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Sample records for 2s albumin seed

  1. Simple, Rapid, and Selective Isolation of 2S Albumins from Allergenic Seeds and Nuts.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Höper, Tessa; Westkamp, Imke; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2015-07-08

    The 2S albumins belong to the group of seed storage proteins present in different seeds and nuts. Due to their pronounced allergenic potential, which is often associated with severe allergic reactions, this protein family is of special interest in the field of allergen research. Here we present a simple, rapid, and selective method for the purification of 2S albumins directly from allergenic seeds and nuts. We systematically optimized the parameters "buffer system", "extraction temperature", "buffer molarity", and "pH " and were able to achieve 2S albumin purities of about 99% without further purification and demonstrate transferability of this method to nine different allergenic food matrices. Compared to conventional isolation routines, significant reduction of hands-on time and required laboratory equipment is achieved, but nonetheless higher protein yields are obtained. The presented method allows for the rapid purification of different 2S albumins including the corresponding isoforms from natural material.

  2. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities.

  3. Stable Accumulation of Modified 2S Albumin Seed Storage Proteins with Higher Methionine Contents in Transgenic Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Ann; Vandewiele, Martine; Van Damme, Jozef; Guerche, Philippe; Van Montagu, Marc; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Krebbers, Enno

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of two sets of experiments designed to express high methionine proteins in transgenic seeds in three different plant species. In the first approach, two chimeric genes were constructed in which parts of the Arabidopsis 2S albumin gene 1 (AT2S1) were fused at different positions to a Brazil nut 2S albumin cDNA clone. Brazil nut 2S albumin was found to accumulate stably in transgenic Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, and tobacco seeds. In the second approach, methionine-enriched AT2S1 genes were constructed by deleting sequences encoding a region of the protein which is not highly conserved among 2S albumins of different species and replacing them with methioninerich sequences. Introduction of the modified AT2S1 genes into three different plant species resulted in the accumulation of the methionine-enriched 2S albumins in all three species at levels reaching 1 to 2% of the total high salt-extractable seed protein. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667878

  4. Antifungal activity of storage 2S albumins from seeds of the invasive weed dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, T I; Rogozhin, E A; Sklyar, I V; Musolyamov, A K; Kudryavtsev, A M; Pukhalsky, V A; Smirnov, A N; Grishin, E V; Egorov, T A

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we isolated and characterized novel antifungal proteins from seeds of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg.). We showed that they are represented by five isoforms, each consisting of two disulphide-bonded large and small subunits. One of them, To-A1 was studied in detail, including N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both subunits, and shown to display sequence homology with the sunflower 2S albumin. Using different assays we demonstrated that dandelion 2S albumins possess inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi and the oomycete Phytophtora infestans at micromolar concentrations with various isoforms differing in their antifungal activity. Thus, 2S albumins of dandelion seeds represent a novel example of storage proteins with defense functions.

  5. Gene families encoding isoforms of two major sesame seed storage proteins, 11S globulin and 2S albumin.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Eric S L; Lin, Li-Jen; Li, Feng-Yin; Wang, Miki M C; Liao, Ming-Yuan; Tzen, Jason T C

    2006-12-13

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed has been recognized as a nutritional protein source owing to its richness in methionine. Storage proteins have been implicated in allergenic responses to sesame consumption. Two abundant storage proteins, 11S globulin and 2S albumin, constitute 60-70 and 15-25% of total sesame proteins, respectively. Two gene families separately encoding four 11S globulin and three 2S albumin isoforms were identified in a database search of 3328 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from maturing sesame seeds. Full-length cDNA sequences derived from these two gene families were completed by PCR using a maturing sesame cDNA library as the template. The amino acid compositions of these deduced storage proteins revealed that the richness in methionine is attributed mainly to two 2S albumin isoforms and partly to one 11S globulin isoform. The presence of four 11S globulin and three 2S albumin isoforms resolved in SDS-PAGE was confirmed by MALDI-MS analyses. The abundance of these isoforms was in accord with the occurrence frequency of their EST sequences in the database. A comprehensive understanding of these storage proteins at the molecular level may also facilitate the identification of allergens in crude sesame products that have caused severe allergic reactions increasingly reported in the past decade.

  6. Characterization and sequence of tomato 2S seed albumin: a storage protein with sequence similarities to the fruit lectin.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Suguru; Kamoshida, Mayumi; Nagata, Yoshiho; Momonoki, Yoshie S; Kamimura, Hideo

    2003-04-01

    We found a 2S storage albumin from the seed of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Cherry) that cross-reacted with antiserum to the fruit lectin, and named it Lec2SA. According to its size and basicity, Lec2SA was classified into four isoforms. These isoforms have an M(r) of approximately 12,000, and are composed of a small subunit (M(r) 4,000) and a large subunit (M(r) 8,000) linked by disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence of Lec2SA was determined. The small subunit was composed of 32 amino acids, whereas the large subunit contained 70 amino acids with a pyroglutamine as the N-terminal residue. The sequence of Lec2SA was similar to that of 2S albumins from different plants, such as Brazil nut and castor beans. Furthermore, a sequence similarity was found between the large subunit of Lec2SA and the peptide sequence from tomato lectin. Although these similarities were found, Lec2SA did not show hemagglutinating activity or sugar-chain-binding activity, indicating that Lec2SA lacks the carbohydrate-binding domain. These results suggest that tomato lectin is a chimeric lectin sharing the seed storage protein-like domain that is incorporated into the gene encoding tomato lectin through gene fusion.

  7. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.

  8. Bactericidal activity identified in 2S Albumin from sesame seeds and in silico studies of structure-function relations.

    PubMed

    Maria-Neto, Simone; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Costa, Fábio T; Almeida, Renato G; Amaro, Daniel S; Oliveira, José T A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Franco, Octávio L

    2011-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute an important cause of hospital-acquired infections. However, the misuse of available bactericidal agents has led to the appearance of antibiotic-resistant strains. Thus, efforts to seek new antimicrobials with different action mechanisms would have an enormous impact. Here, a novel antimicrobial protein (SiAMP2) belonging to the 2S albumin family was isolated from Sesamum indicum kernels and evaluated against several bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, in silico analysis was conducted in order to identify conserved residues through other 2S albumin antimicrobial proteins (2S-AMPs). SiAMP2 specifically inhibited Klebsiella sp. Specific regions in the molecule surface where cationic (RR/RRRK) and hydrophobic (MEYWPR) residues are exposed and conserved were proposed as being involved in antimicrobial activity. This study reinforces the hypothesis that plant storage proteins might also play as pathogen protection providing an insight into the mechanism of action for this novel 2S-AMP and evolutionary relations between antimicrobial activity and 2S albumins.

  9. Differential polarization of immune responses by plant 2S seed albumins, Ber e 1, and SFA8.

    PubMed

    Kean, Dorothy E; Goodridge, Helen S; McGuinness, Stephen; Harnett, Margaret M; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Harnett, William

    2006-08-01

    The plant 2S seed albumins Ber e 1 and SFA8, although structurally very similar, vary with respect to their allergenic properties. Whereas the former represents a major allergen, the latter appears to promote only weak allergenic responses. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether the allergenic properties of Ber e 1 and SFA8 reflected differential polarization of dendritic cell (DC) and Th cell responses. We thus investigated the effect of recombinant forms of both allergens on DC and Th cell responses as indicated by cell surface phenotype and cytokine production. Exposure of murine DCs to SFA8, but not Ber e 1, resulted in production of the cytokines IL-12 p40 and TNF-alpha by a mechanism independent of recognition by TLRs. Furthermore, depending on the mouse strain used, increased expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules such as CD40, CD80, and CD86 was associated with exposure to SFA8, but not Ber e 1. In coculture experiments using the DO11.10 transgenic T cell that recognizes OVA peptide, DCs exposed to both allergens induced T cells to produce IFN-gamma, but only Ber e 1 could induce significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. Likewise, analysis of transcription factors shows increased T-bet with respect to both allergens, but also GATA-3 with respect to Ber e 1. Overall, our data are consistent with the idea that the ability of Ber e 1, but not SFA8, to act as a potent allergen may reflect differences in their ability to induce IL-12 production.

  10. Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds, Is a Member of the 2S Albumin Family

    PubMed Central

    Freire, José E. C.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.; Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Batista, Adelina B.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Lima, João P. M. S.; Almeida, Ricardo V. M.; Sousa, Antônio J. S.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C. O.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin. PMID:25789746

  11. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL EXPRESSION OF 2S ALBUMIN IN CASTOR (Ricinus communis L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed develop...

  12. Temporal and spatial expression of 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Chen, Grace Q

    2007-11-28

    We studied the temporal and spatial expression of the 2S albumin in castor (Ricinus communis L.) during seed development, germination, post-germination, and plant development. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the 2S albumin transcript accumulated to a maximum level at the middle of seed development, showing a bell-shaped temporal pattern. Residual levels of the transcript were present in the mature seed and degraded rapidly upon germination. Immunodetection analysis was performed using an anti-2S albumin antibody under reducing conditions. During seed development, the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein began to be synthesized at 26 days after pollination (DAP); the pro-protein was thereafter processed to mature proteins at 40 DAP, suggesting that the post-translation modification of 2S albumin takes place during this time period. Both the 2S albumin precursor pro-protein and the mature proteins accumulated throughout seed maturation and desiccation stages. During seed germination, both forms of the 2S albumin proteins were present in endosperm and cotyledon until the completion of germination and degraded rapidly afterwards. However, the antibody also detected a group of proteins/peptides in endosperm and cotyledon when the seeds progressed to germination and post-germination stages. A 14 kDa protein in the leaves of fully developed seedlings and mature plants also reacted to the anti-2S albumin antibody. The identity of the proteins accumulated in germinating seed and leaf remains unknown.

  13. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  14. In silico structural characteristics and α-amylase inhibitory properties of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3, allergenic 2S albumins from Ricinus communis seeds.

    PubMed

    Do Nascimento, Viviane Veiga; Castro, Helena Carla; Abreu, Paula Alvarez; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Fernandez, Jorge Hernandez; Araújo, Jucélia Da Silva; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares

    2011-05-11

    The major Ricinus communis allergens are the 2S albumins, Ric c 1 and Ric c 3. These proteins contain a trypsin/α-amylase inhibitor family domain, suggesting that they have a role in insect resistance. In this study, we verified that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 inhibited the α-amylase activity of Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Tenebrio molitor (TMA) larvae as well as mammalian α-amylase. The toxicity of 2S albumin was determined through its incorporation in C. maculatus larvae as part of an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed that 2S albumin reduced larval growth by 20%. We also analyzed the tridimensional structures of Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 by (a) constructing a comparative model of Ric c 1 based on Ric c 3 NMR structure and (b) constructing the theoretical structure of the Ric c 1-TMA and Ric c 3-TMA complexes. Our biological and theoretical results revealed that Ric c 1 and Ric c 3 are a new class of α-amylase inhibitors. They could potentially be used to help design inhibitors that would be useful in diverse fields, ranging from diabetes treatment to crop protection.

  15. Structural stability and surface activity of sunflower 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Berecz, Bernadett; Mills, E N Clare; Tamás, László; Láng, Ferenc; Shewry, Peter R; Mackie, Alan R

    2010-05-26

    The structural and interfacial properties of five different fractions of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) seed storage proteins were studied. The fractions comprised lipid transfer protein (LTP), the methionine-rich 2S albumin SFA8 (sunflower albumin 8), and three mixtures of non-methionine-rich 2S albumins called Alb1 and Alb2 proteins (sunflower albumins 1 and 2). Heating affected all of the proteins studied, with SFA8 and LTP becoming more surface active than the native proteins after heating and cooling. LTP appeared to be less thermostable than homologous LTPs from other plant species. SFA8 generated the greatest elastic modulus and formed the most stable emulsions, whereas LTP showed poorer emulsification properties. The mixed 2S albumin fractions showed moderate levels of surface activity but had the poorest emulsification properties among the proteins studied.

  16. Complexes of green tea polyphenol, epigalocatechin-3-gallate, and 2S albumins of peanut.

    PubMed

    Vesic, Jelena; Stambolic, Ivan; Apostolovic, Danijela; Milcic, Milos; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2015-10-15

    2S albumins of peanuts are seed storage proteins, highly homologous in structure and described as major elicitors of anaphylactic reactions to peanut (allergens Ara h 2 and Ara h 6). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most biologically potent polyphenol of green tea. Non-covalent interactions of EGCG with proteins contribute to its diverse biological activities. Here we used the methods of circular dichroism, fluorescence quenching titration, isothermal titration calorimetry and computational chemistry to elucidate interactions of EGCG and 2S albumins. Similarity in structure and overall fold of 2S albumins yielded similar putative binding sites and similar binding modes with EGCG. Binding affinity determined for Ara h 2 was in the range described for complexes of EGCG and other dietary proteins. Binding of EGCG to 2S albumins affects protein conformation, by causing an α-helix to β-structures transition in both proteins. 2S albumins of peanuts may be good carriers of physiologically active green tea catechin.

  17. Expression of the 2S albumin from Bertholletia excelsa in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Guerche, P; De Almeida, E R; Schwarztein, M A; Gander, E; Krebbers, E; Pelletier, G

    1990-05-01

    The methionine rich 2S albumin seed storage protein of Bertholletia excelsa has been expressed in seeds of Brassica napus (rapeseed). A chimeric gene driven by the soybean lectin 5' flanking regions was used to produce a fusion protein consisting of the soybean lectin signal peptide and the propeptide of the Brazil nut 2S albumin. Several transgenic plants were studied at the RNA and protein levels; in each case the chimeric gene was expressed and the protein detected at levels ranging from 0.02% to 0.06% of total protein. Transcriptional studies in a particular transgenic plant show that expression of the gene is tissue specific and developmentally regulated during seed maturation. The endogenous napin genes and the introduced gene are regulated differently, with expression of the chimeric gene paralleling that seen when the soybean lectin gene is expressed in other plant species. Western analysis using antibodies to Brazil nut 2S albumins resulted in the detection of a protein whose size is consistent with correct processing of the precursor.

  18. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications.

  19. Determination of the Processing Sites of an Arabidopsis 2S Albumin and Characterization of the Complete Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Krebbers, E; Herdies, L; De Clercq, A; Seurinck, J; Leemans, J; Van Damme, J; Segura, M; Gheysen, G; Van Montagu, M; Vandekerckhove, J

    1988-08-01

    The most abundant isoform of the 2S albumin present in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana has been sequenced and the corresponding gene isolated. Examination of the protein and DNA sequences allows the determination of the exact proteolytic cleavage sites during posttranslational processing. Like other 2S albumins, that of Arabidopsis is made as a prepropeptide. After removal of the signal peptide, the propeptide is cleaved at four other points, giving two subunits linked by a disulfide bridge(s). Comparison of these cleavage sites with those of 2S albumins of Brassica napus and Bertholletia excelsa suggests that while individual cleavage sites between species are conserved, the four processing sites within a species are not similar, suggesting that up to four different proteases may be involved in processing 2S albumins. The Arabidopsis 2S albumin gene was used to isolate the entire gene family. There are four genes, tightly linked in a tandem array. None of the genes contains an intron. Comparison of the predicted protein sequences shows that only one of the genes can encode the isoform determined by protein analysis to be the most abundant, and therefore this gene is certain to be expressed. It is possible that some or all of the other three genes are also active.

  20. The expression and processing of two recombinant 2S albumins from soybean (Glycine max) in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Fido, Roger; Shewry, Peter; Archer, David B; Alcocer, Marcos J C

    2004-05-06

    Soybean seeds contain two 2S albumin storage proteins (AL1 and AL3) which may contribute to their industrial processing quality and allergenicity. We show that these proteins (AL1 and AL3) are well expressed by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and that one of the secreted proteins (AL3) has a similar conformation and stability to that purified from soybean seeds. Further, we show that the subunits are post-translationally processed within the same loop region as the native protein but with some differences in the precise sites. This internal processing provides useful information on the endoproteolytic activity in P. pastoris. We also show that, similar to many plant allergens, the 2S albumins from soybean are stable to heat and chemical treatments.

  1. Isolation, characterization and expression of a gene coding for a 2S albumin from Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut).

    PubMed

    Gander, E S; Holmstroem, K O; De Paiva, G R; De Castro, L A; Carneiro, M; Grossi de Sá, M F

    1991-03-01

    Two genes, BE2S1 and BE2S2, coding for methionine-rich albumins of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) have been cloned and their sequence determined. The genes are members of a multigene family and one of them, i.e. BE2S1, codes for one of the dominant 2S isoforms. Its expression is highly regulated during seed development and with respect to tissue specificity. Sequence analysis has shown that the genes contain one intron and that the promoter of BE2S1 shows a canonical TATA motif. The transcription initiation site is located 26 nucleotides downstream from the TATA box. Sequence comparison of the promoter regions of 2S genes from Brassica napus, Arabidopsis thaliana and B. excelsa revealed the presence of TGCA palindromic sequence that appear to be arranged in a 2S-specific manner.

  2. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  3. Cloning and characterization of 2S albumin, Car i 1, a major allergen in pecan.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Irsigler, Andre; Dhanarajan, Pushparani; Ayuso, Rosalia; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2011-04-27

    Although pecans are associated with IgE-mediated food allergies, the allergens responsible remain to be identified and characterized. The 2S albumin gene was amplified from the pecan cDNA library. Dot-blots were used to screen the recombinant protein with pecan allergic patients' serum. The affinity purified native protein was analyzed by Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. Cross-reactivity with walnut was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sequential epitopes were determined by probing the overlapping peptides with three different patients' serum pool. The 3-dimensional homology model was generated, and the locations of the pecan epitopes were compared with those of known sequential epitopes on other allergenic tree nut homologues. Of 28 patients tested by dot-blot, 22 (79%) bound to 2S albumin, designated as Car i 1. Edman sequencing and the MS/MS sequencing of native 2S albumin confirmed the identity of recombinant (r) Car i 1. Both pecan and walnut protein extracts inhibited the IgE-binding to rCar i 1. Sequential epitope mapping indicated weak, moderate, and strong reactivity against 12, 7, and 5 peptides, respectively. Of the 11 peptides recognized by all serum pools, 5 peptides were strongly reactive and located in 3 discrete regions of the Car i 1 (amino acids 43-57, 67-78, and 106-120). Three-dimensional modeling revealed IgE-reactive epitopes to be solvent accessible and share significant homology with other tree nuts providing a possible basis for previously observed cross-reactivity.

  4. Identification of a Passiflora alata Curtis dimeric peptide showing identity with 2S albumins.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Suzana M; Almeida, Renato G; Pereira, Camila A A; Moreira, João S; Pinto, Michelle F S; Oliveira, Antonio C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Santos, Marcelo O; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

    2011-05-01

    Antifungal proteins and peptides, essential compounds for plant defense, have been isolated from several tissues of various plants. These proteins could be used as a natural alternative to control phytopathogenic fungi. In this report a heterodimeric antifungal protein named Pa-AFP1, showing higher identity with the 2S albumin family, was purified by using 70-100% ammonium sulfate saturation and further purification steps such as anionic exchange Q-Sepharose chromatography associated with HPLC reversed-phase C4 chromatography. Analysis by Tricine-SDS-PAGE revealed two peptidic molecular masses of approximately 4500 Da and 7000 Da, in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol, while by removing the reducing agent a single protein with molecular mass of about 11,500 Da was obtained. Moreover, dimer mass was confirmed by MALDI-TOF analyses (11,569.76 Da). The antifungal protein, named Pa-AFP1, efficiently inhibited the growth of filamentous fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and was added to a short list of 2S albumins with antimicrobial properties. Otherwise, this same peptide showed no activity toward bacteria and yeasts. In summary, this compound could be used in the future to develop biotechnological products for the control of phytopathogenic fungi.

  5. Isolation of low-molecular albumins of 2S fraction from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill).

    PubMed

    Galbas, Mariola; Porzucek, Filip; Woźniak, Anna; Słomski, Ryszard; Selwet, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that consumption of soybean products decrease the risk of cancers in humans. Experiments at the molecular level have demonstrated that in most cases proteins and peptides are responsible for the anticancer properties of soybeen. Special attention should be paid to lunasin - a peptide described for the first time 16 years ago. Due to its structure it causes i.a., inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. A novel procedure for the isolation and purification of low-molecular-mass 2S soybean albumin protein is described in the present paper. A fraction of four peptides one of them corresponding to molecular mass and isoelectric point characteristic for lunasin. The obtained peptides decreased on the rate of HeLa cell proliferation.

  6. Stability of sunflower 2S albumins and LTP to physiologically relevant in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Berecz, Bernadett; Clare Mills, E N; Parádi, István; Láng, Ferenc; Tamás, László; Shewry, Peter R; Mackie, Alan R

    2013-06-15

    In order for a protein to elicit a systemic allergic response it must reach the circulatory system through the intestinal mucosa as a sufficiently large fragment with adequate structural integrity. Sunflower LTP and 2S albumins (SFA8 and three mixed fractions of Alb1 and Alb2) were digested in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for 2h and the conditions were then changed to mimic the intestinal environment for a further 2h digestion. The effects of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and emulsification on the digestibility of the proteins were investigated. PC protected all of the proteins studied against both gastric and intestinal digestive enzymes but to different extents. Emulsification of SFA8 resulted in strong protection against digestion, which was further enhanced by the presence of PC in the SGF. These results highlight the importance of considering real food structures such as emulsified systems and also the gastrointestinal environment that proteins are exposed to once consumed when assessing allergenicity.

  7. Immunochemical characterisation of structure and allergenicity of peanut 2S albumins using different formats of immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Hervé; Drumare, Marie-Françoise; Guillon, Blanche; Paty, Evelyne; Scheinmann, Pierre; Wal, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    Proteins of the 2S albumin family, such as Ara h2 and Ara h6, are most frequently involved in peanut allergy. We have developed a reverse enzyme allergo-sorbent test (EAST) in which total serum IgE antibodies are first captured by immobilised anti-human IgE monoclonal antibodies, and then the binding of the anti-Ara h2 and anti-Ara h6 specific IgE to the corresponding labelled allergens is measured. This reverse immunoassay was used either as a direct EAST or as an EAST inhibition assay to study the interactions of whole peanut protein extract and purified Ara h2 and Ara h6 with IgE antibodies from peanut-allergic patients. Finally, we identified some IgE-binding epitopes on Ara h6 using a format of EAST in which the protein is immobilised in a particular, well defined, manner through interactions with specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) coated on the micro-plates. The fine specificity of those mAbs has been characterised at the epitope level, and their binding to the allergen thus masks a known particular epitope and makes it unavailable for recognition by IgE antibodies. The reverse EAST increased the ratio specific signal/background. It avoids interferences with competitors such as anti-peanut protein IgG antibodies and allows the study of the specificity and/or affinity of the interactions between IgE antibodies and Ara h2 or Ara h6 with a higher sensitivity and accuracy than the conventional EAST. The EAST results obtained when the allergens are presented by specific mAbs suggest that the homologous molecular domain(s) in peanut 2S albumins encompass major IgE epitope(s) and are strongly involved in peanut allergenicity.

  8. Mass spectrometry and structural characterization of 2S albumin isoforms from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa).

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Jenkins, John A; Mellon, Fred A; Rigby, Neil M; Robertson, James A; Wellner, Nikolaus; Clare Mills, E N

    2004-05-06

    Proteomic approaches have been used to characterise the main 2S albumin isoforms from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa). Whilst most isoforms ( approximately 10 discrete protein species) exhibited molecular masses of around 12 kDa with a high amino acid sequence homology, important charge heterogeneity was found, with pIs varying between 4.6 and 6.6, with one >or=7.0. Proteomic analysis showed that these corresponded to a total of six National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) accessions and that three isoforms had been purified to homogeneity corresponding to gi/384327, 112754 and 99609. The latter sequence corresponds to an isoform, previously only identified at the nucleotide sequence level, had a slightly higher molecular weight (13.4 kDa), and with noticeable differences in the primary structure. Proteins corresponding to six different NCBI accessions were identified, the heterogeneity of which had been increased by posttranslational processing. Evidence was found of cyclization of the N-terminal glutamine residue in two isoforms, together with ragged C-termini, indicative of carboxypeptidase activity within the vacuole following posttranslational processing. No evidence of glycosylation was found. Circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated all the studied isoforms were predominantly alpha-helical in nature, but that the Mr 13400 species was structurally distinct, with a higher proportion of alpha-helical structure.

  9. A chimeric gene encoding the methionine-rich 2S albumin of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) is stably expressed and inherited in transgenic grain legumes.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, I; Pickardt, T; Machemehl, F; Saalbach, G; Schieder, O; Müntz, K

    1994-01-01

    The coding region of the 2S albumin gene of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) was completely synthesized, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and inserted into the binary vector plasmid pGSGLUC1, thus giving rise to pGSGLUC1-2S. This was used for transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havanna) and of the grain legume Vicia narbonensis L., mediated by the supervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101. Putative transformants were selected by screening for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT II) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities. Transgenic plants were grown until flowering and fruiting occurred. The presence of the foreign gene was confirmed by Southern analysis. GUS activity was found in all organs of the regenerated transgenic tobacco and legume plants, including the seeds. In the legume, the highest expression levels of the CaMV 35S promoter-controlled 2S albumin gene were observed in leaves and roots. 2S albumin was localized in the vacuoles of leaf mesophyll cells of transgenic tobacco. The Brazil nut protein was present in the 2S fraction after gel filtration chromatography of the legume seed proteins and could be clearly identified by immunoblotting. Analysis of seeds from the R2 progenies of the legume and of transgenic tobacco plants revealed Mendelian inheritance of the foreign gene. Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain RifR 15834 harbouring the binary vector pGSGLUC1-2S was also used to transform Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Hairy roots expressed the 2S albumin-specific gene. Several shoots were raised but they never completely rooted and no fertile plants were obtained from these transformants.

  10. Stability of the major allergen Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e 1) to physiologically relevant in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Mellon, Fred A; Wickham, Martin S J; Bottrill, Andrew R; Mills, E N Clare

    2005-01-01

    The major 2S albumin allergen from Brazil nuts, Ber e 1, was subjected to gastrointestinal digestion using a physiologically relevant in vitro model system either before or after heating (100 degrees C for 20 min). Whilst the albumin was cleaved into peptides, these were held together in a much larger structure even when digested by using a simulated phase 1 (gastric) followed by a phase 2 (duodenal) digestion system. Neither prior heating of Ber e 1 nor the presence of the physiological surfactant phosphatidylcholine affected the pattern of proteolysis. After 2 h of gastric digestion, approximately 25% of the allergen remained intact, approximately 50% corresponded to a large fragment of M(r) 6400, and the remainder comprised smaller peptides. During duodenal digestion, residual intact 2S albumin disappeared quickly, but a modified form of the 'large fragment' remained, even after 2 h of digestion, with a mass of approximately 5000 Da. The 'large fragment' comprised several smaller peptides that were identified, by using different MS techniques, as deriving from the large subunit. In particular, sequences corresponding to the hypervariable region (Q37-M47) and to another peptide (P42-P69), spanning the main immunoglobulin E epitope region of 2S albumin allergens, were found to be largely intact following phase 1 (gastric) digestion. They also contained previously identified putative T-cell epitopes. These findings indicate that the characteristic conserved skeleton of cysteine residues of 2S albumin family and, particularly, the intrachain disulphide bond pattern of the large subunit, play a critical role in holding the core protein structure together even after extensive proteolysis, and the resulting structures still contain potentially active B- and T-cell epitopes.

  11. Uptake of 2S albumin allergens, Ber e 1 and Ses i 1, across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Rubio, Luis A; Olano, Agustín; Clemente, Alfonso

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated the absorption rates of two purified major allergen 2S albumins, Ber e 1 from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.) and Ses i 1 from white sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers following gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. The transport from apical to basolateral side in cell monolayers was evaluated by RP-HPLC-UV and indirect competitive ELISA methods, being confirmed by western-blotting analysis. Significant amounts (approximately 15-25 nmol micromol(-1) initial amount/h) of intact Ber e 1 and Ses i 1 were found in the basolateral side. The absorption rates of both plant allergens through the cell monolayer were shown to be constant during the whole incubation period (4 h at 37 degrees C), verifying that the permeability of the membrane was not altered by the allergen digests. Our findings revealed that both purified 2S albumin allergens may be able to survive in immunologically reactive forms to the simulated harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract to be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, so that they would be able to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response.

  12. The protein structure determines the sensitizing capacity of Brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e1) in a rat food allergy model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is not exactly known why certain food proteins are more likely to sensitize. One of the characteristics of most food allergens is that they are stable to the acidic and proteolytic conditions in the digestive tract. This property is thought to be a risk factor in allergic sensitization. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the protein structure of 2S albumin (Ber e1), a major allergen from Brazil nut, on the sensitizing capacity in vivo using an oral Brown Norway rat food allergy model. Disulphide bridges of 2S albumin were reduced and alkylated resulting in loss of protein structure and an increased pepsin digestibility in vitro. Both native 2S albumin and reduced/alkylated 2S albumin were administered by daily gavage dosing (0.1 and 1 mg) to Brown Norway rats for 42 days. Intraperitoneal administration was used as a positive control. Sera were analysed by ELISA and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Oral exposure to native or reduced/alkylated 2S albumin resulted in specific IgG1 and IgG2a responses whereas only native 2S albumin induced specific IgE in this model, which was confirmed by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. This study has shown that the disruption of the protein structure of Brazil nut 2S albumin decreased the sensitizing potential in a Brown Norway rat food allergy model, whereas the immunogenicity of 2S albumin remained preserved. This observation may open possibilities for developing immunotherapy for Brazil nut allergy. PMID:24180644

  13. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    PubMed

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  14. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability. PMID:27904383

  15. Cor a 14, the allergenic 2S albumin from hazelnut, is highly thermostable and resistant to gastrointestinal digestion

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Sabine; Bublin, Merima; Dubiela, Pawel; Hummel, Karin; Wortmann, Judith; Hofer, Gerhard; Keller, Walter; Radauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Scope Allergens from nuts frequently induce severe allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physicochemical characteristics of natural Cor a 14, the 2S albumin from hazelnut. Methods and results Cor a 14 was purified from raw hazelnuts using a combination of precipitation and chromatographic techniques. The protein was analyzed using gel electrophoresis, MS, and far‐UV circular dichroism (CD) analyses. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding of native, heat‐treated, and in vitro digested Cor a 14 was studied. We identified two different Cor a 14 isoforms and showed microclipping at the C‐terminus. CD spectra at room temperature showed the typical characteristics of 2S albumins, and temperatures of more than 80°C were required to start unfolding of Cor a 14 demonstrating its high stability to heat treatment. In vitro digestion experiments revealed that Cor a 14 is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Native and heat‐treated protein was recognized by sera from hazelnut allergic patients. However, denaturation of the allergen led to significantly reduced IgE binding. Conclusion We identified two different isoforms of Cor a 14 displaying high stability under heating and gastric and duodenal conditions. Data from IgE‐binding experiments revealed the existence of both, linear and conformational epitopes. PMID:26178695

  16. Albumin-Mediated Biomineralization of Paramagnetic NIR Ag2S QDs for Tiny Tumor Bimodal Targeted Imaging in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Hao, Guangyu; Yao, Chenfei; Yu, Jiani; Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Bingbo

    2016-07-06

    Bimodal imaging has captured increasing interests due to its complementary characteristics of two kinds of imaging modalities. Among the various dual-modal imaging techniques, MR/fluorescence imaging has been widely studied owing to its high 3D resolution and sensitivity. There is, however, still a strong demand to construct biocompatible MR/fluorescence contrast agents with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent emissions and high relaxivities. In this study, BSA-DTPA(Gd) derived from bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a novel kind of biotemplate is employed for biomineralization of paramagnetic NIR Ag2S quantum dots (denoted as Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs). This synthetic strategy is found to be bioinspired, environmentally benign, and straightforward. The obtained Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs have fine sizes (ca. 6 nm) and good colloidal stability. They exhibit unabated NIR fluorescent emission (ca. 790 nm) as well as high longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 12.6 mM(-1) s(-1)) compared to that of commercial Magnevist (r1 = 3.13 mM(-1) s(-1)). In vivo tumor-bearing MR and fluorescence imaging both demonstrate that Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs have pronounced tiny tumor targeting capability. In vitro and in vivo toxicity study show Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs are biocompatible. Also, biodistribution analysis indicates they can be cleared from body mainly via liver metabolism. This protein-mediated biomineralized Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs presents great potential as a novel bimodal imaging contrast agent for tiny tumor diagnosis.

  17. The vacuolar targeting signal of the 2S albumin from Brazil nut resides at the C terminus and involves the C-terminal propeptide as an essential element.

    PubMed

    Saalbach, G; Rosso, M; Schumann, U

    1996-11-01

    Genetic constructs in which different N- and C-terminal segments of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) 2S albumin were fused to secretory yeast invertase were transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants to investigate the vacuolar targeting signal of the 2S albumin. None of the N-terminal segments, including the complete precursor containing all propeptides, was able to direct the invertase to the vacuoles. However, a short C-terminal segment comprising the last 20 amino acids of the precursor was sufficient for efficient targeting of yeast invertase to the vacuoles of the transformed tobacco plants. Further analyses showed that peptides of 16 and 13 amino acids of the C-terminal segment were still sufficient, although they had slightly lower efficiency. When segments of 9 amino acids or shorter were analyzed, a decrease to approximately 30% was observed. These segments included the C-terminal propeptide of four amino acids (Ile-Ala-Gly-Phe). When the 2S albumin was expressed in tobacco, it was also localized to the vacuoles of mesophyll cells. If the C-terminal propeptide was deleted from the 2S albumin precursor, all of this truncated 2S albumin was secreted from the tobacco cells. These results indicate that the C-terminal propeptide is necessary but not sufficient for vacuolar targeting. In addition, an adjacent segment of at least 12 amino acids of the mature protein is needed to form the complete signal for efficient targeting.

  18. Metabolic pathways in tropical dicotyledonous albuminous seeds: Coffea arabica as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Joët, Thierry; Laffargue, Andréina; Salmona, Jordi; Doulbeau, Sylvie; Descroix, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; de Kochko, Alexandre; Dussert, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    The genomic era facilitates the understanding of how transcriptional networks are interconnected to program seed development and filling. However, to date, little information is available regarding dicot seeds with a transient perisperm and a persistent, copious endosperm. Coffea arabica is the subject of increasing genomic research and is a model for nonorthodox albuminous dicot seeds of tropical origin. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of the main coffee seed storage compounds, namely cell wall polysaccharides, triacylglycerols, sucrose, and chlorogenic acids. For this purpose, we integrated transcriptomic and metabolite analyses, combining real-time RT-PCR performed on 137 selected genes (of which 79 were uncharacterized in Coffea) and metabolite profiling. Our map-drawing approach derived from model plants enabled us to propose a rationale for the peculiar traits of the coffee endosperm, such as its unusual fatty acid composition, remarkable accumulation of chlorogenic acid and cell wall polysaccharides. Comparison with the developmental features of exalbuminous seeds described in the literature revealed that the two seed types share important regulatory mechanisms for reserve biosynthesis, independent of the origin and ploidy level of the storage tissue. PMID:19207685

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the role of K2S in MHD hot stream seed recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, J. E.; Kohl, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for recent analytical and experimental studies of the role of K2S in MHD hot stream seed recovery. The existing thermodynamic data base was found to contain large uncertainties and to be nonexistent for vapor phase K2S. Knudsen cell mass spectrometric experiments were undertaken to determine the vapor species in equilibrium with K2S(c). K atoms and S2 molecules ere found to be the major vapor phase species in vacuum, accounting for greater than 99 percent of the vapor phase. Combustion gas deposition studies using No. 2 Diesel fuel were also undertaken and revealed that condensed phase K2SO3 may potentially be an important compound in the MHD stream at near-stoichiometric combustion.

  20. The disulphide mapping, folding and characterisation of recombinant Ber e 1, an allergenic protein, and SFA8, two sulphur-rich 2S plant albumins.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Marcos J C; Murtagh, Gareth J; Bailey, Kevin; Dumoulin, Mireille; Meseguer, Amparo Sarabia; Parker, Martin J; Archer, David B

    2002-11-15

    We have cloned and expressed genes encoding the allergenic brazil nut 2S albumin (Ber e 1) and the sunflower albumin 8 (SFA8) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We show that both proteins were secreted at high levels and that the purified proteins were properly folded. We also showed that Ber e 1 is glycosylated during secretion and that the glycan does not interfere with the folding or immunoreactivity. The disulphide map of the Ber e 1 protein was experimentally established and is in agreement with the conserved disulphide structure of other members of the 2S albumin family. A model three-dimensional structure of the allergen was generated. During the expression studies and through mutation we have also shown that alteration of the sequences around the Kex2 endoproteolytic processing site in the expressed fusion protein can compromise the secretion by targeting part of the protein for possible degradation. The secreted production of these properly folded sulphur-rich plant albumins presents an opportunity to delineate the attributes that make an allergen and to facilitate the diagnosis and therapy of type I allergy.

  1. Effect of Heating and Glycation on the Allergenicity of 2S Albumins (Ara h 2/6) from Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Per Stahl; Johnson, Phil E.; Rigby, Neil M.; Przybylski-Nicaise, Laetitia; Bernard, Hervé; Wal, Jean-Michel; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Jansen, Ad P. H.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, Clare E. N.; Adel-Patient, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is one of the most common and severe food allergies, and processing is known to influence the allergenicity of peanut proteins. We aimed to establish the effect of heating and glycation on the IgE-binding properties and biological activity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6) from peanut. Methodology/Principal Findings Native Ara h 2/6 was purified from raw peanuts and heated in solution (15 min, 110°C) in the presence or absence of glucose. Ara h 2 and 6 were also purified from roasted peanut. Using PBMC and sera from peanut-allergic patients, the cellular proliferative potency and IgE reactivity (reverse EAST inhibition) and functionality (basophil degranulation capacity) of allergens were assessed. Heating Ara h 2/6 at 110°C resulted in extensive denaturation, hydrolysis and aggregation of the protein, whilst Ara h 2 and 6 isolated from roasted peanut retained its native conformation. Allergen stimulation of PBMC induced proliferation and Th2 cytokine secretion which was unaffected by thermal processing. Conversely, IgE reactivity and functionality of Ara h 2/6 was decreased by heating. Whilst heating-glycation further reduced the IgE binding capacity of the proteins, it moderated their loss of histamine releasing capacity. Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut demonstrated the same IgE reactivity as unheated, native Ara h 2/6. Conclusions/Significance Although no effect of processing on T-cell reactivity was observed, heat induced denaturation reduced the IgE reactivity and subsequent functionality of Ara h 2/6. Conversely, Ara h 2 and 6 purified from roasted peanut retained the structure and IgE reactivity/functionality of the native protein which may explain the allergenic potency of this protein. Through detailed molecular study and allergenicity assessment approaches, this work then gives new insights into the effect of thermal processing on structure/allergenicity of peanut proteins. PMID:21901150

  2. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  3. Expression of Jug r 1, the 2S albumin allergen from walnut (Juglans regia), as a correctly folded and functional recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Sordet, Camille; Culerrier, Raphaël; Granier, Claude; Rancé, Fabienne; Didier, Alain; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Jug r 1, the 2S albumin allergen from walnut, was isolated from ripe nuts as a native allergen and expressed in Escherichia coli using the Gateway technology as a recombinant allergen. The recombinant Jug r 1 (15 kDa) differs from the native allergen by the absence of cleavage of the polypeptide chain in two covalently associated light (3.5 kDa) and heavy (8 kDa) chains. Recombinant rJug r 1 adopts the canonical alpha-helical fold of plant 2S albumins as checked on CD spectra. Four IgE-binding epitopic stretches were identified along the amino acid sequence of Jug r 1 and localized on the molecular surface of the modeled allergen. Both native and recombinant allergens exhibit similar IgE-binding activity and similarly trigger the degranulation of a FcepsilonRI-expressing rat basophilic leukaemia cell line previously treated by IgE-containing sera. Native Jug r 1 resists to heat denaturation and to the proteolytic attack of trypsin and chymotrypsin but is readily hydrolyzed in the presence of pepsin at acidic pH after 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C in vitro. Recombinant Jug r 1 could be used for a component-resolved diagnosis of food-allergy.

  4. The amino-acid sequence of the 2S sulphur-rich proteins from seeds of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.).

    PubMed

    Ampe, C; Van Damme, J; de Castro, L A; Sampaio, M J; Van Montagu, M; Vandekerckhove, J

    1986-09-15

    Storage proteins of the albumin solubility fraction from seeds of Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and their primary structures were determined by gas-phase sequencing on intact polypeptides and on the overlapping tryptic and thermolysin peptides. The 2S storage proteins consist of two subunits linked by disulphide bridges. The large subunit (8.5 kDa) is expressed in at least six different isoforms while the small subunit (3.6 kDa) consists of only one form. These proteins are extremely rich in glutamine, glutamic acid, arginine and the sulphur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. One of the variants even contains a sequence of six methionine residues in a row. Comparison with known sequences of 2S proteins of other dicotyledonous plants shows limited but distinct sequence homology. In particular, the positions of the cysteine residues relative to each other appear to be completely conserved, suggesting that tertiary structure constraints imposed by disulphide bridges dominate sequence conservation. It has been proposed that the two subunits of a related protein (the Brassica napus storage protein) is cleaved from a precursor polypeptide [Crouch, M. L., Tenbarge, K. M., Simon, A. E. & Ferl, R. (1983) J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2,273-283]. The amino acid sequence homology of the Brazil nut protein with the former suggests that a similar protein processing event could occur.

  5. Transport of ricin and 2S albumin precursors to the storage vacuoles of Ricinus communis endosperm involves the Golgi and VSR-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, Nicholas A; Brown, Joanna C; Neumann, Ulla; Vicré, Maïte; Bachi, Angela; Hawes, Chris; Ceriotti, Aldo; Roberts, Lynne M; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2004-09-01

    We have studied the transport of proricin and pro2S albumin to the protein storage vacuoles of developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm. Immunoelectron microscopy and cell fractionation reveal that both proteins travel through the Golgi apparatus and co-localize throughout their route to the storage vacuole. En route to the PSV, the proteins co-localize in large (>200 nm) vesicles, which are likely to represent developing storage vacuoles. We further show that the sequence-specific vacuolar sorting signals of both proricin and pro2SA bind in vitro to proteins that have high sequence similarity to members of the VSR/AtELP/BP-80 vacuolar sorting receptor family, generally associated with clathrin-mediated traffic to the lytic vacuole. The implications of these findings in relation to the current model for protein sorting to storage vacuoles are discussed.

  6. What Characteristics Confer Proteins the Ability to Induce Allergic Responses? IgE Epitope Mapping and Comparison of the Structure of Soybean 2S Albumins and Ara h 2.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngshin; Lin, Jing; Bardina, Ludmilla; Grishina, Galina A; Lee, Chaeyoon; Seo, Won Hee; Sampson, Hugh A

    2016-05-12

    Ara h 2, a peanut 2S albumin, is associated with severe allergic reactions, but a homologous protein, soybean 2S albumin, is not recognized as an important allergen. Structural difference between these proteins might explain this clinical discrepancy. Therefore, we mapped sequential epitopes and compared the structure of Ara h 2, Soy Al 1, and Soy Al 3 (Gly m 8) to confirm whether structural differences account for the discrepancy in clinical responses to these two proteins. Commercially synthesized peptides covering the full length of Ara h 2 and two soybean 2S albumins were analyzed by peptide microarray. Sera from 10 patients with peanut and soybean allergies and seven non-atopic controls were examined. The majority of epitopes in Ara h 2 identified by microarray are consistent with those identified previously. Several regions in the 2S albumins are weakly recognized by individual sera from different patients. A comparison of allergenic epitopes on peanut and soybean proteins suggests that loop-helix type secondary structures and some amino acids with a large side chain including lone electron pair, such as arginine, glutamine, and tyrosine, makes the peptides highly recognizable by the immune system. By utilizing the peptide microarray assay, we mapped IgE epitopes of Ara h 2 and two soybean 2S albumins. The use of peptide microarray mapping and analysis of the epitope characteristics may provide critical information to access the allergenicity of food proteins.

  7. Controllable synthesis and adjustable antineoplastic activity of bovine serum albumin-conjugated PbS/Ag2S core/shell nano-composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Cao, Ying; Zhou, Bei; Wang, Cai-Feng

    2012-08-01

    Series of mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated PbS/Ag(2)S core/shell nano-composites with different Pb/Ag ratios had been successfully synthesized by an ion-exchange method under the gentle conditions using BSA-conjugated PbS nano-crystals as precursors, which were prepared by a biomimetic method. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation demonstrated that BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and size of final products. Additionally, the real-time TEM observation, X-ray powder diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy analysis were applied to monitor the synthesis process. The results indicated that the shell thickness and ratio of Pb to Ag could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. Both metabolic and morphological methods revealed that the proliferation of rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells could be inhibited by BSA-conjugated PbS/Ag(2)S core/shell nano-composites, and the antineoplastic activity was Pb/Ag ratio-dependent. It might be explained by a Trojan horse-type mechanism. Summarily, the present study would be helpful to find a new core/shell nano-composite with higher and controllable antineoplastic activity due to the synergistic reaction of different metal ions.

  8. Growth, fecundity and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene.

    PubMed

    Godfree, Robert C; Woods, Matthew J; Young, Andrew G; Burdon, Jeremy J; Higgins, T J V

    2004-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is an important step in the production and commercialisation of transgenic plants. To date, however, most risk assessment studies have been performed on crop plants, and few have considered the ecological consequences associated with genetic modification of pasture species. In this study we compared the growth, yield, population dynamics and competitive ability of transgenic Trifolium subterraneum subsp. subterraneum cv. Leura (subclover) expressing a nutritive sunflower seed albumin (ssa) gene with the equivalent non-transgenic commercial line in a glasshouse competition trial. Plants were grown in low-fertility soil typical of unimproved native southeastern Australian grasslands. We measured survivorship, seed production rate, seed germination rate, seed weight, dry weight yield and the intrinsic rate of population increase (lambda) of plants grown in mixtures and monocultures over a range of densities (250 to 2000 plants m(-2)), and also determined intragenotypic and intergenotypic competition coefficients for each line. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic plants in any of the measured variables except survivorship; transgenic plants had a significantly lower survival rate than non-transgenic plants when grown at high densities (p<0.01). However, density-dependent effects were observed for all measured variables, and in all models plant density affected the response variables more than the presence of the transgene. Based on these results, we conclude that the ssa gene construct appears to confer no advantage to transgenic T. s. subterraneum cv. Leura growing in mixed or pure swards under the fertility and density regimes examined in the trial. Our data also suggest that transgenic subterranean clover expressing the ssa gene is unlikely to exhibit a competitive advantage over associated non-transgenic commercial cultivars when grown in dense swards in low-fertility pastures.

  9. Thiophilic interaction chromatography of serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Bourhim, Mustapha; Rajendran, Anita; Ramos, Yanira; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Sulkowski, Eugene

    2008-07-01

    An investigation of the binding of native and recombinant human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin on three thiophilic gels, PyS, 2S, and 3S was performed. In addition to these proteins, we studied serum albumins from several species such as goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig. Our results reveal that recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) binds completely to PyS whereas native human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin bind only partially to PyS. The binding affinities of rHSA, human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin to 2S and 3S gels are less than their binding to PyS. Serum albumins from goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig bind much stronger to 3S gel than human and bovine serum albumins. The binding of pig and hamster serum albumins is stronger than that of rat, goat, baboon, and rabbit.

  10. Catalytic synthesis of matchstick-like Ag2Se-ZnSe hetero-nanorods using Ag2S nanocrystals as seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Weiling; Yu, Huan; Lu, Chunhua; Wang, Lin; Long, Lingliang; Wu, Yanjun; Wang, Junli

    2015-04-01

    In nanowire catalytic growth, the catalyst particles usually remain at the tip of as-grown nanowires, which can be utilized to prepare matchstick-like heterostructures at the nanoscale. Based on this feature and a solution-phase catalytic growth route, we herein report the synthesis of Ag2Se-ZnSe matchstick-like hetero-nanorods, consisting of Ag2Se head and ZnSe rod-like stem. Three different kinds of silver sources, including Ag(0), Ag2S, and Ag2Se, are selected as initial seeds for growing ZnSe crystalline nanowire/rods. By comparison with the case of Ag(0) or Ag2Se, the use of Ag2S nanoparticles, which alter the chemical composition of catalytic particles and convert to Ag2Se catalyst after adding Se precursor (SeO2), is highly effective for the formation of uniform Ag2Se-ZnSe hetero-nanorods. The reason for this result may be attributed to a synergistic effect between the size of catalyst particles and the chemical conversion of Ag2S to Ag2Se.

  11. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also be ordered to evaluate a person's nutritional status. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? An ... albumin test to check or monitor a person's nutritional status. However, since albumin concentrations respond to a variety ...

  12. Albumin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Vega-Criollo, R.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.

    2011-02-01

    A Characterization is made with performance analysis of new photosensitive films of albumin to certain conditions for holographic recording based on interferometric array. We carried out the photo-oxidation of gallus gallus albumin albumin chemically combining powdered sugar (Glass ®) to an aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate. It was the analysis of the behavior of diffraction efficiency parameter through the intensity diffraction pattern produced by the gratings made with albumin.

  13. Investigation of the effect of mutations of rat albumin on the binding affinity to the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin antagonist, 4-[1-[3-chloro-4-[N'-(2-methylphenyl)ureido]phenylacetyl]-(4S)-fluoro-(2S)-pyrrolidine-2-yl]methoxybenzoic acid (D01-4582), using recombinant rat albumins.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Okazaki, Osamu; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2010-08-02

    The authors reported previously rat strain differences in plasma protein binding to alpha(4)beta(1) antagonist D01-4582, resulting in a great strain difference in its pharmacokinetics (19-fold differences in the AUC). The previous study suggested that amino acid changes of V238L and/or T293I in albumin reduced the binding affinity. In order to elucidate the relative significance of these mutations, an expression system was developed to obtain recombinant rat albumins (rRSA) using Pichia pastoris, followed by a binding analysis of four rRSAs by the ultracentrifugation method. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of wild-type rRSA was 210 nM, while K(d) of rRSA that carried both V238L and T293I mutations was 974 nM. K(d) of artificial rRSA that carried only V238L was 426 nM, and K(d) of artificial rRSA that carried only T293I was 191 nM. These results suggested that V238L would be more important in the alteration of K(d). However, since none of the single mutations were sufficient to explain the reduction of affinity, the possibility was also suggested that T293I interacted cooperatively to reduce the binding affinity of rat albumin to D01-4582. Further investigation is required to elucidate the mechanism of the possible cooperative interaction.

  14. Assessment of genomic and species relationships in Triticum and Aegilops by PAGE and by differential staining of seed albumins and globulins.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, K A; Kasarda, D D

    1978-11-01

    Endosperm protein components from common bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) and related species were extracted with aluminum lactate, pH 3.2, and examined by electrophoresis in the same buffer. Electrophoretic patterns of the albumins and globulins were compared to evaluate the possibility that a particular species might have contributed its genome to tetraploid or hexaploid wheat. Together with protein component mobilities, differential band staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 was employed to test the identity or non-identity of bands. Eight species and 63 accessions, representative of Triticum and Aegilops were tested. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed for patterns of diploid but not for tetraploid or hexaploid species. Patterns of some accessions of Triticum urartu agreed closely with major parts of the patterns of Triticum dicoccoides and T. aestivum. A fast-moving, green band was found in all accessions of T. urartu and of Triticum boeoticum, however, that was not found in those of T. dicoccoides or T. aestivum. This band was present in all accessions of Triticum araraticum and Triticum zhukovskyi. Patterns of Aegilops longissima, which has been suggested as the donor of the B genome, differed substantially from those of T. dicoccoides and T. aestivum. Finally, two marker proteins of intermediate mobility were also observed and may be used to discriminate between accessions of T. araraticum/T. zhukovskyi and those of T. dicoccoides/T. aestivum.

  15. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis seeds: molecular evidence for successive processing of seed proteins and its implication in the stress response to sulfur nutrition.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-11-01

    Seed storage proteins are synthesized as sources of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur for the next generation of plants. Their composition changes according to nutritional conditions. Here, we report the precise molecular identification of seed proteins by proteomic analysis of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and methionine-over-accumulating mutant mto1-1 plants. The identities of 50 protein spots were determined in the protein extract of mature Arabidopsis seeds by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Of these protein spots, 42 were identified as derived from 12S globulins or 2S albumins. These results indicate that approximately 84% of protein species in Arabidopsis seeds are derived from a few genes coding for 12S globulins and 2S albumins. Extensive mass spectrometric analysis of the 42 spots revealed that successive C-terminal degradation occurred on the 12S globulins. The feasibility of this C-terminal processing was rationalized by molecular modeling of the three-dimensional structure of 12S globulins. The C-terminal degradation at glutamic acid residues of the 12S globulin subunits was repressed under sulfur-deficient conditions. Transcriptome analysis was combined with proteomic analysis to elucidate the mechanism of changes in seed protein composition in response to sulfur deficiency. The results suggest that seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis undergo multi-layer regulation, with emphasis on post-translational modifications that enable the plant to respond to sulfur deficiency.

  16. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  17. The albumin controversy.

    PubMed

    Uhing, Michael R

    2004-09-01

    There are relatively few studies of albumin use in neonates and children, with most showing no consistent benefit compared with the use of crystalloid solutions. Certainly, albumin treatment is not indicated for treatment of hypoalbuminemia alone. Studies also show that albumin is not indicated in neonates for the initial treatment of hypotension, respiratory distress, or partial exchange transfusions. In adults, albumin is not considered to be the initial therapy for hypovolemia, burn injury, or nutritional supplementation. Based on the evidence, albumin should be used rarely in the neonatal ICU. Albumin may be indicated in the treatment of hypovolemia only after crystalloid infusion has failed. In patients with acute hemorrhagic shock, albumin may be used with crystalloids when blood products are not available immediately. Inpatients with acute or continuing losses of albumin and normal capillary permeability and lymphatic function, such as during persistent thoracostomy tube or surgical site drainage, albumin supplementation will prevent the development of hypoalbuminemia, and possibly edema formation. This has not been studied systematically, however. In patients with hypoalbuminemia and increased capillary permeability, albumin supplementation often leads to greater albumin leakage across the capillary membrane, contributing to edema formation without improvement in outcome. As the disease process improves and capillary permeability normalizes, albumin supplementation may accelerate recovery, but long-term benefits of albumin treatment usually cannot be demonstrated. These patients will recover whether or not albumin is administered.

  18. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is present in high concentrations in the blood. Virtually no albumin is present in the urine when the kidneys ... on trying to determine if increased levels of albumin in the urine are also indicative of CVD risk in those who do not have diabetes or high blood pressure. ^ Back to ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  19. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. Albumin can also be measured in the urine . How ... Results Mean A lower-than-normal level of blood albumin may be a sign of: Kidney diseases Liver ...

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa L.) seed storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Girdhari M; Mundoma, Claudius; Seavy, Margaret; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2010-05-12

    Brazil nut storage proteins, 2S albumin, 7S vicilin, and an 11S legumin, were purified using column chromatography. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the purified albumin, vicilin, and legumin proteins, respectively, registered sedimentation coefficients of 1.8, 7.1, and 11.8 S. Under reducing conditions, the major polypeptide bands in 2S albumin were observed at 6.4, 10-11, and 15.2 kDa. The 7S globulin was composed of one 12.6 kDa, two approximately 38-42 kDa, and two approximately 54-57 kDa polypeptides, whereas the 11S globulin contained two major classes of polypeptides: approximately 30-32 and approximately 20-21 kDa. The 7S globulin stained positive when reacted with Schiff reagent, indicating that it is a glycoprotein. The estimated molecular mass and Stokes radius for 2S albumin and 7S and 11S globulins were 19.2 kDa and 20.1 A, 114.8 kDa and 41.1 A, and 289.4 kDa and 56.6 A, respectively. Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis indicated the secondary structure of the three proteins to be mainly beta-sheets and turns. Emission fluorescence spectra of the native proteins registered a lambda(max) at 337, 345, and 328 nm for 2S albumin and 7S and 11S globulins, respectively. When probed with anti-Brazil nut seed protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies, 7S globulin exhibited higher immunoreactivity than 2S albumin and 11S globulin.

  1. Analysis of albumin hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Villa-Manríquez, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the characterizations of the photosensitive film made with albumins gallus gallus and callipepla cali, with the purpose to make holographic recording. Albumin was combined with propylene glycol, to build colloidal systems by adding the ammonium dichromate solution as photosensitive salt at certain concentrations. Hence, we conducted the photo-oxidation process with laser, λ=442nm. Obtaining holograms that allowed the analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter. One of the objectives of this work was to obtain some mechanical and chemical stability of films made with albumin when prepared with propylene glycol. At once, experimental studies were performed to compare the results of the holographic recording films between chicken albumin and quail albumin film to prove the recording capabilities and to quantify the diffraction efficiency in holographic grating made with each kind of albumin.

  2. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit; Soares, Emanuela L; Soares, Arlete A; Roepstorff, Peter; Domont, Gilberto B; Campos, Francisco A P

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748 could be mapped to extant castor gene models, considerably expanding the number of proteins so far identified from developing castor seeds. Cluster validation and statistical analysis resulted in 975 protein trend patterns and the relative abundance of 618 proteins. The results presented in this work give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP that are differentially expressed during seed development.

  3. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  4. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  5. [Structure of fish serum albumins].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.

  6. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  7. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO(2-) 4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO(2-) 4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously.

  8. Heat stress during seed filling interferes with sulfur restriction on grain composition and seed germination in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Brunel-Muguet, Sophie; D'Hooghe, Philippe; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Larré, Colette; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Trouverie, Jacques; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Etienne, Philippe; Dürr, Carolyne

    2015-01-01

    In coming decades, increasing temperatures are expected to impact crop yield and seed quality. To develop low input systems, the effects of temperature and sulfur (S) nutrition in oilseed rape, a high S demanding crop, need to be jointly considered. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperatures [High Temperature (HT), 33°C/day, 19°C/night vs. Control Temperature (Ctrl T), 20°C/day, 15°C/day] and S supply [High S (HS), 500 μm SO2−4 vs. Low S (LS), 8.7 μM SO2−4] during seed filling on (i) yield components [seed number, seed dry weight (SDW) and seed yield], (ii) grain composition [nitrogen (N) and S contents] and quality [fatty acid (FA) composition and seed storage protein (SSP) accumulation] and (iii) germination characteristics (pre-harvest sprouting, germination rates and abnormal seedlings). Abscisic acid (ABA), soluble sugar contents and seed conductivity were also measured. HT and LS decreased the number of seeds per plant. SDW was less affected due to compensatory effects since the number of seeds decreased under stress conditions. While LS had negative effects on seed composition by reducing the FA contents and increasing the ratio S-poor SSPs (12S globulins)/S-rich SSPs (2S albumins) ratio, HT had positive effects by increasing S and FA contents and decreasing the C18:2/C18:3 ratio and the 12S/2S protein ratio. Seeds produced under HT showed high pre-harvest sprouting rates along with decreased ABA contents and high rates of abnormal seedlings. HT and LS restriction significantly accelerated germination times. High conductivity, which indicates poor seed storage capacity, was higher in HT seeds. Consistently, the lower ratio of (raffinose + stachyose)/sucrose in HT seeds indicated low seed storage capacity. We demonstrated the effects of HT and LS on grain and on germination characteristics. These results suggest that hormonal changes might control several seed characteristics simultaneously. PMID:25914702

  9. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  10. Holograms of fluorescent albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2011-09-01

    We report the characterization and analysis of photochromic films gallus gallus albumin as a matrix modified for holographic recording. Photo-oxidation of homogeneous mixtures prepared with albumin-propylene glycol, to combine chemically with aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate at certain concentrations. We analyzed the diffraction gratings, through the diffraction efficiency of the proposed material. Also, eosin was used as a fluorescent agent, so it is found that produces an inhibitory effect, thus decreasing the diffraction efficiency of the matrices prepared in near-identical circumstances. The work was to achieve stability of albumin films, were prepared with propylene glycol. Finally, experimental studies were performed with films when subjected to aqueous solution of eosin (fluorescent agent) to verify the ability to increase or decrease in diffraction efficiency.

  11. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  12. Albumins and their processing machinery are hijacked for cyclic peptides in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Mylne, Joshua S; Colgrave, Michelle L; Daly, Norelle L; Chanson, Aurelie H; Elliott, Alysha G; McCallum, Emily J; Jones, Alun; Craik, David J

    2011-05-01

    The cyclic peptide sunflower trypsin inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1) blocks trypsin and is a promising drug lead and protein engineering scaffold. We show that SFTI-1 and the newfound SFT-L1 are buried within PawS1 and PawS2, precursors for seed storage protein albumins. Proalbumins are matured by asparaginyl endopeptidase, which we show is required to liberate both ends of SFTI-1 as well as to mature PawS1 albumin. Thus, these peptides emerge from within an albumin precursor by the action of albumin's own processing enzyme.

  13. Albumin synthesis in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hülshoff, Ansgar; Schricker, Thomas; Elgendy, Hamed; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    Albumin plasma concentrations are being used as indicators of nutritional status and hepatic function based on the assumption that plasma levels reflect the rate of albumin synthesis. However, it has been shown that albumin levels are not reliable markers of albumin synthesis under a variety of clinical conditions including inflammation, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and surgical tissue trauma. To date, only a few studies have measured albumin synthesis in surgical and critically ill patients. This review summarizes the findings from these studies, which used different tracer methodology in various surgical or critically ill patient populations. The results indicate that the fractional synthesis rate of albumin appears to decrease during surgery, followed by an increase during the postoperative phase. In the early postoperative phase, albumin fractional synthesis rate can be stimulated by perioperative nutrition, if enough amino acids are being provided and if nutrition is being initiated before the operation. The physiologic meaning of albumin synthesis after surgery, however, still needs to be further clarified.

  14. Effects of pH on protein components of extracted oil bodies from diverse plant seeds and endogenous protease-induced oleosin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Chen, Yajing; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2016-06-01

    Plant seeds are used to extract oil bodies for diverse applications, but oil bodies extracted at different pH values exhibit different properties. Jicama, sunflower, peanut, castor bean, rapeseed, and sesame were selected to examine the effects of pH (6.5-11.0) on the protein components of oil bodies and the oleosin hydrolysis in pH 6.5-extracted oil bodies. In addition to oleosins, many extrinsic proteins (globulins, 2S albumin, and enzymes) were present in pH 6.5-extracted oil bodies. Globulins were mostly removed at pH 8.0, whereas 2S albumins were removed at pH 11.0. At pH 11.0, highly purified oil bodies were obtained from jicama, sunflower, peanut, and sesame, whereas lipase remained in the castor bean oil bodies and many enzymes in the rapeseed oil bodies. Endogenous protease-induced hydrolysis of oleosins occurred in all selected plant seeds. Oleosins with larger sizes were hydrolysed more quickly than oleosins with smaller sizes in each plant seed.

  15. Effective selenium detoxification in the seed proteins of a hyperaccumulator plant: the analysis of selenium-containing proteins of monkeypot nut (Lecythis minor) seeds.

    PubMed

    Németh, Anikó; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    A shotgun proteomic approach was applied to characterize the selenium (Se)-containing proteins of the selenium hyperaccumulator monkeypot nut (Lecythis minor) seeds. The exceptionally high Se content (>4,000 mg kg(-1)) of the sample enabled a straightforward procedure without the need for multiple preconcentration and fractionation steps. The proteins identified were sulfur-rich seed proteins, namely, 11S globulin (Q84ND2), 2S albumin (B6EU54), 2S sulfur-rich seed storage proteins (P04403 and P0C8Y8) and a 11S globulin-like protein (A0EM48). Database directed search for theoretically selenium-containing peptides was assisted by manual spectra evaluation to achieve around 25% coverage on sulfur analogues. Remarkable detoxification mechanisms on the proteome level were revealed in the form of multiple selenomethionine-methionine substitution and the lack of selenocysteine residues. The degree of selenomethionine substitution could be characterized by an exponential function that implies the inhibition of protein elongation by selenomethionine. Our results contribute to the deeper understanding of selenium detoxification procedures in hyperaccumulator plants.

  16. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  17. A novel albumin-based tissue scaffold for autogenic tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Shan; Lee, I-Liang; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-18

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  18. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes. PMID:25034369

  19. Purification and characterization of moschins, arginine-glutamate-rich proteins with translation-inhibiting activity from brown pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Parkash, A; Tso, W W

    2002-10-01

    From fresh brown pumpkin seeds, two proteins with a molecular mass of 12kDa and an N-terminal sequence rich in arginine and glutamate residues were obtained. The protein designated alpha-moschin closely resembled the fruitfly programmed-cell death gene product and the protein designated beta-moschin demonstrated striking similarity to prepro 2S albumin in N-terminal sequence. alpha- and beta-moschins inhibited translation in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 17 microM and 300nM, respectively.

  20. Human albumin: old, new, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Rozga, Jacek; Piątek, Tomasz; Małkowski, Piotr

    2013-05-10

    Human serum albumin has been widely used in an array of clinical settings for nearly 7 decades. Although there is no evidence to support the use of albumin rather than crystalloid in acute volume resuscitation, many clinicians continue to use albumin because it has other important physiologic effects besides the oncotic function. In keeping with the improved understanding of albumin physiology and pathophysiology of many acute and chronic diseases, use of albumin for medical applications has increased in recent years. This, along with increased costs of manufacturing and lower production volume of medical-grade albumin, has lead to an ongoing shortage and rapid increase in albumin prices. This review is based on the analysis of major publications, related to albumin chemistry, physiology, and medical uses including guidelines developed by professional and governmental organizations. Results reflect current knowledge about the role of albumin in health and disease and relevance of albumin therapy in specific clinical settings. Albumin therapy is currently recommended in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with ascites, refractory ascites not responsive to diuretics, large-volume paracentesis, post-paracentesis syndrome, and the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome as an adjunct to vasoconstrictors. New indications for albumin therapy are linked to the antioxidant activity of albumin and its effects on capillary integrity. In recent years, large-pore hemofiltration and albumin exchange have emerged as promising liver support therapies for liver failure and other toxic syndromes. They are designed to remove a broad range of blood-borne toxins and to restore normal functions of the circulating albumin by replacing defective forms of albumin and albumin molecules saturated with toxins with normal albumin. In view of the ongoing worldwide shortage and high cost of human albumin (native and recombinant), new usage criteria, protocols, and guidelines for appropriate utilization

  1. Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initiation of seed germination is a critical decision for plants. It is important for seed populations under natural conditions to spread the timing of germination of individual seeds to maximize the probability of species survival. Therefore, seeds have evolved the multiple layers of mechanisms tha...

  2. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  3. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  4. [Metabolic control of seed germination].

    PubMed

    Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time.

  5. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  6. Debate: Albumin administration should not be avoided

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Simon P; Lobo, Dileep N

    2000-01-01

    The recent Cochrane report on albumin administration is analysed and criticised on the grounds of clinical methodology, content and interpretation. Although it is naïve and illogical to treat hypoalbuminaemia with albumin infusions, a more balanced view on the use of albumin for resuscitation in acute hypovolaemia is necessary. Once the acute phase of critical illness is past, interstitial volume is often expanded causing oedema, with a low plasma volume. We argue for the use of salt-poor albumin solutions in this situation and conclude that, on current evidence, the assertion that albumin should be avoided in all situations is irrational and untenable. PMID:11211855

  7. Purification, properties and amino acid sequence of a low-Mr abundant seed protein from pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, J A; Gilroy, J; Hoque, M S; Croy, R R

    1985-01-01

    The seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) contain several proteins in the albumin solubility fraction that are significant components of total cotyledonary protein (5-10%) and are accumulated in developing seeds concurrently with storage-protein synthesis. One of these proteins, of low Mr and designated 'Psa LA', has been purified, characterized and sequenced. Psa LA has an Mr of 11000 and contains polypeptides of Mr 6000, suggesting that the protein molecules are dimeric. The amino acid sequence contains 54 residues, with a high content (10/54) of asparagine/aspartate. It has no inhibitory action towards trypsin or chymotrypsin, and is distinct from the inhibitors of those enzymes found in pea seeds, nor does it inhibit hog pancreatic alpha-amylase. The protein contains no methionine, but significant amounts of cysteine (four residues per polypeptide), suggesting a possible role as a sulphur storage protein. However, its sequence is not homologous with low-Mr (2S) storage proteins from castor bean (Ricinus communis) or rape (Brassica napus). Psa LA therefore represents a new type of low-Mr seed protein.

  8. [Kinetics of serum albumin adsorption on the macroporous glass MPS-250 GKH].

    PubMed

    Naumova, L V; El'Kin, G E; Dmitrenko, L V

    1996-01-01

    Intrinsic diffusion (defined as diffusion within micropores or microgranules) was shown to be a major factor that determines the kinetics of bovine serum albumin adsorption to macroporous silica MPS-250 GKh. The effective coefficient of intrinsic diffusion (within the silica phase) was calculated (Def = 7 x 10(-7) cm2/s).

  9. Overview of Albumin and Its Purification Methods

    PubMed Central

    Raoufinia, Ramin; Mota, Ali; Keyhanvar, Neda; Safari, Fatemeh; Shamekhi, Sara; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    As the most frequent plasma protein, albumin constitutes more than 50% of the serum proteins in healthy individuals. It has a key role in oncotic pressure maintenance and it is known as a versatile protein carrier for transportation of various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Reduced amounts of albumin in the body will lead to different kinds of diseases such as hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia. It also has various indications in shocks, burns, cardiopulmonary bypass, acute liver failure and etc. Further applications in research consist of cell culture supplement, drug delivery carrier and protein/drug stabilizer. So, the demand for albumin increased annually worldwide. Due to different applications of albumin, many efforts have been accomplished to achieve albumin during a long period of time. In this review, an overview of serum albumin and different purification methods are summarized. PMID:28101456

  10. Sodium chloride crystallization from drying drops of albumin-salt solutions with different albumin concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhno, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    The salt nature of crystalline structures resulting from drying albumin-salt solutions with a low (<1 wt %) and high (7 and 9 wt %) concentration of albumin and a NaCl concentration kept at a physiological level (0.9 wt %) is experimentally substantiated. Such a conclusion is drawn from the dynamics of phase transitions, morphological studies, and differences between the physicochemical properties of albumin and salt. Obtained data give a deeper insight into the albumin and salt distributions in drying liquids.

  11. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  12. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  13. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  14. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  15. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  16. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  17. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Birn, H; Fyfe, J C; Jacobsen, C; Mounier, F; Verroust, P J; Orskov, H; Willnow, T E; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-05-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low-molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.

  18. Albumin for end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, June Sung

    2012-03-01

    Albumin has been widely used in patients with cirrhosis in an attempt to improve circulatory and renal functions. The benefits of albumin infusions in preventing the deterioration in renal function associated with large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and established hepatorenal syndrome in conjunction with a vasoconstrictor are well established. While some of these indications are supported by the results of randomized studies, others are based only on clinical experience and have not been proved in prospective studies. The paucity of well-designed trials, the high cost of albumin, the lack of a clear-cut survival benefit, and fear of transmitting unknown infections make the use of albumin controversial. The recent development of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system, an albumin dialysis, is an example of the capacity of albumin to act by mechanisms other than its oncotic effect. Efforts should be made to define the indications for albumin use, the dose required, and predictors of response, so that patients gain the maximum benefit from its administration.

  19. Evaluation of albumin structural modifications through cobalt-albumin binding (CAB) assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Eom, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Eunnam; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-03-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the human body. HSA injections prepared by fractionating human blood have mainly covered the demand for albumin to treat hypoalbuminemia, the state of low concentration of albumin in blood. HSA in solution may exist in various forms such as monomers, oligomers, polymers, or as mixtures, and its conformational change and/or aggregation may occur easily. Considering these characteristics, there is a great chance of modification and polymer formation during the preparation processes of albumin products, especially injections. The albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test reported by Bar-Or et al. was originally designed to detect ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which contains the modified HSA N-terminal sequence by cleavage of the last two amino acids. In this study, we developed a cobalt albumin binding (CAB) assay to correct the flaws of the ACB test with improving the sensitivity and precision. The newly developed CAB assay easily detects albumin configuration alterations and may be able to be used in developing a quality control method for albumin and its pharmaceutical formulations including albumin injections.

  20. Controlling H{sub 2}S emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Nagl, G.J.

    1997-03-01

    With its signature rotten egg smell, hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is not only odorous, but corrosive and toxic, too. It is produced naturally, by the anaerobic decomposition of sulfur-bearing materials, and synthetically, by a host of chemical process operations, including hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization and coking. Many processes have been developed to convert H{sub 2}S to innocuous forms, such as elemental sulfur and sulfates. Selecting the best one depends on the overall composition and variability of the gas stream, the concentration of H{sub 2}S present, and the absolute quantity of H{sub 2}S to be removed. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of seven H{sub 2}S removal systems. Described are: the Claus process, chemical oxidants, caustic scrubbers, adsorption, H{sub 2}S scavengers, amine absorption units, and liquid-phase oxidation systems.

  1. Albumin and Ricinus communis agglutinin decrease endothelial permeability via interactions with matrix.

    PubMed

    Qiao, R; Siflinger-Birnboim, A; Lum, H; Tiruppathi, C; Malik, A B

    1993-08-01

    We studied the effects of albumin and the lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) on hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of bovine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell monolayers (BPMVEC) because of the evidence that albumin and RCA can interfere with transendothelial albumin permeability (Siflinger-Birnboim, A., J. Schnitzer, H. Lum, F. Blumenstock, C. Shen, P. Del Vecchio, and A. Malik. J. Cell. Physiol. 149: 575-584, 1991). BPMVEC were seeded on microporous polycarbonate filters, and the liquid flux was measured by collecting effluent into a tubing of known inner diameter at transendothelial hydrostatic pressures (P) ranging from 5 to 20 cmH2O. Lp was calculated as the slope of the relationship of liquid flux per unit surface area (Jv) vs. P. Addition of RCA (50 micrograms/ml) or albumin (5 mg/ml) to the endothelial cell medium containing albumin-free Hanks' balanced saline solution (HBSS) decreased total Lp (expressed x 10(-6) cm.s-1 x cmH2O-1) from 17.2 +/- 3.6 during HBSS to 4.7 +/- 0.9 during albumin and 5.7 +/- 1.6 during RCA (P < 0.01 for both). The RCA effect, but not that of albumin, was prevented by the addition of D-galactose (0.1 M) (the cognate hapten monosaccharide of RCA). We determined the contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in decreasing the Lp by obtaining ECM after treatment of the monolayers with 0.025 M NH4OH to detach endothelial cells from the ECM. Basal ECM Lp (expressed x 10(-6) cm.s-1 x cmH2O-1) was 57.0 +/- 15.3, and it decreased to 19.7 +/- 4.3 and 17.5 +/- 2.9 during RCA and albumin, respectively (P < 0.01 for both). In contrast, RCA and albumin did not alter the filter Lp values. Another lectin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin, and the protein immunoglobulin G had no effect on Lp values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  3. A review of albumin binding in CKD.

    PubMed

    Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Verbeke, Kristin; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2008-05-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is associated with excess mortality in patients with kidney disease. Albumin is an important oxidant scavenger and an abundant carrier protein for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Several specific binding sites for anionic, neutral, and cationic ligands were described. Overall, the extent of binding depends on the ligand and albumin concentration, albumin-binding affinity, and presence of competing ligands. Chronic kidney disease affects all these determinants. This may result in altered pharmacokinetics and increased risk of toxicity. Renal clearance of albumin-bound solutes mainly depends on tubular clearance. Dialytic clearance by means of conventional hemodialysis/hemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis is limited. Other epuration techniques combining hemodialysis with adsorption have been developed. However, the benefit of these techniques remains to be proved.

  4. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  5. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  6. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  7. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  8. Portal copper transport in rats by albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.T.; Leinart, A.S.; Cousins, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    The distribution of newly absorbed copper among serum proteins obtained from the portal circulation of rats was examined by conventional and high-performance gel filtration chromatography, affinity chromatography, and Western blotting. Within 10-30 min after being administered by gavage or directly into the intestine, /sup 67/Cu and /sup 64/Cu, respectively, were recovered in the albumin fraction. By 8 h after administration of the radionuclides, virtually all of the radioactivity was found with ceruloplasmin. Affigel blue fractionation and subsequent Superose-6 chromatography further demonstrated that all of the copper in the albumin-containing fractions was in fact bound to this protein rather than high molecular weight moieties. Vascular perfusion of the isolated rat intestine, where /sup 64/Cu was infused into the lumen, showed that newly absorbed /sup 64/Cu in the vascular perfusate collected from the cannulated portal vein was associated with albumin. Uptake of radioactivity by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells from medium containing rat serum with /sup 67/Cu bound to albumin was demonstrated. In vitro binding of /sup 64/Cu to serum proteins that were transferred to nitrocellulose by Western blotting techniques showed that albumin is essentially the only protein that binds appreciable amounts of copper. The data suggest that albumin is the plasma protein that is responsible for the initial transport of copper after absorption.

  9. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  10. Storage proteins from Lathyrus sativus seeds.

    PubMed

    Rosa, M J; Ferreira, R B; Teixeira, A R

    2000-11-01

    The proteins from Lathyrus sativus Linn. (chickling vetch or grass pea) seeds were investigated. Protein constitutes approximately 20% of the seed dry weight, >60% of which is composed by globulins and 30% by albumins. A single, 24 kDa polypeptide comprises more than half of the protein present in the albumin fraction. The globulins may be fractionated into three main components, which were named alpha-lathyrin (the major globulin), beta-lathyrin, and gamma-lathyrin. alpha-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 18S, is composed of three main types of unglycosylated subunits (50-66 kDa), each of which produce, upon reduction, a heavy and a light polypeptide chain, by analogy with 11S. beta-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of 13S, is composed by a relatively large number of subunits (8-66 kDa). Two major polypeptides are glycosylated and exhibit structural similarity with beta-conglutin from Lupinus albus. One of these possesses an internal disulfide bond. gamma-Lathyrin, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 5S, contains two interacting, unglycosylated polypeptides, with no disulfide bonds: the major 24 kDa albumin and the heavier (20 kDa) polypeptide chain of La. sativus lectin.

  11. Bromophenol blue binding to mammalian albumins and displacement of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Kim, B Boon; Abdul Kadir, H; Tayyab, S

    2008-10-15

    Interaction of bromophenol blue (BPB) with serum albumins from different mammalian species, namely, human (HSA), bovine (BSA), goat (GSA), sheep (SSA), rabbit (RbSA), porcine (PSA) and dog (DSA) was studied using absorption and absorption difference spectroscopy. BPB-albumin complexes showed significant differences in the spectral characteristics, i.e., extent of bathochromic shift and hypochromism relative to the spectral features of free BPB. Absorption difference spectra of these complexes also showed variations in the position of maxima and absorption difference (deltaAbs.) values. Absorption difference spectra of different bilirubin (BR)-albumin complexes showed a significant blue shift accompanied by decrease in deltaAbs. values in presence of BPB which were indicative of the displacement of bound BR from its binding site in BR-albumin complexes. These changes in the difference spectral characteristics of BR-albumin complexes were more marked at higher BPB concentration. However, the extent of these changes was different for different BR-albumin complexes. Taken together, all these results suggest that BPB partially shares BR binding site on albumin and different mammalian albumins show differences in the microenvironment of the BR/BPB binding site.

  12. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Reports on Project SEED (Summer Educational Experience for the Disadvantaged) a project in which high school students from low-income families work in summer jobs in a variety of academic, industrial, and government research labs. The program introduces the students to career possibilities in chemistry and to the advantages of higher education.…

  13. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  14. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  15. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  16. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  17. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  18. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  19. Protein bodies from the cotyledons of Cytisus scoparius L. (Link). Ultrastructure, isolation, and subunit composition of albumin, legumin and vicilin.

    PubMed

    Citharel, L; Citharel, J

    1985-09-01

    The structure of protein bodies differs in the upper and lower parts of the cotyledons of mature seeds of Cytisus scoparius L. The palisade-mesophyll cells contain essentially homogeneous protein bodies, without globoids, but the protein bodies of the spongy-mesophyll cells are heterogeneous, with numerous globoids. Albumins, legumins and vicilins were selectively extracted from isolated protein bodies and their subunits separated by SDS-PAGE, under non-reducing and reducing conditions.

  20. ψ(2S) Production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaojian; Rapp, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the production of ψ(2S) and the pertinent double ratio of its nuclear modi cation factor (R AA) over that of the J/ψ in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. Based on a transport model with temperature dependent reaction rates, a sequential regeneration pattern emerges: the larger ψ(2S) width, relative to the J/ψ, around and below the critical temperature, implies that most of the ψ(2S) states are regenerated later in the evolution of the reball. This has noticeable consequences for the transverse-momentum (pT ) spectra of the regenerated charmonia. While the total yield of ψ(2S) meson remains smaller than those of J/ψ’s, their harder pT spectra can produce a double ratio above unity for a pT > 3 GeV cut, as applied by the CMS collaboration. A signi cant uncertainty in our calculations is associated with the values of the temperature where most of the ψ(2S) regeneration occurs, i.e., the quantitative temperature dependence of its inelastic width.

  1. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  2. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the albumin (a plasma protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of albumin aids in the diagnosis of kidney and intestinal diseases....

  4. Albumin-Based Nanodevices as Drug Carriers.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine, is being increasingly used to improve and exploit the advantages of efficient drug delivery. Different nanodevices have been developed in recent years, among them protein-based nanoparticles which have gained considerable interest. Albumin is a versatile protein carrier with several characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for drug delivery, such as its availability, its biocompatibility, its biodegradability, and its lack of toxicity and immunogenicity. This review embodies an overview of different methods available for production of albumin-based nanoparticles, with focus on high-energy emulsification methods. A comparison between production by using sonication, which involves acoustic cavitation, and the high pressure homogenization method, where occurs hydrodynamic cavitation, is presented. Taking into account important properties of nanoparticles required for intravenous administration, the use of poloxamers, tri-block copolymer surfactants is discussed as it improves blood circulation time and bioavailability of nanoparticles. Thus, nanoparticles can be engineered to provide adequate features to therapeutic applications, in which can be included surface functionalization with targeting agents. Different albumin-based formulations and their therapeutic applications are presented in this review, with emphasis on applications in cancer therapy, where albumin-based strategies are promising for targeted drug delivery in innovative clinical strategies.

  5. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient.

  6. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  7. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  8. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  9. Structural and electronic features of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Koji; Mitsui, Akio; Mori, Masahiro; Onodera, Yohei; Shiotani, Shinya; Koyama, Yukinori; Orikasa, Yuki; Murakami, Miwa; Shimoda, Keiji; Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-02-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of binary Li2S-P2S5 glasses used as solid electrolytes are modeled by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy data. The ratio of PSx polyhedral anions based on the Raman spectroscopic results is reflected in the glassy structures of the 67Li2S-33P2S5, 70Li2S-30P2S5, and 75Li2S-25P2S5 glasses, and the plausible structures represent the lithium ion distributions around them. It is found that the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra increases at a high Li2S content, and the free volume around PSx polyhedra decreases. It is conjectured that Li+ ions around the face of PSx polyhedra are clearly affected by the polarization of anions. The electronic structure of the DFT/RMC model suggests that the electron transfer between the P ion and the bridging sulfur (BS) ion weakens the positive charge of the P ion in the P2S7 anions. The P2S7 anions of the weak electrostatic repulsion would causes it to more strongly attract Li+ ions than the PS4 and P2S6 anions, and suppress the lithium ionic conduction. Thus, the control of the edge sharing between PSx and LiSy polyhedra without the electron transfer between the P ion and the BS ion is expected to facilitate lithium ionic conduction in the above solid electrolytes.

  10. Pseudo-esterase Activity of Human Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Lockridge, Oksana; Xue, Weihua; Gaydess, Andrea; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Ding, Shi-Jian; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Masson, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Human albumin is thought to hydrolyze esters because multiple equivalents of product are formed for each equivalent of albumin. Esterase activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate has been attributed to turnover at tyrosine 411. However, p-nitrophenyl acetate creates multiple, stable, acetylated adducts, a property contrary to turnover. Our goal was to identify residues that become acetylated by p-nitrophenyl acetate and determine the relationship between stable adduct formation and turnover. Fatty acid-free human albumin was treated with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 5 min to 2 weeks, or with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 48 h to 2 weeks. Aliquots were digested with pepsin, trypsin, or GluC and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify labeled residues. Only Tyr-411 was acetylated within the first 5 min of reaction with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate. After 0.5–6 h there was partial acetylation of 16–17 residues including Asp-1, Lys-4, Lys-12, Tyr-411, Lys-413, and Lys-414. Treatment with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate resulted in acetylation of 59 lysines, 10 serines, 8 threonines, 4 tyrosines, and Asp-1. When Tyr-411 was blocked with diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos oxon, albumin had normal esterase activity with β-naphthyl acetate as visualized on a nondenaturing gel. However, after 82 residues had been acetylated, esterase activity was almost completely inhibited. The half-life for deacetylation of Tyr-411 at pH 8.0, 22 °C was 61 ± 4 h. Acetylated lysines formed adducts that were even more stable. In conclusion, the pseudo-esterase activity of albumin is the result of irreversible acetylation of 82 residues and is not the result of turnover. PMID:18577514

  11. Chicken albumin exhibits natural resistance to glycation.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Braun, Eldon J; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5.56, 11.1, and 22.2mM) and incubated at three temperatures (37.0, 39.8, and 41.4°C) for seven days. The solutions were sampled on Days 0, 3, and 7 and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the presence of glycated albumin. Four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p=0.032) indicate that all independent variables (albumin type, glucose concentration, temperature and time) interacted to affect the degree of glycation. With increasing glucose concentration, the glycation of both HSA and CSA increased with time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations for all temperature conditions. Glycation was elevated with increasing temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results suggest an inherent difference between human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate mechanisms by which avian plasma protein is glycated to a lesser degree than that of mammals (humans).

  12. Albumin oxidation leads to neutrophil activation in vitro and inaccurate measurement of serum albumin in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Regina; Kristal, Batya; Zeitun, Teuta; Shapiro, Galina; Fridman, Yoav; Geron, Ronit; Sela, Shifra

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that oxidative modifications of serum albumin lead to underestimation of albumin concentrations using conventional assays. In addition, oxidation of serum albumin may cause neutrophil activation and further oxidation of albumin, which may result in a series of reciprocal cyclical processes. Because hypoalbuminemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress are common in diabetic nephropathy patients, the aim of this study was to show that albumin modifications and neutrophil activation underlie these reciprocal systemic processes. Blood samples from a cohort of 19 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 15 healthy controls were used for albumin separation. An oxidation-dependent "albumin detection index," representing the detection efficacy of the universal bromocresol green assay, was determined for each subject. This index was correlated with serum albumin levels, various markers of oxidative stress or inflammation, and kidney function. Activation of separated neutrophils by glycoxidized albumin was assessed by the release of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The albumin detection index of diabetic nephropathy patients was significantly lower compared to that of controls, correlating positively with serum levels of albumin and kidney function and negatively with albumin glycoxidation and inflammatory markers. Glycoxidized albumin had a direct role in neutrophil activation, resulting in NGAL and MPO release. The hypoalbuminemia observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy partially results from underestimation of modified/oxidized albumin using the bromocresol green assay. However, modified or oxidized albumin may lead to a cycle of accelerated oxidative stress and inflammation involving neutrophil activation. We suggest that the albumin detection index, a new marker of oxidative stress, may also serve as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy severity and its progression.

  13. Pea Albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b), a promising bioinsecticide of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-12-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships.

  14. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships. PMID:22295174

  15. Immobilization of Bovine Serum Albumin Upon Multiwall Carbon Nanotube for High Speed Humidity Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sankhya; Sasmal, Milan

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-speed humidity sensor based on immobilization of bovine serum albumin upon multiwall carbon nanotube (IBC). A simple and versatile drop casting technique was employed to make the humidity sensor using novel material IBC at room temperature. IBC was synthesized using easy solution process technique. The working principle of the IBC humidity sensor depends upon the variation of output current or conductance with the exposure of different humidity level. Humidity sensing properties of our device is explained on the basis of charge transfer from water molecules to IBC and bovine serum albumin to multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). Our sensor exhibits faster response time around 1.2 s and recovery time 1.5 s respectively.

  16. Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene

    PubMed Central

    Molvig, Lisa; Tabe, Linda M.; Eggum, Bjorn O.; Moore, Andrew E.; Craig, Stuart; Spencer, Donald; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of improving the nutritive value of an important grain legume crop, a chimeric gene specifying seed-specific expression of a sulfur-rich, sunflower seed albumin was stably transformed into narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Sunflower seed albumin accounted for 5% of extractable seed protein in a line containing a single tandem insertion of the transferred DNA. The transgenic seeds contained less sulfate and more total amino acid sulfur than the nontransgenic parent line. This was associated with a 94% increase in methionine content and a 12% reduction in cysteine content. There was no statistically significant change in other amino acids or in total nitrogen or total sulfur contents of the seeds. In feeding trials with rats, the transgenic seeds gave statistically significant increases in live weight gain, true protein digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization, compared with wild-type seeds. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using genetic engineering to improve the nutritive value of grain crops. PMID:9237987

  17. Remove H/sub 2/S selectively

    SciTech Connect

    Mortko, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Innovative Selexol process schemes improve H/sub 2/S selectivity and overall CO/sub 2/ recovery for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Two such schemes, based on use of the Selexol Process show very good economics versus a conventional configuration even at modest CO/sub 2/ product values. These alternate schemes offer two different approaches to enhancing selectivity. One approach illustrates the tremendous effect on plant economics resulting from a small increase in CO/sub 2/ recovery. The other illustrates that CO/sub 2/ recovery levels approaching 99% are not only technically feasible but also economically viable even at very modest CO/sub 2/ product values. The feed gas chosen for evaluation is a typical southwestern Wyoming sour natural gas containing nearly 66% CO/sub 2/, 5% H/sub 2/S, and approximately 8% nitrogen with no hydrocarbons other than methane. Desired products are CO/sub 2/ for use in EOR, H/sub 2/S for sulfur recovery and methane as a product sales gas. Excess nitrogen in the methane sales gas stream is rejected to atmosphere. The Selexol Solvent Process is an excellent choice for treating this gas considering the need for selective acid gas removal, the high acid gas partial pressures and the absence of any ''heavy ends'' in the feed gas.

  18. Cationized bovine serum albumin with pendant RGD groups forms efficient biocoatings for cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jeck Fei; Weil, Tanja; Jaenicke, Stephan

    2011-11-01

    Cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA-147) has been modified by attaching the cyclic pentapeptide cRGDfK to its surface through linkers of different length. Coatings of these bioconjugates on glass surfaces were studied for their ability to stimulate cell adhesion. These chemically modified albumins combine a high number of positive charges which facilitate the initial cell adhesion to the surface with multiple Arg-Gly-Asp groups which enable focal adhesion of fibroblast cells by specific interactions with cell-surface receptors. The biocoatings are easily prepared within a few minutes by simple incubation from a dilute solution of the modified albumin. This constitutes a convenient approach for preparing surfaces for cell adhesion. Excellent focal adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells on the biocoatings was observed. About 75% of the seeded cells attached to the cRGDfK-cBSA-147 coated surfaces, and 97% of them underwent focal adhesion. Adhering cells were able to grow and proliferate on the coated surfaces, confirming the outstanding biocompatibility of these biocoatings.

  19. Urinary clearance of albumin is critically determined by its tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Clavant, Steven P; Comper, Wayne D

    2003-12-01

    The excretion of serum albumin in the urine is considered the net result of renal glomerular filtration and tubular uptake. During routine experiments, we observed that a batch of tritium-labeled albumin yielded anomalous results, being excreted in the urine of isolated perfused kidneys at 10 times the rate of normal tritiated albumin. This anomalous albumin, when simultaneously studied with normal carbon 14-labeled albumin, exhibited 10 times greater excretion than normal [(14)C]albumin. Anomalous albumin could not be reversed to normal albumin by means of conditioning with blood. In vivo clearances of anomalous albumin could not be quantitated because anomalous albumin is degraded during circulation. Anomalous albumin appeared to have the same molecular size (as determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and gel chromatography) and isoelectric-point profile (2-dimensional electrophresis) as normal albumin. Normal albumin could be transformed to anomalous albumin with alkali/heat treatment. Reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fragments from tryptic digests of anomalous albumin, alkali/heat-treated albumin, and normal albumin suggest that anomalous albumin and alkali/heat-treated albumin have altered tertiary structure, possibly as a result of denaturation and disulfide exchange. These studies show that the tertiary structure of albumin, beyond simple size and charge, is a critical determinant for albumin processing by the kidney and suggest that a specific albumin-recognition event by the kidneys is critical to normal renal handling of albumin.

  20. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  1. Generation of VHH antibodies against the Arabidopsis thaliana seed storage proteins.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Thomas; Eeckhout, Dominique; De Rycke, Riet; De Buck, Sylvie; Muyldermans, Serge; Depicker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies and antibody derived fragments are excellent tools for the detection and purification of proteins. However, only few antibodies targeting Arabidopsis seed proteins are currently available. Here, we evaluate the process to make antibody libraries against crude protein extracts and more particularly to generate a VHH phage library against native Arabidopsis thaliana seed proteins. After immunising a dromedary with a crude Arabidopsis seed extract, we cloned the single-domain antigen-binding fragments from their heavy-chain only antibodies in a phage display vector and selected nanobodies (VHHs) against native Arabidopsis seed proteins. For 16 VHHs, the corresponding antigens were identified by affinity purification and MS/MS analysis. They were shown to bind the major Arabidopsis seed storage proteins albumin and globulin (14 to albumin and 2 to globulin). All 16 VHHs were suitable primary reagents for the detection of the Arabidopsis seed storage proteins by ELISA. Furthermore, several of the anti-albumin VHHs were used successfully for storage protein localisation via electron microscopy. The easy cloning, selection and production, together with the demonstrated functionality and applicability, strongly suggest that the VHH antibody format will play a more prominent role in future protein research, in particular for the study of native proteins.

  2. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  3. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  4. Rabbit serum albumin hydrolyzes the carbamate carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Sogorb, Miguel A; Carrera, Victoria; Benabent, Mónica; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2002-04-01

    One of the main detoxification processes of the carbamate insecticides is the hydrolysis of the carbamic ester bond. Carboxylesterases seem to play important roles in the metabolization of carbamates. This study performs a biochemical characterization of the capabilities of rabbit serum albumin (RSA) to hydrolyze the carbamate carbaryl. Rabbit serum albumin was able to hydrolyze carbaryl with a K(cat) of 7.1 x 10(-5) s(-1). The K(m) for this hydrolysis reaction was 240 microM. Human, chicken, and bovine serum albumins were also able to hydrolyze carbaryl. The divalent cation Cu(2+) at 1 mM concentration inhibited around 50% of the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. Other mono- and divalent cations at 1 mM concentration and 5 mM EDTA exerted no significant effects on the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. The inhibition of the carbaryl hydrolysis by sulfydril blocking agents suggests that a cysteine residue plays an important role in the active center of the catalytic activity. Both caprylic and palmitic acids were noncompetitive inhibitors of the carbaryl hydrolysis by RSA. The carboxyl ester p-nitrophenyl butyrate is a substrate of RSA and competitively inhibited the hydrolysis of carbaryl by this protein, suggesting that the hydrolysis of carbaryl and the hydrolysis of carboxyl esters occur in the same catalytic site and through a similar mechanism. This mechanism might be based on the carbamylation of a tyrosine residue of the RSA. Serum albumin is a protein universally present in nontarget species of insecticides; therefore, the capability of this protein to hydrolyze other carbamates must be studied because it might have important toxicological and ecotoxicological implications.

  5. Calcium inhibits diacylglycerol uptake by serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ahyayauch, Hasna; Arana, Gorka; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2009-03-01

    Serum albumin is an abundant protein in blood plasma, that is well-known for its ability to transport hydrophobic biomolecules and drugs. Recent hypotheses propose that serum albumin plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in addition to its lipid transport properties. The present work explores the capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to extract diacylglycerols (DAG) from phospholipid bilayers, and the inhibition of such interaction by divalent cations. Quantitative measurements using radioactive DAG and morphological evidence derived from giant unilamellar vesicles examined by confocal microscopy provide concurrent results. BSA extracts DAG from vesicles consisting of phosphatidylinositol/DAG. Long, saturated DAG species are incorporated more readily than the shorter-chain or unsaturated ones. Divalent cations hinder DAG uptake by BSA. For Ca(2+), the concentration causing half-maximal inhibition is approximately 10 muM; 90% inhibition is caused by 100 muM Ca(2+). Sr(2+) requires concentrations one order of magnitude higher, while Mg(2+) has virtually no effect. As an example on how DAG uptake by BSA, and its inhibition by Ca(2+), could play a regulating role in lipid metabolism, a PI-specific phospholipase C has been assayed in the presence of BSA and/or Ca(2+). BSA activates the enzyme by removing the end-product DAG, but the activation is reverted by Ca(2+) that inhibits DAG uptake.

  6. QI2S - Quick Image Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghmouchi, Jamin; Aviely, Peleg; Ginosar, Ran; Ober, Giovanna; Bischoff, Ole; Nadler, Ron; Guiser, David; Citroen, Meira; Freddi, Riccardo; Berekovic, Mladen

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of the Earth Observation mission will be driven by many factors, and the deveploment of new processing paradigms to facilitate data downlink, handling and storage will be a key factor. Next generation EO satellites will generate a great amount of data at a very high data rate, both radar and optical. Real-time onboard processing can be the solution to reduce data downlink and management on ground. Radiometric, geometric, and atmospheric corrections of EO data as well as material/object detection in addition to the well-known needs for image compression and signal processing can be performed directly on board and the aim of QI2S project is to demonstrate this. QI2S, a concept prototype system for novel onboard image processing and image interpretation which has been designed, developed and validated in the framework of an EU FP7 project, targets these needs and makes a significant step towards exceeding current roadmaps of leading space agencies for future payload processors. The QI2S system features multiple chip components of the RC64, a novel rad-hard 64-core signal processing chip, which targets DSP performance of 75 GMACs (16bit), 150 GOPS and 38 single precision GFLOPS while dissipating less than 10 Watts. It integrates advanced DSP cores with a multibank shared memory and a hardware scheduler, also supporting DDR2/3 memory and twelve 3.125 Gbps full duplex high-speed serial links using SpaceFibre and other protocols. The processor is being developed within the European FP7 Framework Program and will be qualified to the highest space standards.

  7. A structurally driven analysis of thiol reactivity in mammalian albumins.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Ottavia; Summa, Domenico; Cirri, Simone; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; De Chiara, Matteo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Di Simplicio, Paolo; Niccolai, Neri

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the structural basis of protein redox activity is still an open question. Hence, by using a structural genomics approach, different albumins have been chosen to correlate protein structural features with the corresponding reaction rates of thiol exchange between albumin and disulfide DTNB. Predicted structures of rat, porcine, and bovine albumins have been compared with the experimentally derived human albumin. High structural similarity among these four albumins can be observed, in spite of their markedly different reactivity with DTNB. Sequence alignments offered preliminary hints on the contributions of sequence-specific local environments modulating albumin reactivity. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on experimental and predicted albumin structures reveal that thiolation rates are influenced by hydrogen bonding pattern and stability of the acceptor C34 sulphur atom with donor groups of nearby residues. Atom depth evolution of albumin C34 thiol groups has been monitored during Molecular Dynamic trajectories. The most reactive albumins appeared also the ones presenting the C34 sulphur atom on the protein surface with the highest accessibility. High C34 sulphur atom reactivity in rat and porcine albumins seems to be determined by the presence of additional positively charged amino acid residues favoring both the C34 S⁻ form and the approach of DTNB.

  8. An electrochemical albumin-sensing system utilizing microfluidic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lu, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Thong-Yueh; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports an integrated microfluidic chip capable of detecting the concentration of albumin in urine by using an electrochemical method in an automatic format. The integrated microfluidic chip was fabricated by using microelectromechanical system techniques. The albumin detection was conducted by using the electrochemical sensing method, in which the albumin in urine was detected by measuring the difference of peak currents between a bare reference electrode and an albumin-adsorption electrode. To perform the detection of the albumin in an automatic format, pneumatic microvalves and micropumps were integrated onto the microfluidic chip. The albumin sample and interference mixture solutions such as homovanillic acid, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were first stored in one of the three reservoirs. Then the solution comprising the albumin sample and interference solutions was transported to pass through the detection zone utilizing the pneumatic micropump. Experimental data showed that the developed system can successfully detect the concentration of the albumin in the existence of interference materials. When compared with the traditional albumin-sensing method, smaller amounts of samples were required to perform faster detection by using the integrated microfluidic chip. Additionally, the microfluidic chip integrated with pneumatic micropumps and microvalves facilitates the transportation of the samples in an automatic mode with lesser human intervention. The development of the integrated microfluidic albumin-sensing system may be promising for biomedical applications. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2nd International Meeting on Microsensors and Microsystems 2006 (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 15-18 January).

  9. Interaction of phenolic compounds with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and α-amylase and their relationship to astringency perception.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Gonçalves, Rui; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián Carlos; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa; de Freitas, Victor

    2012-11-15

    The ability of grape seed extracts to bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and α-amylase was studied by fluorescence quenching of protein intrinsic fluorescence and nephelometry. The influence of grape seed ripeness on astringency was also evaluated. From the spectra obtained, the modified Sterm-Volmer (K(app)) and the bimolecular quenching constants were calculated. Results showed that grape seed extracts had good affinity for proteins. The association strength of tannin-protein interactions varied with changes in tannin structure associated with the degree of ripeness affecting the binding/quenching process. In all cases studied, higher values of K(app) were obtained in samples at harvest which have greater ability to bind to proteins than have samples at post-veraison time. Nephelometric assays show the same trend as do fluorescence quenching studies. A possible explanation for this is that, as seeds ripen, their tannins increase in molecular mass, which relates to an increase in hydrophobicity of the molecules, and this increases protein affinity. However, that is contrary to the reported decrease in astringency of grape seeds during maturity. This indicates that tannin-protein interactions are not the only explanation for the complex sensations of astringency of grape seeds.

  10. Albumin regeneration in liver support-comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, Steffen; Klammt, Sebastian; Stange, Jan; Schmidt, Reinhart

    2006-04-01

    Albumin is the most abundant human plasma protein. Among many other functions it is an important transporter of hydrophobic internal and external substances such as intermediate and end products of metabolism and drugs. In liver failure the albumin binding capacity is decreased because of a disproportion between available albumin molecules caused by decreased hepatic synthesis and hydrophobic toxins because of decreased hepatic clearance. The resulting increase in plasma and tissue concentrations of these substances is associated with multiple organ dysfunctions frequently seen in severe liver failure. The scope of the present article is to compare different liver support strategies with regard to their ability to regenerate the patients albumin pool by removing albumin-bound toxins. Most prominent technique in this group is the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). It will be compared with single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD), fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus), and plasma perfusion/bilirubin adsorption with special regard to efficacy and selectivity.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid albumin.

    PubMed

    Bauer, H H; Ehmig, S; Engels, J W; Voelcker, G

    1998-06-01

    Autoimmune patients treated with ifosfamide (CAS 3778-73-2) and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, CAS 3375-50-6) in some cases suffered from severe allergic reactions that were proposed to be due to mesna linked to serum albumin by a disulfide bond. To prove the existence of the hypothetic mesna albumin adduct in vivo it was synthesized: The free thiol group of albumin (molecular mass determined by MALDI spectroscopy: 67009 Da) was converted to S-phenylsulfonyl albumin and reacted with mesna to albumin mesna (molecular mass: 67159 Da). In an alternative synthesis albumin was incubated with mesna at pH 8, 40 degrees C (molecular mass of the adduct: 67166 Da).

  12. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  13. [Characteristics of serum albumin in patients with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Martynov, M Iu; Koplik, E V; Shchukin, I A; Smolina, N V; Kapel'nitskiĭ, P V; Chubykin, V I; Glukhareva, A P; Makarov, A N; Sudakov, K V

    2012-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of the psychoemotional stress preceding the stroke on the dynamics of neurological symptoms (Glasgo coma scale, Scandinavian stroke scale and Barthel index) and on the conformational changes of albumin in 59 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage due to arterial hypertension. The psychoemotional stress was associated with less favorable clinical course and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage. Conformational properties of albumin were changed in all patients with intracerebral hemorrhage compared to controls. Psychoemotional stress preceding stroke aggravated changes in albumin molecule.

  14. Synthesis and optical properties of Ga 2S 3-Na 2S-CsCl glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehlen, Markus P.; Bennett, Bryan L.; Castro, Alonso; Williams, Darrick J.; Tornga, Stephanie C.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2010-02-01

    Ga 2S 3-Na 2S-CsCl (GNC) glasses were synthesized in open crucibles under inert atmosphere. The evaporative loss of CsCl during glass melting was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and corrected for by biasing the CsCl concentration in the mixture of starting materials to obtain glasses with accurately controlled stoichiometry. Glass-transition temperatures, refractive-index dispersions, visible and near-infrared transmittance, and band edge energies were measured for four GNC glasses with varying CsCl content, and the respective values were found to significantly improve over earlier studies that did not mitigate CsCl evaporative losses. Glass durability was assessed by a water immersion test at 74 °C. A respective weight loss rate of 39.2 ± 0.3 μg/(cm 2 h) was found for a GNC glass containing 14 mol% CsCl, indicating good glass durability despite the high CsCl content. The refractive-index dispersion measurements indicate that the Cs + and Cl - radii are 16% larger in GNC glass than in bulk crystalline CsCl. The band edge energy increases from 2.97 eV in Ga 2S 3-Na 2S glass to 3.32 eV in Ga 2S 3-Na 2S-CsCl glass containing 20 mol% CsCl as a result of introducing Cl - ions having a large optical electronegativity. The large bandgap of 3.32 eV, the low (450 cm -1) phonon energy, and the good chemical durability make GNC glass an attractive host material for rare-earth ions with radiative transitions in the near ultra-violet, visible, and near-infrared spectral regions.

  15. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  16. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  17. Development of an albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay to detect ischemia modified albumin.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji-Eun; Lee, Eunyoung; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Sim, Jeongeun; Suh, Minah; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) induces many changes in the body, including pH decrease and electrolyte imbalance. No obvious symptoms of MI appear until irreversible cellular injuries occur. Since early treatment is critical for recovery from ischemia, the development of reliable diagnostic tool is demanded to detect the early ischemic status. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), formed by cleavage of the last two amino acids of the human serum albumin (HSA) N-terminus, has been considered so far as the most trustworthy and accurate marker for the investigation of ischemia. IMA levels are elevated in plasma within a few minutes of ischemic onset, and may last for up to 6 h. In the present study, we developed a novel assay for the examination of IMA levels to ameliorate the known albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test established previously. We observed a stronger copper ion bound to the HSA N-terminal peptide than cobalt ion by HPLC and ESI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses. The copper ion was employed with lucifer yellow (LY), a copper-specific reagent to develop a new albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay. The parameters capable of affecting the assay results were optimized, and the finally-optimized ACuB assay was validated. The result of the IMA level measurement in normal versus stroke rat serum suggests that the ACuB assay is likely to be a reliable and sensitive method for the detection of ischemic states.

  18. Interactions of aptamers with sera albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Célia Martins; Silva, Dilson; Silva, Camila M. C.; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2012-09-01

    The interactions of two short aptamers to human and bovine serum albumins were studied by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Intrinsic fluorescence of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with aptamers. Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind a specific target and can be used for both biotechnological and clinical purposes, since they present molecular recognition properties like that commonly found in antibodies. Two aptamers previously selected against the MUC1 tumour marker were used in this study, one selected for the protein core and one for the glycosylated MUC1. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 °C and 37 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of by aptamers to be a collisional phenomenon. Stern-Volmer constants estimated for HSA quenched by aptamer A were 1.68 × 105 (±5 × 103) M-1 at 37 °C, and 1.37 × 105 (±103) M-1 at 25 °C; and quenched by aptamer B were 1.67 × 105 (±5 × 103) M-1 at 37 °C, and 1.32 × 105 (±103) M-1 at 25 °C. Results suggest that the primary binding site for aptamers on albumin is close to tryptophan residues in sub domain IIA.

  19. Schistosome albumin is of host, not parasite, origin.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Dillon, Gary P; Wilson, R Alan

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated schistosome albumin as part of a mechanism for neutralizing the oxidative assault by host immune defenses and suggested that the gene had been acquired by horizontal transfer from the mammalian host. In the course of proteomic analyses of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm vomitus and eggs recovered from mice, we identified numerous peptides, largely derived from murine rather than parasite albumin. We therefore conjectured that the supposed S. mansoni albumin sequence deposited on GenBank might be the result of contamination rather than horizontal gene transfer. Based on phylogenetic analysis the most likely source was the Syrian (golden) hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Proteomic analysis of Syrian hamster albumin generated peptide identities to S. mansoni as the top hit, with a high ion score >1,500 and 63% coverage of the translated cDNA sequence. RT-PCR using specific primers permitted amplification of the M. auratus albumin transcript, which is identical to the deposited S. mansoni albumin sequence. PCR amplification of a fragment of the M. auratus albumin gene from genomic DNA suggests a homologous structure to the Mus musculus albumin gene. We were unable to find the S. mansoni albumin gene sequence by in silico searching on either version 3 of the S. mansoni genome assembly or the >3 million shotgun DNA reads. Finally, Southern blotting detected the albumin gene in M. auratus but not in S. mansoni genomic DNA, even when the latter was present in a 10-fold excess. Collectively, our data make the strongest case that the schistosome albumin protein described in previous reports is of host origin and all nucleotide-derived data are the result of contamination with host material. By analogy, we suggest that other reported examples of horizontal gene transfer to schistosomes might similarly be explained by complementary/genomic DNA contamination.

  20. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds...

  2. Seed Treatment. Sale Publication 4076.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information about types of seeds that may require chemical protection against pests, seed treatment pesticide formulations, seed treatment methods, labeling treated seed, and safety and environmental precautions. (Author/BB)

  3. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  4. Structures of bovine, equine and leporine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Bujacz, Anna

    2012-10-01

    Serum albumin first appeared in early vertebrates and is present in the plasma of all mammals. Its canonical structure supported by a conserved set of disulfide bridges is maintained in all mammalian serum albumins and any changes in sequence are highly correlated with evolution of the species. Previous structural investigations of mammalian serum albumins have only concentrated on human serum albumin (HSA), most likely as a consequence of crystallization and diffraction difficulties. Here, the crystal structures of serum albumins isolated from bovine, equine and leporine blood plasma are reported. The structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined at 2.47 Å resolution, two crystal structures of equine serum albumin (ESA) were determined at resolutions of 2.32 and 2.04 Å, and that of leporine serum albumin (LSA) was determined at 2.27 Å resolution. These structures were compared in detail with the structure of HSA. The ligand-binding pockets in BSA, ESA and LSA revealed different amino-acid compositions and conformations in comparison to HSA in some cases; however, much more significant differences were observed on the surface of the molecules. BSA, which is one of the most extensively utilized proteins in laboratory practice and is used as an HSA substitute in many experiments, exhibits only 75.8% identity compared with HSA. The higher resolution crystal structure of ESA highlights the binding properties of this protein because it includes several bound compounds from the crystallization solution that provide additional structural information about potential ligand-binding pockets.

  5. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  6. Effects of glycation on meloxicam binding to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trynda-Lemiesz, Lilianna; Wiglusz, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    The current study reports a binding of meloxicam a pharmacologically important new generation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to glycated form of the human serum albumin (HSA). The interaction of the meloxicam with nonglycated and glycated albumin has been studied at pH 7.4 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 M NaCl, using fluorescence quenching technique and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Results of the present study have shown that the meloxicam could bind both forms of albumin glycated and nonglycated at a site, which was close to the tryptophan residues. Similarly, how for native albumin glycated form has had one high affinity site for the drug with association constants of the order of 10 5 M -1. The glycation process of the HSA significantly has affected the impact of the meloxicam on the binding of other ligands such as warfarin and bilirubin. The affinity of the glycated albumin for bilirubin as for native albumin has been reduced by meloxicam but observed effect was weaker by half (about 20%) compared with nonglycated albumin. In contrast to the native albumin meloxicam binding to glycated form of the protein only slightly affected the binding of warfarin. It seemed possible that the effects on warfarin binding might be entirely attributable to the Lys 199 modification which was in site I.

  7. Preservation of recalcitrant seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recalcitrant and intermediate seeds are not included in seed banks because of misperceptions that these efforts would be futile. Between 20 and 25% of the Earth’s angiosperm species are estimated to produce recalcitrant or intermediate seeds. These species are more prevalent in the tropics and sub...

  8. Seed Development and Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  9. Seed Proteomics"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteomic analysis of seeds encounters some specific problems that do not impinge on analyses of other plant cells, tissues, or organs. There are anatomic considerations. Seeds comprise the seed coat, the storage organ(s), and the embryonic axis. Are these to be studied individually or as a compo...

  10. Going to Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a unit on seeds designed to introduce students to their scientific and nutritional uses. Unit activities are easily done, employ a variety of process skills, and can be used at various grade levels. Suggests field trips to gather seeds, seed sprouting, and making cookies out of various whole grains. (JM)

  11. Needs of Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The "Needs of Seeds" formative assessment probe can be used to find out whether students recognize that seeds have needs both similar to and different from plants and other living organisms (Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007). The probe reveals whether students overgeneralize the needs of seeds by assuming they have the same needs as the adult plants…

  12. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  13. Platelet retention by albuminated glass and polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D L; Atwood, A I; Andrade, J D

    1976-11-01

    Ex vivo platelet retention by albuminated glass and polystyrene beads has been evaluated as a function of flow rate, bead surface area, blood exposure time and albumin treatment. The stability of the albumin coatings as well as scanning electron microscopy of the various surfaces before and after blood exposure has also been included. Results indicate that platelet retention is sensitive to changes in the above parameters and that albumin pretreatment of different substrates can decrease platelet retention. This decrease is substrate dependent in that platelet retention is different for the albuminated glass and polystyrene substrates. Chemical analysis of the substrate materials by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as bulk chemical analysis is also reported.

  14. Serum albumin induces osmotic swelling of rat retinal glial cells.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Silvana; Wurm, Antje; Kutzera, Franziska; Pannicke, Thomas; Krügel, Katja; Linnertz, Regina; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

    2010-03-04

    Edema in the ischemic neural tissue develops by increased vascular permeability associated with extravasation of albumin, and by glial swelling. Here, we show that bovine serum albumin acutely administered to slices of the rat retina causes swelling of glial somata under hypoosmotic conditions. The effect of albumin was dose-dependent, with half-maximal and maximal effects at 10 nM and 1 microM, respectively, and was mediated by activation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II, oxidative stress, and the production of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins. Albumin-induced glial swelling was prevented by glutamate and purinergic receptor agonists. The data suggest that serum albumin may induce glial swelling in the presence of osmotic gradients.

  15. Interaction of sulpiride and serum albumin: Modeling from spectrofluorimetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Silva, Dilson

    2015-12-01

    We have applied the fluorescence quenching modeling to study the process of interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine (BSA). Albumin is more abundant protein in blood and it emits fluorescence when excited by 260-295 nm. Sulpiride is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of many psychiatric disorders. As sulpiride is fluorescent, we developed a mathematical model to analyzing the interaction of two fluorescent substances. This model was able to separate the albumin fluorescence from the quencher fluorescence. Results have shown that sulpiride quenches the fluorescence of both albumins by a static process, due to the complex formation drugalbumin. The association constants calculated for sulpiride-HSA was 2.20 (± 0.08) × 104 M-1 at 37° C, and 5.46 (± 0.20) × 104 M-1, 25 ° C, and the primary binding site to sulpiride in the albumin is located closer to the subdomain IB.

  16. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone.

  17. Thrombin-induced increase in albumin permeability across the endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.G.; Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Bizios, R.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Fenton, J.W. 2d.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-07-01

    We studied the effect of thrombin on albumin permeability across the endothelial monolayer in vitro. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown on micropore membranes. Morphologic analysis confirmed the presence of a confluent monolayer with interendothelial junctions. Albumin permeability was measured by the clearance of 125I-albumin across the endothelial monolayer. The control 125I-albumin clearance was 0.273 +/- 0.02 microliter/min. The native enzyme, alpha-thrombin (10(-6) to 10(-10) M), added to the luminal side of the endothelium produced concentration-dependent increases in albumin clearance (maximum clearance of 0.586 +/- 0.08 microliter/min at 10(-6) M). Gamma (gamma) thrombin (10(-6) M and 10(-8) M), which lacks the fibrinogen recognition site, also produced a concentration-dependent increase in albumin clearance similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin. Moreover, the two proteolytically inactive forms of the native enzyme, i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin, increased the 125I-albumin clearance (0.610 +/- 0.09 microliter/min and 0.609 +/- 0.02 microliter/min for i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin at 10(-6) M, respectively). Since the modified forms of thrombin lack the fibrinogen recognition and active serine protease sites, the results indicate that neither site is required for increased albumin permeability. The increase in albumin clearance with alpha-thrombin was not secondary to endothelial cell lysis because lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the medium following thrombin was not significantly different from baseline values. There was also no morphological evidence of cell lysis. Moreover, the increase in 125I-albumin clearance induced by alpha-thrombin was reversible by washing thrombin from the endothelium.

  18. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    PubMed

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  19. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T.; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL. PMID:24357674

  20. Laboratory reporting of urine protein and albumin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham Rd

    2011-05-01

    Communication between pathology laboratories and clients involves more than just a result. There may be advice on recommended specimen type as well as the units and reference intervals used to report results. Between-laboratory variability in these factors has the potential to cause unnecessary confusion and even to lead to variation in interpretation for samples sent to different laboratories. A survey of Australian and New Zealand laboratories covering sample recommendations, specimens received, units and reference intervals for urine albumin and urine protein was conducted through the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP). The results confirm earlier findings of wide between-laboratory variability in all these factors. It is proposed that only recommendations developed by relevant professional societies and adopted by all laboratories can lead to reduction in this variability.

  1. An artificially evolved albumin binding module facilitates chemical shift epitope mapping of GA domain interactions with phylogenetically diverse albumins.

    PubMed

    He, Yanan; Chen, Yihong; Rozak, David A; Bryan, Philip N; Orban, John

    2007-07-01

    Protein G-related albumin-binding (GA) modules occur on the surface of numerous Gram-positive bacterial pathogens and their presence may promote bacterial growth and virulence in mammalian hosts. We recently used phage display selection to evolve a GA domain, PSD-1 (phage selected domain-1), which tightly bound phylogenetically diverse albumins. With respect to PSD-1's broad albumin binding specificity, it remained unclear how the evolved binding epitope compared to those of naturally occurring GA domains and whether PSD-1's binding mode was the same for different albumins. We investigate these questions here using chemical shift perturbation measurements of PSD-1 with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) and put the results in the context of previous work on structure and dynamics of GA domains. Combined, these data provide insights into the requirements for broad binding specificity in GA-albumin interactions. Moreover, we note that using the phage-optimized PSD-1 protein significantly diminishes the effects of exchange broadening at the binding interface between GA modules and albumin, presumably through stabilization of a ligand-bound conformation. The employment of artificially evolved domains may be generally useful in NMR structural studies of other protein-protein complexes.

  2. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  3. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  4. The seed nuclear proteome.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  5. Impact of condensed tannin size as individual and mixed polymers on bovine serum albumin precipitation.

    PubMed

    Harbertson, James F; Kilmister, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Downey, Mark O

    2014-10-01

    Condensed tannins composed of epicatechin from monomer to octamer were isolated from cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) seeds and added to bovine serum albumin (BSA) individually and combined as mixtures. When added to excess BSA the amount of tannin precipitated increased with tannin size. The amount of tannin required to precipitate BSA varied among the polymers with the trimer requiring the most to precipitate BSA (1000 μg) and octamer the least (50 μg). The efficacy of condensed tannins for protein precipitation increased with increased degree of polymerisation (or size) from trimers to octamers (monomers and dimers did not precipitate BSA), while mixtures of two sizes primarily had an additive effect. This study demonstrates that astringent perception is likely to increase with increasing polymer size. Further research to expand our understanding of astringent perception and its correlation with protein precipitation would benefit from sensory analysis of condensed tannins across a range of polymer sizes.

  6. Elevation of CSF albumin in old sheep: relations to CSF turnover and albumin extraction at blood-CSF barrier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruo-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Preston, Jane Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Albumin is the most abundant protein in both CSF and plasma, and albumin quotient is often used to assess the functions of brain barriers especially that of the blood-CSF barrier [i.e. the choroid plexus (CP) which also secretes CSF]. In this study, we took albumin as a model molecule to investigate ageing-related alterations in the CSF-CP system in sheep. We found significant ageing-related increases in the weight of lateral CP [122.4 +/- 14.0 mg in the young, 198.6 +/- 35.4 mg in the middle aged, 286.1 +/- 25.1 mg in the old (p < 0.05)], in the CSF albumin as well as the albumin quotient. Albumin protein spots in old CSF displayed wider on 2D western immunoblotting images, and had higher densities on images of 2D large gels stained with Pro-Q Emerald 488 compared to the young samples, suggesting ageing-related post-translational modification in the albumin. CSF secretion was reduced with age: 0.148 +/- 0.013 mL/min/g in the young, 0.092 +/- 0.02 mL/min/g in the middle aged, 0.070 +/- 0.013 mL/min/g in the old (p < 0.05). The (125)I-BSA extraction was not different among the sheep groups, nor was altered by temperature reduction, monensin, nocodazole, anti-transforming growth factor beta receptor II antibody, as well as unlabelled albumins. In conclusion, elevation of albumin in old CSF is associated with reduced CSF secretion by the CP, which size increases with age. (125)I-BSA extract, reflecting the extracellular space rather than the active albumin uptake in the CP, is not different between ages. These early changes in health ageing may result in the accumulation and modifications of CSF proteins leading to neurotoxicity.

  7. Fluorescent Probes for H2S Detection and Quantification.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Dymock, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Many diverse, sensitive and structurally novel fluorescent probes have recently been reported for H2S detection. Quantification of H2S requires a selective chemosensor which will react only with H2S against a background of high concentrations of other thiols or reducing agents. Most published probes are able to quantify H2S selectively in a simple in vitro system with the most sensitive probes able to detect H2S at below 100 nM concentrations. A subset of probes also have utility in sensing H2S in living cells, and there are now several with specific sub-cellular localization and a few cases of in vivo applications. Biologists studying H2S now have a wide range of tools to assist them to aid further understanding of the role of H2S in biology.

  8. Bilirubin-albumin binding, bilirubin/albumin ratios, and free bilirubin levels: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Dijk, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    Treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is predominantly based on one parameter, i.e., total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Yet, overt kernicterus has been reported in preterm infants at relatively low TSB levels, and it has been repeatedly shown that free unconjugated bilirubin (freeUCB) levels, or bilirubin/albumin (B/A) ratios for that matter, are more closely associated with bilirubin neurotoxicity. In this article, we review bilirubin-albumin binding, UCBfree levels, and B/A ratios in addition to TSB levels to individualize and optimize treatment especially in preterm infants. Methods to measure bilirubin-albumin binding or UCBfree are neither routinely performed in Western clinical laboratories nor incorporated in current management guidelines on unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. For bilirubin-albumin binding, this seems justified because several of these methods have been challenged, and sufficiently powered prospective trials on the clinical benefits are lacking. Technological advances in the measurement of UCBfree may provide a convenient means for integrating UCBfree measurements into routine clinical management of jaundiced infants. A point-of-care method, as well as determination of UCBfree levels in various newborn populations, is desirable to learn more about variations in time and how various clinical pathophysiological conditions affect UCBfree levels. This will improve the estimation of approximate UCBfree levels associated with neurotoxicity. To delineate the role of UCBfree in the management of jaundiced (preterm) infants, trials are needed using UCBfree as treatment parameter. The additional use of the B/A ratio in jaundiced preterms has been evaluated in the Bilirubin Albumin Ratio Trial (BARTrial; Clinical Trials: ISRCTN74465643) but failed to demonstrate better neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants <32 weeks assigned to the study group. Awaiting a study in which infants are assigned to be managed solely on the basis of their B

  9. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, Christian J.; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. PMID:26136776

  10. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  11. Albumin, steroid hormones and the origin of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Baker, M E

    2002-10-01

    Albumin, the major serum protein, binds a wide variety of lipophilic compounds including steroids, other lipophilic hormones and various phytochemicals and xenobiotics that bind to receptors for steroids and other lipophilic hormones. Despite albumin's low affinity (K(d) approximately 10(-4) M to 10(-6) M) for these lipophilic compounds, the high concentration of albumin in serum makes this protein a major carrier of steroids and lipophilic hormones and a regulator of their access to receptors. Albumin also functions as a sink for xenobiotics, diminishing the binding of xenobiotics to hormone receptors and other cellular proteins. This protects animals from endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. We propose that these properties of albumin were important in protochordates and primitive vertebrates, such as jawless fish, about 600 to 530 million years ago, just before and during the Cambrian period. It is at that time that the ancestral receptors of adrenal and sex steroids - androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and progestins - arose in multicellular animals. Albumin regulated access of steroids to their receptors, as well as protecting animals from endocrine disruptors, such as phytochemicals, fungal chemicals and phenolics, and other chemicals formed at hydrothermal vents by geochemical processes. Thus, animals in which albumin expression was high had a selective advantage in regulating the steroid response and avoiding endocrine disruption by xenobiotics.

  12. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B

    2002-10-15

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and its binding can be blocked by albumin plus nitrotyrosine (NO-tyrosine) or abolished by excess NOA. We detected NOA-Au into perivascular spaces as early as 30 sec after the beginning of its perfusion. NOA, unlike native albumin, leaves the vascular lumina via both endothelial caveolae and open junctions. By cross-linking and ligand blotting analysis, we showed that NOA interacted with the same albumin binding proteins of 16-18, 30-32, 60, and 74 kDa as native albumin. ELISA performed on tissue homogenates obtained from the same specimens showed that NOA transport was 2- to 4-fold greater than native albumin. The augmented transendothelial transport of NOA reflects its transcytosis as well as its exit from the microcirculation via open junctions. The increased transport of NOA may serve as an important mechanism that protects a vascular bed against the damaging effects of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite.

  13. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  14. A New Application for Albumin Dialysis in Extracorporeal Organ Support: Characterization of a Putative Interaction Between Human Albumin and Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNFα.

    PubMed

    Pfensig, Claudia; Dominik, Adrian; Borufka, Luise; Hinz, Michael; Stange, Jan; Eggert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Albumin dialysis in extracorporeal organ support is often performed in the treatment of liver failure as it facilitates the removal of toxic components from the blood. Here, we describe a possible effect of albumin dialysis on proinflammatory cytokine levels in vitro. Initially, albumin samples were incubated with different amounts of cytokines and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels indicated that increased concentrations of albumin reduce the measureable amount of the respective cytokines. This led to the hypothesis that the used proinflammatory cytokines may interact with albumin. Size exclusion chromatography of albumin spiked with cytokines was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The corresponding fractions were evaluated by immunoblotting. We detected albumin and cytokines in the same fractions indicating an interaction of the small-sized cytokines IL-6 and TNFα with the larger-sized albumin. Finally, a two-compartment albumin dialysis in vitro model was used to analyze the effect of albumin on proinflammatory cytokines in the recirculation circuit during 6-h treatment. These in vitro albumin dialysis experiments indicated a significant decrease of IL-6, but not of TNFα, when albumin was added to the dialysate solution. Taken together, we were able to show a putative in vitro interaction of human albumin with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, but with less evidence for TNFα, and demonstrated an additional application for albumin dialysis in liver support therapy where IL-6 removal might be indicated.

  15. Organelle-Targeted H2S Probes Enable Visualization of the Subcellular Distribution of H2S Donors.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Leticia A; Pluth, Michael D

    2016-06-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an essential biological signaling molecule in diverse biological regulatory pathways. To provide new chemical tools for H2S imaging, we report here a fluorescent H2S detection platform (HSN2-BG) that is compatible with subcellular localization SNAP-tag fusion protein methodologies and use appropriate fusion protein constructs to demonstrate mitochondrial and lysosomal localization. We also demonstrate the efficacy of this detection platform to image endogenous H2S in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and use the developed constructs to report on the subcellular H2S distributions provided by common H2S donor molecules AP39, ADT-OH, GYY4137, and diallyltrisulfide (DATS). The developed constructs provide a platform poised to provide new insights into the subcellular distribution of common H2S donors and a useful tool for investigating H2S biochemistry.

  16. Serum albumin concentrations and oedema in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1986-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration was measured in 195 infants of 25 to 42 weeks' gestation during the neonatal period. Concentrations were significantly lower in preterm infants, rising from a mean of 19 g/l at 26 weeks to 31 g/l at term. There was a 15% increase in albumin concentrations in the first three weeks of life. Oedema in the early and late neonatal period was common in preterm infants but correlated poorly with hypoalbuminaemia. Measurement of serum albumin concentrations in preterm infants either routinely or because of oedema is not clinically useful. PMID:3740904

  17. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  18. Genetic variants of serum albumin in Americans and Japanese

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, J.; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Watkins, S.; Davis, E.; Putnam, F.W. ); Arai, Kunio ); Feld, R.D. ); Kyle R.A. ); Matsuda, Yuhichi; Amaki, Itta )

    1991-11-01

    A collaborative search for albumin genetic variants (alloalbumins) was undertaken by cellulose acetate and agarose electrophoresis at pH 8.6 of the sera of patients at two major medical centers in the United States and of nearly 20,000 blood donors in Japan. Seventeen instances of alloalbuminemia were ascertained, and seven different alloalbumin types were characterized by structural study. Two previously unreported alloalbumin types were identified. All of the variants characterized in this study are point mutants, and the sites are spread throughout the albumin gene. However, about one-fourth of all known albumin mutations are clustered in the sequence segment from position 354 through 382.

  19. H2S regulation of nitric oxide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K.; Yuan, Shuai; Shen, Xinggui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are two major gaseous signaling molecules that regulate diverse physiological functions. Recent publications indicate the regulatory role of H2S on NO metabolism. In this chapter, we discuss the latest findings on H2S-NO interactions through formation of novel chemical derivatives, and experimental approaches to study these adducts. This chapter also addresses potential H2S interference on various NO detection techniques, along with precautions for analyzing biological samples from various sources. This information will facilitate critical evaluation and clearer insight into H2S regulation of NO signaling and its influence on various physiological functions. PMID:25725527

  20. Polynitroxyl albumin and albumin therapy after pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest: effects on cerebral blood flow and neurologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Manole, Mioara D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Foley, Lesley M; Hitchens, T Kevin; Bayır, Hülya; Alexander, Henry; Garman, Robert; Ma, Li; Hsia, Carleton J C; Ho, Chien; Clark, Robert S B

    2012-03-01

    Postresuscitation cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbances and generation of reactive oxygen species likely contribute to impaired neurologic outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest (CA). Hence, we determined the effects of the antioxidant colloid polynitroxyl albumin (PNA) versus albumin or normal saline (NS) on CBF and neurologic outcome after asphyxial CA in immature rats. We induced asphyxia for 9 minutes in male and female postnatal day 16 to 18 rats randomized to receive PNA, albumin, or NS at resuscitation from CA or sham surgery. Regional CBF was measured serially from 5 to 150 minutes after resuscitation by arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed motor function (beam balance and inclined plane), spatial memory retention (water maze), and hippocampal neuronal survival. Polynitroxyl albumin reduced early hyperemia seen 5 minutes after CA. In contrast, albumin markedly increased and prolonged hyperemia. In the delayed period after resuscitation (90 to 150 minutes), CBF was comparable among groups. Both PNA- and albumin-treated rats performed better in the water maze versus NS after CA. This benefit was observed only in males. Hippocampal neuron survival was similar between injury groups. Treatment of immature rats with PNA or albumin resulted in divergent acute changes in CBF, but both improved spatial memory retention in males after asphyxial CA.

  1. A facile chemical conversion synthesis of Sb2S3 nanotubes and the visible light-driven photocatalytic activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report a simple chemical conversion and cation exchange technique to realize the synthesis of Sb2S3 nanotubes at a low temperature of 90°C. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Sb2S3 ones benefits from the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Sb2S3. The as-grown Sb2S3 nanotubes have been transformed from a weak crystallization to a polycrystalline structure via successive annealing. In addition to the detailed structural, morphological, and optical investigation of the yielded Sb2S3 nanotubes before and after annealing, we have shown high photocatalytic activities of Sb2S3 nanotubes for methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation. This approach offers an effective control of the composition and structure of Sb2S3 nanomaterials, facilitates the production at a relatively low reaction temperature without the need of organics, templates, or crystal seeds, and can be extended to the synthesis of hollow structures with various compositions and shapes for unique properties. PMID:22448960

  2. Identification of H2S3 and H2S produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuka; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Koike, Shin; Shibuya, Norihiro; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Lefer, David; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2015-10-06

    Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have a higher number of sulfane sulfur atoms than hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has various physiological roles. We recently found H2Sn in the brain. H2Sn induced some responses previously attributed to H2S but with much greater potency than H2S. However, the number of sulfur atoms in H2Sn and its producing enzyme were unknown. Here, we detected H2S3 and H2S, which were produced from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3 MP) by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), in the brain. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed that H2S3 and H2S were produced from 3 MP in the brain cells of wild-type mice but not 3MST knockout (3MST-KO) mice. Purified recombinant 3MST and lysates of COS cells expressing 3MST produced H2S3 from 3 MP, while those expressing defective 3MST mutants did not. H2S3 was localized in the cytosol of cells. H2S3 was also produced from H2S by 3MST and rhodanese. H2S2 was identified as a minor H2Sn, and 3 MP did not affect the H2S5 level. The present study provides new insights into the physiology of H2S3 and H2S, as well as novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which these molecules are involved.

  3. Seed Development in Castor (Ricinus communis L.): Morphology, Reserve Synthesis and Gene Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a non-eatable oilseed crop producing seed oil comprising 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of noxious seed storage proteins, the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S...

  4. Review: Glycation of human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Matsuda, Ryan; Barnaby, Omar S.; Joseph, K.S.; Wa, Chunling; DeBolt, Erin; Koke, Michelle; Hage, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Glycation involves the non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars and/or their reactive degradation products to amine groups on proteins. This process is promoted by the presence of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes and occurs with various proteins that include human serum albumin (HSA). This review examines work that has been conducted in the study and analysis of glycated HSA. The general structure and properties of HSA are discussed, along with the reactions that can lead to modification of this protein during glycation. The use of glycated HSA as a short-to-intermediate term marker for glycemic control in diabetes is examined, and approaches that have been utilized for measuring glycated HSA are summarized. Structural studies of glycated HSA are reviewed, as acquired for both in vivo and in vitro glycated HSA, along with data that have been obtained on the rate and thermodynamics of HSA glycation. In addition, this review considers various studies that have investigated the effects of glycation on the binding of HSA with drugs, fatty acids and other solutes and the potential clinical significance of these effects. PMID:23891854

  5. Resveratrol binding to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    N' soukpoe-Kossi, C N; St-Louis, C; Beauregard, M; Subirade, M; Carpentier, R; Hotchandani, S; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2006-12-01

    Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skin of red grape and wine, exhibits a wide range of pharmaceutical properties and plays a role in prevention of human cardiovascular diseases [Pendurthi et al., Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 19, 419-426 (1999)]. It shows a strong affinity towards protein binding and used as inhibitor for cyclooxygenase and ribonuclease reductase. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of resveratrol with human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant protein concentration (0.3 mM) and various pigment contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-Visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to determine the resveratrol binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of pigment complexation on protein secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that resveratrol bind non-specifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with overall binding constant of K(Res) = 2.56 x 10(5) M(-1). The protein secondary structure, analysed by CD spectroscopy, showed no major alterations at low resveratrol concentrations (0.125 mM), whereas at high pigment content (1 mM), major increase of alpha-helix from 57% (free HSA) to 62% and a decrease of beta-sheet from 10% (free HSA) to 7% occurred in the resveratrol-HSA complexes. The results indicate a partial stabilization of protein secondary structure at high resveratrol content.

  6. Distribution of chylomicrons and albumin in dog kidney

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, G. G.

    1967-01-01

    1. Under specified experimental conditions the distribution space of labelled chylomicrons in the kidney was 13·8 ± 0·9 ml./100 g. tissue. The assumption is supported that this provides a measure for the quantity of intravascular plasma constituents. 2. Values for red blood cells and albumin distribution spaces were 5·2 ± 0·6 and 20·2 ± 1·0 ml./100 g tissue, respectively, in the whole kidney. The ratio of tissue haematocrit over simultaneous arterial haematocrit averaged 0·56. The extravascular albumin fraction amounted to about 31·0% of the total albumin in the whole kidney. 3. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between osmotic urine/plasma (U/P) ratios (within the approximate limits of 0·6-1·8) and quantities of extravascular albumin in the medulla. PMID:6059001

  7. Dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of avian egg.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, M P; Arbad, B R; Landge, M G; Mehrotra, S C

    1996-04-01

    The dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of eggs of hen and duck have been investigated using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in the frequency range 10 MHz to 10 GHz at room temperature. The conductivity and pH values were also measured. It has been found that the values of dielectric constant (epsilon s) is lower, while the values of relaxation time tau(ps) are higher than that of pure water possibly due to the bound water present in the yolk and albumin of the avian egg. The dielectric constant for albumin is more than that for yolk of eggs, while reverse is found with the values of relaxation time. Also albumin shows approximately three times higher conductivity than that of yolk. In the case of relatively older (by 2 days) eggs, the dielectric parameters tend to be slightly increased.

  8. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  9. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation.

  10. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  11. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  12. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ) signaling along with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO).

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator with various roles, including neuro-modulation, vascular tone regulation, and cytoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury, angiogenesis, and oxygen sensing. Hydrogen polysulfide (H2S n ), which possesses a higher number of sulfur atoms than H2S, recently emerged as a potential signaling molecule that regulates the activity of ion channels, a tumor suppressor, transcription factors, and protein kinases. Some of the previously reported effects of H2S are now attributed to the more potent H2S n . H2S n is produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP) and is generated by the chemical interaction of H2S with nitric oxide (NO). H2S n sulfhydrates (sulfurates) cysteine residues of target proteins and modifies their activity, whereas H2S sulfurates oxidized cysteine residues as well as reduces cysteine disulfide bonds. This review focuses on the recent progress made in studies concerning the production and physiological roles of H2S n and H2S.

  13. Albumin leakage in online hemodiafiltration, more convective transport, more losses?

    PubMed

    Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Abad, Soraya; Aragoncillo, Inés; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has now demonstrated some benefits in reducing mortality. It seems that rising convective volumes improve the outcomes, but the risks of it, such as albumin leakage, are not well defined yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the albumin leakage using two different filters with 20 and 30 L of post-dilution OL-HDF. In this cross-sectional study, 20 prevalent patients receiving post-dilution OL-HDL were included. We analyzed two dialyzers: FX1000, FMC and Polyflux 210H, Gambro. During four consecutive dialysis sessions, monitors were programmed using control-volume to obtain 20 or 30 L with both dialyzers. We collected albumin samples of the effluent at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and performed area under the curve (AUC) determinations for evaluating the losses. Mean patient age was 60 ± 9 years, and 70% were men. Albumin leakage was significant higher with Polyflux 210H when compared to FX 1000 FMC. A convective volume of 30 L produced greater albumin leakage than 20 L with both filters, though only with the FX 1000 FMC was it significant (minimum albumin leakage during first hour with FX 1000 FMC 20 L: 79.2 [0.0-175.7] mg; 30 liters: 403.3 [63.5-960.7] mg; with PF 210 Gambro 20 L: 869.1 [420.0-3214.7] mg; 30 L: 1841.7 [443.8-3417.5] mg). During OL-HDF, convective transport causes albumin leakage at least during the first hour. The albumin concentration in the effluent differs according to the type of filter used and the convective volume.

  14. Working with "H2S": facts and apparent artifacts.

    PubMed

    Wedmann, Rudolf; Bertlein, Sarah; Macinkovic, Igor; Böltz, Sebastian; Miljkovic, Jan Lj; Muñoz, Luis E; Herrmann, Martin; Filipovic, Milos R

    2014-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule with physiological endpoints similar to those of nitric oxide (NO). Growing interest in its physiological roles and pharmacological potential has led to large sets of contradictory data. The principle cause of these discrepancies can be the common neglect of some of the basic H2S chemistry. This study investigates how the experimental outcome when working with H2S depends on its source and dose and the methodology employed. We show that commercially available NaHS should be avoided and that traces of metal ions should be removed because these can reduce intramolecular disulfides and change protein structure. Furthermore, high H2S concentrations may lead to a complete inhibition of cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and superoxide generation, which should be considered when discussing the biological effects observed upon treatment with high concentrations of H2S. In addition, we provide chemical evidence that H2S can directly react with superoxide. H2S is also capable of reducing cytochrome c(3+) with the concomitant formation of superoxide. H2S does not directly react with nitrite but with NO electrodes that detect H2S. In addition, H2S interferes with the Griess reaction and should therefore be removed from the solution by Cd(2+) or Zn(2+) precipitation prior to nitrite quantification. 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) is reduced by H2S, and its use should be avoided in combination with H2S. All these constraints must be taken into account when working with H2S to ensure valid data.

  15. Efficient delivery of therapeutic agents by using targeted albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Safavi, Maryam Sadat; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are one of the most important drug carriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs, especially for the treatment of malignancies. This potential is due to their high binding capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and the possibility of surface modification. Accumulation of albumin-bound drugs in the tumor interstitium occurs by the enhanced permeability and retention effect, which is also facilitated by the 60-kDa glycoprotein transcytosis pathway and binding to secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine located in the tumor extracellular matrix. In addition, specific ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, folic acid, transferrin, and peptides can be conjugated to the surface of albumin nanoparticles to actively target the drug to its site of action. The albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane, is one of the several therapeutic nanocarriers that have been approved for clinical use. By the development of Abraxane that demonstrates a higher response rate and improved tolerability and therapeutic efficiency in comparison with solvent-based formulation, and with consideration of its commercial success, albumin is attracting the interest of many biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies. This chapter explores the current targeted and nontargeted albumin-based nanoparticles that are in various stages of development for the delivery of therapeutic agents in order to enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  16. Peptide-derivatized albumins that inhibit fibrin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Watson, Joseph W; Doolittle, Russell F

    2011-11-15

    Synthetic peptides patterned on sequences that appear during thrombin proteolysis of fibrinogen are known to influence fibrin formation in very different ways. A-Knob sequences (GPR-) inhibit polymerization, but B-knob sequences (GHR-) can actually enhance the process. We now report that when such peptides are attached to albumin carriers, both knob conjugates inhibit fibrin formation. In contrast, the 2-aminoethylthiol-albumin conjugate control enhances the polymerization to the same degree as albumin. The peptide AHRPam, which is known to bind exclusively to the βC holes of fibrinogen/fibrin, nullifies the inhibitory effects of the GHRPYGGGCam-albumin conjugate on fibrin polymerization, indicating that the inhibition was exclusively due to interactions with βC holes. AHRPam was much less effective in countering inhibition by the GPRPGGGGCam-albumin conjugate, suggesting that the observed effects with this conjugate involve mainly the γC holes of fibrin/fibrinogen. This study demonstrates that peptides modeled on fibrin polymerization knobs tethered to albumin retain their capacity to interact with fibrinogen/fibrin and may prove useful as inhibitors of clotting in vivo.

  17. Identification of albumin-binding proteins in capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Isolated fat tissue microvessels and lung, whose capillary endothelia express in situ specific binding sites for albumin, were homogenized and subjected to SDS-gel electrophoresis and electroblotting. The nitrocellulose strips were incubated with either albumin-gold (Alb-Au) and directly visualized, or with [125I]albumin (monomeric or polymeric) and autoradiographed. The extracts of both microvascular endothelium and the lung express albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) represented by two pairs of polypeptides with major components of molecular mass 31 and 18 kD. The ABP peptides have pIs 8.05 to 8.75. Rabbit aortic endothelium, used as control, does not express detectable amounts of ABPs. The ABPs subjected to electrophoresis bind specifically and with high affinity (Kd = approximately 60 X 10(-9)M) both monomeric and polymeric albumin: the binding is saturable at approximately 80 nM concentration and 50% inhibition is reached at 5.5 micrograms/ml albumin concentration. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol do not markedly affect the ABPs electrophoretic mobility and binding properties. As indicated by cell surface iodination of isolated capillary endothelium followed by electroblotting, autoradiography, and incubation with Alb-Au, the bands specifically stained by this ligand are also labeled with radioiodine. PMID:2839518

  18. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    PubMed

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  19. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    PubMed

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  20. Gemcitabine-loaded magnetic albumin nanospheres for cancer chemohyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Ke, Fei; An, Yanli; Hou, Xinxin; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Mei; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2013-03-01

    Eliminating cancer without harming normal body tissue remains a longstanding challenge in medicine. Toward this goal, we prepared nanosized magnetic albumin nanospheres encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and antitumor drugs (Gemcitabine, GEM). Magnetic albumin nanospheres (average size ≈ 224 nm) had good magnetic responsiveness upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field even though Fe3O4 was encased in nanospheres. Thermodynamic test showed that Fe3O4 could serve as a heating source under AMF and lead the nanospheres to reach their steady temperature (45 °C). The release results in vitro indicated that nanospheres had an obvious effect of sustained release of GEM. The result of cytotoxicity assay showed that the toxicity of this material was classified as grade 1, which belongs to no cytotoxicity. The antitumor efficacy of the GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on non-small lung cancer cell line GlC-82 was examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry assay. Compared with nanospheres entrapping GEM group, nanospheres entrapping Fe3O4 combined with MFH group, and GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres without MFH group, the GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres exhibited enhanced antitumor efficacy. Thus, the GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres have promising applications in cancer treatment.

  1. Albumin reverses the echinocytic shape transformation of stored erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Sophie A; Schulzki, Thomas; Reinhart, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    The storage of red blood cells (RBCs) leads to storage lesions, which have a negative impact on the clinical outcome after transfusion. A hallmark of storage lesions is echinocytosis. Albumin may reverse this shape transformation, which was the topic of this study. Echinocytosis was generated by incubation of blood for 48 h at room temperature or in RBC units stored 48 days at 5°C. Human serum albumin was diluted in phosphate-buffered saline. RBCs were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of echinocytosis was quantified by calculating the morphological index. Incubation and storage of RBCs led to an echinocytic shape transformation, which was reversible upon incubation in albumin solutions. This process was time-, concentration- and hematocrit-dependent. Treating RBC units at the end of their shelf-life by adding 20% albumin or washing them in 0.2% albumin reversed all degrees of echinocytosis towards discocytosis. In conclusion, albumin has the capacity to reverse echinocytosis generated by RBC storage. This observation may improve the quality of RBC units stored for longer periods of time.

  2. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  3. Plasma protein loss during surgery: beneficial effects of albumin substitution.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Lauterbach, M; Kempf, T; Ossendorf, M; Kopacz, L; Heimann, A; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Horstick, M; Meyer, J; Kempski, O

    2001-07-01

    Plasma protein loss during abdominal surgery is a known phenomenon, but its possible pathophysiological relevance has remained unknown. The present study evaluates the effects of albumin substitution on systemic and local hemodynamics and cellular interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation. Rats underwent median laparotomy and exteriorization of an ileal loop for intravital microscopy of the mesenteric microcirculation. Plasma protein concentrations, systemic and local hemodynamics were recorded during the follow up period, with or without albumin substitution. Depending on the time course of plasma protein loss in control experiments, 80% of the calculated protein loss was infused during the first 2 h of surgery, and the other 20% over the following 5 h of intravital microscopy. The control group received a continuous infusion of normal saline. Plasma protein loss was mainly due to loss of albumin. A significant increase in adherent and rolling leukocytes was observed during the course of mesenteric exteriorization, which was almost entirely reversed by albumin replacement. Albumin substitution led to stabilisation of mean arterial pressure and abdominal blood flow and also attenuated reductions in arterial base excess. Albumin infusions to replace plasma protein loss may be a simple and effective measure to attenuate microcirculatory disturbances and may be of benefit in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  4. Novel routes of albumin passage across the glomerular filtration barrier.

    PubMed

    Castrop, H; Schießl, I M

    2017-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney diseases of various aetiologies and an unambiguous symptom of the compromised integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that albuminuria per se aggravates the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. This review covers new aspects of the movement of large plasma proteins across the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease. Specifically, this review focuses on the role of endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin by podocytes, which constitutes a new pathway of plasma proteins across the filtration barrier. Thus, we summarize what is known about the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis by podocytes and address the fate of the endocytosed albumin, which is directed to lysosomal degradation or transcellular movement with subsequent vesicular release into the urinary space. We also address the functional consequences of overt albumin endocytosis by podocytes, such as the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might eventually result in a deterioration of podocyte function. Finally, we consider the diagnostic potential of podocyte-derived albumin-containing vesicles in the urine as an early marker of a compromised glomerular barrier function. In terms of new technical approaches, the review covers how our knowledge of the movement of albumin across the glomerular filtration barrier has expanded by the use of new intravital imaging techniques.

  5. A quick SEED tutorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A number of different government-funded seismic data centers offer free open-access data (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), and Data Management System), which can be freely downloaded and shared among different members of the community (Lay, 2009). To efficiently share data, it is important that different data providers follow a common format. The Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) provides one such format for storing seismic and other geophysical data. The SEED format is widely used in earthquake seismology; however, SEED and its structure can be difficult for many first-time users (ourselves included). Below is a quick tutorial that outlines the basic structure of SEED format. This write-up is in no way intended to replace the comprehensive SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), and instead of going into the details of any specific part of the SEED format we refer the reader to the manual for additional details. The goal of this write-up is to succinctly explain the basic structure of SEED format as well as the associated jargon, as most commonly used now, in a colloquial way so that novice users of SEED can become more familiar with the format and its application quickly. Our goal is to give the reader the necessary background so that when problems or questions about SEED format arise they will have some understanding of where they should look for more details or from where the problem might be stemming. As a secondary goal, we hope to help the reader become familiar with the SEED manual (Ahern et al., 2009), which contains detailed information about all aspects of the SEED format.

  6. Synthesis and Functions of Ag2S Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoru; Liu, Jixian; Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yuqing; Zhong, Guocheng

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents a review about synthesis and applications of Ag2S nanostructures. As the modern photoelectric and biological materials, Ag2S nanomaterials are potentially useful for both structure and function purposes. Ag2S is a direction narrow band gap semiconductor with special properties. Ag2S nanostructures have been widely researched in chemistry and biochemistry fields because of their unusual optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. It can also be used in many fields, such as photovoltaic cells and infrared detector. In the past few years, Ag2S nanostructures have been synthesized by various methods. The article mainly discusses the four types of preparation methods. Moreover, this article shows a detailed review on the new properties, fabrication, and applications of Ag2S nanocrystals.

  7. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  8. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  9. Observations of the H2S toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of the 1(10) - 1(01) transition of interstellar H2S and its isotopes toward OMC-1 are reported. The fractional abundance of H2S in the quiescent regions of OMC-1 seems difficult to explain by currently known ion-molecular reactions. The fractional abundance of H2S relative to H2 is enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the hot core and the plateau relative to the quiescent clouds. The (HDS)/(H2S) abundance ratio in the hot core is estimated at 0.02 or less.

  10. H2S and Blood Vessels: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangdong; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomedical importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been fully recognized in the cardiovascular system as well as in the rest of the body. In blood vessels, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is a major H2S-producing enzyme expressed in both smooth muscle and endothelium as well as periadventitial adipose tissues. Regulation of H2S production from CSE is controlled by a complex integration of transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational mechanisms in blood vessels. In smooth muscle cells, H2S regulates cell apoptosis, phenotypic switch, relaxation and contraction, and calcification. In endothelial cells, H2S controls cell proliferation, cellular senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. H2S interacts with nitric oxide and acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor and an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S generated from periadventitial adipose tissues acts as an adipocyte-derived relaxing factor and modulates the vascular tone. Extensive evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of the CSE/H2S system in various blood vessel diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aortic aneurysm. The important roles signaling in the cardiovascular system merit further intensive and extensive investigation. H2S-releasing agents and CSE activators will find their great applications in the prevention and treatment of blood vessel-related disorders.

  11. H2S: a novel gasotransmitter that signals by sulfhydration

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Bindu D.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a member of the growing family of gasotransmitters. Once regarded as a noxious molecule predominantly present in the atmosphere, H2S is now known to be synthesized endogenously in mammals. H2S participates in a myriad of physiological processes ranging from regulation of blood pressure to neuroprotection. Its chemical nature precludes H2S from being stored in vesicles and acting on receptor proteins in the fashion of other chemical messengers. Thus, novel cellular mechanisms have evolved to mediate its effects. This article focuses on sulfhydration (or persulfidation), which appears to be the principal post-translational modification elicited by H2S. PMID:26439534

  12. Polyamine analogues bind human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, R; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Thomas, T J; Thomas, T; Carpentier, R; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2007-10-01

    Polyamine analogues show antitumor activity in experimental models, and their ability to alter activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer is well documented. Association of polyamines with nucleic acids and protein is included in their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with several polyamine analogues, such as 1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333), in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various polyamine contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyamine binding mode and the effects of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind nonspecifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with binding constants of K333 = 9.30 x 10(3) M(-1), KBE-333 = 5.63 x 10(2) M(-1), and KBE-3333 = 3.66 x 10(2) M(-1). The protein secondary structure showed major alterations with a reduction of alpha-helix from 55% (free protein) to 43-50% and an increase of beta-sheet from 17% (free protein) to 29-36% in the 333, BE-333, and BE-3333 complexes, indicating partial protein unfolding upon polyamine interaction. HSA structure was less perturbed by polyamine analogues compared to those of the biogenic polyamines.

  13. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  14. [Quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-yue; Zhu, Zai-biao; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-lin

    2015-02-01

    In order to establish the quality classification criteria of Paeonia suffruticosa seeds, thirty-one batches of P. suffruticosa seeds from different provenances were selected. The seed rooting rate, seed germination rate, seed purity, seed viability, 1,000-seed weight and moisture content were determined and analyzed through SPSS 20.0 software. Seed rooting rate, seed germination rate and seed purity were selected as the main index for classification, while 1,000-seed weight, seed viability and moisture content could be used as important references. The seed quality grading of P. suffruticosa was set as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should meet following requirements: For the first grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 80%, seed germination rate ≥ 80%, seed purity ≥ 90%, seed viability ≥ 80%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 250 g, moisture content, ≤ 10. For the second grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 50%, seed germination rate ≥ 60%, seed purity ≥ 70%, seed viability ≥ 75%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 225 g, moisture content ≤ 10. For the third grade seeds, seed rooting rate ≥ 20%, seed germination rate ≥ 45%, seed purity ≥ 60%, seed viability ≥ 45%, 1,000-seed weight ≥ 205 g, moisture content ≤ 10. The quality classification criteria of P. suffruticosa seeds have been initially established.

  15. Highly sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) gas sensors from viral-templated nanocrystalline gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Chung Hee; Zhang, Miluo; Myung, Nosang V.; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-04-01

    A facile, site-specific viral-templated assembly method was used to fabricate sensitive hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas sensors at room temperature. A gold-binding M13 bacteriophage served to organize gold nanoparticles into linear arrays which were used as seeds for subsequent nanowire formation through electroless deposition. Nanowire widths and densities within the sensors were modified by electroless deposition time and phage concentration, respectively, to tune device resistance. Chemiresistive H2S gas sensors with superior room temperature sensing performance were produced with sensitivity of 654%/ppmv, theoretical lowest detection limit of 2 ppbv, and 70% recovery within 9 min for 0.025 ppmv. The role of the viral template and associated gold-binding peptide was elucidated by removing organics using a short O2 plasma treatment followed by an ethanol dip. The template and gold-binding peptide were crucial to electrical and sensor performance. Without surface organics, the resistance fell by several orders of magnitude, the sensitivity dropped by more than a factor of 100 to 6%/ppmv, the lower limit of detection increased, and no recovery was detected with dry air flow. Viral templates provide a novel, alternative fabrication route for highly sensitive, nanostructured H2S gas sensors.

  16. Seed germination and vigor.

    PubMed

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  17. The earliest seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. THE REACTIONS OF IODINE AND IODOACETAMIDE WITH NATIVE EGG ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Anson, M. L.

    1940-01-01

    The following experimental results have been obtained. 1. Native egg albumin treated with iodine and then denatured no longer gives a nitroprusside test or reduces dilute ferricyanide in neutral Duponol PC solution. 2. More iodine is needed to abolish the ferricyanide reduction if the reaction between native egg albumin and iodine is carried out at pH 6.8 than if the reaction is carried out at pH 3.2. At pH 6.8 iodine reacts with tyrosine as well as with cysteine. 3. Cysteine and tryptophane are the only amino acids with reducing groups which are known to react with dilute iodine at pH 3.2 The reducing power of cysteine is abolished by the reaction with iodine, whereas the reducing power of tryptophane remains intact. Pepsin and chymotrypsinogen which contain tryptophane but not cysteine, do not react at all with dilute iodine at pH 3.2. 4. Native egg albumin treated with iodoacetamide at pH 9.0 and then denatured by Duponol PC reduces only 60 per cent as much dilute ferricyanide as egg albumin which has not been treated with iodoacetamide. 5. The SH group is the only protein reducing group which is known to react with iodoacetamide. The simplest explanation of the new observation that the SH groups of egg albumin can be modified by reactions with the native form of the protein is that the native egg albumin has free and accessible but relatively unreactive SH groups which can react with iodine and iodoacetamide despite the fact that they do not react with ferricyanide, porphyrindin, or nitroprusside. Preliminary experiments suggested by the results with egg albumin indicate that the tobacco mosaic virus is modified by iodine at pH 2.8 without being inactivated and that the tobacco mosaic and rabbit papilloma viruses are not inactivated by iodoacetamide at pH 8.0. PMID:19873158

  19. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns.

  20. Binding of furosemide to albumin isolated from human fetal and adult serum.

    PubMed

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Silvestri, D; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum from 58 placentas obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma from 8 individuals. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed only one spot that comigrated with commercial human albumin. Binding to albumin was measured by equilibrium dialysis of an aliquot of albumin solution (0.7 ml) against the same volume of 0.13 M sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.4). At a total concentration of 2 micrograms/ml (therapeutic range), the unbound fraction of furosemide was 2.71% (fetal albumin) and 2.51% (adult albumin). Two classes of binding sites for furosemide were observed in fetal and adult albumin. The number of binding sites (moles of furosemide per mole of albumin) was 1.22 (fetal albumin) and 1.58 (adult albumin) for the high-affinity site and 2.97 (fetal albumin) and 3.25 (adult albumin) for the low-affinity site. The association constants (M-1) were 3.1 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 2.6 X 10(4) (adult albumin) for the high-affinity set of sites and 0.83 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 1.0 X 10(4) (adult albumin) low-affinity site. The displacement of furosemide from albumin was studied with therapeutic concentrations of several drugs. Valproic acid, salicylic acid, azapropazone and tolbutamide had the highest displacing effects which were significantly higher with fetal than with adult albumin.

  1. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  2. Role of H2S Donors in Cancer Biology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Zheng-Wei; Deng, Lih-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors including organosulfur compounds (OSC), inorganic sulfide salts, and synthetic compounds are useful tools in studies to elucidate the effects of H2S in cancer biology. Studies using such donors have shown the ability of H2S to suppress tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, with some of them suggesting the selectivity of its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. In addition to promoting cancer cell death, H2S donors were also found to inhibit cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. The underlying mechanisms for the anticancer activities of H2S involve (1) cell signaling pathways, such as MAPK and STAT; (2) cell cycle regulation; (3) microRNAs regulation; and (4) cancer metabolism and pH regulation. Altogether, compiling evidences have demonstrated the great potential of using H2S donors as anticancer agents. Nevertheless, the application and development of H2S for therapy are still facing challenges as identification of molecular targets of H2S awaits further investigation.

  3. Crystal growth simulations of H(2)S hydrate.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuai; Kusalik, Peter G

    2010-07-29

    In this paper, we report a molecular simulation study exploring the crystal growth behavior of H(2)S hydrates within two-phase (H(2)S hydrate crystal and H(2)S aqueous solution) and three-phase (H(2)S hydrate crystal, liquid H(2)S, and H(2)S aqueous solution) systems. The microscopic mechanisms of growth, as well as the interfacial properties during the heterogeneous crystal growth process, are probed. We find that the H(2)S hydrate can be grown at a higher rate than methane hydrates under comparable conditions (Vatamanu, J.; Kusalik, P. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 15896). The three-phase simulations, which also allow us to identify the simulation conditions on the experimental phase diagram, demonstrate that the present models reasonably reproduce the phase behavior of this system. We find that the crystal interface has a strong affinity for water molecules. We observed a relatively low level of defects in the newly formed H(2)S hydrate crystal.

  4. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  5. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  6. Re-endothelialization of rat lung scaffolds through passive, gravity-driven seeding of segment-specific pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scarritt, Michelle E; Pashos, Nicholas C; Motherwell, Jessica M; Eagle, Zachary R; Burkett, Brian J; Gregory, Ashley N; Mostany, Ricardo; Weiss, Daniel J; Alvarez, Diego F; Bunnell, Bruce A

    2016-12-12

    Effective re-endothelialization is critical for the use of decellularized scaffolds for ex vivo lung engineering. Current approaches yield insufficiently re-endothelialized scaffolds that hemorrhage and become thrombogenic upon implantation. Herein, gravity-driven seeding coupled with bioreactor culture facilitated widespread distribution and engraftment of endothelial cells throughout rat lung scaffolds. Initially, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded into the pulmonary artery by either gravity-driven, variable flow perfusion seeding or pump-driven, pulsatile flow perfusion seeding. Gravity seeding evenly distributed cells and supported cell survival and re-lining of the vascular walls while perfusion pump-driven seeding led to increased cell fragmentation and death. Using gravity seeding, rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) and rat pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs) attached in intermediate and large vessels, while rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) deposited mostly in microvessels. Combination seeding of PAECs, PVECs, and MVECs led to positive VE-cadherin staining. In addition, combination seeding improved barrier function as assessed by serum albumin extravasation; however, leakage was observed in the distal portions of the re-endothelialized tissue suggesting that recellularization of the alveoli is necessary to complete barrier function of the capillary-alveolar network. Overall, these data indicate that vascular recellularization of rat lung scaffolds is achieved through gravity seeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Albumin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Segersvärd, Ralf; Wernerman, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The drop in plasma albumin concentration following surgical trauma is well known, but the temporal pattern of the detailed mechanisms behind are less well described. The aim of this explorative study was to assess changes in albumin synthesis and transcapillary escape rate (TER) following major surgical trauma, at the time of peak elevations in two well-recognized markers of inflammation. Methods This was a clinical trial of radiolabeled human serum albumin for the study of TER and plasma volume. Ten patients were studied immediately preoperatively and on the 2nd postoperative day after major pancreatic surgery. Albumin synthesis rate was measured by the flooding dose technique employing incorporation of isotopically labelled phenylalanine. Results Fractional synthesis rate of albumin increased from 11.7 (95% CI: 8.9, 14.5) to 15.0 (11.7, 18.4) %/day (p = 0.027), whereas the corresponding absolute synthesis rate was unchanged, 175 (138, 212) versus 150 (107, 192) mg/kg/day (p = 0.21). TER was unchanged, 4.9 (3.1, 6.8) %/hour versus 5.5 (3.9, 7.2) (p = 0.63). Plasma volume was unchanged but plasma albumin decreased from 33.5 (30.9, 36.2) to 22.1 (19.8, 24.3) g/L. (p<0.001). Conclusion Two days after major abdominal surgery, at the time-point when two biomarkers of generalised inflammation were at their peak and the plasma albumin concentration had decreased by 33%, we were unable to show any difference in the absolute synthesis rate of albumin, TER and plasma volume as compared with values obtained immediately pre-operatively. This suggests that capillary leakage, if elevated postoperatively, had ceased at that time-point. The temporal relations between albumin kinetics, capillary leakage and generalised inflammation need to be further explored. Trial Registration clinicaltrialsregister.eu: EudraCT 2010-08529-21 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01194492 PMID:26313170

  8. Albumin transfer across the choroid plexus of South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed Central

    Knott, G W; Dziegielewska, K M; Habgood, M D; Li, Z S; Saunders, N R

    1997-01-01

    1. Blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) transfer of various exogenous albumins has been investigated in developing Monodelphis domestica (South American grey short-tailed opossum) and compared with the steady-state CSF: plasma ratios for endogenous (Monodelphis) albumin. Ratios for Monodelphis albumin and human albumin were similar and were the highest at postnatal day 5 (P5) (48.2 +/- 4.4 and 40.6 +/- 4.5%, respectively). The ratio for bovine albumin was similar to the steady-state ratio for Monodelphis albumin at P7-8 but became consistently lower than the Monodelphis albumin ratio at all other ages until P32-36 when all albumins tested attained a similar low ratio. The CSF:plasma ratio of chemically modified (succinylated) bovine albumin was always significantly lower than that of other albumins, except at the oldest age examined (P32-36). 2. Immunocytochemistry showed that within the brain, albumin was confined to the lumen and endothelial cells of blood vessels. In the choroid plexus only a small proportion (0.2-1.7% of the total cell number) of epithelial cells was positive for albumin, both endogenous and exogenous, at all ages studied (except the 3rd ventricle where cells were only positive from P8). The CSF was strongly positive for all albumins. The peak proportion of positive cells and of albumin concentrations in CSF occurred at P8. These findings suggest that the primary route for penetration of albumin into CSF is directly across the choroid plexus rather than via the brain. 3. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry revealed that the same epithelial cells contained both endogenous (Monodelphis) and exogenous (human) albumin. In contrast, for succinylated albumin, at P7 only about 35% (lateral ventricle) and 50% (4th ventricle) of Monodelphis albumin-positive cells were also positive for succinylated albumin, but by P30 this proportion increased to 90% at both sites. 4. Thus the developing choroid plexus distinguishes between different albumins. Chemical

  9. Specific albumin binding to microvascular endothelium in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzer, J.E.; Carley, W.W.; Palade, G.E. )

    1988-03-01

    The specific binding of rat serum albumin (RSA) to confluent microvascular endothelial cells in culture derived from the vasculature of the rat epididymal fat pad was studied at 4{degree}C by radioassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioiodinated RSA ({sup 125}I-RSA) binding to the cells reached equilibrium at {approximately} 20 min incubation. Albumin binding was a slowly saturating function over concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 50 mg/ml. Specific RSA binding with a moderate apparent affinity constant of 1.0 mg/ml and with a maximum binding concentration of 90 ng/cm{sup 2} was immunolocalized with anti-RSA antibody to the outer (free) side of the enothelium. Scatchard analysis of the binding yielded a nonlinear binding curve with a concave-upward shape. Dissociation rate analysis supports negative cooperativity of albumin binding, but multiple binding sites may also be present. Albumin binding fulfilled many requirements for ligand specificity including saturability, reversibility, competibility, and dependence on both cell type and cell number. The results are discussed in terms of past in situ investigations on the localization of albumin binding to vascular endothelium and its effect on transendothelial molecular transport.

  10. Interaction of mycotoxin zearalenone with human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Gerner, Zsófia; Lemli, Beáta

    2017-03-27

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species. Fungal contamination of cereals and plants can result in the formation of ZEN, leading to its presence in different foods, animal feeds, and drinks. Because ZEN is an endocrine disruptor, it causes reproductive disorders in farm animals and hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Despite toxicokinetic properties of ZEN were studied in more species, we have no information regarding the interaction of ZEN with serum albumin. Since albumin commonly plays an important role in the toxicokinetics of different toxins, interaction of ZEN with albumin has of high biological importance. Therefore the interaction of ZEN with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, ultrafiltration, and molecular modeling studies. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies demonstrate that ZEN forms complex with HSA. Binding constant (K) of ZEN-HSA complex was quantified with fluorescence quenching technique. The determined binding constant (logK=5.1) reflects the strong interaction of ZEN with albumin suggesting the potential biological importance of ZEN-HSA complex formation. Based on the results of the investigations with site markers as well as docking studies, ZEN occupies a non-conventional binding site on HSA. Considering the above listed observations, we should keep in mind this interaction if we would like to precisely understand the toxicokinetic behavior of ZEN.

  11. Biocompatibility of electrospun human albumin: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Noszczyk, B H; Kowalczyk, T; Łyżniak, M; Zembrzycki, K; Mikułowski, G; Wysocki, J; Kawiak, J; Pojda, Z

    2015-03-02

    Albumin is rarely used for electrospinning because it does not form fibres in its native globular form. This paper presents a novel method for electrospinning human albumin from a solution containing pharmaceutical grade protein and 25% polyethylene oxide (PEO) used as the fibre-forming agent. After spontaneous cross-linking at body temperature, with no further chemicals added, the fibres become insoluble and the excess PEO can be washed out. Albumin deposited along the fibres retains its native characteristics, such as its non-adhesiveness to cells and its susceptibility for degradation by macrophages. To demonstrate this we evaluated the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this novel product. After subcutaneous implantation in mice, albumin mats were completely resorbable within six days and elicited only a limited local inflammatory response. In vitro, the mats suppressed cell attachment and migration. As this product is inexpensive, produced from human pharmaceutical grade albumin without chemical modifications, retains its native protein properties and fulfils the specific requirements for anti-adhesive dressings, its clinical use can be expedited. We believe that it could specifically be used when treating paediatric patients with epidermolysis bullosa, in whom non-healing wounds occur after minor hand injuries which lead to rapid adhesions and devastating contractures.

  12. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    PubMed

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

  13. Purification and Characterization of Bovine Serum Albumin Using Chromatographic Method

    PubMed Central

    Balkani, Sanaz; Shamekhi, Sara; Raoufinia, Ramin; Parvan, Reza; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Albumin is an abundant protein of blood and has many biopharmaceutical applications. The aim of this study was to purify bovine serum albumin (BSA) using produced rabbit anti-BSA antibody. Methods: The polyclonal antibody was produced against the BSA in rabbits. Then, the pure BSA was injected to three white New Zealand rabbits. ELISA test was done to evaluate antibody production. After antibody purification,the purified antibody was attached to CNBr-activated sepharose and finally it was used for purification of albumin from bovine serum. Western blotting analysis was used for functional assessment of immunoaffinity purified BSA. Results: The titer of anti-bovine albumin determined by ELISA was obtained 1: 256000. The SDS-PAGE showed up to 98% purity of isolated BSA and western blotting confirmed the BSA functionality. Purified bovine serum albumin by affinity chromatography showed a single band with molecular weight of 66 KDa. Conclusion: Affinity chromatography using produced rabbit anti-BSA antibody would be an economical and safe method for purification of BSA. PMID:28101473

  14. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  15. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (P<0.01). Frömter Munich Wistar rats had a much lower GSCA in both the fed and the fasted states. Finally, we documented extensive albumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  16. H2S2014 in Kyoto: the 3rd International Conference on H2S in Biology and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-04-30

    About 20 years ago, a pungent gas was found to be the physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. Since then, studies on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have uncovered its numerous physiological roles such as protecting various tissues/organs from ischemia and regulating inflammation, cell growth, oxygen sensing, and senescence. These effects of H2S were extensively studied, and some of the corresponding mechanisms were also studied in detail. Previous studies on the synergistic interaction between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) have led to the discovery of several potential signaling molecules. Polysulfides are considerably potent and are one of the most active forms of H2S. H2S has a significant therapeutic potential, which is evident from the large number of novel H2S-donating compounds and substances developed for manipulating endogenous levels of H2S. The Third International Conference on H2S was held in Kyoto in June 2014. One hundred and sixty participants from 21 countries convened in Kyoto to report new advances, discuss conflicting findings, and make plans for future research. This article summarizes each oral presentation presented at the conference.

  17. Improved H{sub 2}S caustic scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, S.M.; Cassinis, R.B.; Massey, S.J.

    1997-05-01

    An improved design reduced the operating expense of an H{sub 2}S Caustic Scrubber by over 75%. The scrubber removes approximately 1,300 lb/day H{sub 2}S from 1800 MSCFD of produced gas containing 8,000 ppm H{sub 2}S with mercaptans and 40% CO{sub 2}. The scrubber is based on Dow Chemical`s US Patent No. 2,747,962. The Dow H{sub 2}S Caustic Scrubber principle is based on contacting gas with dilute caustic (5--20% NaOH) then separating the gas from the liquid. H{sub 2}S reacts with the NaOH to produce NaHS, a water soluble salt that can be disposed of in an oilfield waterflood injection or waste water disposal well. Unfortunately, CO{sub 2} also reacts with NaOH to produce Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, thereby increasing caustic consumption. Caustic contact time is kept between 0.01 and 0.03 seconds in order to maximize H{sub 2}S removal while minimizing CO{sub 2} removal. Approximately 80--90% of the H{sub 2}S can be removed per stage while removing only 1% of the CO{sub 2}. Improvements to the H{sub 2}S Caustic Scrubber comprise: Redesigning the H{sub 2}S-Caustic contactor; Reducing the dilute caustic concentration; and Optimizing the number of scrubber stages required by polishing with SulfaTreat{reg_sign}.

  18. Fabrication of Infrared Optical Ceramics in the CaLa2S4 - La2S3 Solid Solution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. A.; Lewis, K. L.; Kinsman, B. E.; Wilson, A. R.; Riddle, R.

    1986-12-01

    Calcium lanthanum sulphide optical ceramic has been identified as a potential 8-12 μm infrared window material. However, since there is a solid solution region in the phase diagram between CaLa2S4 and La2S3 other compositions from this region may also be of interest. The most promising synthesis route, also used in the present work, appears to be that of sintering a pure sulphide powder to closed porosity followed by hot isostatic pressing to achieve full density. A mixed oxide precursor powder has been made by the evaporative decomposition of solution (EDS) synthesis route in which a mixed nitrate solution was sprayed through a hot furnace. The mixed oxide powder was then fired in an H2S containing gas to synthesise a very fine sulphide powder of a number of compositions in the CaLa2S4 - La2S3 phase diagram. The evolution of the powder synthesis and ceramic processing techniques has enabled a continued improvement in ceramic quality. For example in 1983 a dark brown CaLa2S4 ceramic partially transmitting in the visible and IR but showing extrinsic S03= and SO4= absorptions was prepared by hot pressing followed by annealing in H2S. By 1985 extrinsic absorption free CaS 45 La2S3 55 mole % material transmitting in the visible and IR but showing visible and near IR scatter has been synthesised by sintering and hot isostatic pressing. In 1986 a range of compositions in the CaLa2S4 - La2S3 phase diagram have been prepared in a similar manner.

  19. H2S concentrations in the heart after acute H2S administration: methodological and physiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Sonobe, Takashi; Haouzi, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we have tried to characterize the limits of the approach typically used to determine H2S concentrations in the heart based on the amount of H2S evaporating from heart homogenates-spontaneously, after reaction with a strong reducing agent, or in a very acidic solution. Heart homogenates were prepared from male rats in control conditions or after H2S infusion induced a transient cardiogenic shock (CS) or cardiac asystole (CA). Using a method of determination of gaseous H2S with a detection limit of 0.2 nmol, we found that the process of homogenization could lead to a total disappearance of free H2S unless performed in alkaline conditions. Yet, after restoration of neutral pH, free H2S concentration from samples processed in alkaline and nonalkaline milieus were similar and averaged ∼0.2-0.4 nmol/g in both control and CS homogenate hearts and up to 100 nmol/g in the CA group. No additional H2S was released from control, CS, or CA hearts by using the reducing agent tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine or a strong acidic solution (pH < 2) to "free" H2S from combined pools. Of note, the reducing agent DTT produced a significant sulfide artifact and was not used. These data suggest that 1) free H2S found in heart homogenates is not a reflection of H2S present in a "living" heart and 2) the pool of combined sulfides, released in a strong reducing or acidic milieu, does not increase in the heart in a measurable manner even after toxic exposure to sulfide.

  20. Crystal Splitting in the Growth of Bi2S3

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jing; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-06-15

    Novel Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures with a sheaf-like morphology are obtained via reaction of bismuth acetate-oleic acid complex with elemental sulfur in 1-octadecence. We propose these structures form by the splitting crystal growth mechanism, which is known to account for the morphology some mineral crystals assume in nature. By controlling the synthetic parameters, different forms of splitting, analogous to observed in minerals, are obtained in our case of Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}. These new and complex Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanostructures are characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and ED.

  1. Treatment of H2S using a horizontal biotrickling filter based on biological activated carbon: reactor setup and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huiqi; Koe, Lawrence Choon Chiaw; Yan, Rong

    2005-04-01

    Biological treatment is an emerging and prevalent technology for treating off-gases from wastewater treatment plants. The most commonly reported odorous compound in off-gases is hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), which has a very low odor threshold. A self-designed, bench-scale, cross-flow horizontal biotrickling filter (HBF) operated with bacteria immobilized activated carbon (termed biological activated carbon-BAC), was applied for the treatment of H(2)S. A mixed culture of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria dominated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans acclimated from activated sludge was used as bacterial seed and the biofilm was developed by culturing the bacteria in the presence of carbon pellets in mineral medium. HBF performance was evaluated systematically over approximately 120 days, depending on a series of changing factors including inlet H(2)S concentration, gas retention time (GRT), pH of recirculation solution, upset and recovery, sulfate accumulation, pressure drop, gas-liquid ratio, and shock loading. The biotrickling filter system can operate at high efficiency from the first day of operation. At a volumetric loading of 900 m(3) m(-3) h(-1) (at 92 ppmv H(2)S inlet concentration), the BAC exhibited maximum elimination capacity (113 g H(2)S/m(-3) h(-1)) and a removal efficiency of 96% was observed. If the inlet concentration was kept at around 20 ppmv, high H(2)S removal (over 98%) was achieved at a GRT of 4 s, a value comparable with those currently reported for biotrickling filters. The bacterial population in the acidic biofilter demonstrated capacity for removal of H(2)S over a broad pH range (pH 1-7). A preliminary investigation into the different effects of bacterial biodegradation and carbon adsorption on system performance was also conducted. This study shows the HBF to be a feasible and economic alternative to physical and chemical treatments for the removal of H(2)S.

  2. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  3. Unraveling the Interaction between FcRn and Albumin: Opportunities for Design of Albumin-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Kine Marita Knudsen; Bern, Malin; Nilsen, Jeannette; Noordzij, Hanna Theodora; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be responsible for transporting antibodies of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class from the mother to the fetus or neonate as well as for protecting IgG from intracellular catabolism. However, it has now become apparent that the same receptor also binds albumin and plays a fundamental role in homeostatic regulation of both IgG and albumin, as FcRn is expressed in many different cell types and organs at diverse body sites. Thus, to gain a complete understanding of the biological function of each ligand, and also their distribution in the body, an in-depth characterization of how FcRn binds and regulates the transport of both ligands is necessary. Importantly, such knowledge is also relevant when developing new drugs, as IgG and albumin are increasingly utilized in therapy. This review discusses our current structural and biological understanding of the relationship between FcRn and its ligands, with a particular focus on albumin and design of albumin-based therapeutics. PMID:25674083

  4. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    PubMed

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  5. Seeds in Flight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Willard K.

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are the seed dispersal mechanisms of six different plants: big-leaf maple, pincushion tree, tree of heaven, squirting cucumber, digger pine, and bull thistle. Elaborate color and black-and-white drawings illustrate the text. (MA)

  6. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  7. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  8. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  9. Modeling the accessibility of the interaction of clonazepan to albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Ethel Celene Narvaez; Paulino, Erica Tex; de Morais e Coura, Carla Patrícia; Cortez, Celia Martins; da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz

    2016-12-01

    This paper shows results obtained from the clonazepam (CNZP) interaction with human and bovine serum albumin study, seeking data on the pharmacokinetics and the binding site for the anxiolytic by comparing the responses of these two proteins to this drug. The quenching response of this experiment show a huge interaction between CNZP and the albumins, that confirm the literature information relative to the high affinity of CNZP with the plasma protein, a long plasma half-life and that the single binding site for this drug can be found in or close to subdomain IB of HSA and BSA.

  10. Spatial frequency study of holograms with albumins material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the analysis of holographic recording in photosensitive films using albumin matrixs: gallus gallus and Callipepla cali, exposed to a λ=442nm, with ammonium dichromate, (NH4)2Cr2O7, as a photo-oxidant agent. These simultaneously were performed holographic diffraction gratings with different spatial frequencies. Getting high diffraction efficiencies of holographic gratings as a function of spatial frequency (lines/mm), known as modulo of the transfer function (MTF). We made a comparison of the experimental results between the different bird albumins.

  11. Seed dispersal in fens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  12. Observation of the ηb(2S) Meson in Υ(2S)→γηb(2S), ηb(2S)→ hadrons and confirmation of the ηb(1S) meson.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Tomaradze, A; Xiao, T; Seth, Kamal K

    2012-08-24

    The data for 9.3 million Υ(2S) and 20.9 million Υ(1S) taken with the CLEO III detector have been used to study the radiative population of states identified by their decay into 26 different exclusive hadronic final states. In the Υ(2S) decays, an enhancement is observed at a ~5σ level at a mass of 9974.6±2.3(stat)±2.1(syst) MeV. It is attributed to η(b)(2S) and corresponds to the Υ(2S) hyperfine splitting of 48.7±2.3(stat)±2.1(syst) MeV. In the Υ(1S) decays, the identification of η(b)(1S) is confirmed at a ~3σ level with M[η(b)(1S)] in agreement with its known value.

  13. Photoexcited Carrier Dynamics of Cu2S Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Riha, Shannon C; Schaller, Richard D; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Martinson, Alex B F

    2014-11-20

    Copper sulfide is a simple binary material with promising attributes for low-cost thin film photovoltaics. However, stable Cu2S-based device efficiencies approaching 10% free from cadmium have yet to be realized. In this Letter, transient absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the dynamics of the photoexcited state of isolated Cu2S thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition or vapor-based cation exchange of ZnS. While a number of variables including film thickness, carrier concentration, surface oxidation, and grain boundary passivation were examined, grain structure alone was found to correlate with longer lifetimes. A map of excited state dynamics is deduced from the spectral evolution from 300 fs to 300 μs. Revealing the effects of grain morphology on the photophysical properties of Cu2S is a crucial step toward reaching high efficiencies in operationally stable Cu2S thin film photovoltaics.

  14. Spectroscopy of the UPSILON(2S) with the Crystal Ball

    SciTech Connect

    Irion, J.

    1985-04-01

    The Crystal Ball experiment has been taking data at the DORIS II storage ring at DESY/Hamburg on the UPSILON(2S) and UPSILON(1S) resonances since summer 1982. Results on the hadronic transitions between the UPSILON(2S) and the UPSILON(1S) are presented as well as measurements of the radiative decays of the UPSILON(2S) to the chi/sub b/ states in inclusive and exclusive channels. The exclusive UPSILON(2S) ..-->.. ..gamma..chi/sub b/ ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..UPSILON(1S) ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..l/sup +/l/sup -/ sample allows a study of the spins of the chi/sub b/ states. Also discussed is the present status of the zeta(8.3) in the radiative decays of the UPSILON(1S). 22 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Measurement of the muonium 1S-2S transition frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann, K.; Baird, P. E. G.; Barr, J. R. M.; Berkeland, D.; Boshier, M. G.; Braun, B.; Eaton, G. H.; Ferguson, A. I.; Geerds, H.; Hughes, V. W.; Maas, F.; Matthias, B. E.; Matousek, P.; Persaud, M.; Putlitz, G. zu; Reinhard, I.; Riis, E.; Sandars, P. G. H.; Schwarz, W.; Toner, W. T.

    1995-04-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy has been employed for measuring the 1{sup 2}S1/2-2{sup 2}S1/2 frequency difference in the hydrogen-like muonium atom to 2 455 529 002(33)(46) MHz. The 1S-2S two-photon transition was induced Doppler-free using two counter-propagating laser beams. The 2S state was photo-ionized by a third photon from the same laser field. The measurement agrees with QED theory within two standard deviations. The mass of the positive muon can be extracted from the isotope shifts in this transition to hydrogen and deuterium to 105.658 80(29)(43) MeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. Baseline Elvs: Delta 2 7920 and Titan 2S SLV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The baseline mission profiles for two expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are presented in viewgraph format. The two expendable stage vehicles are the Delta 2 and the Titan 2S. Descriptions are given for both ELV configurations.

  17. Baseline ELVs: Delta 2 7920 and Titan 2S SLV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    The baseline mission profiles for two expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) are presented in viewgraph format. The two expendable stage vehicles are the Delta 2 and the Titan 2S. Descriptions are given for both ELV configurations.

  18. Quantitative photoabsorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of H2S and D2S at 49-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Wang, Xiuyan; Suto, Masako

    1987-01-01

    Photoabsorption and fluorescence cross sections of H2S and D2S were measured in the 49-240 nm region using synchrotron radiation as a light source. Fluorescence from photoexcitation of H2S appears at 49-97 nm, but not in the long wavelength region. Fluorescence spectra were dispersed, and used to identify the emitters to be H2S(+) (A), SH(+)(A), and H(n greater than 2). The fluorescence quantum yield is about 6 percent. Photoexcitation of D2S at 49-96 nm produces fluorescence with a quantum yield of about 5 percent. The emitters are identified from the fluorescence spectra to be D2S(+)(A), SD(+)(A), and D(n greater than 2). The Franck-Condon factors for the SH(+) and SD(+) (A-X) transitions were determined. The SD(A-X) fluorescence was observed from photoexcitation of D2S at 100-151 nm, for which the fluorescence cross section and quantum yield were measured.

  19. Host range of the potential biopesticide Pea Albumin 1b (PA1b) is limited to insects.

    PubMed

    Rahioui, Isabelle; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Sasse, Florenz; Carre-Pierrat, Maïté; Qin, An; Zheng, Ming H; Toepfer, Stefan; Sivignon, Catherine; Royer, Corinne; Da Silva, Pedro; Gressent, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    The Pea Albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b) peptide is an entomotoxin extracted from legume seeds with lethal activity towards several insect pests. Its toxic activity occurs after the perception of PA1b by a plasmalemmic proton pump (V-ATPase) in the insects. Assays revealed that PA1b showed no activity towards mammalian cells displaying high V-ATPase activity. Similarly, PA1b displayed no binding activity and no biological activity towards other non-insect organisms. We demonstrate here that binding to labelled PA1b was found in all the insect families tested, regardless of the sensitivity or insensitivity of the individual species. The coleopteran Bruchidae, which are mainly legume seed pests, were found to be fully resistant. A number of insect species were seen to be insensitive to the toxin although they exhibited binding activity for the labelled PA1b. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), was generally insensitive when maintained on an agar diet, but the fly appeared to be sensitive to PA1b in bioassays using a different diet. In conclusion, the PA1b toxin provides legumes with a major source of resistance to insects, and insects feeding on legume seeds need to overcome this plant resistance by disrupting the PA1b - V-ATPase interaction.

  20. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  1. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C.; Pankey, Edward A.; Reddy, Vishwaradh G.; Edward, Justin A.; Swan, Kevin W.; Peak, Taylor C.; Mostany, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03–0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat. PMID:26071540

  2. Analysis of cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Daniel; Jupiter, Ryan C; Pankey, Edward A; Reddy, Vishwaradh G; Edward, Justin A; Swan, Kevin W; Peak, Taylor C; Mostany, Ricardo; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule formed from L-cysteine in vascular tissue. In the present study, cardiovascular responses to the H2S donors Na2S and NaHS were investigated in the anesthetized rat. The intravenous injections of Na2S and NaHS 0.03-0.5 mg/kg produced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate, and at higher doses decreases in cardiac output, pulmonary arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance. H2S infusion studies show that decreases in systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance are well-maintained, and responses to Na2S are reversible. Decreases in heart rate were not blocked by atropine, suggesting that the bradycardia was independent of parasympathetic activation and was mediated by an effect on the sinus node. The decreases in systemic arterial pressure were not attenuated by hexamethonium, glybenclamide, N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, sodium meclofenamate, ODQ, miconazole, 5-hydroxydecanoate, or tetraethylammonium, suggesting that ATP-sensitive potassium channels, nitric oxide, arachidonic acid metabolites, cyclic GMP, p450 epoxygenase metabolites, or large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels are not involved in mediating hypotensive responses to the H2S donors in the rat and that responses are not centrally mediated. The present data indicate that decreases in systemic arterial pressure in response to the H2S donors can be mediated by decreases in vascular resistance and cardiac output and that the donors have an effect on the sinus node independent of the parasympathetic system. The present data indicate that the mechanism of the peripherally mediated hypotensive response to the H2S donors is uncertain in the intact rat.

  3. Neuronal uptake of serum albumin is associated with neuron damage during the development of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zanhua; Liu, Jinjie; Wang, Suping; Liu, Sibo; Zhao, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that brain blood barrier dysfunction following the onset of seizures may lead to serum albumin extravasation into the brain. However, the effect of albumin extravasation on the development of epilepsy is yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have predominantly focused on the effect of albumin absorption by astrocytes; however, the present study investigated the effects of neuronal uptake of albumin in vitro and in kainic acid-induced Sprague-Dawley rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, electroencephalogram recordings were conducted to record seizure onset, Nissl and Evans blue staining were used to detect neuronal damage and albumin extravasation, respectively, and double immunofluorescence was used to explore neuronal absorption of albumin. Cell counting was also conducted in vitro to determine whether albumin contributes to neuronal death. The results of the present study indicated that extravasated serum albumin was absorbed by neurons, and the neurons that had absorbed albumin died and were dissolved 28 days after seizure onset in vivo. Furthermore, significant neuronal death was detected after albumin absorption in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggested that albumin may be absorbed by neurons following the onset of seizures. Furthermore, the results indicated that neuronal albumin uptake may be associated with neuronal damage and death in epileptic seizures. Therefore, attenuating albumin extravasation following epileptic seizures may reduce brain damage and slow the development of epilepsy. PMID:27446263

  4. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  5. α-In2S3 and β-In2S3 phases produced by SILAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turan, E.; Zor, M.; Kul, M.; Aybek, A. S.; Taskopru, T.

    2012-05-01

    In2S3 films have been deposited by the successive ionic adsorption and reaction technique (SILAR) at room temperature. The films have been examined to evaluate the structural and optical properties. X-ray diffraction spectra have revealed the presence of both the α-In2S3 (cubic) and β-In2S3 (tetragonal) phases. The presence of the α-In2S3 phase at room temperature is attributed to the richness of In in the deposited materials. The presence of both phases is also supported by FESEM observations. The crystallinity of the material has been observed to improve with increasing thickness. Direct band gap of the deposits decreased from 2.89 to 2.37 eV with increasing thickness.

  6. Measurement of the branching fractions for ψ(2S)-->e+e- and ψ(2S)-->μ+μ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Boutigny, D.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hicheur, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Robbe, P.; Tisserand, V.; Palano, A.; Pompili, A.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Reinertsen, P. L.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Borgland, A. W.; Breon, A. B.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Clark, A. R.; Gill, M. S.; Gritsan, A. V.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kral, J. F.; Leclerc, C.; Levi, M. E.; Liu, T.; Lynch, G.; Oddone, P. J.; Perazzo, A.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Shelkov, V. G.; Telnov, A. V.; Wenzel, W. A.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Harrison, T. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Knowles, D. J.; O'Neale, S. W.; Penny, R. C.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Deppermann, T.; Goetzen, K.; Koch, H.; Kunze, M.; Lewandowski, B.; Peters, K.; Schmuecker, H.; Steinke, M.; Andress, J. C.; Barlow, N. R.; Bhimji, W.; Chevalier, N.; Clark, P. J.; Cottingham, W. N.; de Groot, N.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; McFall, J. D.; Wallom, D.; Wilson, F. F.; Abe, K.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Thiessen, D.; Jolly, S.; McKemey, A. K.; Tinslay, J.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Bukin, D. A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Golubev, V. B.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Korol, A. A.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Salnikov, A. A.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Telnov, V. I.; Yushkov, A. N.; Best, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; McMahon, S.; Stoker, D. P.; Ahsan, A.; Arisaka, K.; Buchanan, C.; Chun, S.; Branson, J. G.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prell, S.; Rahatlou, Sh.; Raven, G.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Hart, P. A.; Kuznetsova, N.; Levy, S. L.; Long, O.; Lu, A.; Richman, J. D.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Beringer, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Eisner, A. M.; Grillo, A. A.; Grothe, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Lockman, W. S.; Pulliam, T.; Sadrozinski, H.; Schalk, T.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Turri, M.; Walkowiak, W.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Chen, E.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dvoretskii, A.; Hitlin, D. G.; Metzler, S.; Oyang, J.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Weaver, M.; Yang, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Devmal, S.; Geld, T. L.; Jayatilleke, S.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Barillari, T.; Bloom, P.; Dima, M. O.; Fahey, S.; Ford, W. T.; Johnson, D. R.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Rankin, P.; Roy, J.; Sen, S.; Smith, J. G.; van Hoek, W. C.; Wagner, D. L.; Blouw, J.; Harton, J. L.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Zhang, J.; Brandt, T.; Brose, J.; Colberg, T.; Dickopp, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Hauke, A.; Maly, E.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Otto, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Spaan, B.; Wilden, L.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Brochard, F.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Ferrag, S.; Roussot, E.; T'Jampens, S.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Vasileiadis, G.; Verderi, M.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Bernet, R.; Khan, A.; Lavin, D.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Swain, J. E.; Falbo, M.; Borean, C.; Bozzi, C.; Dittongo, S.; Piemontese, L.; Treadwell, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Falciai, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Xie, Y.; Zallo, A.; Bagnasco, S.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Crosetti, G.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M. G.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Morii, M.; Bartoldus, R.; Hamilton, R.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Fischer, P.-A.; Lamsa, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Grosdidier, G.; Hast, C.; Höcker, A.; Lacker, H. M.; Laplace, S.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Schune, M. H.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Wormser, G.; Bionta, R. M.; Brigljević, V.; Lange, D. J.; Mugge, M.; van Bibber, K.; Wright, D. M.; Carroll, M.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, M.; Kay, M.; Payne, D. J.; Sloane, R. J.; Touramanis, C.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Eschrich, I.; Gunawardane, N. J.; Nash, J. A.; Sanders, P.; Smith, D.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Back, J. J.; Dixon, P.; Harrison, P. F.; Potter, R. J.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Strother, P.; Vidal, P. B.; Williams, M. I.; Cowan, G.; George, S.; Green, M. G.; Kurup, A.; Marker, C. E.; McGrath, P.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Scott, I.; Vaitsas, G.; Brown, D.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, R. J.; Boyd, J. T.; Forti, A. C.; Fullwood, J.; Jackson, F.; Lafferty, G. D.; Savvas, N.; Simopoulos, E. T.; Weatherall, J. H.; Farbin, A.; Jawahery, A.; Lillard, V.; Olsen, J.; Roberts, D. A.; Schieck, J. R.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Flood, K. T.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Kofler, R.; Koptchev, V. G.; Moore, T. B.; Staengle, H.; Willocq, S.; Brau, B.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Milek, M.; Patel, P. M.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Kroeger, R.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Martin, J. P.; Nief, J. Y.; Seitz, R.; Taras, P.; Zacek, V.; Nicholson, H.; Sutton, C. S.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Losecco, J. M.; Alsmiller, J. R.; Gabriel, T. A.; Handler, T.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Colecchia, F.; dal Corso, F.; Dorigo, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Margoni, M.; Michelon, G.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Torassa, E.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Le Diberder, F.; Leruste, Ph.; Roos, L.; Stark, J.; Versillé, S.; Manfredi, P. F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Frank, E. D.; Gladney, L.; Guo, Q. H.; Panetta, J.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rama, M.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Walsh, J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Paick, K.; Turnbull, L.; Wagoner, D. E.; Albert, J.; Elmer, P.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K. T.; Miftakov, V.; Schaffner, S. F.; Smith, A. J.; Tumanov, A.; Varnes, E. W.; Cavoto, G.; del Re, D.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Lamanna, E.; Leonardi, E.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Serra, M.; Voena, C.; Christ, S.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Geddes, N. I.; Gopal, G. P.; Xella, S. M.; Aleksan, R.; de Domenico, G.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Giraud, P.-F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Langer, M.; London, G. W.; Mayer, B.; Serfass, B.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Copty, N.; Purohit, M. V.; Singh, H.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Adam, I.; Anthony, P. L.; Aston, D.; Baird, K.; Berger, N.; Bloom, E.; Boyarski, A. M.; Bulos, F.; Calderini, G.; Convery, M. R.; Coupal, D. P.; Coward, D. H.; Dorfan, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G. L.; Gowdy, S. J.; Grosso, P.; Haas, T.; Himel, T.; Hryn'Ova, T.; Huffer, M. E.; Innes, W. R.; Jessop, C. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Langenegger, U.; Leith, D. W.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Marsiske, H.; Menke, S.; Messner, R.; Moffeit, K. C.; Mount, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Perl, M.; Petrak, S.; Quinn, H.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Robertson, S. H.; Rochester, L. S.; Roodman, A.; Schietinger, T.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Serbo, V. V.; Snyder, A.; Soha, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, S. R.; Weinstein, A. J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wright, D. H.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Cheng, C. H.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T. I.; Roat, C.; Henderson, R.; Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Weidemann, A. W.; Izen, J. M.; Kitayama, I.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Bona, M.; Gamba, D.; Smol, A.; Bosisio, L.; della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Poropat, P.; Vuagnin, G.; Panvini, R. S.; Brown, C. M.; Kowalewski, R.; Roney, J. M.; Band, H. R.; Charles, E.; Dasu, S.; di Lodovico, F.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Hu, H.; Johnson, J. R.; Liu, R.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Scott, I. J.; Sekula, S. J.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Kordich, T. M.; Neal, H.

    2002-02-01

    We measure the branching fractions of the ψ(2S) meson to the leptonic final states e+e- and μ+μ- relative to that for ψ(2S)-->J/ψπ+π-. The method uses ψ(2S) mesons produced in the decay of B mesons at the Υ(4S) resonance in a data sample collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Using previous measurements for the ψ(2S)-->J/ψπ+π- branching fraction, we determine the e+e- and μ+μ- branching fractions to be 0.0078+/-0.0009+/-0.0008 and 0.0067+/-0.0008+/-0.0007, respectively.

  7. Molecular spectroscopic study on the interaction of tetracyclines with serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Shuyun; Song, Daqian; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Zhang, Hanqi

    2005-02-01

    A molecular spectroscopic investigation of the interaction between tetracyclines antibiotics and human serum albumin or bovine serum albumin was reported. The influences of some metal ions on the interaction were also studied. When tetracyclines drugs were added into the solution containing serum albumins, the fluorescence intensity of serum albumins decreased with the increasing of the drugs concentrations, which is due to the formation of new non-fluorescence complexes of drug-serum albumin. The tetracyclines acted as quenchers and quenched the fluorescence of the serum albumins. The binding constants and the number of the binding sites of the reaction of tetracyclines and serum albumins were obtained. The main sorts of acting force between the drugs and serum albumins were found and the action distances and the energy transfer efficiencies between donor-acceptor were calculated based on the Föster energy transference.

  8. Ischemia-Modified Albumin as a Marker of Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Case for Revising the Concept of "N-Terminal Modification" to "Fatty Acid Occupation" of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Oran, Ismail; Oran, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is assumed "N-terminal modified" albumin which is generated immediately following myocardial ischemia. The diagnosis of IMA is based on reduced cobalt binding affinity to albumin which is attributed mainly to incapability of cobalt to bind at albumin's modified N-terminus. Although the albumin cobalt binding test was accepted as a potentially powerful marker for discriminating acute coronary syndrome from nonischemic chest pain, its usefulness has been brought into question in recent years. Patients with acutely ischemic myocardium exhibit a rapid increase in serum levels of fatty acids (FAs). Almost all released FAs are strongly bound to albumin which create conformational changes in the protein with resultant reduced cobalt binding affinity. There is a clear metabolic and temporal relationship between IMA measured via albumin cobalt binding testing and serum levels of FAs. In line with what has been suggested recently in the literature, we conclude that a shift from the concept of "N-terminal modified" to "FA-occupied" albumin is required, as this better describes IMA in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We also offer "oxidation modified albumin, OMA," which is conceptually different from the "FA-occupied" IMA, to describe modification of albumin in chronic disease associated with increased oxidative stress.

  9. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Oliveros, María R; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2013-01-09

    Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) is a plant that produces seeds rich in some nutraceutical compounds with high protein content, but little is known about them; for this reason the aim of this study was to characterize the seed storage proteins. Protein fractions were extracted from chia seed flour. The main protein fraction corresponded to globulins (52%). Sedimentation coefficient studies showed that the globulin fraction contains mostly 11S and 7S proteins. The molecular sizes of all the reduced fractions were about 15-50 kDa. Electrophoretic experiments under native conditions exhibited four bands of globulins in the range of 104-628 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of crude albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and 91 °C, respectively; albumins and globulins had relatively good thermal stability. Selected globulin peptides by mass spectrometry showed homology to sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino acids was found in the seed flour and globulins, especially of methionine+cysteine.

  10. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  11. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  12. Seed Transmission of Pseudoperonospora cubensis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yigal; Rubin, Avia E.; Galperin, Mariana; Ploch, Sebastian; Runge, Fabian; Thines, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoperonospora cubensis, an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing devastating foliar disease in species of the Cucurbitaceae family, was never reported in seeds or transmitted by seeds. We now show that P. cubensis occurs in fruits and seeds of downy mildew-infected plants but not in fruits or seeds of healthy plants. About 6.7% of the fruits collected during 2012–2014 have developed downy mildew when homogenized and inoculated onto detached leaves and 0.9% of the seeds collected developed downy mildew when grown to the seedling stage. This is the first report showing that P. cubensis has become seed-transmitted in cucurbits. Species-specific PCR assays showed that P. cubensis occurs in ovaries, fruit seed cavity and seed embryos of cucurbits. We propose that international trade of fruits or seeds of cucurbits might be associated with the recent global change in the population structure of P. cubensis. PMID:25329308

  13. Seeds in space experiment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Jim A.

    1991-01-01

    Two million seeds of 120 different varieties representing 106 species, 97 genera, and 55 plant families were flown aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The seeds were housed on the space exposed experiment developed for students (SEEDS) tray in sealed canister number six and in two small vented canisters. The tray was in the F-2 position. The seeds were germinated and the germination rates and development of the resulting plants compared to the control seed that stayed in Park Seed's seed storage facility. The initial results are presented. There was a better survival rate in the sealed canister in space than in the storage facility at Park Seed. At least some of the seeds in each of the vented canisters survived the exposure to vacuum for almost six years. The number of observed apparent mutations was very low.

  14. Vaporization thermodynamics of K2S and K2SO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The vaporization reactions, vapor pressures, and thermodynamics of potassium sulfide and potassium sulfite were studied for purposes of providing fundamental data for the seed cycle in magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation. Rate of effusion studies, supported by tube furnace experiments, X-ray powder diffraction, mass spectrometry and appropriate chemical analyses and tests, revealed that potassium sulfite disproportionates at high temperatures to form potassium sulfide and potassium sulfate. Potassium sulfide was observed to vaporize incongruently, the initial vapors beng predominantly potassium atoms, with minor species being S2 and various K-S molecules. The ratio of K/S2 in the vapor is very large initially and decreases steadily with prolonged heating. Several materials were evaluated for purposes of containing K2S/K2SO3 at temperatures or = 800 C: Pt, Mo, W, quartz, machinable glass, BN, high density graphite, pyrolytic coated graphite, and alumina. Of these, only alumina was observed to be chemically inert to both K2S but reacted with K2SO3. The other materials were not suitable for either substance. Thermodynamic calculations based on measured vapor pressures and approximate free energy functions are described. Results from isothermal total mass loss experiments and from thermogravimetric experiments are also included.

  15. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Division fabricated three seed separators utilizing pressure gradients to move and separate wheat seeds. These separators are called minnow buckets and use air, water, or a combination of both to generate the pressure gradient. Electrostatic fields were employed in the seed separator constructed by the Electrical Division. This separator operates by forcing a temporary electric dipole on the wheat seeds and using charged electrodes to attract and move the seeds. Seed delivery to the hydroponic growth tray is accomplished by the seed cassette. The cassette is compatible with all the seed separators, and it consists of a plastic tube threaded with millipore filter paper. During planting operations, the seeds are placed in an empty cassette. The loaded cassette is then placed in the growth tray and nutrient solution provided. The solution wets the filter paper and capillary action draws the nutrients up to feed the seeds. These seeding systems were tested and showed encouraging results. Seeds were effectively separated and the cassette can support the growth of wheat plants. Problems remaining to be investigated include improving the success of delivering the seeds to the cassette and providing adequate spacing between seeds for the electric separator.

  16. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of South American iguanid albumins.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P J

    1980-12-15

    Except for a markedly reduced anodal electrophoretic mobility, the serum of the Galapagos marine iguana was physico-chemically identical to that of terrestrial iguanids. Reduction in albumin net charge may have facilitated the adaptation of this species to a semi-aquatic environment.

  18. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  19. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  5. Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-03-15

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

  6. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  8. The role of nanoparticles in the albumin-cytarabine and albumin-methotrexate interactions.

    PubMed

    Pentak, Danuta; Maciążek-Jurczyk, Małgorzata; Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interactions which occur between nanomaterials and biomolecules is one of the most important issues in nanotechnology. Determining the properties of nanoparticles obtained through the use of novel methods and defining the scope of their application as drug carriers has important practical significance. Nanoparticles containing methotrexate and cytarabine obtained by a modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV) were characterized through the use of the UV/Vis and NMR methods. Obtained results confirmed high degree of analysed drugs encapsulation. The encapsulation efficiencies of cytarabine (AraC) and methotrexate (MTX) in LDPPC/AraC/MTX were found to be 86.30% (AraC) and 86.00% (MTX). The increased permeability of the phospholipid membranes, resulting from physico-chemical properties and the location of the drug, as well as from the physico-chemical properties of the phospholipids themselves, has been confirmed by increase in the length of the T1 relaxation time of protons in the N(+)(CH3)3 group. The study of analysed drugs release process from the liposomes has been made for bovine serum albumin, both in the absence (dBSA) and in the presence of fatty acid (BSA). Moreover two types of kinetic models (Bhaskar equation and Rigter-Peppas equation) have been used. Based on the study it has been concluded that mathematical modelling of drug release can be very helpful in speeding up product development and in better understanding the mechanisms controlling drug release from advanced delivery systems.

  9. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Albumin: pathophysiologic basis of its role in the treatment of cirrhosis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martinez, Rita; Caraceni, Paolo; Bernardi, Mauro; Gines, Pere; Arroyo, Vicente; Jalan, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    Since the introduction of human serum albumin as a plasma expander in the 1940s, considerable research has allowed a better understanding of its biochemical properties and potential clinical benefits. Albumin has a complex structure, which is responsible for a variety of biological functions. In disease, the albumin molecule is susceptible to modifications that may alter its biological activity. During the last decades, different methods to measure albumin function have been developed. Recent studies have shown that not only albumin concentration but also albumin function is reduced in liver failure. This observation led to the concept of effective albumin concentration, which represents the fact that plasma albumin concentration does not reflect its function. Indeed, in liver disease albumin function is several times less than its concentration. In patients with cirrhosis, albumin infusion reduces mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and improves outcome following large volume paracentesis. In combination with vasoconstrictors, albumin is useful in the management of patients with hepatorenal syndrome. Its role is being investigated in a large number of indications, which rely on its volume and nonvolume expansion functions such as stroke, severe sepsis, Alzheimer's disease, malaria, burns, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This review explores the above concepts, reviews the available evidence for the use of albumin in liver diseases, defines therapeutic limitations, and explores the challenges that should be addressed in future research.

  11. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

  12. Interaction of human serum albumin and its clinically relevant modification with oligoribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, Yuliya V; Erchenko, Irina A; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Godovikova, Tatyana S

    2008-08-15

    Human serum albumin (HSA) was shown to mediate oligoribonucleotide cleavage. Nonenzymatic glycation of HSA decreased the ribonuclease-like activity of the protein. According to (31)P NMR data, both native and glycated albumins induced hydrolysis of RNA molecule through 2',3'-cyclophosphate intermediates. A feasible mechanism of RNA hydrolysis by native albumin and its clinically relevant modification was discussed.

  13. Role of bovine serum albumin in the nutrition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, M; Wilson, A R; Solotorovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin promotes the growth of small inocula of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in media containing unesterified fatty acids. Albumin binds fatty acids present in concentrations toxic for the organisms. In the present study, additional roles of albumin were investigated. When present in a basal medium, fatty acid-free albumin could be utilized by M. tuberculosis as a sole source of carbon. Since albumin could not substitute for the amino acids in basal medium as a nitrogen source, it was concluded that the protein component in albumin was not utilized as a nutrient by the organisms. An ether extract of fatty acid-free albumin supported a small but significant amount of growth. Analysis of the lipids in fatty acid-free albumin by gas chromatography revealed the presence of 686 microgram of fatty acid per g of albumin. Although a small amount of growth occurred when a lipid extract of albumin was present in the medium, growth stimulation was dependent in major part on the presence of undenatured albumin in the medium. Lipids, when bound to albumin, can serve as a nontoxic source of carbon and energy. PMID:120697

  14. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  16. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-07

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Does administering albumin to postoperative gastroschisis patients improve outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina A; Silva, Luanna M; Leal, Antonio José G; de Moraes, Augusto César F; Tannuri, Uenis

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Newborns who undergo surgery for gastroschisis correction may present with oliguria, anasarca, prolonged postoperative ileus, and infection. New postoperative therapeutic procedures were tested with the objective of improving postoperative outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-six newborns participated in one of two phases. Newborns in the first phase received infusions of large volumes of crystalloid solution and integral enteral formula, and newborns in the second phase received crystalloid solutions in smaller volumes, with albumin solution infusion when necessary and the late introduction of a semi-elemental diet. The studied variables were serum sodium and albumin levels, the need for albumin solution expansion, the occurrence of anasarca, the length of time on parenteral nutrition, the length of time before initiating an enteral diet and reaching a full enteral diet, orotracheal intubation time, length of hospitalization, and survival rates. RESULTS: Serum sodium levels were higher in newborns in the second phase. There was a correlation between low serum sodium levels and orotracheal intubation time; additionally, low serum albumin levels correlated with the length of time before the initiation of an oral diet and the time until a full enteral diet was reached. However, the discharge weights of newborns in the second phase were higher than in the first phase. The other studied variables, including survival rates (83.4% and 92.0%, respectively), were similar for both phases. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of an albumin solution to newborns in the early postoperative period following gastroschisis repair increased their low serum sodium levels but did not improve the final outcome. The introduction of a semi-elemental diet promoted an increase in body weight at the time of discharge. PMID:22358234

  18. Sensing properties of assembled Bi2S3 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakova, G.; Meija, R.; Bite, I.; Prikulis, J.; Kosmaca, J.; Varghese, J.; Holmes, J. D.; Erts, Donats

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) nanowires were grown in porous aluminium oxide template and a selective chemical etching was applied to transfer the nanowires to a solution. Well aligned nanowire arrays were assembled on pre-patterned silicon substrates employing dielectrophoresis. Electron beam lithography was used to connect aligned individual nanowires to the common macroelectrode. In order to evaluate the conductometric sensing performance of the Bi2S3 nanowires, current-voltage characteristics were measured at different relative humidity (RH) levels (5-80%) / argon medium. The response of the Bi2S3 nanowires depending of RH is found to be considerably different from those reported for other types of nanowire RH sensor devices.

  19. Oxidation of H2S in mammalian cells and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Guedouari-Bounihi, Hala; Lenoir, Véronique; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blachier, François; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter described in mammals. These gasotransmitters (H2S, CO, and NO) are small molecules able to diffuse freely across membranes and thus susceptible to reach easily intracellular targets, one of which is the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase subject to complete inhibition by low micromolar concentrations of these gases. However in contrast to NO or CO, H2S can be metabolized by a sulfide quinone reductase feeding the mitochondrial respiratory chain with the hydrogen atoms of sulfide. Sulfide is thus a two-sided molecule: substrate or poison according to the concentration. The aim of this chapter is to present a mean to monitor sulfide oxidation by isolated mitochondria or cells and to summarize how the properties of this amazing couple (mitochondria and sulfide) translate into practical and conceptual consequences.

  20. Soybean seed proteome rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Eliot M.

    2014-01-01

    The soybean seed’s protein content and composition are regulated by both genetics and physiology. Overt seed protein content is specified by the genotype’s genetic framework and is selectable as a breeding trait. Within the genotype-specified protein content phenotype soybeans have the capacity to rebalance protein composition to create differing proteomes. Soybeans possess a relatively standardized proteome, but mutation or targeted engineering can induce large-scale proteome rebalancing. Proteome rebalancing shows that the output traits of seed content and composition result from two major types of regulation: genotype and post-transcriptional control of the proteome composition. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that specifies the seed proteome can enable engineering new phenotypes for the production of a high-quality plant protein source for food, feed, and industrial proteins. PMID:25232359

  1. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in urban ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, K.; Kelesis, A.; Petrakakis, M.

    Despite indications of high hydrogen sulfide levels in some urban environments, only sparse measurements have been reported in the literature. Here we present one full year of hydrogen sulfide measurements in an urban traffic site in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. In this 1-million-population city the H 2S concentrations were surprisingly high, with a mean annual concentration of 8 μg m -3 and wintertime mean monthly concentrations up to 20 μg m -3 (12.9 ppb). Daily mean concentrations in the winter were up to 30 μg m -3 (19.3 ppb), while hourly concentrations were up to 54 μg m -3 (34.8 ppb). During calm (wind velocity < 0.5 m s -1) conditions, mainly encountered during night-time hours, hourly values of H 2S were highly correlated with those of CO ( r2 = 0.75) and SO 2 ( r2 = 0.70), pointing to a common traffic source from catalytic converters. Annual mean concentrations are above the WHO recommendation for odor annoyance; hence, H 2S might play a role to the malodorous episodes that the city occasionally experiences. The high ambient H 2S levels might also be relevant to the implementation of preservation efforts for outdoor marble and limestone historical monuments that have been targeting SO 2 emissions as an atmospheric acidity source, since the measurements presented here suggest that about 19% of the annual sulfur (SO 2 + H 2S) emissions in Thessaloniki are in the form of H 2S.

  2. Faraday effect in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Krupych, Oleh; Adamenko, Dmytro; Mys, Oksana; Grabar, Aleksandr; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-11-10

    We have revealed a large Faraday rotation in tin thiohypodiphosphate (Sn(2)P(2)S(6)) crystals, which makes this material promising for magneto-optics. The effective Faraday tensor component and the Verdet constant for the direction of the optic axis have been determined by measuring the pure Faraday rotation in Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals with both the single-ray and small-angular polarimetric methods at the normal conditions and a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The effective Verdet constant is found to be equal to 115 rad/T x m.

  3. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.; Anderson, G. L.

    1984-04-01

    The results of a literature survey conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) under Phase 1 of a multiphase program to investigate and identify the mechanism(s) responsible for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performance losses when operating on sulfur containing gases are discussed. The objective was twofold: to review the reported data on the interaction of H2S with nickel containing materials; and to review reported investigations on the specific effects of H2S on the electrochemical oxidation of H2 in MCFC. The ultimate goal of the literature review was to determine the poisoning mechanism.

  4. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited F-doped SnO2/Cu2S electrodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinh Quy, Vu Hong; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kang, Soon-Hyung; Choi, Cheol-Jong; Rajesh, John Anthuvan; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2016-06-01

    Copper sulfide (Cu2S) films were deposited on F-doped SnO2 (FTO) substrates via the electrodeposition (ED) of copper (Cu) nanoparticles followed by sulfurization. The Cu nanoparticles were deposited on FTO substrates for various ED times ranging from 10 to 30 min at a constant -0.4 V. The FTO/Cu films consisted of flower-like nanoparticles comprised of randomly-clustering nanoflakes. The Cu nanoparticles electrodeposited for 10 min (FTO/Cu (10 min)) were dispersed sparsely over the FTO substrate, whereas the FTO/Cu (20 and 30 min) provided increased coverage. Unlike FTO/Cu2S (10 min), the FTO/Cu2S (20 and 30 min) consisted of vertically-standing large Cu2S nanosheets with numerous small nanosheets in between. This was attributed to the sufficient number of Cu seed nanoflakes, which not only facilitate ion transport of the redox couple but also increased the surface area, leading to significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity. The quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QD-SSC) with FTO/Cu2S (20 min) exhibited a significantly improved cell efficiency of 4.58%, compared to those with Pt and FTO/Cu2S (10 min). The QD-SSC with the FTO/Cu2S (30 min) showed similar cell efficiency to that with the FTO/Cu2S (20 min), despite the larger surface area because of its amorphous crystallographic structure offsetting the electrocatalytic activity.

  5. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  6. The pressure-induced phase transition studies of In2S3 and In2S3:Ce nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Binbin; Zhu, Hongyang; Wang, Shuangming; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Mingzhe

    2014-02-01

    A novel method, gas-liquid phase chemical deposition is developed to prepare In2S3 and In2S3:Ce nanoparticles. The structural, morphology and composition feature of these two nanoparticles is studied by XRD, HRTEM, and XPS. In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies were carried out by using a diamond-anvil cell. The doping does not influence the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition path while results in a lower phase transition pressure of In2S3:Ce nanoparticles (4.3 GPa) than that of In2S3 nanoparticles (7.1 GPa). The bulk moduli of tetragonal phases are B0=87.1±4.3 GPa and B0=55.6±4.1 GPa, respectively. The distinct high-pressure behaviors can be explained in term of the doped ions, causing lattice distortion and reducing structural stability of the In2S3 nanoparticles and further accelerating the phase transition.

  7. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  8. Multiple seeds sensitivity using a single seed with threshold.

    PubMed

    Egidi, Lavinia; Manzini, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Spaced seeds are a fundamental tool for similarity search in biosequences. The best sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs are obtained using many seeds simultaneously: This is known as the multiple seed approach. Unfortunately, spaced seeds use a large amount of memory and the available RAM is a practical limit to the number of seeds one can use simultaneously. Inspired by some recent results on lossless seeds, we revisit the approach of using a single spaced seed and considering two regions homologous if the seed hits in at least t sufficiently close positions. We show that by choosing the locations of the don't care symbols in the seed using quadratic residues modulo a prime number, we derive single seeds that when used with a threshold t > 1 have competitive sensitivity/selectivity trade-offs, indeed close to the best multiple seeds known in the literature. In addition, the choice of the threshold t can be adjusted to modify sensitivity and selectivity a posteriori, thus enabling a more accurate search in the specific instance at issue. The seeds we propose also exhibit robustness and allow flexibility in usage.

  9. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  10. Renal Type A Intercalated Cells Contain Albumin in Organelles with Aldosterone-Regulated Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells. PMID:25874770

  11. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  12. Genetic analysis of seed yield, oil content and their components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Ramachandram, M; Goud, J V

    1981-05-01

    The genetic architecture of seed yield, oil content and their components was studied in a diallel cross of F1 and F2: eleven parents, representing an adequate diversity for all considered characters in safflower were used. Combining ability analysis revealed the predominance of gca variance for plant height, total capitula, seed weight, seed number and seed yield in F1 and F2 generations and for days to flowering and oil content in F1. The analysis of components of variance indicated that the non-additive factor was the major influence on total capitula and seed yield in F1s, and F2s, and on plant height, seed weight and seed number in the F2 alone. The heterogeneity of the dominance component over generations has been attributed to coupling phase linkage. All four Indian parents, namely S 144, A1, MS 49 and 6 spl, together with G 1157 and US 104 in the exotic group, were the best combiners for seed yield and/or for one of its components while the remainder of the exotic parents were characterized by high gca effects for oil content. VFstp 1 and Frio were the only parents approximating both properties of oil content and seed yield. Breeding methods, such as biparental mating followed by reciprocal recurrent selection, were suggested for the simultaneous improvement of seed yield and oil content.

  13. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  14. Quantitation of the residual DNA from rice-derived recombinant human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Dai, Huixia; Liu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Liping; Pang, Jianlei; Ou, Jiquan; Yang, Daichang

    2014-04-01

    Residual DNA in recombinant protein pharmaceuticals can potentially cause safety issues in clinical applications; thus, maximum residual limit has been established by drug safety authorities. Assays for residual DNA in Escherichia coli, yeast, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression systems have been established, but no rice residual DNA assay for rice expression systems has been designed. To develop an assay for the quantification of residual DNA that is produced from rice seed, we established a sensitive assay using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. We found that a 40-cycle qPCR exhibited a linear response when the template concentration was in the range of 2×10(4) to 0.2pg of DNA per reaction in TaqMan and SYBR Green I assays. The amplification efficiency was 103 to 104%, and the amount of residual DNA from recombinant human serum albumin from Oryza sativa (OsrHSA) was less than 3.8ng per dosage, which was lower than that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results indicate that the current purification protocol could efficiently remove residual DNA during manufacturing and processing. Furthermore, this protocol could be viable in other cereal crop endosperm expression systems for developing a residual DNA quantitation assay using the highly conserved 5S rRNA gene of the crops.

  15. Binding of diazepam, salicylic acid and digitoxin to albumin isolated from fetal and adult serum.

    PubMed

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The binding of diazepam (1 microM), salicylic acid (2 mM) and digitoxin (6 nM) to albumin (40 g/l) was measured by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C. The unbound fraction (mean +/- SD) for fetal and adult albumin of diazepam was 1.86 +/- 0.24 and 1.82 +/- 0.15% (NS), that of digitoxin was 3.18 +/- 0.27 and 3.36 +/- 0.04% (NS) and that of salicylic acid was 11.65 +/- 0.99 and 9.47 +/- 0.75% (p less than 0.05), respectively. With both fetal and adult albumin, a single class of binding sites was observed for diazepam and digitoxin, whereas two classes of binding sites were observed for salicylic acid. The number of binding sites (n, moles of drug per mole of albumin) for fetal and adult albumin was 0.83 and 1.02 for diazepam and 0.014 and 0.018 for digitoxin, respectively. For salicylic acid, n was 1.45 (fetal albumin) and 1.55 (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 3.06 (fetal albumin) and 3.27 (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. The association constant (Ka, M-1) for diazepam was 1.36 x 10(5) (fetal albumin) and 1.00 x 10(5) (adult albumin) and that for digitoxin was 4.12 x 10(6) (fetal albumin) and 2.7 x 10(6) (adult albumin). For salicylic acid, Ka was 38.4 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 35.8 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 2.7 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 4.3 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. This work shows that fetal and adult albumin have similar binding properties and corroborates our previous findings with furosemide.

  16. A monoclonal IgM protein with antibody-like activity for human albumin.

    PubMed

    Hauptman, S; Tomasi, T B

    1974-03-01

    The serum of a patient (L'ec) with an IgM lambda monoclonal protein was noted to bind albumin on immunoelectrophoresis. Analytical ultracentrifugation of the L'ec serum demonstrated 23S and 12S peaks, but no 4S (albumin) boundary. Immunologically identical 20S and 9S IgM proteins were isolated from the serum and the addition in vitro of either the patient's albumin or albumin isolated from normal serum was shown to reconstitute the 23S and 12S boundaries. The binding of high molecular weight IgM to albumin was demonstated by Sephadex G200 chromatography with (125)I-labeled albumin and isolated IgM. Immunoelectrophoresis of the L'ec IgM developed with aggregated albumin (reverse immunoelectrophoresis) also demonstrated the binding of albumin to IgM. That all of the patient's IgM complexed with albumin was shown by affinity chromatography employing an aggregated albumin-immunoadsorbent column. Binding was shown to be of the noncovalent type by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 8 M urea. With hot trypsin proteolysis, Fabmu and Fcmu5 fragments were isolated, and monomer albumin was shown to complex only with the Fabmu fragment by both analytical ultracentrifugation and molecular sieve chromatogaphy employing (125)I-labeled Fab fragments. 1 mol of Fabmu fragment bound 1 mol of monomer albumin. Polymers of human albumin, produced by heat aggregation, precipitated with the isolated L'ec protein on gel diffusion analysis and, when coated on sheep red blood cells, gave a hemagglutination titer greater than 1 million with the whole L'ec serum. 50 additional monoclonal IgM, 33 IgA, and 80 IgG sera failed to show precipitation or hemagglutination with aggregated albumin. Native monomer albumin inhibited precipitation only at high concentrations (> 50 mg/ml); dimer albumin or fragments of albumin produced by trypsin digestion inhibited at low concentrations (0.4 mg/ml). No reactivity occurred with the albumin of five other mammalian species, including bovine. The L

  17. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  18. [Excess mortality in critically ill patients after treatment with human albumin].

    PubMed

    Offringa, M; Gemke, R J; Henny, C P

    1998-08-15

    According to the results of a systematic review of randomized clinical studies administration of human albumin to critically ill patients is associated with excess mortality, compared with withholding albumin or administration of crystalloid fluids. The study appears to be well done. Also, there are various explanatory pathophysiological mechanisms supporting the association. However, a favourable effect of albumin in certain patient groups cannot be excluded. Alternatives to albumin are available in most clinical situations, but unfortunately, they are not completely without drawbacks. The use of albumin has to be limited; it might only be abolished when a better effect of other fluids, such as synthetic solutions, is demonstrated.

  19. The decomposition of H 2S on Ni(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntley, D. R.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorbed H 2S decomposes on Ni(110) to form primarily surface S and H for coverages of less than 0.5 ML. The hydrogen evolves in two separate TPD peaks, characteristic of hydrogen recombination and desorption from the clean surface and from regions perturbed by chemisorbed sulfur. XPS and HREELS indicate the presence of SH and possibly H 2S groups on the surface at 110 K. The XPS data indicates that for coverages less than about 0.5 ML, the concentration of molecular H 2S is small, but it is difficult to asess the coverage of SH groups. However, all of the molecular species decompose prior to hydrogen desorption (for high coverage, 180 K). Physisorbed H 2S is observed on the surface for coverages greater than about 0.5 ML. The sulfur Auger lineshape was observed to be a function of both coverage and temperature. The changes in the lineshape were attributed to perturbations in local bonding interactions between the S and the Ni surface, perhaps involving some change in either bonding sites or distances but not involving SH bond scission. The decomposition reaction was modeled using a bond order conservation method which successfully reproduced the experimental results.

  20. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+)) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+) is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our

  1. H2S during circulatory shock: Some unresolved questions

    PubMed Central

    McCook, Oscar; Radermacher, Peter; Volani, Chiara; Asfar, Pierre; Ignatius, Anita; Kemmler, Julia; Möller, Peter; Szabó, Csaba; Whiteman, Matthew; Wood, Mark E.; Wang, Rui; Georgieff, Michael; Wachter, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Numerous papers have been published on the role of H2S during circulatory shock. Consequently, knowledge about vascular sulfide concentrations may assume major importance, in particular in the context of “acute on chronic disease”, i.e., during circulatory shock in animals with pre-existing chronic disease. This review addresses the questions i) of the “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock, and, ii) to which extent injury and pre-existing co-morbidity may affect the expression of H2S producing enzymes under these conditions. In the literature there is a huge range on sulfide blood levels during circulatory shock, in part as a result of the different analytical methods used, but also due to the variable of the models and species studied. Clearly, some of the very high levels reported should be questioned in the context of the well-known H2S toxicity. As long as “real” sulfide levels during circulatory shock are unknown and/or undetectable “on line” due to the lack of appropriate techniques, it appears to be premature to correlate the measured blood levels of hydrogen sulfide with the severity of shock or the H2S therapy-related biological outcomes. The available data on the tissue expression of the H2S-releasing enzymes during circulatory shock suggest that a “constitutive” CSE expression may play a crucial role of for the maintenance of organ function, at least in the kidney. The data also indicate that increased CBS and CSE expression, in particular in the lung and the liver, represents an adaptive response to stress states. PMID:24650697

  2. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  3. Seeds: A Celebration of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bob

    The Space Exposed Experiment Developed for Students (SEEDS) Project offered science classes at the 5-12 and college levels the opportunity to conduct experiments involving tomato seeds that had been space-exposed over long periods of time. SEEDS kits were complete packages obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for…

  4. Spectroscopic approach of the interaction study of amphiphilic drugs with the serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-10-15

    The interaction of the amphiphilic drugs, i.e., amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT) and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT), with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), has been examined by the various spectroscopic techniques, like fluorescence, UV-vis, and circular dichroism (CD). Fluorescence results indicate that in case of HSA-drug complexes the quenching of fluorescence intensity at 280 nm is less effective as compared to at 295 nm while in case of BSA-drug complexes both have almost same effect and for most of drug-serum albumin complexes there is only one independent class of binding. For all drug-serum albumin complexes the quenching rate constant (K(q)) values suggest the static quenching procedure. The UV-vis results show that the change in protein conformation of PMT-serum albumin complexes was more prominent as compared to AMT-serum albumin complexes. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with drugs. The increase in α-helical structure for AMT-serum albumin complexes is found to be more as compared to PMT-serum albumin complexes. Hence, the various spectroscopic techniques provide a quantitative understanding of the binding of amphiphilic drugs with serum albumins.

  5. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Castro, Nathan J; Condon, Brian; Costable, Carmen; Goheen, Steven C

    2012-05-01

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatographic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressings is adsorption and accumulation of proteins like albumin at the solid-liquid interface of the biological fluid and wound dressing fiber. To better understand the effect of fiber charge and molecular modifications in cellulose-containing fibers on the binding of serum albumin as observed in protease sequestrant dressings, albumin binding to modified cotton fibers was compared with traditional and chromatographic isotherms. Modified cotton including carboxymethylated, citrate-crosslinked, dialdehyde and phosphorylated cotton, which sequester elastase and collagenase, were compared for their albumin binding isotherms. Albumin isotherms on citrate-cellulose, cross-linked cotton demonstrated a two-fold increased binding affinity over untreated cotton. A comparison of albumin binding between traditional, solution isotherms and chromatographic isotherms on modified cellulose yielded similar equilibrium constants. Application of the binding affinity of albumin obtained in the in vitro protein isotherm to the in vivo wound dressing uptake of the protein is discussed. The chromatographic approach to assessment of albumin isotherms on modified cellulose offers a more rapid approach to evaluating protein binding on modified cellulose over traditional solution approaches.

  6. Comparison of albumin receptors expressed on bovine and human group G streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Raeder, R; Otten, R A; Boyle, M D

    1991-01-01

    The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G streptococci was extracted and affinity purified. The protein was characterized for species reactivity, and monospecific antibodies were prepared to the purified receptor. The bovine group G albumin receptor was compared functionally, antigenically, and for DNA homology with the albumin-binding protein expressed by human group G streptococci. In agreement with previous reports, the albumin-binding activity of human strains was mediated by a unique domain of the type III immunoglobulin G-Fc-binding molecule, protein G. The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G strains was found to lack any immunoglobulin G-binding potential but displayed a wider profile of species albumin reactivity than protein G. Both albumin receptors could inhibit the binding of the other to immobilized human serum albumin, and each displayed similar binding properties. Antigenic comparison of the two albumin receptors demonstrated a low level of cross-reactivity; however comparison at the DNA level, using an oligonucleotide probe specific for the albumin-binding region of protein G, demonstrated that the two albumin receptors expressed by human and bovine group G streptococcal strains do not display significant homology. Images PMID:1846128

  7. Impaired Albumin Uptake and Processing Promote Albuminuria in OVE26 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Long, Y. S.; Zheng, S.; Kralik, P. M.; Benz, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of proximal tubules dysfunction to diabetic albuminuria is uncertain. OVE26 mice have the most severe albuminuria of all diabetic mouse models but it is not known if impaired tubule uptake and processing are contributing factors. In the current study fluorescent albumin was used to follow the fate of albumin in OVE26 and normal mice. Compared to normal urine, OVE26 urine contained at least 23 times more intact fluorescent albumin but only 3-fold more 70 kD fluorescent dextran. This indicated that a function other than size selective glomerular sieving contributed to OVE26 albuminuria. Imaging of albumin was similar in normal and diabetic tubules for 3 hrs after injection. However 3 days after injection a subset of OVE26 tubules retained strong albumin fluorescence, which was never observed in normal mice. OVE26 tubules with prolonged retention of injected albumin lost the capacity to take up albumin and there was a significant correlation between tubules unable to eliminate fluorescent albumin and total albuminuria. TUNEL staining revealed a 76-fold increase in cell death in OVE26 tubules that retained fluorescent albumin. These results indicate that failure to process and dispose of internalized albumin leads to impaired albumin uptake, increased albuminuria, and tubule cell apoptosis. PMID:27822483

  8. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  9. The Seeds of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Herman J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "Seeds of Change," a Columbian quincentenary exhibition at the Smithsonian Institution. Describes the rapid transformation of the Americas after contact with the Europeans. Reports that the exhibit explores the destruction of the native population by disease, war, slavery, the ongoing decimation of the rain forest, and the…

  10. Seed cotton unloading systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this article was to review the literature and describe the current technology used by U.S. cotton gins for seed cotton unloading. Unloading systems supply the gin with raw material. Their essential functions are 1) to remove non-cotton materials such as protective covers used duri...

  11. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  12. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression.

  13. Serum albumin analysis for type II diabetes detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Cao, Gang; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Zufang; Li, Ling; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy combined with membrane electrophoresis (ME) was firstly employed to detect albumin variation in type II diabetic development. Albumin was first purified from human serum by ME and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS spectral analysis. SERS spectra were obtained from blood albumin samples of 20 diabetic patients and 19 healthy volunteers. Subtle but discernible changes in the acquired mean spectra of the two groups were observed. Tentative assignment of albumin SERS bands indicated specific structural changes of albumin molecule with diabetic development. Meanwhile, PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms were employed to classify the two kinds of albumin SERS spectra, yielding the diagnostic sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.7%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that the EM-SERS method in combination with multivariate statistical analysis has great potential for the label-free detection of albumin variation for improving type II diabetes screening.

  14. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  15. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  16. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  17. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  18. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  19. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation...

  20. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  1. Hepatic FcRn regulates albumin homeostasis and susceptibility to liver injury.

    PubMed

    Pyzik, Michal; Rath, Timo; Kuo, Timothy T; Win, Sanda; Baker, Kristi; Hubbard, Jonathan J; Grenha, Rosa; Gandhi, Amit; Krämer, Thomas D; Mezo, Adam R; Taylor, Zachary S; McDonnell, Kevin; Nienaber, Vicki; Andersen, Jan Terje; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Blumberg, Laurence; Purohit, Shalaka; Jones, Susan D; Christianson, Greg; Lencer, Wayne I; Sandlie, Inger; Kaplowitz, Neil; Roopenian, Derry C; Blumberg, Richard S

    2017-04-04

    The neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) is responsible for maintaining the long half-life and high levels of the two most abundant circulating proteins, albumin and IgG. In the latter case, the protective mechanism derives from FcRn binding to IgG in the weakly acidic environment contained within endosomes of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells, whereupon IgG is diverted from degradation in lysosomes and is recycled. The cellular location and mechanism by which FcRn protects albumin are partially understood. Here we demonstrate that mice with global or liver-specific FcRn deletion exhibit hypoalbuminemia, albumin loss into the bile, and increased albumin levels in the hepatocyte. In vitro models with polarized cells illustrate that FcRn mediates basal recycling and bidirectional transcytosis of albumin and uniquely determines the physiologic release of newly synthesized albumin into the basal milieu. These properties allow hepatic FcRn to mediate albumin delivery and maintenance in the circulation, but they also enhance sensitivity to the albumin-bound hepatotoxin, acetaminophen (APAP). As such, global or liver-specific deletion of FcRn results in resistance to APAP-induced liver injury through increased albumin loss into the bile and increased intracellular albumin scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Further, protection from injury is achieved by pharmacologic blockade of FcRn-albumin interactions with monoclonal antibodies or peptide mimetics, which cause hypoalbuminemia, biliary loss of albumin, and increased intracellular accumulation of albumin in the hepatocyte. Together, these studies demonstrate that the main function of hepatic FcRn is to direct albumin into the circulation, thereby also increasing hepatocyte sensitivity to toxicity.

  2. Recent Topics in Chemical and Clinical Research on Glycated Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The present review discusses how the glycation sites of lysine residues in HSA are modified with glucose, whereas the glycation sites of lysine residues are located inside of HSA as well as the direct comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c using human blood. Moreover, the most recent clinical researches on GA are described. PMID:25614014

  3. Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)-curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSA-CCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSA-CCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSA-CCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by β-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes.

  4. Tamoxifen and curcumin binding to serum albumin. Spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Maliszewska, M.; Pożycka, J.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Góra, A.; Sułkowska, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is widely used for the breast cancer treatment and is known as chemopreventive agent. Curcumin (CUR) is natural phenolic compound with broad spectrum of biological activity e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and chemopreventive. Combination of tamoxifen and curcumin could be more effective with lower toxicity than each agent alone in use for the treatment or chemoprevention of breast cancer. Binding of drugs to serum albumin is an important factor, which determines toxicity and therapeutic dosage of the drugs. When two drugs are administered together the competition between them for the binding site on albumin can result in a decrease in bound fraction and an increase in the concentration of free biologically active fraction of drug.

  5. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery. PMID:27274282

  6. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S.; Brandt, Nikolay N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Chikishev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND-protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  7. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin.

    PubMed

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S; Brandt, Nikolay N; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Chikishev, Andrey Yu

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND–protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  8. Interactive association of drugs binding to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Zhang, Yao; Liang, Hong

    2014-02-27

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an abundant plasma protein, which attracts great interest in the pharmaceutical industry since it can bind a remarkable variety of drugs impacting their delivery and efficacy and ultimately altering the drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Additionally, HSA is widely used in clinical settings as a drug delivery system due to its potential for improving targeting while decreasing the side effects of drugs. It is thus of great importance from the viewpoint of pharmaceutical sciences to clarify the structure, function, and properties of HSA-drug complexes. This review will succinctly outline the properties of binding site of drugs in IIA subdomain within the structure of HSA. We will also give an overview on the binding characterization of interactive association of drugs to human serum albumin that may potentially lead to significant clinical applications.

  9. Muscle beta-actinin is not chicken serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Kimura, S

    1981-08-01

    Recently, Heizmann et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 78, 74-77 (1981)) reported that muscle beta-actinin and serum albumin of the chicken are indistinguishable by physicochemical and immunological criteria. It should, however, be stated that the protein the above authors called beta-actinin was entirely different from genuine muscle beta-actinin (Maruyama et. al. (1977) J. Biochem 81, 215-232). In the present study, it was experimentally shown that chicken serum albumin does not have any of the actions of beta-actinin: inhibition of reassociation of F-actin fragments, retardation of depolymerization of F-actin, instability of F-actin, acceleration of polymerization of G-actin, and formation of Mg polymer. The role of muscle beta-actinin, a heterodimer of 37,000 and 34,000 daltons, in the regulation of myofibrillar structure is summarized.

  10. Stability of therapeutic albumin solutions used for molecular adsorbent recirculating system-based liver dialysis.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Tom; Meijers, Björn; Evenepoel, Pieter; Laub, Ruth; Willems, Ludo; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests beneficial effects of albumin dialysis-based liver support in patients suffering from acute-on-chronic liver failure. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a nonbiological liver support device, based on the exchange of albumin-bound toxins between the patient's blood and a 20% human serum albumin solution in a secondary circuit. Bound toxins are continuously removed from the circulating albumin by exposure to activated charcoal and an ion-exchange resin. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the impact of exposure to charcoal and resin on the ligand binding properties of albumins, containing various levels of stabilizers and obtained from different suppliers (Baxter, CAF-DCF [Red Cross], and Sigma-Aldrich). Albumin binding properties were assessed by measuring equilibrium binding properties of warfarin, diazepam, and salicylate before and after incubation (for up to 7 h) with adsorbing materials; albumin-associated esterase-like activities were also determined. Notable changes in albumin binding upon incubation with adsorbing materials were only observed when using warfarin as a ligand. Affinity of warfarin for the Baxter and Sigma albumins showed a pronounced decrease (higher K(d) ) after the 1-7-h exposure to charcoal or resin. In the absence of adsorbing materials, similar effects were found, indicating that incubation time per se affects albumin binding properties. Following exposure to resin, Baxter albumin binding capacity (B(max)) increased about twofold. For albumin obtained from CAF-DCF, binding affinity and capacity for warfarin were constant under all conditions tested. Esterase-like activities associated with these albumins were either maintained or enhanced (up to 2.5-fold in case of Sigma albumin) following 7-h incubations with adsorbing materials. Our data suggest limited direct influence of the presence of stabilizers in therapeutic albumin solutions on baseline binding properties of human

  11. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  12. Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of ηc(2 S ) and ψ (2 S ) states from full lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochi, Kazuki; Kawanai, Taichi; Sasaki, Shoichi

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the internal structure of radially excited charmonium mesons based on the equal-time and Coulomb gauge Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitudes, which are obtained in lattice QCD. Our simulations are performed with a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quark on the (2 +1 )-flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations at the lightest pion mass, Mπ=156 (7 ) MeV . The variational method is applied to the study of the optimal charmonium operators for ground and first excited states of S -wave charmonia. We successfully calculate the BS wave functions of ηc(2 S ) and ψ (2 S ) states, as well as ηc(1 S ) and J /ψ states, and then estimate the root-mean-square radii of both the 1 S and 2 S charmonium states. We also examine whether a series of the BS wave functions from the ground state to excited states can be described by a single set of the spin-independent and spin-dependent interquark potentials with a unique quark mass. It is found that the quark kinetic mass and both the central and the spin-spin charmonium potentials, determined from the 2 S wave functions, fairly agree with the ones from the 1 S wave functions. This strongly supports the validity of the potential description for the charmonium system—at least, below the open-charm threshold.

  13. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  14. Reactions of trimethylphosphine analogues of auranofin with bovine serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Isab, A.A.; Shaw, C.F. III; Hoeschele, J.D.; Locke, J.

    1988-10-05

    The reactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with (trimethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I), Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, and its chloro analogue, Me/sub 3/PAuCl, were studied to develop insights into the role of the phosphine ligand in the serum chemistry of the related antiarthritic drug auranofin (triethylphosphine)(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-..beta..-D-glucopyranosato-S)gold(I). /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy, protein modification, and gel-exclusion chromatography methods were employed. Comparison of the reactions of the methyl derivatives to the previously reported reactions of auranofin and Et/sub 3/PAuCl with BSA demonstrated that similar chemical species are formed but revealed three major differences. Despite these differences, the results for the methyl analogues provide important confirmation for previously developed chemical models of auranofin reactions in serum. Me/sub 3/PO was not observed in reaction mixtures lacking tetraacetylthioglucose (AtgSH); this result affirms the role of AtgSH, displaced by the reaction of Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg at Cys-34, in the generation of the phosphine oxide (an important metabolite in vivo). The weak binding sites on albumin react with Me/sub 3/PAuCl, but not Me/sub 3/PAuSAtg, demonstrating the importance of the strength and reactivity of the anionic ligand-gold bond on the reactions of auranofin analogues. The gold binding capacity of albumin is enhanced after Me/sub 3/PO is formed, consistent with reductive cleavage of albumin disulfide bonds by trimethylphosphine. 24 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Increased regional vascular albumin permeation in the rat during anaphylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, W.; Chang, K.; Williamson, J.R.; Jakschik, B.A.

    1989-03-15

    The changes in vascular albumin permeation induced by systemic anaphylaxis were studied simultaneously in 21 different tissues of the same animal. Before Ag challenge sensitized rats were injected i.v. with 125I-albumin (test tracer), 51Cr-RBC (vascular space marker) and 57Co-EDTA (extravascular space marker). The index of vascular permeation used was the tissue to blood isotope ratio (tbir), which was obtained by dividing the ratio of 125I/51Cr counts in each tissue by the ratio of the same isotopes in the arterial blood sample. After Ag challenge, the increase in the tbir varied considerably among the different tissues. The most pronounced increase was noted in the lymph node (ninefold) followed by the aorta and mesentery (six- to sevenfold) and the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (four- to sixfold). In the skin less than skeletal muscle less than lung less than liver and eye two- to fourfold increases occurred. Relatively minor increases in albumin permeation (less than twofold) were observed in the brain less than kidney less than heart and less than spleen. The testis was the only organ in which no significant change occurred. For some of the tissues there was also an increase in the tbir for 57Co/51Cr (an index of the extracellular fluid space) suggesting edema formation. The highest increase was noted in the aorta (fourfold). Minor increases occurred in the atrium of the heart, stomach, duodenum, and lymph nodes. There was also a 36% increase in hematocrit. Therefore, systemic anaphylaxis caused extensive extravasation of albumin and hemoconcentration.

  16. Cisplatin loaded albumin mesospheres for lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2015-01-01

    The low solubility of cisplatin in aqueous solution limits the treatment effectiveness and the application of cisplatin in various kinds of drug-eluting devices. Although cisplatin has a high solubility in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the toxicity of cisplatin can be greatly reduced while dissolved in DMSO. In this study, the solid powder of cisplatin-loaded albumin mesospheres (CDDP/DMSO-AMS), in a size range of 1 to 10 µm, were post-loaded with cisplatin and showed high cisplatin content (16% w/w) and effective cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. Cisplatin were efficiently absorbed into the albumin mesospheres (AMS) in DMSO and, most importantly, the toxicity of cisplatin was remained at 100% after the loading process. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS was designed for the intratumoral injection through the bronchoscopic catheter or dry powder inhalation (DPI) due to its high stability in air or in solution. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed a fast cisplatin release within 24 hours. In the in vitro study, CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed high effectiveness on killing the lung cancer cells including the non-small cell lung cancer (NCL-H23 and A549), malignant mesothelioma (CRL-2081) and the mouse lung carcinoma (Lewis lung carcinoma) cell lines. The albumin based mesospheres provide an ideal loading matrix for cisplatin and other metal-based drugs due to the high swelling degree and fast uptake rate in the organic solvents with high polarity. In addition, to investigate the effects of polysaccharides, such as chitosan and chondroitin, on enhancing loading efficiency and lasting cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the polysaccharide-modified albumin mesospheres were synthesized and loaded with cisplatin in this study. PMID:25973300

  17. Enzymatic activity of albumin shown by coelenterazine chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Vassel, N; Cox, C D; Naseem, R; Morse, V; Evans, R T; Power, R L; Brancale, A; Wann, K T; Campbell, A K

    2012-01-01

    Bioluminescence, the emission of light from live organisms, occurs in 18 phyla and is the major communication system in the deep sea. It has appeared independently many times during evolution but its origins remain unknown. Coelenterazine bioluminescence discovered in luminous jellyfish is the most common chemistry causing bioluminescence in the sea, occurring in seven phyla. Sequence similarities between coelenterazine luciferases and photoproteins from different phyla are poor (often < 5%). The aim of this study was to examine albumin that binds organic substances as a coelenterazine luciferase to test the hypothesis that the evolutionary origin of a bioluminescent protein was the result of the formation of a solvent cage containing just a few key amino acids. The results show for the first time that bovine and human albumin catalysed coelenterazine chemiluminescence consistent with a mono-oxygenase, whereas gelatin and haemoglobin, an oxygen carrier, had very weak activity. Insulin also catalysed coelenterazine chemiluminescence and was increased by Zn(2+). Albumin chemiluminescence was heat denaturable, exhibited saturable substrate characteristics and was inhibited by cations that bound these proteins and by drugs that bind to human albumin drug site I. Molecular modelling confirmed the coelenterazine binding site and identified four basic amino acids: lys195, arg222, his242 and arg257, potentially important in binding and catalysis similar to naturally occurring coelenterazine bioluminescent proteins. These results support the 'solvent cage' hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of enzymatic coelenterazine bioluminescent proteins. They also have important consequences in diseases such as diabetes, gut disorders and food intolerance where a mono-oxygenase could affect cell surface proteins.

  18. Albumin-conjugated C34 Peptide HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Cheryl A.; Nault, Geneviève; Galkina, Sofiya A.; Thibaudeau, Karen; Bakis, Peter; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Robitaille, Martin; Bellomo, Maryanne; Paradis, Véronique; Liscourt, Patricia; Lobach, Alexandra; Rivard, Marie-Ève; Ptak, Roger G.; Mankowski, Marie K.; Bridon, Dominique; Quraishi, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Entry inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) have been the focus of much recent research. C34, a potent fusion inhibitor derived from the HR2 region of gp41, was engineered into a 1:1 human serum albumin conjugate through stable covalent attachment of a maleimido-C34 analog onto cysteine 34 of albumin. This bioconjugate, PC-1505, was designed to require less frequent dosing and less peptide than T-20 and was assessed for its antifusogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo in the SCID-hu Thy/Liv mouse model. PC-1505 was essentially equipotent to the original C34 peptide and to T-20 in vitro. In HIV-1-infected SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, T-20 lost activity with infrequent dosing, whereas the antiviral potency of PC-1505 was sustained, and PC-1505 was active against T-20-resistant (“DIV”) virus with a G36D substitution in gp41. The in vivo results are the direct result of a significantly improved pharmacokinetic profile for the C34 peptide following albumin conjugation. Contrary to previous reports that the gp41 NHR trimer is poorly accessible to C34 fused to protein cargoes of increasing size (Hamburger, A. E., Kim, S., Welch, B. D., and Kay, M. S. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 12567–12572), these results are the first demonstration of the capacity for a large, endogenous serum protein to gain unobstructed access to the transient gp41 intermediates that exist during the HIV fusion process, and it supports further development of albumin conjugation as a promising approach to inhibit HIV-1 entry. PMID:18809675

  19. Binding of several benzodiazepines to bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicote, Roberta G.; Pacheco, María E.; Bruzzone, Liliana

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of lorazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters Δ H, Δ G and Δ S were calculated. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were also investigated. The distances between the donor (BSA) and the acceptors (benzodiazepines) were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and conformational changes of BSA were observed from synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  20. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  1. Binding sites of retinol and retinoic acid with serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Belatik, A; Hotchandani, S; Bariyanga, J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2012-02-01

    Retinoids are effectively transported in the bloodstream via serum albumins. We report the complexation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with retinol and retinoic acid at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various retinoid contents. FTIR, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were used to analyze retinoid binding site, the binding constant and the effects of complexation on BSA stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that retinoids bind BSA via hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with overall binding constants of K(Ret)(-BSA) = 5.3 (±0.8) × 10(6) M(-1) and K(Retac-BSA) = 2.3 (±0.4) × 10(6) M(-1). The number of bound retinoid molecules (n) was 1.20 (±0.2) for retinol and 1.8 (±0.3) for retinoic acid. Molecular modeling showed the participation of several amino acids in retinoid-BSA complexes stabilized by H-bonding network. The retinoid binding altered BSA conformation with a major reduction of α-helix from 61% (free BSA) to 36% (retinol-BSA) and 26% (retinoic acid-BSA) with an increase in turn and random coil structures indicating a partial protein unfolding. The results indicate that serum albumins are capable of transporting retinoids in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Wajant, Harald

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  3. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

    1989-05-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

  4. Immunodetection of Serum Albumin Adducts as Biomarkers for Organophosphorus Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sigeng; Zhang, Jun; Lumley, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in organophosphate (OP) research has been the identification and utilization of reliable biomarkers for the rapid, sensitive, and efficient detection of OP exposure. Although Tyr 411 OP adducts to human serum albumin (HSA) have been suggested to be one of the most robust biomarkers in the detection of OP exposure, the analysis of HSA-OP adduct detection has been limited to techniques using mass spectrometry. Herein, we describe the procurement of two monoclonal antibodies (mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX) that recognized the HSA Tyr 411 adduct of soman (GD) or S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), respectively, but did not recognize nonphosphonylated HSA. We showed that mAb-HSA-GD was able to detect the HSA Tyr 411 OP adduct at a low level (i.e., human blood plasma treated with 180 nM GD) that could not be detected by mass spectrometry. mAb-HSA-GD and mAb-HSA-VX showed an extremely low-level detection of GD adducted to HSA (on the order of picograms). mAb-HSA-GD could also detect serum albumin OP adducts in blood plasma samples from different animals administered GD, including rats, guinea pigs, and monkeys. The ability of the two antibodies to selectively recognize nerve agents adducted to serum albumin suggests that these antibodies could be used to identify biomarkers of OP exposure and provide a new biologic approach to detect OP exposure in animals. PMID:23192655

  5. [Sero-ascitic gradient of albumin: usefulness and diagnostic limitations].

    PubMed

    Alba, D; Torres, E; Vázquez, J J

    1995-08-01

    The serum-ascites albumin (SAA) gradient has been defined as the serum albumin concentration minus the ascitic fluid albumin concentration. The SAA gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept to classify ascites, being a exact portal hypertension (PH) marker. An elevated SAA gradient (1.1 g/L or greater) correlates with PH, whereas a low gradient indicates no PH. The SAA gradient correlates well with PH in cirrhotic patients. It is also of particular utility to differentiate between congestive heart failure and malignant ascites without liver metastases (both of them with elevated ascites fluid proteins -AFP-). However, a low SAA gradient do not differentiate between tuberculous and malignant ascites. Consequently, there are still need for tests a cytology, culture for mycobacteria or ascites fluid polymorphonuclear cell count in some cases. The level of AFP, apart from the exudate-transudate concept, has some value for certain cases (a low level of AFP implicates a high risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis). The SAA gradient should replace the AFP concentration as the initial test to classify ascites.

  6. Effect of tribology processes on adsorption of albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Wang, Linghe; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2016-03-01

    As soon as artificial joint replacements are implanted into patients, the adsorption of proteins can occur. Joint implants operate in a protein-rich and relatively corrosive environment under tribological contact. The contacted area acted as an anodic part and the rest of the surface was more cathodic. Therefore, the adsorption of proteins is different in and outside the wear track. Adsorbed proteins would denature during rubbing and a tribofilm could form. The tribofilm can lubricate the surface and act as a barrier to corrosion damage. However, to observe the adsorption of proteins in situ has always been a challenge. Scanning Kelvin probe force microscope (SKPFM) was used to study the adsorption of albumin on the surface of CoCrMo alloy under simulated tribology movement. Fluorescence microscopy (FM) was employed to reveal the protein molecules in the wear scar. It was found that albumin molecules can decrease the surface potential and accelerate the corrosion process. In the wear track, albumin denatured and changed the surface potential as time progressed.

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  8. Optical Properties of In2S3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, I. V.; Polubok, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    Laser deposition on substrates at temperatures of 480, 610, and 720 K has been used to produce films of the compound In2S3. Single crystals of this compound grown by the Bridgeman-Stockbarger method are used as targets. The composition is determined by x-ray spectral analysis and the structure of the resulting crystals and films is determined by x-ray methods. Both the crystals and the films crystallize into a tetragonal spinel structure. Transmission spectra in the region of the intrinsic absorption edge are used to determine the width of the band gap and the refractive index of the In2S3 films. The band gap width is found to increase as the substrate temperature is raised.

  9. Hot gas, regenerative, supported H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from moderately high temperature (usually 200.degree. C.-550.degree.C.) gas streams comprise a porous, high surface area aluminosilicate support, suitably a zeolite, and most preferably a sodium deficient zeolite containing 1 to 20 weight percent of binary metal oxides. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O contained in the support. The sorbent effectively removes H.sub.2 S from the host gas stream in high efficiency and can be repetitively regenerated at least 10 times without loss of activity.

  10. Magic Wavelength for the Hydrogen 1S-2S Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Akio

    2016-05-01

    The state of the art precision measurement of the transition frequencies of neutral atoms is performed with atoms trapped by the magic wavelength optical lattice that cancels the ac Stark shift of the transitions. Trapping with magic wavelength lattice is also expected to improve the precision of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency, which so far has been measured only with the atomic beam. In this talk, I discuss the magic wavelength for the hydrogen 1S-2S transition, and the possibility of implementing the optical lattice trapping for hydrogen. Optical trapping of hydrogen also opens the way to perform magnetic field free spectroscopy of antihydrogen for the test of CPT theorem.

  11. Measurement of the muonium 1S-2S transition frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann, K.; Baird, P.E.G.; Barr, J.R.M.; Berkeland, D.; Boshier, M.G.; Braun, B.; Eaton, G.H.; Ferguson, A.I.; Geerds, H.; Hughes, V.W.; Maas, F.; Matthias, B.E.; Matousek, P.; Persaud, M.; zu Putlitz, G.; Reinhard, I.; Riis, E.; Sandars, P.G.H.; Schwarz, W.; Toner, W.T.; Towrie, M.; Willmann, L.; Woodle, K.A.; Woodman, G.

    1995-04-01

    Resonant ionization spectroscopy has been employed for measuring the 1{sup 2}{ital S}{sub 1/2}{minus}2{sup 2}{ital S}{sub 1/2} frequency difference in the hydrogen-like muonium atom to 2 455 529 002(33)(46) MHz. The 1S-2S two-photon transition was induced Doppler-free using two counter-propagating laser beams. The 2S state was photo-ionized by a third photon from the same laser field. The measurement agrees with QED theory within two standard deviations. The mass of the positive muon can be extracted from the isotope shifts in this transition to hydrogen and deuterium to 105.658 80(29)(43) MeV/c{sup 2}. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  12. Photoexcited Carrier Dynamics of In2S3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Robert F; Schaller, Richard D; Gosztola, David J; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Martinson, Alex B F

    2015-07-02

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) is a promising absorber base for substitutionally doped intermediate band photovoltaics (IBPV); however, the dynamics of charge carriers traversing the electronic density of states that determine the optical and electronic response of thin films under stimuli have yet to be explored. The kinetics of photophysical processes in In2S3 grown by oxygen-free atomic layer deposition are deduced from photoconductivity, photoluminescence (PL), and transient absorption spectroscopy. We develop a map of excited-state dynamics for polycrystalline thin films including a secondary conduction band ∼2.1 eV above the first, plus sulfur vacancy and indium interstitial defect levels resulting in long-lived (∼100 ns) transients. Band-edge recombination produces PL and stimulated emission, which both intensify and red-shift as deposition temperature and grain size increase. The effect of rapid conduction band electron relaxation (<30 ps) and deep defect levels on IBPV employing In2S3-based absorbers is finally considered.

  13. H2S mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low temperature methods of natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) in mixture with methane, CH4, altogether deemed as sub-quality or “sour” gas. We propose a unique method for activating this “sour” gas to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3, and an energy carrier, such as H2. For this purpose, we computationally investigated H2S mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species via direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4+H2S complex results in a barrier-less relaxation via a conical intersection to form a ground state CH3SH+H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH can further be heterogeneously coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons while the H2 can be used as a fuel. This process is very different from a conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced controllability over the process conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the currently industrially used methane steam reforming (SMR). PMID:24150813

  14. Superconductivity in semimetallic Bi3O2S3

    DOE PAGES

    Li, L.; Parker, D.; Babkevich, P.; ...

    2015-03-12

    We report in this paper a further investigation on the thermodynamic and transport properties, and an assessment of theoretical calculations, for the BiS2-layered Bi3O2S3 superconductor. The polycrystalline sample is synthesized with a superconducting transition temperature of Tconset=5.75K and Tczero=4.03K (≈Tcmag) that drops to 3.3 K by applying a hydrostatic pressure of 6 kbar. Density-of-states (DOS) calculations give substantial hybridization between Bi, O, and S, with Bi the largest component of DOS, which supports the idea that the BiS2 layer is relevant for producing electron-phonon coupling. An analysis of previously published specific heat data for Bi3O2S3 is additionally suggestive of amore » strong electron-phonon interaction in the Bi-O-S system. The analysis of the Seebeck coefficient results strongly suggests that Bi3O2S3 is a semimetal. In fact, we found the semimetallic or narrow band gap behavior may occur in certain other materials in the BiS2-layered class of materials, such as Bi4O4S3.« less

  15. H2S-mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric V

    2013-12-02

    Sustainable, low-temperature methods for natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) mixed with methane, deemed altogether as sub-quality or "sour" gas. We propose a unique method of activation to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3 , and an energy carrier such as H2. For this purpose, we investigated the H2S-mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species by means of direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4 + H2S complex resulted in a barrierless relaxation by a conical intersection to form a ground-state CH3SH + H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH could further be coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons, and the resulting H2 used as a fuel. This process is very different from conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced control over the conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the current industrial steam methane reforming (SMR).

  16. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM) and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed that this type of

  17. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  18. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  19. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as a Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-05-16

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in the formation of different types of chemical-protein adducts with different interaction sites or peptide sequences. Our goal is to generate a human albumin transgenic mouse model that can be used to establish human protein biomarkers of exposure to hazardous xenobiotics for human risk assessment via animal studies. We have developed a human albumin transgenic mouse model and characterized the genotype and phenotype of the transgenic mice. The presence of the human albumin gene in the genome of the model mouse was confirmed by genomic PCR analysis, whereas liver-specific expression of the transgenic human albumin mRNA was validated by RT-PCR analysis. Further immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the transgenic human albumin protein is a full-length, mature protein, which is less abundant than the endogenous mouse albumin that coexists in the serum of the transgenic mouse. The transgenic protein was able to form ex vivo adducts with a genotoxic metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a procarcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. This novel human albumin transgenic mouse model will facilitate the development and validation of albumin-carcinogen adducts as biomarkers of xenobiotic exposure and/or toxicity in humans.

  20. Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    PubMed

    Liddelow, Shane A; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C; Noor, Natassya M; Wheaton, Benjamin J; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of specialised

  1. Albumin binding as a potential biomarker of exposure to moderately low levels of organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tarhoni, Mabruka H; Lister, Timothy; Ray, David E; Carter, Wayne G

    2008-06-01

    We have evaluated the potential of plasma albumin to provide a sensitive biomarker of exposure to commonly used organophosphorus pesticides in order to complement the widely used measure of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Rat or human plasma albumin binding by tritiated-diisopropylfluorophosphate ((3)H-DFP) was quantified by retention of albumin on glass microfibre filters. Preincubation with unlabelled pesticide in vitro or dosing of F344 rats with pesticide in vivo resulted in a reduction in subsequent albumin radiolabelling with (3)H-DFP, the decrease in which was used to quantify pesticide binding. At pesticide exposures producing approximately 30% inhibition of AChE, rat plasma albumin binding in vitro by azamethiphos (oxon), chlorfenvinphos (oxon), chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon and malaoxon was reduced from controls by 9+/-1%, 67+/-2%, 56+/-2%, 54+/-2% and 8+/-1%, respectively. After 1 h of incubation with 19 microM (3)H-DFP alone, the level of binding to rat or human plasma albumins reached 0.011 or 0.039 moles of DFP per mole of albumin, respectively. This level of binding could be further increased by raising the concentration of (3)H-DFP, increasing the (3)H-DFP incubation time, or by substitution of commercial albumins for native albumin. Pesticide binding to albumin was presumed covalent since it survived 24 h dialysis. After dosing rats with pirimiphos-methyl (dimethoxy) or chlorfenvinphos (oxon) (diethoxy) pesticides, the resultant albumin binding were still significant 7 days after dosing. As in vitro, dosing of rats with malathion did not result in significant albumin binding in vivo. Our results suggest albumin may be a useful additional biomonitor for moderately low-level exposures to several widely used pesticides, and that this binding differs markedly between pesticides.

  2. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  3. Seed-to-Seed-to-Seed Growth and Development of Arabidopsis in Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce M.; Busse, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves. Key Words: Arabidopsis—Branch—Inflorescence—Microgravity—Morphology—Seed—Space. Astrobiology 14, 866–875. PMID:25317938

  4. Nanostructured all-solid-state supercapacitor based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, Brian E.; Jones, Christina M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Stoldt, Conrad R.

    2012-03-01

    While today's lithium-ion batteries offer acceptable energy storage capability, they lack the ability to be cycled repeatedly more than a couple thousand times. Electrochemical capacitors, i.e., supercapacitors, are being developed whose lifetimes exceed 1 × 106 cycles and power densities surpass those of batteries by several times. Here, we present an all-solid-state supercapacitor using a Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte as both separator and ion conductor. Three device architectures are examined including two with nanostructured electrodes which incorporate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Cyclic voltammograms and electrochemical impedance measurements demonstrate that these devices develop reversible double layer capacitance, and a maximum of 7.75 F/g is achieved in the device constructed by mechanically mixing the nanostructured electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy explains non-idealities observed when MWCNTs are incorporated in the electrode layers.

  5. A new approach: Li2S-P2S5 thin-films prepared by thermal evaporation as solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung Pil; Kakati, Nitul; Kim, In Yea; Lee, Seok Hee; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-08-01

    Li2S-P2S5 thin-film solid electrolytes are synthesized by using room-temperature thermal evaporation for use as lithium-ion conductors for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. The local structures of 75.51Li2S:24.49P2S5 and 77.64Li2S:22.36P2S5 prepared in this way have hetero units that facilitate lithium-ion mobility. The lithium-ion conductivity at room temperature for the 77.64Li2S:22.36P2S5 thin-film (4.0 × 10-6 S cm-1) is higher than that for the 75.51Li2S:24.49P2S5 thin-film (1.2 × 10-6 S cm-1). The increased ion conductivity in the 77.64Li2S:22.36P2S5 film is due to the additional local P2S7 4- structure that forms a glassy state during the thermal evaporation process. The local structure can lead to a high mobility of Li+ ions in the Li2S-P2S5 system due to the non-bridging sulfide ions. Lithium-ion-conducting thin-films prepared by using thermal evaporation, as reported in this study, are promising solid electrolytes.

  6. NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}S advances

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.; Krishnan, G.N.; Hung, S.L.

    1993-08-01

    The following preliminary conclusions can be derived from the above-mentioned experimental results: (1) HTSR-1, a nickel-based catalyst has a high activity for NH{sub 3} decomposition at 725{degree}C in simulated coal gas streams under low H{sub 2}S levels. (2) HTSR-1 when mixed with a desulfurization sorbent such as zinc titanate could decompose NH{sub 3} effectively until the removal of H{sub 2}S by zinc titanate decreases. (3) HTSR-1 continues to exhibit an activity for NH{sub 3} decomposition even after exposure to zinc titanate regeneration conditions. (4) MoS{sub 2} is also a catalyst for the decomposition of NH{sub 3}. However, its surface area needs to be maintained by addition of suitable stabilizing agents for sustained activity. Sorbent-catalyst samples of zinc titanate doped with cobalt-molybdenum were prepared by first crushing and sieving pellets of zinc titanate sorbents (L-3774M). The zinc titanate powders were then placed into an aqueous solution having the desired total amount of molybdenum (in the form of molybdic acid). The water was then dried and the powder heated and calcined. To add cobalt to the Mo-coated powder, the powder was then placed into a solution of cobalt nitrate containing the appropriate amount of the cobalt precursor followed by drying and calcination. The sorbent-catalyst samples were then activated (presulfided) by introducing H{sub 2}S in a controlled reducing environment. Samples of nickel-molybdenum-zinc titanate were prepared by using nickel nitrate instead of cobalt nitrate in the described procedure.

  7. AC electrical properties of FeIn2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niftiev, N. N.; Tagiev, O. B.; Muradov, M. B.; Mamedov, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    The frequency and temperature dependences of the ac capacitance and resistivity of FeIn2S4 semiconductors are studied. Resonances are observed at certain temperatures in the frequency range (2.5-5.0) × 105 Hz. The permittivity of the crystals and the activation energy of charge carriers are determined. It is found that electrical conduction in the given temperature interval is governed by an activation mechanism. The activation energy is frequency-dependent, because the relaxation time of barrier layers decreases with rising frequency.

  8. An inhibitor to rubella hemagglutination present in bovine albumin preparations: its removal by treatment with kaolin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J B; Ellins, M L; Tasios, C

    1977-07-18

    Certain commercial preparations of bovine albumin, fraction V, show inhibitory activity in the rubella hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. This does not appear to be due to albumin per se, but instead to a contaminant (or contaminants) with the properties of a lipoprotein. All inhibitory activity can be removed from albumin preparations by treatment with kaolin, gel filtration, or flotation ultracentrifugation. We have found that, even when there was no inhibition of HA titers, kaolin treatment of the albumins prior to their incorporation into the test diluent resulted in more clearly defined agglutination patterns. Reasons for and against including albumin in the test diluent are discussed. It is concluded that, although not essential, it is a worthwhile additive. Our data suggest, however, that each batch of albumin used for this purpose should be checked for the presence of inhibitor, and that treatment with kaolin might be considered as a routine step prior to its incorporation into the test diluent.

  9. Decreased level of albumin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Tae; Yun, Chul-Ho; Bae, Chun-Sik; Ahn, Taeho

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the phenotypic level of albumin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A specific reduction of albumin was identified by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Decreased albumin content was also confirmed by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Since albumin is a major and predominant antioxidant in plasma, the PBMC albumin may also contribute to their antioxidant activity. By measuring the amount of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and the redox form of glutathione, it was found that the production of the oxidative stress was elevated in STZ-diabetic rats compared to that of normal control. We suggest, therefore, that decreased albumin content may lead to the decreased antioxidant activity in the PBMC of type 1 diabetic rats.

  10. Aging-associated oxidized albumin promotes cellular senescence and endothelial damage

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Carlos; Alique, Matilde; Navalmoral, Estefanía; Noci, Maria-Victoria; Bohorquez-Magro, Lourdes; Carracedo, Julia; Ramírez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of oxidized proteins with aging have been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it is unclear whether oxidized albumin, which is the most abundant serum protein, induces endothelial damage. The results of this study indicated that with aging processes, the levels of oxidized proteins as well as endothelial microparticles release increased, a novel marker of endothelial damage. Among these, oxidized albumin seems to play a principal role. Through in vitro studies, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin exhibited an increment of endothelial damage markers such as adhesion molecules and apoptosis levels. In addition, albumin oxidation increased the amount of endothelial microparticles that were released. Moreover, endothelial cells with increased oxidative stress undergo senescence. In addition, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin shown a reduction in endothelial cell migration measured by wound healing. As a result, we provide the first evidence that oxidized albumin induces endothelial injury which then contributes to the increase of cardiovascular disease in the elderly subjects. PMID:27042026

  11. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  12. Commercial Seed Lots Exhibit Reduced Seed Dormancy in Comparison to Wild Seed Lots of Echinacea purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Chen, Ying; Scalzo, Richard; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Davis, Jeanine M.; Hancock, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Seed germination patterns were studied in E. purpurea (L.) Moench grouped by seed source, one group of seven lots from commercially cultivated populations and a second group of nine lots regenerated from ex situ conserved wild populations. Germination tests were conducted in a growth chamber in light (40 μmol·m−2·s−1) or darkness at 25 °C for 20 days after soaking the seeds in water for 10 minutes. Except for two seed lots from wild populations, better germination was observed for commercially cultivated populations in light (90% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 95%) and in darkness (88% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 97%) than for wild populations in light (56% mean among seed lots, ranging from 9% to 92%) or in darkness (37% mean among seed lots, ranging from 4% to 78%). No germination difference was measured between treatments in light and darkness in the commercially cultivated populations, but significant differences were noted for treatments among wild populations. These results suggest that repeated cycles of sowing seeds during cultivation without treatments for dormancy release resulted in reduced seed dormancy in E. purpurea. PMID:16429595

  13. The mechanical defence advantage of small seeds.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Evan C; Wright, S Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Seed size and toughness affect seed predators, and size-dependent investment in mechanical defence could affect relationships between seed size and predation. We tested how seed toughness and mechanical defence traits (tissue density and protective tissue content) are related to seed size among tropical forest species. Absolute toughness increased with seed size. However, smaller seeds had higher specific toughness both within and among species, with the smallest seeds requiring over 2000 times more energy per gram to break than the largest seeds. Investment in mechanical defence traits varied widely but independently of the toughness-mass allometry. Instead, a physical scaling relationship confers a toughness advantage on small seeds independent of selection on defence traits and without a direct cost. This scaling relationship may contribute to seed size diversity by decreasing fitness differences among large and small seeds. Allometric scaling of toughness reconciles predictions and conflicting empirical relationships between seed size and predation.

  14. Importance of albumin in cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse allergens.

    PubMed

    Cabañas, R; López-Serrano, M C; Carreira, J; Ventas, P; Polo, F; Caballero, M T; Contreras, J; Barranco, P; Moreno-Ancillo, A

    2000-01-01

    Different allergenic proteins have been involved in cross-reactivity among animals. Albumins seem to be cross-sensitizing allergenic components. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of albumin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. One hundred and seventeen patients sensitized to cat were tested for IgE reactivity using skin prick tests and RAST assays with cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts and their purified albumin extracts. RAST-inhibition studies were carried out to assess cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse and among their purified albumins. It was found that 22% of patients exhibited specific IgE to cat albumin; 41% of patients sensitized to cat were also sensitized to dog and horse. Out of these patients, 21% had IgE to three albumins and 17% to two. Reciprocal inhibitions were observed among cat, dog and horse albumins and also among cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts, using in the latter experiment sera from patients not sensitized to albumins. IgE binding to horse extract was inhibited 30% by its homologous albumin and IgE binding to cat and dog extracts in almost 15% by their respective albumins. It was concluded that albumins from these three animals share some epitopes that account for the cross-reactivity observed in around one-third of patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. Nevertheless, more than 50% of specific IgE that cross-reacts among these three animals is directed to allergens other than albumin.

  15. Vacuum annealing temperature on spray In2S3 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouguila, Nourredine; Timoumi, Abdelmajid; Bouzouita, Hassen

    2014-02-01

    Indium sulfide In2S3 thick films are deposited on glass substrates using spray technique over the optimum conditions experiments (Ts = 340 °C, S/In = 2). The films are polycrystalline and have thickness of about 1.8 μm. These films are annealed in a vacuum sealed pyrex tubes (10-5 torr). Physico-chemical characterizations by SEM observation, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis are undertaked on these films. This treatment has improved crystallinity of samples. It has allowed thus to stabilize β and γ varieties of In2S3 material. In2O3 and In6S7 phases have appeared with very weak intensities at high temperatures. The best structure quality are obtained at 300 °C for the optimum annealed temperature (Ts = 340 °C, S/In = 2), for which samples are constituted in dominance by γ phase oriented preferentially towards (1 0 2). The grain size is 42 nm of this phase. Chemical composition of such films has changed relatively to non-treated film but it seems not be affected by treatment temperature. Atomic molar ratio S/In is obtained for 0.9. Optical study shows that these layers are transparent in the visible and optical direct band gap increases as function of annealed temperature.

  16. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Rozell, E. A.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The S2S Search Interface Framework provides tools and services to build customized user interfaces. It also serves as a focal point for repository managers to develop science data services and reusable components for search interfaces. The framework has been used to design a faceted browsing platform for web services, including OpenSearch and SAWSDL. This exemplar faceted browsing platform has been applied in our development of search interfaces for 1) an international open government dataset catalog and 2) a metadata catalog for biological and chemical oceanography. S2S was designed from the ground up using open standards and technologies. The framework was initially created to develop "data dashboard" interfaces on top of OpenSearch services, but has been generalized to support web services and standards with semantic annotation capabilities. We apply OWL, a W3C standard for ontologies on the Web, to create a vocabulary for the description of framework metadata. Our faceted browsing platform is heavily focused on the use of jQuery; we have created reusable user interface "widgets" that leverage OpenLayers and MapServer technology in geospatial selection and visualization, which can be used in this and future platforms. The use of open standards and technologies has enabled rapid iterations over software development lifecycles, and has kept the framework agile as new use cases and ideas have emerged.

  17. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1985-06-01

    Phase 2 work was directed toward determination of the impact of H2S contaminants upon the ability of nickel-10% chromium anodes to catalyze the steam reforming reaction. Small amounts of three hydrocarbons representative of three homologous series were added to the fuel. These series were the paraffin series with methane as its representative, the olefin series with ethylene and the aromatics with toluene. Results indicated that the nickel-10% chromium anode had little catalytic activity toward the steam reforming of methane, but the steam reform did have 70% of the ethylene and about 30% of the toluene. The addition of 5 ppM hydrogen sulfide to the fuel totally poisoned all steam reforming activity. Phase 3 work addressed the impact on cell performance of SO2 in the oxidant gases. The cell was operated for 200 hours on clean fuel and oxidant. After baseline data had been collected, the cell was switched to an oxidant supply that contained 2 ppM of SO2. After 170 hours of operation on contaminated oxidant, no SO2 could be detected in the oxidant exhaust although 200 ppM of H2S were present in the fuel exhaust steam.

  18. Magnetic Ordering in FeSc2 S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, K. W.; Morey, J. R.; Ruff, J. P. C.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; McQueen, T. M.; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Broholm, C. L.

    FeSc2S4 is a cubic spinel where orbitally active Fe2+ ions occupy the A-site diamond sublattice. Despite a high spin (S=2) state and Curie Weiss temperature of 45 K thermodynamic measurements show no indication of a phase transition and the material has been proposed as a unique example of a spin-orbital liquid. This ground state might arise from competition between on site spin-orbit coupling and Kugel-Khomskii exchange. We report neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline samples of FeSc2S4 which bring this picture into question. They reveal a previously unreported magnetically ordered state below 11 K. No structural distortions are visible with neutron or x-ray scattering. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the magnetic excitation spectrum was also explored and found to be minimal. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  19. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  20. Synthetic nanoparticles of bovine serum albumin with entrapped salicylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bronze-Uhle, ES; Costa, BC; Ximenes, VF; Lisboa-Filho, PN

    2017-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is highly water soluble and binds drugs or inorganic substances noncovalently for their effective delivery to various affected areas of the body. Due to the well-defined structure of the protein, containing charged amino acids, albumin nanoparticles (NPs) may allow electrostatic adsorption of negatively or positively charged molecules, such that substantial amounts of drug can be incorporated within the particle, due to different albumin-binding sites. During the synthesis procedure, pH changes significantly. This variation modifies the net charge on the surface of the protein, varying the size and behavior of NPs as the drug delivery system. In this study, the synthesis of BSA NPs, by a desolvation process, was studied with salicylic acid (SA) as the active agent. SA and salicylates are components of various plants and have been used for medication with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal properties. However, when administered orally to adults (usual dose provided by the manufacturer), there is 50% decomposition of salicylates. Thus, there has been a search for some time to develop new systems to improve the bioavailability of SA and salicylates in the human body. Taking this into account, during synthesis, the pH was varied (5.4, 7.4, and 9) to evaluate its influence on the size and release of SA of the formed NPs. The samples were analyzed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. Through fluorescence, it was possible to analyze the release of SA in vitro in phosphate-buffered saline solution. The results of chemical morphology characterization and in vitro release studies indicated the potential use of these NPs as drug carriers in biological systems requiring a fast release of SA. PMID:28096662

  1. The Seed Scene: An Outdoor Teaching Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    The study of seeds and their dispersal is an excellent way to help students understand basic concepts which will help them in their adult decision-making activities regarding environmental problems. This article discusses the purpose of seeds, aspects of seeds, and collecting seeds. Classroom and outdoor activities with seeds are listed. (NQ)

  2. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  3. Three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; He, Xiao-Min; Munson, Sibyl H.; Twigg, Pamela D.; Gernert, Kim M.; Broom, M. Beth; Miller, Teresa Y.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been solved at 6.0 A resolution by the method of multiple isomorphous replacement. Crystals were grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol in the infrequently observed space group P42(1)2 and diffracted X-rays to lattice d-spacings of less than 2.9 A. The electron density maps are of high quality and revealed the structure as a predominantly alpha-helical globin protein in which the course of the polypeptide can be traced. The binding loci of several organic compounds have been determined.

  4. Biomolecular Interaction Study of Cyclolinopeptide A with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Ben; Gui, Bo; Maley, Jason; Reaney, Martin; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics, energetics, and structure of Cyclolinopeptide A binding with Human Serum Albumin were investigated with surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. The complex is formed through slow recognition kinetics that is temperature sensitive in the range of 20°C–37°C. The overall reaction was observed to be endothermic (ΔH = 204 kJ mol−1) and entropy driven (ΔS = 746 J mol−1K−1) with overall small changes to the tertiary structure. PMID:21436992

  5. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  6. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  7. [Seed aging and survival mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Grappin, Philippe; Bourdais, Gildas; Collet, Boris; Godin, Béatrice; Job, Dominique; Ogé, Laurent; Jullien, Marc; Rajjou, Loïc

    2008-01-01

    Aging and death are universal to living systems. In temperate climate latitudes the mature seeds of higher plants are exposed to aging and have developed resistance mechanisms allowing survival and plant propagation. In addition to the physicochemical properties of the seed that confer stress resistance, the protein metabolism contributes importantly to longevity mechanisms. Recently, genetic studies have demonstrated the occurrence of the Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase repair enzyme in controlling age-related protein damages and seed survival. These protective mechanisms by protein repair are widespread in all kingdoms, so that the use of seeds as models to study these controlling processes offers the prospect of understanding longevity mechanisms better.

  8. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  9. Serum albumin and health in older people: Review and meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, Sonia; Cuadras, Daniel; Gomez-Busto, Fernando; Artaza-Artabe, Iñaki; Marín-Ciancas, Fernando; Malafarina, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    Albumin is the most abundant plasmatic protein. It is only produced by the liver and the full extent of its metabolic functions is not known in detail. One of the main roles assigned to albumin is as an indicator of malnutrition. There are many factors, in addition to nutrition, that influence levels of albumin in plasma. The main aim of this review is to assess the clinical significance of albumin in elderly people in the community, in hospital and in care homes. Following the review, it can be stated that age is not a cause of hypoalbuminemia. Albumin is a good marker of nutritional status in clinically stable people. Significant loss of muscle mass has been observed in elderly people with low albumin levels. Hypoalbuminemia is a mortality prognostic factor in elderly people, whether they live in the community or they are in hospital or institutionalized. Low levels of albumin are associated to worse recovery following acute pathologies. Inflammatory state and, particularly, high concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are two of the main influencing factors of hypoalbuminemia. In elderly patients with a hip fracture, albumin levels below 38 g/L are associated to a higher risk of post-surgery complications, especially infections. Further research is needed on the impact of nutritional intervention upon albumin levels and on the outcomes in elderly people in the community, in hospital and in care.

  10. A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Wu, Guo-Jun; Xiong, De-Hui; Gong, Qiang; Yu, Ruan-Jing; Hu, Wei-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf ) is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin) and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05). We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis. PMID:24271043

  11. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  12. Industrial stabilizers caprylate and N-acetyltryptophanate reduce the efficacy of albumin in liver patients.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jan; Stiffel, Melanie; Goetze, Anne; Strube, Sabrina; Gruenert, Juliane; Klammt, Sebastian; Mitzner, Steffen; Koball, Sebastian; Liebe, Stefan; Reisinger, Emil

    2011-06-01

    Liver failure is associated with an accumulation of toxic molecules that exert an affinity to albumin. Some of them have vasoactive activity. So far, albumin has been used as a plasma expander to improve the available circulating blood volume. However, recent studies have suggested that albumin is more effective than starch for this indication. It has not been reported yet whether the industrial stabilizers octanoate and N-acetyltryptophanate, added to albumin, occupy binding sites for vasoactive substances. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of the industrial stabilizers octanoate and caprylate has an impact on the effect of the albumin-binding function or circulating blood volume in patients with cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and an indication for albumin. In 25 patients who received albumin via an inline infusion filter that depleted stabilizers, there was an improvement of albumin binding, and there was less deterioration of circulating blood volume and renal function in comparison with a control group. Further studies are needed to confirm the results and identify the potential socioeconomic side effects of industrial stabilizers in commercial albumin solutions.

  13. Elucidation of structural and functional properties of albumin bound to gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Dongre, P M

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle-albumin complexes are being designed for targeted drug delivery and imaging. However, the changes in the functional properties of albumin due to adsorption on nanoparticles remain elusive. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate the structural and functional properties of human and bovine serum albumin bound to negatively charged gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Fluorescence data demonstrated static quenching of albumin by GNP with the quenching of buried as well as surface tryptophan in BSA. The binding process was enthalpy and entropy-driven in HSA and BSA, respectively. At lower concentrations of GNP there was a higher affinity for tryptophan, whereas at higher concentrations both tryptophan and tyrosine participated in the interaction. Synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed that the microenvironment of tryptophan in HSA turned more hydrophilic upon exposure to GNP. The α-helical content of albumin was unaltered by GNP. Approximately 37 and 23% reduction in specific activity of HSA and BSA was observed due to GNP binding. In presence of warfarin and ibuprofen the binding constants of albumin-GNP complexes were altered. A very interesting observation not reported so far is the retained antioxidant activity of albumin in presence of GNP i.e. we believe that GNPs did not bind to the free sulfhydryl groups of albumin. However enhanced levels of copper binding were observed. We have also highlighted the differential response in albumin due to gold and silver nanoparticles which could be attributed to differences in the charge of the nanoparticle.

  14. Protection by albumin against ischaemia- and hypoxia-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Younes, M; Li, Y

    1994-11-01

    In previous studies using isolated perfused rat livers, we have shown that reactive oxygen species are involved in hypoxic and ischaemic liver damage. Since albumin was shown to possess strong antioxidant properties we now investigated the capacity of albumin to prevent ischaemic and hypoxic damage in isolated perfused rat livers. Both, partial ischaemia and hypoxia/reoxygenation, resulted in marked hepatic injury as evidenced by an increased release of hepatic enzymes (GPT, LDH), by a strong decline of bile flow and by a decrease in hepatic GSH levels. With partial ischaemia, hepatic ATP depletion and calcium accumulation were also observed. Bovine serum albumin, added to the perfusate at concentrations of 0.1 or 1%, provided nearly complete protection against both types of liver injury. The same level of protection was also afforded by sulfhydryl-blocked and fatty acid-free bovine albumin preparations and by human albumin. In conclusion, the protective effect of albumin in our models of oxidative liver injury is neither due to the thiol moiety nor to the presence of oxidizable fatty acids in the albumin fraction. More likely, albumin provides protection by an unspecific binding of redox-active transition metal ions capable of catalyzing reactions which yield hydroxyl or hydroxyl-like radicals. Besides, unspecific sacrifice reactions of albumin with highly reactive oxygen species or other endogenous compounds may also be implicated.

  15. Study of the molecular mechanism of decreased liver synthesis of albumin in inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Moshage, H J; Janssen, J A; Franssen, J H; Hafkenscheid, J C; Yap, S H

    1987-01-01

    Hypoalbuminemia in inflammatory disorders is not an infrequent finding. However, little is known about albumin synthesis in these patients. In the present study we have measured the albumin synthesis in four patients with inflammatory diseases using the [14C]carbonate technique. Because inflammation causes a decreased albumin synthesis and this decreased synthesis could not be related to a reduced amino acid supply, we have also examined the possible molecular mechanisms of reduced albumin synthesis during inflammation using in vivo and in vitro experiments in rats. In rats with turpentine-induced inflammation, serum albumin concentration and liver albumin mRNa level were markedly decreased. These changes could not be reproduced by administration of fibrinogen-, or fibrin-degradation products, or several hormones, such as corticosteroids, growth hormone, and adrenaline. However, monocytic products, especially interleukin 1, postulated to be important mediators of the inflammatory response, reduced albumin synthesis and liver albumin messenger RNA content but not total protein synthesis in rats in vivo and in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. These findings suggest that monocytic products play an important role in reduced albumin synthesis during inflammation. Images PMID:3584463

  16. Long-range interactions of hydrogen atoms in excited states. II. Hyperfine-resolved (2 S -2 S ) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Debierre, V.; Adhikari, C. M.; Matveev, A.; Kolachevsky, N.

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of two excited hydrogen atoms in metastable states constitutes a theoretically interesting problem because of the quasidegenerate 2 P1 /2 levels that are removed from the 2 S states only by the Lamb shift. The total Hamiltonian of the system is composed of the van der Waals Hamiltonian, the Lamb shift, and the hyperfine effects. The van der Waals shift becomes commensurate with the 2 S -2 P3 /2 fine-structure splitting only for close approach (R <100 a0 , where a0 is the Bohr radius) and one may thus restrict the discussion to the levels with n =2 and J =1 /2 to a good approximation. Because each S or P state splits into an F =1 triplet and an F =0 hyperfine singlet (eight states for each atom), the Hamiltonian matrix a priori is of dimension 64. A careful analysis of the symmetries of the the problem allows one to reduce the dimensionality of the most involved irreducible submatrix to 12. We determine the Hamiltonian matrices and the leading-order van der Waals shifts for states that are degenerate under the action of the unperturbed Hamiltonian (Lamb shift plus hyperfine structure). The leading first- and second-order van der Waals shifts lead to interaction energies proportional to 1 /R3 and 1 /R6 and are evaluated within the hyperfine manifolds. When both atoms are metastable 2 S states, we find an interaction energy of order Ehχ (a0/R ) 6 , where Eh and L are the Hartree and Lamb shift energies, respectively, and χ =Eh/L ≈6.22 ×106 is their ratio.

  17. Dissection of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-albumin interface using mutagenesis and anti-FcRn albumin-blocking antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sand, Kine Marita Knudsen; Dalhus, Bjørn; Christianson, Gregory J; Bern, Malin; Foss, Stian; Cameron, Jason; Sleep, Darrell; Bjørås, Magnar; Roopenian, Derry C; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2014-06-13

    Albumin is the most abundant protein in blood and plays a pivotal role as a multitransporter of a wide range of molecules such as fatty acids, metabolites, hormones, and toxins. In addition, it binds a variety of drugs. Its role as distributor is supported by its extraordinary serum half-life of 3 weeks. This is related to its size and binding to the cellular receptor FcRn, which rescues albumin from intracellular degradation. Furthermore, the long half-life has fostered a great and increasing interest in utilization of albumin as a carrier of protein therapeutics and chemical drugs. However, to fully understand how FcRn acts as a regulator of albumin homeostasis and to take advantage of the FcRn-albumin interaction in drug design, the interaction interface needs to be dissected. Here, we used a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed towards human FcRn in combination with site-directed mutagenesis and structural modeling to unmask the binding sites for albumin blocking antibodies and albumin on the receptor, which revealed that the interaction is not only strictly pH-dependent, but predominantly hydrophobic in nature. Specifically, we provide mechanistic evidence for a crucial role of a cluster of conserved tryptophan residues that expose a pH-sensitive loop of FcRn, and identify structural differences in proximity to these hot spot residues that explain divergent cross-species binding properties of FcRn. Our findings expand our knowledge of how FcRn is controlling albumin homeostasis at a molecular level, which will guide design and engineering of novel albumin variants with altered transport properties.

  18. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  19. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  20. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  1. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  2. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  3. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  4. Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of "Seed to Seed, The Secret Life of Plants", by Nicholas Harberd. The book is a diary of ruminations/introspections about plant development and about the main research topic of Nick Harberd’s laboratory. His intended audience is initially nonscientists; many of the explanation...

  5. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    PubMed Central

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4–8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell. PMID:26173723

  6. Phonon dispersion relations of Sb2S3 and Bi2S3 using the supercell force-constant method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Chua, Kun Ting Eddie; Liu, Yun

    2015-03-01

    We present a lattice dynamical study on the orthorhombic antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) and bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) using the supercell force-constant method. We find that the slow decay of the interatomic force constants for these compounds in the Pnma setting critically demand the use of a large supercell of 2 × 4 × 2 that consists of 320 atoms. To enable a practical calculation the space group information is fully utilized where only inequivalent atoms within the primitive cell are displaced for the force calculations. The effect of Born effective charges is incorporated into the method. We compare our results with that obtained from the density-functional perturbation theory. We found that smaller supercells could lead to unphysical acoustic phonon softening and lifting of the degeneracies along high symmetry directions. Our results provide a proper guideline for the use of the supercell force-constant method: the supercell size must be carefully be tested along with other parameters such as the kinetic energy cutoff, the Brillouin zone sampling or the self-consistent convergence criteria.

  7. Single step transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helen, M.; Reddy, M. Anji; Diemant, Thomas; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Behm, R. Jürgen; Kaiser, Ute; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2015-07-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have generated tremendous research interest due to their high theoretical energy density and potential cost-effectiveness. The commercial realization of Li-S batteries is still hampered by reduced cycle life associated with the formation of electrolyte soluble higher-order polysulphide (Li2Sx, x = 4-8) intermediates, leading to capacity fading, self-discharge, and a multistep voltage profile. Herein, we have realized a practical approach towards a direct transformation of sulphur to Li2S2/Li2S in lithium-sulphur batteries by alteration of the reaction pathway. A coconut shell derived ultramicroporous carbon-sulphur composite cathode has been used as reaction directing template for the sulphur. The lithiation/delithiation and capacity fading mechanism of microporous carbon confined sulphur composite was revealed by analyzing the subsurface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No higher-order polysulphides were detected in the electrolyte, on the surface, and in the subsurface of the cathode composite. The altered reaction pathway is reflected by a single-step profile in the discharge/charge of a lithium-sulphur cell.

  8. Lowest ^{2}S Electronic Excitations of the Boron Atom.

    PubMed

    Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2017-01-27

    A theoretical ab initio approach for calculating bound states of small atoms is developed and implemented. The approach is based on finite-nuclear-mass [non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO)] nonrelativistic variational calculations performed with all-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and includes the leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics energy corrections determined using the non-BO wave functions. The approach is applied to determine the total and transition energies for the lowest four ^{2}S electronic excitations of the boron atom. The transition energies agree with the available experimental values within 0.2-0.3  cm^{-1}. Previously, such accuracy was achieved for three- and four-electron systems.

  9. Scada system oversees Canadian H sub 2 S field, pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Greenslade, J.G. ); Wichert, E. )

    1992-05-25

    Important new safety and operational features and some industry firsts are employed in a PC-based supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system at Phillips Petroleum Resources Ltd.'s Ghost River sour-gas field and pipeline in a populated area near Calgary. This paper reports on the scada system monitors and controls wells, line-heaters, pumps, and alarm and shutdown systems. facilities are operated on a partially attended basis. Operators carry cellular telephones and laptop computers equipped with internal modems to enable them to receive alarms and take appropriate action promptly. Several safety features are incorporated into the alarm and shutdown system. All aboveground facilities are equipped with atmospheric monitors for H{sub 2}S. Leak detection is inferred from continuous material-balance computation. Should a sour-gas leak be suspected, an automated resident-notification system provides early notice by telephone to potentially affected residents.

  10. Lowest 2S Electronic Excitations of the Boron Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical ab initio approach for calculating bound states of small atoms is developed and implemented. The approach is based on finite-nuclear-mass [non-Born-Oppenheimer (non-BO)] nonrelativistic variational calculations performed with all-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and includes the leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics energy corrections determined using the non-BO wave functions. The approach is applied to determine the total and transition energies for the lowest four 2S electronic excitations of the boron atom. The transition energies agree with the available experimental values within 0.2 - 0.3 cm-1 . Previously, such accuracy was achieved for three- and four-electron systems.

  11. User's Manual for TMY2s - Typical Meteorological Years

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This user's manual describes typical meteorological year (TMY) data sets derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Because they are based on more recent and accurate data and will make possible more accurate performance and economic analyses of energy systems, these data sets are ecommended for use in place of earlier TMY data sets derived from the 1952-1975 SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. To distinguish between the old and new TMY data sets, the new TMY data sets are referred to as TMY2s. TMY and TMY2 data sets cannot be used interchangeably because of differences in time (solar versus local), formats, elements, and units. Unless they are revised, computer programs designed for TMY data will not work with TMY2 data.

  12. Phase equilibria in the quasiternary system Ag2S-Ga2S3-In2S3 and optical properties of (Ga55In45)2S300, (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, I. A.; Danyliuk, I. V.; Olekseyuk, I. D.; Pankevych, V. Z.; Halyan, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The quasiternary system Ag2S-Ga2S3-In2S3 was investigated by differential thermal, X-ray diffraction analyses. The phase diagram of the Ga2S3-In2S3 system and nine polythermal sections, isothermal section at 820 K and the liquidus surface projection were constructed. The existence of the large solid solutions ranges of binary and ternary compounds was established. The range of the existence of the quaternary phase AgGaxIn5-xS8 (2.25≤x≤2.85) at 820 K was determined. The single crystals (Ga55In45)2S300 and (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 were grown by a directional crystallization method from solution-melt. Optical absorption spectra in the 500-1600 nm range were recorded. The luminescence of the (Ga54.59In44.66Er0.75)2S300 single crystal shows a maximum at 1530 nm for the excitation wavelengths of 532 and 980 nm at 80 and 300 K.

  13. Formulation and characterization of catalase in albumin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Siwale, Rodney C; Oettinger, Carl W; Pai, S Balakrishna; Addo, Richard; Uddin, Nasir; Siddig, Aladin; D'Souza, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Catalase in albumin microspheres were formulated for intravenous administration to antagonize the effects of over-production of reactive oxygenated species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in septic shock. The aim was to increase effective half-life of catalase and take advantage of the phagocytic uptake of the encapsulated catalase by the vascular endothelium. Catalase microspheres were prepared by spray-drying. The microspheres were evaluated for particle size, particle shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, chemical stability, thermal stability and in vitro drug release characteristics. The microspheres had a mean particle size of 4.7 +/- 2 microm, optimal for phagocytic uptake, as demonstrated by Makino et al. SEM revealed that microspheres were spherical with smooth surface morphology. An encapsulation efficiency of 91.5 +/- 3% was achieved and the encapsulated catalase was chemically and thermally stable. Application of in vitro drug release data to the Higuchi kinetic equation indicated matrix diffusion-controlled catalase release from albumin microspheres.

  14. [Spectrophotometric determination of albumin with acid brown SR].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang-Rong; Liu, Bao-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the determination of albumin in human serum and mouse serum has been developed by spectrophotometry coupled with acid brown SR(ASR) as probe molecule. The maximum absorption wavelength of ASR was at 445 nm, while the maximum absorption wavelength of their product was at 610 nm. However, the reaction of ASR with albumin such as BSA or HSA was so strong that parts of their product were undissoluble in water. The addition of gum water into the system effectively eliminated the deposition. Under optimum reaction conditions, the ranges of working lines for BSA and HSA were 0-91.0 mg x L(-1) and 0-95.2 mg x L(-1), respectively. The detection limits were 5.72 mg x L(-1) for BSA and 5.15 mg x L(-1) for HSA. The relative standard derivation and the recovery of the method for the determination of total proteins in 6 human serum samples were 1.8%-4.4% and 93.6% - 109.1%, respectively. The proposed method has been employed in the assay of protein of human serum and mouse serum. The results of this work were in agreement with those obtained by Biuret method.

  15. Albumin/asparaginase capsules prepared by ultrasound to retain ammonia.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Ana; Ribeiro, Artur; Oliveira, César; Parpot, Pier; Gomes, Andreia; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-11-01

    Asparaginase reduces the levels of asparagine in blood, which is an essential amino acid for the proliferation of lymphoblastic malign cells. Asparaginase converts asparagine into aspartic acid and ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the bloodstream leads to hyperammonemia, described as one of the most significant side effects of asparaginase therapy. Therefore, there is a need for asparaginase formulations with the potential to reduce hyperammonemia. We incorporated 2 % of therapeutic enzyme in albumin-based capsules. The presence of asparaginase in the interface of bovine serum albumin (BSA) capsules showed the ability to hydrolyze the asparagine and retain the forming ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The incorporation of Poloxamer 407 in the capsule formulation further increased the ratio aspartic acid/ammonia from 1.92 to 2.46 (and 1.10 from the free enzyme), decreasing the levels of free ammonia. This capacity to retain ammonia can be due to electrostatic interactions and retention of ammonia at the surface of the capsules. The developed BSA/asparaginase capsules did not cause significant cytotoxic effect on mouse leukemic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The new BSA/asparaginase capsules could potentially be used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia preventing hyperammonemia associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment with asparaginase.

  16. Aspiration pneumonia: experimental evaluation of albumin and steroid therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Toung, T J; Bordos, D; Benson, D W; Carter, D; Zuidema, G D; Permutt, S; Cameron, J L

    1976-01-01

    An experimental model using an ex vivo perfused ventilated canine pulmonary lobe was used to study aspiration pneumonia. After intrabronchial acid instillation, the lobe weight tripled, air way pressure and pulmonary artery pressure doubled, and intrapulmonary shunting increased from 5.5% to 53.4%. If large quantities of albumin were added to the lobe perfusate 5 minutes after intrabronchial acid instillation, weight gain, air way and pulmonary artery pressure, and intrapulmonary shunting were unchanged from control levels. If large quantities of steroid were added to the lobe perfusate 5 minutes after intrabronchial acid instillation, the lobe weight doubled but air way pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and intrapulmonary shunting were not significantly different from control values. It is surmised that intrapulmonary acid aspiration causes an immediate and marked changed in pulmonary capillary permeability. Albumin administration by counteracting this permeability change, and steroid administration by modifying the permeability change, are both beneficial following acid aspiration. Images Fig. 7a. Fig. 7a., Fig. 7c. PMID:1247316

  17. Reductive unfolding of serum albumins uncovered by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    David, Catalina; Foley, Sarah; Mavon, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

    2008-07-01

    The reductive unfolding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) induced by dithiothreitol (DTT) is investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The resolution of the S-S Raman band into both protein and oxidized DTT contributions provides a reliable basis for directly monitoring the S-S bridge exchange reaction. The related changes in the protein secondary structure are identified by analyzing the protein amide I Raman band. For the reduction of one S-S bridge of BSA, a mean Gibbs free energy of -7 kJ mol(-1) is derived by studying the reaction equilibrium. The corresponding value for the HSA S-S bridge reduction is -2 kJ mol(-1). The reaction kinetics observed via the S-S or amide I Raman bands are identical giving a reaction rate constant of (1.02 +/- 0.11) M(-1) s(-1) for BSA. The contribution of the conformational Gibbs free energy to the overall Gibbs free energy of reaction is further estimated by combining experimental data with ab initio calculations.

  18. A guide to forest seed handling

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This guide to forest seed handling focuses on seed quality, i.e., the physiological viability and vigor of the seeds. Seed and fruit development, germination, and dormancy and the fundamentals of planning seed collections are covered. The guide includes discussions on seed collection of fallen fruits or seeds from the forest floor from the crowns of felled trees, and from standing trees with access from the ground and with other means of access. Also considered are precautions to be followed during fruit and seed handling between collection and processing. The different stages in seed processing are detailed, including extraction, depulping, drying, tumbling and threshing, dewinging, cleaning, grading, and mixing. Factors affecting seed longevity in storage and the choice of storage methods are reviewed. Different forms of seed pretreatment and seed testing methods are described.

  19. Compound Pollen Protein Nutrient Increases Serum Albumin in Cirrhotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong Bo; Kong, Ming; Chen, Gong; Zhao, Jun; Shi, Hong Lin; Chen, Yu; Rowan, Frank G

    2010-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition, is common in patients with liver cirrhosis. When in the status of malnutrition, the complications increase, liver function deteriorates, and the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis worsens. Hence, nutritional support and treatment is essential in patients with liver cirrhosis. Previous studies suggested that compound nutrition based on pollen can improve liver function, and can be a basic nutrient for patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the nutritional support based on pollen for malnutrition of cirrhotic patients needs to be further evaluated. In this study, we investigated the nutritional support of Noveliver, a new compound pollen protein nutrient, in the cirrhotic rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Methods The cirrhotic rats induced by CCl4 were treated with Noveliver in different doses, and treated with a regular compound pollen nutrient, untreated cirrhotic rats and normal rats were used as controls. Serum albumin were measured before and after the nutritional treatment in each group. At the same time, liver function, cytokines and pathological changes were also determined. Results In the second week of nutritional treatment, the levels of serum albumin in normal control group, low dose noveliver group, high dose noveliver group, compound protein pollen group and spontaneous recovery group were 35.67 ± 1.42, 33.07 ± 1.27, 32.27 ± 1.50, 30.53 ± 0.25, 24.53 ± 3.56 (g/L), respectively, the differences among the groups were significant (F = 14.007, P = 0.000); The levels of serum albumin in low dose Noveliver group, high dose Noveliver group and the compound protein pollen group were higher than that in the spontaneous recovery group (P = 0.000, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). In the second week of nutritional treatment, the serum levels of HGF in normal control group, low dose Noveliver group, high dose Noveliver group, compound protein pollen group and spontaneous recovery

  20. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts.

  1. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  2. The H2S Donor NaHS Changes the Expression Pattern of H2S-Producing Enzymes after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Ming-Jie; Jin, Sheng; Bai, Ya-Dan; Hou, Cui-Lan; Ma, Fen-Fen; Li, Xing-Hui; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the expression patterns of hydrogen sulphide- (H2S-) producing enzymes in ischaemic heart tissue and plasma levels of H2S after 2 weeks of NaHS treatment after myocardial infarction (MI) and to clarify the role of endogenous H2S in the MI process. Results. After MI surgery, 2 weeks of treatment with the H2S donor NaHS alleviated ischaemic injury. Meanwhile, in ischemia myocardium, three H2S-producing enzymes, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) significantly increased. Plasma H2S levels were also elevated. In vitro, NaHS treatment protected cardiomyocytes from hypoxic injury and raised CBS levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Different from in vivo results, however, CSE or 3-MST expression did not change. NaHS treatment increased the activity of CSE/CBS but not of 3-MST. When CSE was either knocked down (in vitro) or knocked out (in vivo), H2S levels significantly decreased, which subsequently exacerbated the ischaemic injury. Meanwhile, the expressions of CBS and 3-MST increased due to compensation. Conclusions. Exogenous H2S treatment changed the expressions of three H2S-producing enzymes and H2S levels after MI, suggesting a new and indirect regulatory mechanism for H2S production and its contribution to cardiac protection. Endogenous H2S plays an important role in protecting ischaemic tissue after MI.

  3. Differential predation of forage seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field experiments we observed that the main invertebrate seed predators of overseeded tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seed in unimproved pastures were harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex sp.) and common field crickets (Gryllus sp.) To determ...

  4. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  5. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  6. Automated seed manipulation and planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Ray; Herrera, Javier; Holcomb, Scott; Kelly, Paul; Myers, Scott; Rosendo, Manny; Sivitz, Herbert; Wolsefer, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Activities for the Fall Semester, 1987 focused on investigating the mechanical/electrical properties of wheat seeds and forming various Seed Planting System (SPS) concepts based on those properties. The Electrical Division of the design group was formed to devise an SPS using electrostatic charge fields for seeding operations. Experiments concerning seed separation using electrical induction (rearranging of the charges within the seed) were conducted with promising results. The seeds, when exposed to the high voltage and low current field produced by a Van de Graff generator, were observed to move back and forth between two electrodes. An SPS concept has been developed based on this phenomena, and will be developed throughout the Spring Semester, 1988. The Mechanical Division centered on SPS concepts involving valves, pumps, and fluids to separate and deliver seeds. An SPS idea utilizing the pressure difference caused by air as it rushes out of holes drilled in the wall of a closed container has been formulated and will be considered for future development. Also, a system of seed separation and delivery employing a combination of centrifugal force, friction, and air flow was considered.

  7. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    PubMed Central

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after cold-wet storage, and scarification. We also tested the light requirement for germination in some species. Germination behavior was characterized using the final germination percentage and the mean germination time. Considering the effects of the pretreatments, a refined classification of the prevailing dormancy types was constructed based on the results of our pretreatments. Only two out of the 28 species that we evaluated had predominantly non-dormant seeds. Physiological dormancy was prevalent in 20 species, with deep physiological dormancy being the most abundant, followed by non-deep and intermediate physiological dormancy. Seeds of four species with underdeveloped embryos were assigned to the morphophysiologial dormancy class. An impermeable seed coat was identified in two species, with no additional physiological germination block. We defined these species as having physical dormancy. Light promoted the germination of seeds without storage in all but one species with physiological dormancy. In species with physical dormancy, light responses were of minor importance. We discuss our new classification in the context of former germination studies and draw implications for the timing of germination in the field. PMID:24415831

  8. Seed dormancy in Mexican teosinte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy in wild Zea species may affect fitness and relate to ecological adaptation. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the variation in seed germination of the wild species of the genus Zea that currently grow in Mexico, and to relate this variation to their ecological zon...

  9. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  10. Training for Certification: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing specifically on the treatment of seeds with pesticides, this publication is meant to prepare one to take the written examination for Environmental Protection Agency Seed Treatment certification.…

  11. Glass structure and electrical conductivity in (As2S3 1-x (Ag2S)x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, C.; Chen, P.; Novita, D.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-03-01

    We have synthesized titled glasses in the 0 < x < 0.16 range, and have examined them in modulated DSC experiments. The starting materials, As2S3 and Ag2S lumps, were reacted in evacuated fused quartz tubings, and glasses synthesized by water-quench of homogenized melts. Thermal measurements used a TA instruments model 2920 operated at 3 C/min scan rate and 1 C/100s modulation rate. Preliminary results reveal a single glass transition in the 0 < x < 0.05 range, which steadily decrease from a value of 210 C at x = 0 to 182 C near x = 0.05. In contrast, bimodal glass transitions are observed at x > 0.09, with one Tg(1) near 167 C and the second, Tg(2) near 186 C, and with the endotherm associated with Tg(1) steadily increasing with x. Non-reversing enthalpies associated with Tgs are found to steadily decrease in the 0 < x < 0.09 range, to nearly vanish in the 0.10 < x < 0.12 range and to increase thereafter ( x > 0.12).These findings suggest that glasses at low x ( < 0.09) are Stressed- rigid, those at x > 0.12 Floppy while those in between in the Intermediate phase^1. The present results correlate well with earlier^2 electrical conductivity results in suggesting the possibility of an elastic origin to the conductivity thresholds in solid electrolyte glasses. 1. P. Boolchand, D.Georgiev and B. Goodman, J.Opto & Adm. Mater. 3, 703 (2001). 2. E.A. Kazakova and Z.U.Borisova, Fiz. Khim.Stekla 6, 424(1980).

  12. A Micrograting Sensor for DNA Hybridization and Antibody Human Serum Albumin-Antigen Human Serum Albumin Interaction Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chathirat, Naphat; Atthi, Nithi; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Leasen, Suthisa; Osotchan, Tanakorn; Hodak, Jose H.

    2011-01-01

    A biosensor structure comprising silicon nitride (Si3N4) micrograting arrays coated with a spin-on-glass (SOG) material was investigated. This grating structure was located on a silicon groove, which was etched by a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process. The biosensor was used as a specific detector of DNA molecules and antibody-antigen interactions. In our DNA sensing experiments, the first step was the activation of the grating surface with amine functional groups, followed by attachment of a 23-base oligonucleotide probe layer for hybridization with a complementary target DNA. The sensing device was tested for detecting specific antigen/antibody interactions for human serum albumin (HSA) and antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). The readout system consisted of a white light lamp that illuminated a small spot on the grating surface at normal incidence through a fiber optic probe with a spectrometer used to collect the reflected light through a second fiber. We show that these sensing devices have the capability to detect DNA as well as antigen-antibody binding for HSA. The detection sensitivity for HSA was better than that for DNA mainly owing to the larger size and concomitant refractive index changes upon binding to the sensor. We show that it is possible to quantify the amount of biomolecules bound to the grating surface by measuring the wavelength shift of the reflectance spectra upon exposure to the samples.

  13. Interaction of graphene oxide with albumins: Effect of size, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Šimšíková, M

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and the biomolecules is fundamentally essential, especially for disease- and drug-related peptides and proteins. In this study, the interaction between GO and albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, and bovine alpha-lactalbumin) has been performed by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence quenching mechanism between GO and aromatic acids residues with intrinsic fluorescence was determined as mainly static quenching in combination with dynamic quenching. The optimal conditions for the most effective affinity between albumins and GO have been estimated at neutral pH and room temperature. The strong impact of the size of graphene oxide on the interaction between proteins and graphene oxide has been confirmed, as well. The interaction between GO and albumins has been examined as electrostatic and hydrophobic. The electrostatic interaction was confirmed by pH effect, while the hydrophobic interaction was proved by the presence of Poloxamer188. The CD spectra of albumins exhibit decreasing helicity in the secondary structure of albumins upon the addition of GO. However, no significant changes in position and shape of characteristic negative bands have been noted. Mentioned changes indicate the successful interaction between GO and proteins, the predominantly α-helical structure of albumins has been preserved.

  14. The effect of albumin on the photophysical properties of dimegin photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadeko, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of albumin on the photophysical properties of a photosensitizer of porphyrin nature, dimegin (disodium salt of 2,4-di(α-methoxyethyl)-deuteroporphyrin-IX), is studied. A slight decrease in the efficiency of generation of singlet oxygen and an increase in the luminescence intensity of the dimegin-albumin complex are shown.

  15. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties.

    PubMed

    Silva-Sánchez, C; González-Castañeda, J; de León-Rodríguez, A; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2004-01-01

    The functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins isolates extracted from two new Mexican varieties were determined. Functional properties tested were protein solubility, foaming, water and oil absorption capacities, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The maximum solubility values for both amaranth albumins were found above pH 6 and values were compared to the solubility of egg albumins. Albumins from amaranth showed excellent foaming capacity and foaming stability at pH 5, suggesting that this protein could be used as whipping agents as egg albumins, also the water and oil absorption capacities reached their maximum values at acidic pH, suggesting that amaranth albumins could be appropriate in preparation of acidic foods. The rheological test based on farinograms and alveograms showed that wheat flour supplemented with 1% amaranth albumins improves the dough properties due to higher mixing stability and the bread had better crumb characteristics. In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations.

  16. Gadofosveset-Based Biomarker of Tissue Albumin Concentration: Technical Validation in Vitro and Feasibility in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Owen C; Bane, Octavia; Scott, Marietta LJ; Tanner, Steven F; Waterton, John C; Sourbron, Steven P; Carroll, Timothy J; Buckley, David L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is currently no adequate method of mapping physiologic and pathophysiologic tissue albumin concentrations in human subjects. The objective of this study was to devise and evaluate a biomarker of regional albumin concentration using gadofosveset-enhanced MRI. Theory and Methods A binding and relaxation model was devised and evaluated in vitro in solutions of albumin at 3.0 Tesla (T) and 4.7T. The method was evaluated in the heart in seven volunteers at 3.0T. Results MRI-derived estimates of albumin concentration were in good agreement with true values over the range 0.1–1.0 mM (Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.85 and 0.88 for 3.0T and 4.7T, respectively). The mean calculated albumin concentration in the myocardium for the volunteers was 0.02 mM (range, 0.01–0.03 mM). Conclusion Accurate estimates of albumin concentration in vitro suggest this may be a viable noninvasive alternative to existing techniques. In the myocardium the MRI-derived estimates of albumin concentration indicate the practical feasibility of the technique but were below expected values. Gadofosveset-enhanced MR relaxometry has potential in providing biomarkers of regional albumin concentration; further evaluation is required before it can be used reliably in vivo. Magn Reson Med 73:244–253, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24515975

  17. The exclusion of human serum albumin by human dermal collagenous fibres and within human dermis.

    PubMed Central

    Bert, J L; Mathieson, J M; Pearce, R H

    1982-01-01

    Preparations of dermal collagenous fibres and slices of human dermis have been equilibrated with 125I-labelled monomeric human serum albumin. The space inaccessible to the albumin in the fibres and in the dermis was determined by subtraction of the accessible space, calculated from the radioactivity of the specimen, from its total fluid. For a fibre preparation examined in detail, the fluid exclusion was independent of the concentration of either albumin or collagen. Binding of albumin to the fibres was not demonstrable. Three fibre preparations excluded albumin from 3.75 +/- 0.96, 3.55 +/- 0.67, and 2.05 +/- 0.39 g of fluid/g of collagen (+/-S.D.). Slices from three specimens of dermis excluded albumin from 1.45 +/- 0.08 g of fluid/g of insoluble solids or 1.57 +/- 0.11 g of fluid/g of collagen (+/-S.D.). Thus the exclusion of albumin by dermis was much less than expected from its content of collagenous fibres. On the basis of these data and the published composition of dermis, the concentration of albumin in the accessible interstitial space was estimated to be close to that in the plasma. PMID:7082298

  18. Structural studies of bovine, equine, and leporine serum albumin complexes with naproxen.

    PubMed

    Bujacz, Anna; Zielinski, Kamil; Sekula, Bartosz

    2014-09-01

    Serum albumin, a protein naturally abundant in blood plasma, shows remarkable ligand binding properties of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Most of serum albumin binding sites are able to interact with more than one class of ligands. Determining the protein-ligand interactions among mammalian serum albumins is essential for understanding the complexity of this transporter. We present three crystal structures of serum albumins in complexes with naproxen (NPS): bovine (BSA-NPS), equine (ESA-NPS), and leporine (LSA-NPS) determined to 2.58 Å (C2), 2.42 Å (P61), and 2.73 Å (P2₁2₁2₁) resolutions, respectively. A comparison of the structurally investigated complexes with the analogous complex of human serum albumin (HSA-NPS) revealed surprising differences in the number and distribution of naproxen binding sites. Bovine and leporine serum albumins possess three NPS binding sites, but ESA has only two. All three complexes of albumins studied here have two common naproxen locations, but BSA and LSA differ in the third NPS binding site. None of these binding sites coincides with the naproxen location in the HSA-NPS complex, which was obtained in the presence of other ligands besides naproxen. Even small differences in sequences of serum albumins from various species, especially in the area of the binding pockets, influence the affinity and the binding mode of naproxen to this transport protein.

  19. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change.

  20. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-03-05

    The initial equilibration of /sup 125/I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 ..mu..g/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using /sup 131/I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment.

  1. Glycation alters ligand binding, enzymatic, and pharmacological properties of human albumin.

    PubMed

    Baraka-Vidot, Jennifer; Planesse, Cynthia; Meilhac, Olivier; Militello, Valeria; van den Elsen, Jean; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe

    2015-05-19

    Albumin, the major circulating protein in blood plasma, can be subjected to an increased level of glycation in a diabetic context. Albumin exerts crucial pharmacological activities through its drug binding capacity, i.e., ketoprofen, and via its esterase-like activity, allowing the conversion of prodrugs into active drugs. In this study, the impact of the glucose-mediated glycation on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of human albumin was investigated. Aggregation product levels and the redox state were quantified to assess the impact of glycation-mediated changes on the structural properties of albumin. Glucose-mediated changes in ketoprofen binding properties and esterase-like activity were evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy and p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis assays, respectively. With the exception of oxidative parameters, significant dose-dependent alterations in biochemical and functional properties of in vitro glycated albumin were observed. We also found that the dose-dependent increase in levels of glycation and protein aggregation and average molecular mass changes correlated with a gradual decrease in the affinity of albumin for ketoprofen and its esterase-like property. In parallel, significant alterations in both pharmacological properties were also evidenced in albumin purified from diabetic patients. Partial least-squares regression analyses established a significant correlation between glycation-mediated changes in biochemical and pharmacological properties of albumin, highlighting the important role for glycation in the variability of the drug response in a diabetic situation.

  2. Inhibition of the metabolic degradation of filtered albumin is a major determinant of albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (<4%) are excreted in urine. Small (<4%) but significant amounts of LMWDPs may have prolonged elimination (>24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute <1% of the total excretion of LMWDPs of albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states.

  3. PHOS-Select Iron Affinity beads enrich peptides for detection of organophosphorus adducts on albumin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Dubrovskii, Yaroslav A; Podolskaya, Ekaterina P; Murashko, Ekaterina A; Babakov, Vladimir; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Albumin is covalently modified by organophosphorus toxicants (OP) on tyrosine 411, but less than 1% of albumin is modified in humans by lethal OP doses that inhibit 95% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase. A method that enriches OP-modified albumin peptides could aid analysis of low dose exposures. Soman or chlorpyrifos oxon treated human plasma was digested with pepsin. Albumin peptides were enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads at pH 11 and eluted with pH 2.6 buffer. Similarly, mouse and guinea pig albumin modified by chlorpyrifos oxon were digested with pepsin and enriched by binding to Fe3+ beads. Peptides were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. PHOS-select Iron Affinity beads specifically enriched albumin peptides VRY411TKKVPQVST and LVRY411TKKVPQVST in a pepsin digest of human plasma. The unmodified as well as OP-modified peptides bound to the beads. The binding capacity of 500 μl beads was the pepsin digest of 2.1 μL human plasma. The limit of detection was 0.2% of OP-modified albumin peptide in 0.43 μL plasma. Enrichment of OP-modified albumin peptides by binding to Fe3+ beads is a method with potential application to diagnosis of OP pesticide and nerve agent exposure in humans, mice, and guinea pigs. PMID:24187955

  4. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters.

  5. Unexpected Normal Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Clinical States with Low Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Regina; Sela, Shifra; Zeitun, Teuta; Geron, Ronit; Kristal, Batya

    2016-01-01

    Background In clinical states associated with systemic oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), oxidative modifications of serum albumin impair its quantification, resulting in apparent hypoalbuminemia. As the maintenance of oncotic pressure/colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a major function of albumin, this study examined the impact of albumin oxidation on COP, both in-vivo and in-vitro. Methods Patients with proteinuria and patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) with systemic inflammation and OS were enrolled. Blood samples were collected from 134 subjects: 32 healthy controls (HC), proteinuric patients with high (n = 17) and low (n = 31) systemic inflammation and from 54 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) with the highest levels of OS and inflammation. Results In-vitro oxidized albumin showed significantly higher COP values than non-oxidized albumin at identical albumin levels. In vivo, in hypoalbuminemic HD patients with the highest OS and inflammation, COP values were also higher than expected for the low albumin levels. The contribution to COP by other prevalent plasma proteins, such as fibrinogen and immunoglobulins was negligible. We imply that the calculation of COP based on albumin levels should be revisited in face of OS and inflammation. Hence, in hypoalbuminemic proteinuric patients with systemic OS and inflammation the assumption of low COP should be verified by its measurements. PMID:27453993

  6. Seed coat thickness data clarifies seed size-seed persistence tradeoffs in Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretical models predict that seed size and seedbank persistence evolve interdependently such that strong selection for one trait corresponds with weak selection for the other. This framework is supported by empirical data but conclusive evidence is lacking. In this study, we expand the seed size-...

  7. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-02-07

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation.

  8. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation.

  9. Growth rate controlled synthesis of hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juan; Tian, Guohui; Chen, Yajie; Shi, Yunhan; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang

    2014-01-01

    Core/shell heterostructure composite has great potential applications in photocatalytic field because the introduction of core can remarkably improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation. Herein, hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell structured microspheres were prepared via a simple one-pot hydrothermal process based on different growth rate of the two kinds of sulphides. The results showed that, the as-prepared hierarchical Bi2S3/In2S3 core/shell heterostructure exhibits significant visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. The introduction of Bi2S3 core can not only improve charge transport and enhance the electron-hole separation, but also broaden the visible light response. The hierarchical porous folwer-like shell of In2S3 could increase the specific surface area and remarkably enhanced the chemical stability of Bi2S3 against oxidation. PMID:24504084

  10. Albumin acts like transforming growth factor β1 in microbubble-based drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yueh-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Tien-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Jung; Li, Pai-Chi

    2014-04-01

    Unlike lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs), albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) have not been reported to be actively targeted to cells without the assistance of antibodies. Recent studies indicate that the albumin molecule is similar to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) both structurally and functionally. The TGF-β superfamily is important during early tumor outgrowth, with an elevated TGF-β being tumor suppressive; at later stages, this switches to malignant conversion and progression, including breast cancer. TGF-β receptors I and II play crucial roles in both the binding and endocytosis of albumin. However, until now, no specific albumin receptor has been found. On the basis of the above-mentioned information, we hypothesized that non-antibody-conjugated albumin-shelled MBs can be used to deliver drugs to breast cancer cells. We also studied the possible roles of TGF-β1 and radiation force in the behavior of cells and albumin-shelled MBs. The results indicate that albumin-shelled MBs loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) induce breast cancer cell apoptosis without the specific targeting produced by an antibody. Applying either an acoustic radiation force or cavitation alone to cells with PTX-loaded albumin MBs increased the apoptosis rate to 23.2% and 26.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. We also found that albumin-shelled MBs can enter MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and remain there for at least 24 h, even in the presence of PTX loading. Confocal micrographs revealed that 70.5% of the breast cancer cells took up albumin-shelled MBs spontaneously after 1 d of incubation. Applying an acoustic radiation force further increased the percentage to 91.9% in our experiments. However, this process could be blocked by TGF-β1, even with subsequent exposure to the radiation force. From these results, we conclude that TGF-β1 receptors are involved in the endocytotic process by which albumin-shelled MBs enter breast cancer cells. The acoustic radiation force increases the contact

  11. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  12. Etudes des verres du pseudo-ternaire La 2S 3Bi 2S 3Ga 2S 3, en relation avec le diagramme de phases et la spectroscopie infra-rouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecrepont, C.; Guittard, M.; Barnier, S.; Loireau-Lozac'h, A. M.; Palazzi, M.; Julien, C.; Massot, M.

    1992-04-01

    The phase diagram of the La 2S 3Ga 2S 3Bi 2S 3 ternary system is described. DTA measurements have been carried out on a large variety of glass, and the glass formation domain has been defined with the investigation of Tg, Tc, and the endothermic peaks. Infrared absorption spectra have been studied. The vibrational assignment is discussed in relation to the composition of the glass.

  13. High temperature regenerative H.sub.2 S sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Inventor); Gavalas, George R. (Inventor); Tamhankar, Satish S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas streams comprise porous, high surface area particles. A first class of sorbents comprise a thin film of binary oxides that form a eutectic at the temperature of the gas stream coated onto a porous, high surface area refractory support. The binary oxides are a mixture of a Group VB or VIB metal oxide with a Group IB, IIB or VIII metal oxide such as a film of V-Zn-O, V-Cu-O, Cu-Mo-O, Zn-Mo-O or Fe-Mo-O coated on an alumina support. A second class of sorbents consist of particles of unsupported mixed oxides in the form of highly dispersed solid solutions of solid compounds characterized by small crystallite size, high porosity and relatively high surface area. The mixed oxide sorbents contain one Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal oxide such as copper, zinc or manganese and one or more oxides of Groups IIIA, VIB or VII such as aluminum, iron or molybdenum. The presence of iron or aluminum maintains the Group IB, IIB or VIIB metal in its oxidized state. Presence of molybdenum results in eutectic formation at sulfidation temperature and improves the efficiency of the sorbent.

  14. Raman and infrared spectra of stibnite, Sb2S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinca, G.; Caracas, R.

    2006-12-01

    Stibnite, Sb2S3 is a small-gap quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor (PhChMin, 32, 295-300, 2005) and a structural archetype for a variety of sulfide and sulfosalt minerals. Despite its widespread natural occurrence and its mineralogical importance, the physical properties are barely studied. Here, we combine experimental and theoretical approaches to analyze its zone-center dynamical properties. We measure the powder infrared reflectivity spectra and the powder Raman spectra under ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. We calculate the normal mode frequencies within the density functional perturbation theory, as implemented in the ABINIT package. With 20 atoms in the unit cell, stibnite has 60 normal modes, which according to the group theory decompose in Gamma as 10A_g+5B1g+10B2g+5B3g + 5A_u+10B1u+5B2u+10B3u. The acoustic modes have characters B1u+B2u+B3u. The Au modes are silent whereas all the other modes are active. The optical modes are distributed over a narrow 0-350 cm-1 frequency range. The infrared reflectivity spectrum shows a multitude of peaks, which are poorly differentiated and highly overlapping. The Raman spectrum is better differentiated, with five main peaks. The main infrared mode lays around 246 cm-1 and represents a superposition of at least one B3u and one B1u modes.

  15. Effects of H2S on molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished to identify the poisoning mechanism(s) responsible for performance losses of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) when operating on sulfur-containing gases. This objective is being addressed by focusing out-of-cell and in-cell experiments on single mechanistic issues, followed by incorporation of the results into a model that correlates cell potential decline to contaminant(s) concentration. When coupled with gas cleanup cost projections, the model can be used to conduct trade-off studies leading to the selection of optimum feed-gas compositions for MCFC power plants. The importance of this program is that the degree to which H2S and other contaminants must be removed from typical MCFC fuels can have a profound effect on the cost of cleaning the fuel gas, especially if contaminant levels lower than 0.1 ppM are required. The anticipated product from the overall program is a justifiable specification for gas cleanup requirements for MCFC power plants. The loss in performance experienced by fuel cells operating on contaminated fuels has been traced to the electrochemical formation of a layer of nickel sulfide on the fuel cell electrode.

  16. Albumin administration in the acutely ill: what is new and where next?

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Russell, James A; Jacob, Matthias; Martin, Greg; Guidet, Bertrand; Wernerman, Jan; Ferrer, Ricard; Roca, Ricard Ferrer; McCluskey, Stuart A; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-07-16

    Albumin solutions have been used worldwide for the treatment of critically ill patients since they became commercially available in the 1940s. However, their use has become the subject of criticism and debate in more recent years. Importantly, all fluid solutions have potential benefits and drawbacks. Large multicenter randomized studies have provided valuable data regarding the safety of albumin solutions, and have begun to clarify which groups of patients are most likely to benefit from their use. However, many questions remain related to where exactly albumin fits within our fluid choices. Here, we briefly summarize some of the physiology and history of albumin use in intensive care before offering some evidence-based guidance for albumin use in critically ill patients.

  17. Estimation of postmortem interval through albumin in CSF by simple dye binding method.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Ankita K; Menon, Shobhana K

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of postmortem interval is a very important question in some medicolegal investigations. For the precise estimation of postmortem interval, there is a need of a method which can give accurate estimation. Bromocresol green (BCG) is a simple dye binding method and widely used in routine practice. Application of this method in forensic practice may bring revolutionary changes. In this study, cerebrospinal fluid was aspirated from cisternal puncture from 100 autopsies. A study was carried out on concentration of albumin with respect to postmortem interval. After death, albumin present in CSF undergoes changes, after 72 h of death, concentration of albumin has become 0.012 mM, and this decrease was linear from 2 h to 72 h. An important relationship was found between albumin concentration and postmortem interval with an error of ± 1-4h. The study concludes that CSF albumin can be a useful and significant parameter in estimation of postmortem interval.

  18. Seeking to shed some light on the binding of fluoroquinolones to albumins.

    PubMed

    Bosca, Francisco

    2012-03-22

    Interactions between serum albumins (HSA, human, and BSA, bovine) and fluoroquinolones (FQs), such as enoxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, have been studied using the laser flash photolysis technique. Lifetimes and quantum yields of FQs triplet excited states ((3)FQs) are not affected by the presence of albumins, however, the quenching of (3)FQs by tryptophan and tyrosine and the subsequent generation of FQs radical anions and tyrosyl or tryptophanyl radicals were detected. These results, besides agreeing with association constants (K(a)) for FQs binding to albumins lower than 6 × 10(2) M(-1), are highly relevant to understanding the process of photohapten formation, the first event in the onset of photoallergy. The emission of tryptophan within albumin is not affected by the presence of FQs when the inner filter effects (IFE) of these drugs are taken into account, which explains the discrepancies reported in the literature about K(a) of FQs with albumins.

  19. A comparative analysis on the binding characteristics of various mammalian albumins towards a multitherapeutic agent, pinostrobin.

    PubMed

    Feroz, Shevin R; Sumi, Rumana A; Malek, Sri N A; Tayyab, Saad

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of pinostrobin (PS), a multitherapeutic agent with serum albumins of various mammalian species namely, goat, bovine, human, porcine, rabbit, sheep and dog was investigated using fluorescence quench titration and competitive drug displacement experiments. Analysis of the intrinsic fluorescence quenching data revealed values of the association constant, K(a) in the range of 1.49 - 6.12 × 10(4) M(-1), with 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Based on the PS-albumin binding characteristics, these albumins were grouped into two classes. Ligand displacement studies using warfarin as the site I marker ligand correlated well with the binding data. Albumins from goat and bovine were found to be closely similar to human albumin on the basis of PS binding characteristics.

  20. How does bovine serum albumin prevent the formation of kidney stone? A kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2006-05-11

    To attain a better understanding of the crystallization of calcium oxalate crystals under the influence of the protein bovine serum albumin, we examined not only the nucleation kinetics but also the structural synergy between the biomineral and the biosubstrate. It follows that during the crystallization process of calcium oxalate crystals bovine serum albumin inhibits the nucleation of calcium oxalate by increasing the kink kinetics barrier. The results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction show, however, that bovine serum albumin promotes the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate. Apart from this, bovine serum albumin facilitates the ordered calcium oxalate crystal assembly by suppressing the supersaturation-driven interfacial structure mismatch. The physics questions behind the mentioned effects have been addressed from the kinetics point of view. This may explain why bovine serum albumin plays an important role in suppressing urine stone formation.