrin. In contrast, labeled transferrin colocalized with clathrin, but not with Cav-1. Incubation of HRGECs with MBCD or nystatin, or transfection with Cav-1 siRNA, significantly reduced the intracellular amounts of albumin and Cav-1, relative to normal HRGECs, as shown by western blotting and immunofluorescence. These findings indicate that albumin enters HRGECs through the caveolae, suggesting that caveolae play an important role in the pathogenesis of albuminuria by providing a pathway through which albumin can enter glomerular endothelial cells.

  2. The effects of haemodilution with albumin on coagulation in vitro as assessed by rotational thromboelastometry.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, S; Wong, G; Williams, P; Yang, K; Kershaw, G; Dunkley, S; Kam, P C A

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the in vitro viscoelastic changes of progressive haemodilution with 4% albumin compared with normal saline (NS) using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®), Pentapharm Co., Munich, Germany). Whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy volunteers were diluted in vitro with 4% albumin or NS by 10%, 20% and 40%. Fibrinogen concentration and ROTEM(®) (EXTEM [screening test for the extrinsic haemostasis system], FIBTEM [EXTEM-based assay for the fibrin part of the clot]) variables including coagulation time, clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, maximum clot firmness and lysis index were measured in the undiluted sample and at each degree of haemodilution. There was no significant difference in fibrinogen concentration at equivalent haemodilutions with normal saline and 4% albumin solutions. Forty percent haemodilution with albumin significantly prolonged coagulation time (EXTEM P=0.007, FIBTEM P=0.0001) and significantly decreased lysis index (FIBTEM P=0.009) compared with NS. A significant decrease in maximum clot firmness from undiluted measurements (P=0.05) was observed at lower haemodilutions with albumin (20% with EXTEM, 10% with FIBTEM) compared with NS (40% with EXTEM and FIBTEM). The adverse effects of large degrees of haemodilution with 4% albumin solution are in excess of what can be explained by haemodilution alone. This study suggests that large degrees of haemodilution with albumin impair fibrinogen activity to a greater extent than equivalent degrees of haemodilution with NS.

  3. Enhancing effect of albumin hydrolysate on ethanol production employing Saccharomyces sake

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, C.S.; Song, J.Y.; Ryu, O.H. ); Wang, S.S. . Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1995-03-05

    The enhancing effect of albumin hydrolysate on ethanol production was investigated in ethanol fermentations using Saccharomyces sake. In batchwise ethanol production, addition of supplemental albumin hydrolysate and phosphatidylcholine, or albumin hydrolysate alone, brought about a more than 60% increase in final ethanol concentration (148 or 144 g/L compared with 88 g/L with no supplementation [control] after 72h). The effect of the supplements is believed to be due to an enhanced alcohol tolerance of cells grown in media containing the supplements. Cells grown in media containing albumin hydrolysate were enriched in phenylalanine, tyrosine,d and methionine in their plasma membranes. All three amino acids were also present in considerable amounts in the albumin hydrolysate. This fact suggests that the three amino acids, which are present in albumin hydrolysate, are incorporated into the plasma membranes of cells. Under ethanol production conditions in which only one amino acid among the components of albumin hydrolysate was excluded, namely phenylalanine, tyrosine, or methionine, significant reductions in ethanol production resulted.

  4. Albumin administration prevents the onset of pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Serra, Raffaele; Grande, Raffaele; Buffone, Gianluca; Gallelli, Luca; Caroleo, Santo; Tropea, Francesco; Amantea, Bruno; de Franciscis, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a common problem in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) and they account for more than 70% of patients with low serum albumin at admission. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenous administration of albumin in patients with low serum albumin < 3·3 g/dl. In a 1-year period, a total of 73 patients were admitted to the ICU (males 45, 61·64% and females 28, 38·36%); of these, 21 patients were admitted with hypoalbuminaemia (serum albumin < 3·3 g/dl) and randomised into two groups: 11 patients were treated with 25 g intravenous albumin for the first 3 days within the first week of ICU stay (group A) and 10 patients did not receive albumin (group B). Three patients (27·27%) showed the onset of PUs in group A, whereas seven patients (70%) showed the onset of PUs within the first 7 days of stay in group B. Moreover, ulcers of group B were more severe than those of group A. This study shows that intravenous administration of albumin reduces the onset of PUs in patients admitted to the ICU and in some cases it also reduces the risk of progression to advanced stages of PUs.

  5. Cytotoxicity change with albumin binding of talaporfin sodium in extracellular photosensitization reaction on cardiomyocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Motohashi, Sayaka; Arai, Tsunenori

    2015-03-01

    We studied the myocardial cell necrosis measuring cell lethality with various albumin concentrations against oxidative stress by extracellular photosensitization reaction using talaporfin sodium. We have proposed to induce the photosensitization reaction in interstitial space of myocardium with short drug-light interval to realize the immediate cell damage by myocardial cell membrane for tachyarrhythmia treatment. To understand the effect of the particular extracellular photosensitization reaction in interstitial space, we measured the myocardial cell lethality 2 hours after the photosensitization reaction by WST assay varying the talaporfin sodium concentration, radiant exposure, and wide albumin concentration of 0-15 mg/ml. The cell lethality was decreased with albumin concentration increasing over 85 % in binding ratio between talaporfin sodium and albumin. The cell lethality didn't change between 0-85% in binding ratio between talaporfin sodium and albumin. The calculated deposited energy to the talaporfin sodium solution was nearly constant of 8.4±1.6 J/well in average varying albumin concentration. We think the cell killing effect by the extracellular photosensitization reaction has a threshold between 85-100% in the binding ratio between talaporfin sodium and albumin in the case of the talaporfin sodium concentration of 40 μg/ml and radiant exposure of 0-40 J/cm2.

  6. Adsorption of albumin on flax fibers increases endothelial cell adhesion and blood compatibility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Michel, Sophie A A X; Knetsch, Menno L W; Koole, Leo H

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of flax (linen) are attractive from the perspective of biomaterials science and engineering. Flax textiles uniquely combine hydrophilicity and strength, with the technical know-how to produce precisely engineered two- and three-dimensional knitted or woven structures. It is, however, extremely difficult to completely remove endotoxins from the flax, and this essentially precludes the use of linen for implant purposes. Herein, the potential utility of flax textiles for blood-contacting applications is investigated, using purified two-dimensional mesh specimens, with and without an albumin surface coating. It was hypothesized that the albumin coating will abolish the effect of adherent endotoxins at the flax's surface. In vitro cell viability assays showed that the flax mesh ± albumin is not cytotoxic. The albumin coating reduced (but not abolished) the effect of surface-exposed endotoxins (Limulus amebocyte lysate test). Under dynamic conditions, the albumin coating favors coverage with endothelial cells. Experiments with fresh human blood plasma (platelet-rich and platelet-free) showed that the albumin coating reduces the thrombogenicity in vitro. Platelets adhered to the albumin-coated flax mesh showed a less flattened structure. Although the results of this work cannot be extrapolated easily to in vivo situations, the data reveal that woven or knitted tubular structures produced from flax fibers may hold promise as implantable blood contacting devices like for instance vascular grafts. PMID:24641207

  7. Adsorption of albumin on flax fibers increases endothelial cell adhesion and blood compatibility in vitro.

    PubMed

    Michel, Sophie A A X; Knetsch, Menno L W; Koole, Leo H

    2014-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of flax (linen) are attractive from the perspective of biomaterials science and engineering. Flax textiles uniquely combine hydrophilicity and strength, with the technical know-how to produce precisely engineered two- and three-dimensional knitted or woven structures. It is, however, extremely difficult to completely remove endotoxins from the flax, and this essentially precludes the use of linen for implant purposes. Herein, the potential utility of flax textiles for blood-contacting applications is investigated, using purified two-dimensional mesh specimens, with and without an albumin surface coating. It was hypothesized that the albumin coating will abolish the effect of adherent endotoxins at the flax's surface. In vitro cell viability assays showed that the flax mesh ± albumin is not cytotoxic. The albumin coating reduced (but not abolished) the effect of surface-exposed endotoxins (Limulus amebocyte lysate test). Under dynamic conditions, the albumin coating favors coverage with endothelial cells. Experiments with fresh human blood plasma (platelet-rich and platelet-free) showed that the albumin coating reduces the thrombogenicity in vitro. Platelets adhered to the albumin-coated flax mesh showed a less flattened structure. Although the results of this work cannot be extrapolated easily to in vivo situations, the data reveal that woven or knitted tubular structures produced from flax fibers may hold promise as implantable blood contacting devices like for instance vascular grafts.

  8. γ-Secretase inhibition promotes fibrotic effects of albumin in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, C; Jang, Y; Kruger, W A; Hryciw, D H; Lee, A; Poronnik, P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Albuminuria is an important biomarker of renal dysfunction and is a major mediator of renal damage and fibrosis during kidney disease. The mechanisms underlying albumin-induced renal fibrosis remain unclear. There has been significant interest in γ-secretase activity in tubular epithelial cells in recent times; however, its potential role in albumin-induced fibrosis has not been investigated. Experimental Approach The primary aim of this study was to examine the role of γ-secretase in albumin-induced fibrotic effects in proximal tubular cells. The effects of increasing albumin concentrations on fibrosis indicators and mediators in the human HK-2 cell line were examined in the presence and absence of a γ-secretase inhibitor, compound E. Key Results Treatment with albumin resulted in a number of pro-fibrotic effects, including up-regulation of fibronectin, TGF-β1 and the EGF-R. Interestingly, similar effects were observed in response to treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor, compound E. Co-treatment of cells with albumin and an EGF-R inhibitor, AG-1478, resulted in significant inhibition of the observed pro-fibrotic effects, suggesting a major role for the EGF-R in albumin-induced fibrotic events. Albumin-induced effects on the EGF-R appeared to be mediated through inhibition of γ-secretase activity and were dependent on ERK-MAPK signalling. Conclusions and Implications These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of albumin-induced fibrotic effects in tubular epithelial cells, suggesting important roles for the γ-secretase and the EGF-R. These results suggest that the proposed use of γ-secretase inhibitors as anti-fibrotic agents requires further investigation. PMID:23594166

  9. Role played by Disabled-2 in albumin induced MAP Kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy Pearson, Alexander L.; Colville-Nash, Paul; Baines, Deborah L.; Dockrell, Mark E.C.

    2008-02-15

    Albumin has been shown to activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in proximal tubular cells (PTECs) of the kidney. Megalin, the putative receptor for albumin has potential signalling properties. However, the mechanisms by which megalin signals are unclear. The adaptor phosphoprotein Disabled-2 (Dab2) is known to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of megalin and may be involved in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling. In this study, we investigated the role of Dab2 in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling and further studied the role of Dab2 in albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion, a MAPK dependent event. We used RNA interference to knockdown Dab2 protein abundance in HKC-8 cells a model of human PTECs. Albumin activated ERK1,2 and Elk-1 in a MEK-1 dependent manner and resulted in secretion of TGF{beta}-1. In the absence of albumin, knockdown of Dab2 resulted in a trend towards increase in pERK1,2 consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However albumin-induced ERK1,2 activation was completely abolished by Dab2 knockdown. Dab2 knockdown did not however result in inhibition of albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion. These results suggest that Dab2 is a ligand dependent bi-directional regulator of ERK1,2 activity by demonstrating that in addition to its more traditional role as an inhibitor of ERK1,2 it may also activate ERK1,2.

  10. Identification of tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in sarcoma-bearing mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, C.; Iresjoe, B.M.L.; Lundholm, K. )

    1991-02-01

    Plasma albumin concentration declines in both experimental and clinical cancer. Previous investigations have demonstrated that this is partly explained by increased breakdown of albumin. The present study has identified the tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in a nonmetastasizing sarcoma mouse (C57/BL6J) model. Results have been compared to nontumor-bearing animals either freely fed or food restricted (pair-weighed) so that their body composition was similar to tumor-bearing animals. Tumor-bearing mice had increased albumin degradation (0.13 +/- 0.02 mg/hr/g bw) compared to both freely fed (0.09 +/- 0.007) and pair-weighed control animals (0.05 +/- 0.008). Radioactivity from circulating (3H)raffine aldehyde labeled albumin appeared with maximum peak values in lysosomes isolated from both tumor and nontumor tissues at 48 hr following iv injection. The intralysosomal accumulation of radioactivity was two- to threefold higher in tumor tissue compared to liver tissue, although the specific activity of protease(s) for albumin degradation measured in vitro was not higher in tumor tissue (30.4 +/- 3.6 mg/hr/g tissue) compared to normal liver tissue (36.9 +/- 1.7). Accounting for the entire tumor the proteolytic capacity for albumin breakdown was however much larger in the tumor (161.6 +/- 32.6 mg/organ) compared to both normal liver (37.5 +/- 2.3) and tumor-host liver (56.4 +/- 2.8). Pepstatin inhibited 78 +/- 6% of the proteolytic activity in the tumor measured by 125I-labeled undenatured mouse albumin as the substrate. Leupeptin inhibited 49 +/- 6%. There was a significantly decreased breakdown of albumin in both skeletal muscles and the gastrointestinal tract from tumor-bearing animals.

  11. Exogenous albumin inhibits sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Itoh, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Naoto; Tomizawa, Ayako; Yomogida, Shin; Ishikawa, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Sorafenib is an orally administered multikinase inhibitor that exhibits anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity. Sorafenib is also known to bind to protein (>99.5%), suggesting protein binding may be involved in sorafenib pharmacokinetic variability. Albumin is a major drug-binding protein. In this study, we examined the effect of albumin on sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity using two in vitro culture cell lines, human hepatoma Huh-7 cells and androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The cells were cultured and incubated, and cytotoxicity was assessed. Results were confirmed by western blotting. The presence of exogenous albumin markedly blocked the sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity in the two cell lines. Albumin concentration, the change of pharmacological signal transduction as Raf-B, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and phosphorylation of MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 were found to be decreased by sorafenib. Co-incubation of warfarin, a representative coumarin anticoagulant and potent binding activity, with albumin enhanced the cytotoxic effects by sorafenib. These mechanisms depend on the high binding proper ties of sorafenib and exogenous albumin. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of endo genous albumin expression on sorafenib-induced cytotoxicity using the siRNA knockdown system or transfected expression vector assay. However, the cytotoxic effects by sorafenib showed little change either with the knockdown or overexpression of albumin. Our results suggest that particular care should be taken with albuminemia or the combined use of drugs with a high affinity for albumin, such as warfarin, and sorafenib in the treatment of cancer patients. Our findings may be useful to the cancer therapeutic strategy by sorafenib. PMID:24649118

  12. Prognostic Value of Rising Serum Albumin During Hospitalization in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Satoshi; Kuragaichi, Takashi; Shiba, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Sato, Yukihito

    2016-04-15

    Hypoalbuminemia is an important predictor of a poor long-term prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF). However, changes in serum albumin levels in AHF have not been described to date. Therefore, we investigated the changes in serum albumin levels in patients hospitalized for AHF. This observational study included 115 consecutive patients admitted with AHF. Serum albumin was measured on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 of their hospitalization, and the changes in its levels were assessed. Cox multivariate analysis was used to compare the long-term mortality and readmission rate between 2 groups defined according to whether their serum albumin changes showed a rising pattern (serum albumin level increased from day 2 to day 7) or not. The mean serum albumin levels were 3.51 mg/dl on day 1, 3.21 mg/dl on day 2, 3.23 mg/dl on day 4, and 3.35 mg/dl on day 7 (p <0.001 by multivariate analysis of variance). The rising pattern group including 66 patients (60.6%) was independently associated with a lower mortality and readmission rate (hazard ratios 0.450 and 0.522; p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, based on multiple linear regression analysis, the changes in hemoglobin and C-reactive protein levels during days 1 to 7 were independently correlated with the changes in serum albumin levels over the same period. In conclusion, a rising pattern of serum albumin change in a patient with AHF was correlated with a good long-term prognosis. Furthermore, the change in serum albumin levels was also associated with changes in cachectic factors. PMID:27020611

  13. Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results of the SOAP study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223

  14. Analysis of some biochemical and haematological parameters for Mucuna pruriens (DC) seed powder in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwudi, Ndukwe Henry; Simeon, Omale; Chinyere, Aguiyi John

    2011-10-01

    The biochemical and haematological effects of the seed powder of Mucuna pruriens in male rats were evaluated to establish some biological properties of this potential biopesticide currently undergoing investigation. The result showed that Mucuna pruriens seed extract produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as in bilirubin concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), protein and creatinine levels measured. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison with the experimental control. PCV, Hb, albumin level and WBC differential counts gave no significant difference between treated and control groups. The results revealed metabolic imbalance in the rats which suggests a mild cholestasis effect of the extract. PMID:21959815

  15. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  16. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation. PMID:24504084

  17. Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of "Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants", by Nicholas Harberd. The book is a diary of ruminations/introspections about plant development and about the main research topic of Nick Harberd’s laboratory. His intended audience is initially nonscientists; many of the explanation...

  18. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  19. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...