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Sample records for 2x nm node

  1. Improving inspectability of sub-2x-nm node masks with complex SRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, In Yong; Yoon, Gisung; Lee, Jonghee; Chung, Donghoon Paul; Kim, Byung-Gook; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Inderhees, Gregg; Hutchinson, Trent; Cho, Wonil; Hur, Jiuk

    2013-10-01

    As Moore's Law continues its relentless march toward ever smaller geometries on wafer, lithographers who had been relying on the implementation of a solution using EUV lithography are faced with increasing challenges to meet requirements for printing sub-2x nm half-pitch (HP). The available choices rely on 193 nm DUV immersion lithography, but with decreasing k1 values and thus shrinking process windows. To overcome these limitations, two techniques such as inverse lithography technology (ILT) and source mask optimization (SMO) were introduced by computational OPC scheme. From a mask inspection viewpoint, the impact of both ILT and SMO is similar - both result in photomasks that have a large quantity of sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). These SRAFs are challenging for mask-makers to pattern with high fidelity and accuracy across a full-field mask, and thus mask inspection is challenged to maintain a high sensitivity level on primary mask features while not suffering from a high nuisance detection rate on the SRAF features. To solve this particular issue, new inspection approach was developed by using computational image calibration based wafer scanner simulation. This paper will be described the new capabilities, which analyzes the aerial image to differentiate between printing and non-printing features, and applying the appropriate sensitivity threshold. All analysis will be shown comparing results with and without the new capabilities, with an emphasis on inspectability improvements and nuisance defect reduction to improve mask cycle time.

  2. Process window analysis of algorithmic assist feature placement options at the 2X nm node DRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jinhyuck; Kim, Shinyoung; Song, Jookyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Ward, Brian; Zhang, Yunqiang; Hooker, Kevin; Do, Munhoe; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Jang, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    As the industry pushes to ever more complex illumination schemes to increase resolution for next generation memory and logic circuits; subresolution assist feature (SRAF) placement requirements become increasingly severe. Therefore device manufacturers are evaluating improvements in SRAF placement algorithms which do not sacrifice main feature (MF) patterning capability. AF placement algorithms can be categorized broadly as either rule-based (RB), model-based (MB). However, combining these different algorithms into new integrated solutions may enable a more optimal overall solution. RBAF is the baseline AF placement method for many previous technology nodes. Although RBAF algorithm complexity limits its use with very extreme illumination, RBAF is still a powerful option in certain scenarios. One example is for repeating patterns in memory arrays. RBAF algorithms can be finely optimized and verified experimentally without the building of complex models. RBAF also guarantees AF placement consistency based only on the very local geometric environment, which is important in applications where consistent signal propagation is of critical importance. MBAF algorithms deliver the ability to reliably place assist features for enhanced process window control across a wide variety of layout feature configurations and aggressive illumination sources. These methods optimize sophisticated AF placement to improve main feature PW but without performing full main feature OPC. The flexibility of MBAF allows for efficient investigations of future technology nodes as the number of interactions between local layout features increases beyond what RBAF algorithms can effectively support Based on hybrid approach algorithms combining features of the different algorithms using both RBAF and MBAF methods, the generation and placement of SRAF can be a good alternative. Combining of two kinds of SRAF placement options might result in relatively improved process window compared to an

  3. Pattern wiggling investigation of self-aligned double patterning for 2x nm node NAND Flash and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, You-Yu; Chen, Chun-Chi; Li, Chia-Yu; Wang, Zih-Song; Chen, Ching-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Double patterning technology (DPT) has been identified as the extension of optical photolithography technologies to 3x nm half-pitch and below to fill in the gap between Immersion and EUV lithography. Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) technology utilized mature process to reduce risk and faster time to support the continuation of Moore's Law. As for the SADP process, the suitable hard mask (HM) material as following core pattern selection is quite important. Usually, the severe pattern deformation -wiggling, is easy to happen as the line/space patterns scaled down to below 35nm, and it ultimately prevents the successful pattern transfer. In this paper, using the amorphous carbon as HM, it was found that wiggling was caused by serious chemical side-etch during SADP dry etch process. However, an effective of advanced carbon material with high etch selectivity and low etch rate by appropriate film modification can be successful in SADP without wiggling side effect for 2x nm node NAND Flash application. This extraordinary HM can be considered as a potential choice for SADP process continual performing.

  4. Wafer sub-layer impact in OPC/ORC models for 2x nm node implant layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Denmat, Jean-Christophe; Martinelli, Catherine; Sungauer, Elodie; Michel, Jean-Christophe; Yesilada, Emek; Robert, Frederic

    2013-04-01

    From 28nm technology node and below, Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) needs to take into account light scattering effects from prior layers when bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) is not used, which is typical for implant layers. In this paper, we implement a sub-layer aware simulation method into a verification tool for Optical Rule Check (ORC) that is used on full 28nm test chip. The sub-layer aware verification can predict defects that are missed by standard ORC. SEM-CD review and defectivity analysis were used to confirm the validity of the sub-layer aware model on wafer.

  5. AIMS mask qualification for 32nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Rigo; Thaler, Thomas; Seitz, Holger; Stroessner, Ulrich; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Moving forward to 32nm node and below optical lithography using 193nm is faced with complex requirements to be solved. Mask makers are forced to address both Double Patterning Techniques and Computational Lithography approaches such as Source Mask Optimizations and Inverse Lithography. Additionally, lithography at low k1 values increases the challenges for mask repair as well as for repair verification and review by AIMSTM. Higher CD repeatability, more flexibility in the illumination settings as well as significantly improved image performance must be added when developing the next generation mask qualification equipment. This paper reports latest measurement results verifying the appropriateness of the latest member of AIMSTM measurement tools - the AIMSTM 32-193i. We analyze CD repeatability measurements on lines and spaces pattern. The influence of the improved optical performance and newly introduced interferometer stage will be verified. This paper highlights both the new Double Patterning functionality emulating double patterning processes and the influence of its critical parameters such as overlay errors and resist impact. Beneficial advanced illumination schemes emulating scanner illumination document the AIMSTM 32-193i to meet mask maker community's requirements for the 32nm node.

  6. 100-nm node lithography with KrF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Astolfi, David K.; Yost, Donna; Davis, Paul; Wheeler, Bruce; Mallen, Renee D.; Jarmolowicz, J.; Cann, Susan G.; Liu, Hua-Yu; Ma, M.; Chan, David Y.; Rhyins, Peter D.; Carney, Chris; Ferri, John E.; Blachowicz, B. A.

    2001-09-01

    We present results looking into the feasibility of 100-nm Node imaging using KrF, 248-nm, exposure technology. This possibility is not currently envisioned by the 1999 ITRS Roadmap which lists 5 possible options for this 2005 Node, not including KrF. We show that double-exposure strong phase- shift, combined with two mask OPC, is capable of correcting the significant proximity effects present for 100-nm Node imaging at these low k1 factors. We also introduce a new PSM Paradigm, dubbed 'GRATEFUL,' that can image aggressive 100-nm Node features without using OPC. This is achieved by utilizing an optimized 'dense-only' imaging approach. The method also allows the re-use of a single PSM for multiple levels and designs, thus addressing the mask cost and turnaround time issues of concern in PSM technology.

  7. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  8. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  9. Considerations for fine hole patterning for the 7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi; Koike, Kyohei

    2016-03-01

    One of the practical candidates to produce 7nm node logic devices is to use the multiple patterning with 193-immersion exposure. For the multiple patterning, it is important to evaluate the relation between the number of mask layer and the minimum pitch systematically to judge the device manufacturability. Although the number of the time of patterning, namely LE(Litho-Etch) ^ x-time, and overlay steps have to be reduced, there are some challenges in miniaturization of hole size below 20nm. Various process fluctuations on contact hole have a direct impact on device performance. According to the technical trend, 12nm diameter hole on 30nm-pitch hole will be needed on 7nm node. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) and Directed self-assembly (DSA) are attracting considerable attention to obtain small feature size pattern, however, 193-immersion still has the potential to extend optical lithography cost-effectively for sub-7nm node. The objective of this work is to study the process variation challenges and resolution in post-processing for the CD-bias control to meet sub-20nm diameter contact hole. Another pattern modulation is also demonstrated during post-processing step for hole shrink. With the realization that pattern fidelity and pattern placement management will limit scaling long before devices and interconnects fail to perform intrinsically, the talk will also outline how circle edge roughness (CER) and Local-CD uniformity can correct efficiency. On the other hand, 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) has simple rectangular shapes. Also, we have demonstrated CD-bias modification on short trench pattern to cut grating line for its fabrication.

  10. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  11. Full phase-shifting methodology for 65-nm node lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrat, Christophe; Driessen, Frank A. J. M.; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2003-06-01

    A new methodology for completely phase-shifting a poly layout without creating local phase conflicts was proposed for lithographic techniques combining one phase-shifting mask and one binary mask exposure1. Critical and non-critical areas of the layout are identified and phase conflicts are avoided by splitting the shifter regions from non-critical areas to non-critical areas without crossing critical areas. The out-of-phase splits of the shifter regions are removed using the binary exposure. Simulation results and experimental data collected for 90nm technology node show no sign of process latitude loss around the areas where the shifters are split. The overlay latitude is commensurate with 90nm technology scanner requirements (tool to itself). Simulation work shows that the two exposures are balancing each other out of focus in the 45-degree cut regions thus ensuring large focus latitude. The focus latitude reported is larger than the main feature process latitude; this result was confirmed experimentally. A set of phase-shifting design rules commensurate with an aggressive 65nm node technology (140nm pitch) was put together. Under these conditions, we have identified certain types of cuts that should be avoided during the generation of the phase-shifting layout; this is primarily the case for cuts in "elbow" structures which exhibit limited process latitude. Other cuts like line-end cuts will have to be modified. In this case we have proposed a side cut when the line-end is facing a perpendicular line with a minimum spacing. Despite these restrictions, test structures for the 65nm technology node were successfully converted with no phase conflicts. Experimental verification done on test structures using a 0.75 NA, 193nm scanner demonstrates 0.33 k1 capability using the full phase methodology.

  12. Taking the X Architecture to the 65-nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Robin C.; Smayling, Michael C.; Arora, Narain; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Duane, Michael P.; Shah, Santosh; Keston, Harris J.; Oemardani, Shiany

    2004-05-01

    The X Architecture is a new way of orienting the interconnect on an integrated circuit using diagonal pathways, as well as the traditional right-angle, or Manhattan, configuration. By enabling designs with significantly less wire and fewer vias, the X Architecture can provide substantial improvements in chip performance, power consumption and cost. Members of the X Initiative semiconductor supply chain consortium have demonstrated the production worthiness of the X Architecture at the 130-nm and 90-nm process technology nodes. This paper presents an assessment of the manufacturing readiness of the X Architecture for the 65-nm technology node. The extent to which current production capabilities in mask writing, lithography, wafer processing, inspection and metrology can be used is discussed using the results from a 65-nm test chip. The project was a collaborative effort amongst a number of companies in the IC fabrication supply chain. Applied Materials fabricated the 65-nm X Architecture test chip at its Maydan Technology Center and leveraged the technology of other X Initiative members. Cadence Design Systems provided the test structure design and chip validation tools, Dai Nippon Printing produced the masks and Canon"s imaging system was employed for the photolithography.

  13. Double exposure technique for 45nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen; Park, Jungchul; Van Den Broeke, Douglas; Chen, J. Fung

    2005-11-01

    The technical challenges in using F2 lithography for the 45nm node, along with the insurmountable difficulties in EUV lithography, has driven the semiconductor chipmaker into the low k1 lithography era under the pressure of ever decreasing feature sizes. Extending lithography towards lower k1 puts heavy demand on the resolution enhancement technique (RET), exposure tool, and the need for litho friendly design. Hyper numerical aperture (NA) exposure tools, immersion, and double exposure techniques (DET's) are the promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node at k1 factors below 0.3. Scattering bars (SB's) have become an integral part of the lithography process as chipmakers move to production at ever lower k1 factors. To achieve better critical dimension (CD) control, polarization is applied to enhance the image contrast in the preferential imaging orientation, which increases the risk of SB printability. The optimum SB width is approximately (0.20 ~ 0.25)*(λ/NA). When the SB width becomes less than the exposure wavelength on the 4X mask, Kirchhoff's scalar theory under predicts the SB intensity. The optical weighting factor of the SB increases (Figure 1b) and the SB's become more susceptible to printing. Meanwhile, under hyper NA conditions, the effectiveness of "subresolution" SB's is significantly diminished. A full-sized scattering bars (FSB) scheme becomes necessary. Double exposure methods, such as using ternary 6% attenuated PSM (attPSM) for DDL, are good imaging solutions that can reach and likely go beyond the 45nm node. Today DDL, using binary chrome masks, is capable of printing 65 nm device patterns. In this work, we investigate the use of DET with 6% attPSM masks to target 45nm node device. The SB scalability and printability issues can be taken cared of by using "mutual trimming", i.e., with the combined energy from the two exposures. In this study, we share our findings of using DET to pattern a 45nm node device design with

  14. Wafer topography modeling for ionic implantation mask correction dedicated to 2x nm FDSOI technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Christophe; Le Denmat, Jean-Christophe; Sungauer, Elodie; Robert, Frédéric; Yesilada, Emek; Armeanu, Ana-Maria; Entradas, Jorge; Sturtevant, John L.; Do, Thuy; Granik, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    Reflection by wafer topography and underlying layers during optical lithography can cause unwanted exposure in the resist [1]. This wafer stack effect phenomenon which is neglected for larger nodes than 45nm, is becoming problematic for 32nm technology node and below at the ionic implantation process. This phenomenon is expected to be attenuated by the use of anti-reflecting coating but increases process complexity and adds cost and cycle time penalty. As a consequence, an OPC based solution is today under evaluation to cope with stack effects involved in ionic implantation patterning [2] [3]. For the source drain (SD) ionic implantation process step on 28nm Fully Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator (FDSOI) technology, active silicon areas, poly silicon patterns, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI), Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) areas and the transitions between these different regions result in significant SD implant pattern critical dimension variations. The large number of stack variations involved in these effects implies a complex modeling to simulate pattern degradations. This paper deals with the characterization of stack effects on 28nm node using SOI substrates. The large number of measurements allows to highlight all individual and combined stack effects. A new modeling flow has been developed in order to generate wafer stack aware OPC model. The accuracy and the prediction of the model is presented in this paper.

  15. Reflective electron-beam lithography performance for the 10nm logic node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff; Cheung, Anthony; Yang, Jason; McCord, Mark; Petric, Paul; Carroll, Allen; Ummethala, Upendra; Hale, Layton; Hench, John; Kojima, Shinichi; Mieher, Walter; Bevis, Chris F.

    2012-11-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography has the potential to extend semiconductor manufacturing to the sub-10 nm technology node. KLA-Tencor is currently developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) for high-volume 10 nm logic (16 nm HP). This paper reviews progress in the development of the REBL system towards its goal of 100 wph throughput for High Volume Lithography (HVL) at the 2X and 1X nm nodes. In this paper we introduce the Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) with integrated CMOS and MEMs lenslets that was manufactured at TSMC and IMEC. For REBL, the DPG is integrated to KLA-Tencor pattern generating software that can be programmed to produce complex, gray-scaled lithography patterns. Additionally, we show printing results for a range of interesting lithography patterns using Time Domain Imaging (TDI). Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development of a Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) tool for maskless lithography at and below the 22 nm technology node1. Since that time, the REBL team and its partners (TSMC, IMEC) have made good progress towards developing the REBL system and Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) for direct write lithography. Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. Ebeam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the continued uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 22 nm technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for HVL.

  16. Novel high sensitivity EUV photoresist for sub-7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Tagawa, Seiichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Nagahara, Seiji; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Ekinci, Yasin; Yildirim, Oktay; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Verspaget, Coen; Maas, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) has been recognized as the most promising candidate for the manufacture of semiconductor devices for the 7 nm node and beyond. A key point in the successful introduction of EUV lithography in high volume manufacture (HVM) is the effective EUV dose utilization while simultaneously realizing ultra-high resolution and low line edge roughness (LER). Here we show EUV resist sensitivity improvement with the use of a photosensitized chemically amplified resist PSCARTM system. The evaluation of this new chemically amplified resist (CAR) as performed using EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) is described and the fundamentals are discussed.

  17. Scatterometry for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor; Ren, Liping; Huang, George; Montgomery, Cecilia; Montgomery, Warren; Elia, Alex; Liu, Xiaoping

    2011-03-01

    Moore's Law continues to drive improvements to lithographic resolution to increase integrated circuit transistor density, improve performance, and reduce cost. For the 22 nm node and beyond, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a promising technology with λ=13.5 nm, a larger k1 value and lower cost of ownership than other available technologies. For small feature sizes, process control will be increasingly challenging, as small features will create measurement uncertainties, yet with tighter specifications. Optical scatterometry is a primary candidate metrology for EUV lithography process control. Using simulation and experimental data, this work will explore scatterometry's application to a typical lithography process being used for EUV development, which should be representative of lithography processes that will be utilized for EUV High Volume manufacturing (HVM). EUV lithography will be performed using much thinner photoresist thicknesses than were used at the 248nm or 193nm lithography generations, and will probably include underlayers for adhesion improvement; these new processes conditions were investigated in this metrological study.

  18. Megasonic cleaning: possible solutions for 22nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Mann, Raunak; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Megasonic energy transfer to the photomask surface is indirectly controlled by process parameters that provide an effective handle to physical force distribution on the photomask surface. A better understanding of the influence of these parameters on the physical force distribution and their effect on pattern damage of fragile mask features can help optimize megasonic energy transfer as well as assist in extending this cleaning technology beyond the 22nm node. In this paper we have specifically studied the effect of higher megasonic frequencies (3 & 4MHz) and media gasification on pattern damage; the effect of cleaning chemistry, media volume flow rate, process time, and nozzle distance to the mask surface during the dispense is also discussed. Megasonic energy characterization is performed by measuring the acoustic energy as well as cavitation created by megasonic energy through sonoluminescence measurements.

  19. Layout optimization with assist features placement by model based rule tables for 2x node random contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Jinhyuck; Park, Minwoo; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Do, Munhoe; Lee, Dongchan; Kim, Taehoon; Choi, Junghoe; Luk-Pat, Gerard; Miloslavsky, Alex

    2015-03-01

    As the industry pushes to ever more complex illumination schemes to increase resolution for next generation memory and logic circuits, sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) placement requirements become increasingly severe. Therefore device manufacturers are evaluating improvements in SRAF placement algorithms which do not sacrifice main feature (MF) patterning capability. There are known-well several methods to generate SRAF such as Rule based Assist Features (RBAF), Model Based Assist Features (MBAF) and Hybrid Assisted Features combining features of the different algorithms using both RBAF and MBAF. Rule Based Assist Features (RBAF) continue to be deployed, even with the availability of Model Based Assist Features (MBAF) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT). Certainly for the 3x nm node, and even at the 2x nm nodes and lower, RBAF is used because it demands less run time and provides better consistency. Since RBAF is needed now and in the future, what is also needed is a faster method to create the AF rule tables. The current method typically involves making masks and printing wafers that contain several experiments, varying the main feature configurations, AF configurations, dose conditions, and defocus conditions - this is a time consuming and expensive process. In addition, as the technology node shrinks, wafer process changes and source shape redesigns occur more frequently, escalating the cost of rule table creation. Furthermore, as the demand on process margin escalates, there is a greater need for multiple rule tables: each tailored to a specific set of main-feature configurations. Model Assisted Rule Tables(MART) creates a set of test patterns, and evaluates the simulated CD at nominal conditions, defocused conditions and off-dose conditions. It also uses lithographic simulation to evaluate the likelihood of AF printing. It then analyzes the simulation data to automatically create AF rule tables. It means that analysis results display the cost of

  20. Fast integral rigorous modeling applied to wafer topography effect prediction on 2x nm bulk technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.-C.; Le Denmat, J.-C.; Tishchenko, A.; Jourlin, Y.

    2014-03-01

    Reflection by wafer topography and underlying layers during optical lithography can cause unwanted overexposure in the resist [1]. In most cases, the use of bottom anti reflective coating limits this effect. However, this solution is not always suitable because of process complexity, cost and cycle time penalty, as for ionic implantation lithography process in 28nm bulk technology. As a consequence, computational lithography solutions are currently under development to simulate and correct wafer topographical effects [2], [3]. For ionic implantation source drain (SD) photolithography step, wafer topography influences resulting in implant pattern variation are various: active silicon areas, Poly patterns, Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) and topographical transitions between these areas. In 28nm bulk SD process step, the large number of wafer stack variations involved in implant pattern modulation implies a complex modeling of optical proximity effects. Furthermore, those topography effects are expected to increase with wafer stack complexity through technology node downscaling evolution. In this context, rigorous simulation can bring significant value for wafer topography modeling evolution in R and D process development environment. Unfortunately, classical rigorous simulation engines are rapidly run time and memory limited with pattern complexity for multiple under layer wafer topography simulation. A presentation of a fast rigorous Maxwell's equation solving algorithm integrated into a photolithography proximity effects simulation flow is detailed in this paper. Accuracy, run time and memory consumption of this fast rigorous modeling engine is presented through the simulation of wafer topography effects during ionic implantation SD lithography step in 28nm bulk technology. Also, run time and memory consumption comparison is shown between presented fast rigorous modeling and classical rigorous RCWA method through simulation of design of interest. Finally

  1. Low-k/copper integration scheme suitable for ULSI manufacturing from 90nm to 45nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, T.; Lane, S.; Fukasawa, M.; Ida, K.; Angyal, M.; Chanda, K.; Chen, F.; Christiansen, C.; Cohen, S.; Cullinan, M.; Dziobkowski, C.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Flaitz, P.; Grill, A.; Gill, J.; Inoue, K.; Klymko, N.; Kumar, K.; Labelle, C.; Lane, M.; Li, B.; Liniger, E.; Madon, A.; Malone, K.; Martin, J.; McGahay, V.; McLaughlin, P.; Melville, I.; Minami, M.; Molis, S.; Nguyen, S.; Penny, C.; Restaino, D.; Sakamoto, A.; Sankar, M.; Sherwood, M.; Simonyi, E.; Shimooka, Y.; Tai, L.; Widodo, J.; Wildman, H.; Ono, M.; McHerron, D.; Nye, H.; Davis, C.; Sankaran, S.; Edelstein, D.; Ivers, T.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses low-k/copper integration schemes which has been in production in the 90 nm node, have been developed in the 65 nm node, and should be taken in the 45 nm node. While our baseline 65 nm BEOL process has been developed by extension and simple shrinkage of our PECVD SiCOH integration which has been in production in the 90 nm node with our SiCOH film having k=3.0, the 65 nm SiCOH integration has two other options to go to extend to lower capacitance. One is to add porosity to become ultra low-k (ULK). The other is to stay with low-k SiCOH, which is modified to have a "lower-k". The effective k- value attained with the lower-k (k=2.8) SiCOH processed in the "Direct CMP" scheme is very close to that with an ULK (k=2.5) SiCOH film built with the "Hard Mask Retention" scheme. This paper first describes consideration of these two damascene schemes, whose comparison leads to the conclusion that the lower-k SiCOH integration can have more advantages in terms of process simplicity and extendibility of our 90 nm scheme under certain assumptions. Then describing the k=2.8 SiCOH film development and its successful integration, damascene schemes for 45nm nodes are discussed based on our learning from development of the lower-k 65nm scheme. Capability of modern dry etchers to define the finer patterns, non-uniformity of CMP, and susceptibility to plasma and mechanical strength and adhesion of ULK are discussed as factors to hamper the applicability of ULK.

  2. Developing an integrated imaging system for the 70-nm node using high numerical aperture ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John S.; Beach, James V.; Gerold, David J.; Maslow, Mark J.

    2002-07-01

    At its conception, 193 nm lithography was thought to be the best way to take optical lithography to the 180 nm node. It was expected that 193 nm could support the now-defunct 160 nm node before optical lithography would have to yield to an undetermined non-optical solution. Today, 193 nm must compete with 248 nm for the 130 nm node and is expected to support lithography until it is replaced by 157 nm at the 70 nm node. Given the challenges facing 157 nm, it is likely that lithographers will attempt to extend the utility of 193 nm to its theoretical limits.

  3. Model-based scattering bars implementation for 65nm and 45nm nodes using IML technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Michael; Van Den Broeke, Doug; Laidig, Tom; Wampler, Kurt E.; Hollerbach, Uwe; Socha, Robert; Chen, J. F.; Hsu, Stephen; Shi, Xuelong

    2005-06-01

    Scattering Bars (SB) OPC, together with optimized illumination, is no doubt one of the critical enablers for low k1 lithography manufacturing. The manufacturing implementation of SB so far has been mainly based on rule-based approach. While this has been working well, a more effective model-based approach is much more desired lithographically for manufacturing at 65nm and 45nm nodes. This is necessary to ensure sufficient process margin using hyper NA for patterning random IC design. In our model-based SB (M-SB) OPC implementation, we have based on the patented IML Technology from ASML MaskTools. In this report, we use both dark field contact hole and clear field poly gate mask to demonstrate this implementation methodology. It is also quite applicable for dark field trench masks, such as local interconnect mask with damascene metal. For our full-chip implementation flow, the first step is to determine the critical design area and then to proceed with NA and illumination optimization. We show that, using LithoCruiser, we are able to select the best NA in combination with optimum illumination via a Diffraction Optical Element (DOE). The decision to use a custom DOE or one from the available DOE library from ASML can be made based on predicted process performance and cost effectiveness. With optimized illumination, it is now possible to construct an interference map for the full-chip mask pattern. Utilizing the interference map, M-SB OPC is generated. Next, model OPC can be applied with the presence of M-SB for the entire chip. It is important to note here, that from our experience, the model OPC must be calibrated with the presence of SB in order to achieve the desired accuracy. We report the full-chip processing benchmark using MaskWeaver to apply both M-SB and model OPC. For actual patterning performance, we have verified the full chip OPC treatment using SLiC, a DFM tool from Cadence. This implementation methodology can be applied to binary chrome mask

  4. Extension of 193 nm dry lithography to 45-nm half-pitch node: double exposure and double processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abani M.; Li, Jianliang; Hiserote, Jay A.; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2006-10-01

    Immersion lithography and multiple exposure techniques are the most promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node. Although immersion lithography has attracted much attention recently as a promising optical lithography extension, it will not solve all the problems at the 45-nm node. The 'dry' option, (i.e. double exposure/etch) which can be realized with standard processing practice, will extend 193-nm lithography to the end of the current industry roadmap. Double exposure/etch lithography is expensive in terms of cost, throughput time, and overlay registration accuracy. However, it is less challenging compared to other possible alternatives and has the ability to break through the κ I barrier (0.25). This process, in combination with attenuated PSM (att-PSM) mask, is a good imaging solution that can reach, and most likely go beyond, the 45-nm node. Mask making requirements in a double exposure scheme will be reduced significantly. This can be appreciated by the fact that the separation of tightly-pitched mask into two less demanding pitch patterns will reduce the stringent specifications for each mask. In this study, modeling of double exposure lithography (DEL) with att-PSM masks to target 45-nm node is described. In addition, mask separation and implementation issues of optical proximity corrections (OPC) to improve process window are studied. To understand the impact of OPC on the process window, Fourier analysis of the masks has been carried out as well.

  5. Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Germer, Thomas A.; Vartanian, Victor; Cordes, Aaron; Cepler, Aron; Settens, Charles

    2013-04-01

    This paper will examine the future for critical dimension (CD) metrology. First, we will present the extensive list of applications for which CD metrology solutions are needed, showing commonalities and differences among the various applications. We will then report on the expected technical limits of the metrology solutions currently being investigated by SEMATECH and others in the industry to address the metrology challenges of future nodes, including conventional CD scanning electron microscopy (CD-SEM) and optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology and new potential solutions such as He-ion microscopy (HeIM, sometimes elsewhere referred to as HIM), CD atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM), CD small-angle x-ray scattering (CD-SAXS), high-voltage scanning electron microscopy (HV-SEM), and other types. A technical gap analysis matrix will then be demonstrated, showing the current state of understanding of the future of the CD metrology space.

  6. Imaging performance and challenges of 10nm and 7nm logic nodes with 0.33 NA EUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Setten, Eelco; Schiffelers, Guido; Psara, Eleni; Oorschot, Dorothe; Davydova, Natalia; Finders, Jo; Depre, Laurent; Farys, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The NXE:3300B is ASML's third generation EUV system and has an NA of 0.33 and is positioned at a resolution of 22nm, which can be extended down to 18nm and below with off-axis illumination at full transmission. Multiple systems have been qualified and installed at customers. The NXE:3300B succeeds the NXE:3100 system (NA of 0.25), which has allowed customers to gain valuable EUV experience. It is expected that EUV will be adopted first for critical Logic layers at 10nm and 7nm nodes, such as Metal-1, to avoid the complexity of triple patterning schemes using ArF immersion. In this paper we will evaluate the imaging performance of (sub-)10nm node Logic M1 on the NXE:3300B EUV scanner. We will show the line-end performance of tip-to-tip and tip-to-space test features for various pitches and illumination settings and the performance enhancement obtained by means of a 1st round of OPC. We will also show the magnitude of local variations. The Logic M1 cell is evaluated at various critical features to identify hot spots. A 2nd round OPC model was calibrated of which we will show the model accuracy and ability to predict hot spots in the Logic M1 cell. The calibrated OPC model is used to predict the expected performance at 7nm node Logic using off-axis illumination at 16nm minimum half pitch. Initial results of L/S exposed on the NXE:3300B at 7nm node resolutions will be shown. An outlook is given to future 0.33 NA systems on the ASML roadmap with enhanced illuminator capabilities to further improve performance and process window.

  7. Radiation Performance of 1 Gbit DDR SDRAMs Fabricated in the 90 nm CMOS Technology Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Gorelick, Jerry L.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H.; LaBel, K.; Friendlich, M.; Koga, R.; George, J.; Crain, S.; Yu, P.; Reed, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present Single Event Effect (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) data for 1 Gbit DDR SDRAMs (90 nm CMOS technology) as well as comparing this data with earlier technology nodes from the same manufacturer.

  8. Evaluation of KLA-Tencor LMS IPRO5 beta system for 22nm node registration and overlay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Laske, F.; Röth, K.-D.; Adam, D.

    2011-11-01

    Using various technical tricks, 193nm lithography has been pushed for the 22nm logic node. For optical and EUV lithography, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS [1]) requests a registration error below 3.8 nm for masks for single-patterning layers. Double patterning further reduces the tolerable pattern placement error to < 2.7 nm for each mask of a pair that forms one layer on the wafer. For mask metrology on the 2x node, maintaining a precision-to-tolerance (P/T) ratio of 0.25 will be challenging. The total measurement uncertainty has to be significantly below 1.0nm. In this work, results obtained during the LMS IPRO5 beta system evaluation are presented. LMS IPRO5 beta system evaluation is part of the CDUR32 project, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. A major improvement to previous LMS IPRO generations is the new laser illumination system, which significantly improves optical resolution and contrast (especially on EUV substrates). Therefore, optical resolution and measurement capability are evaluated using standard registration targets, in-die wafer overlay targets, and arbitrary shaped features on different substrates comprising EUV and binary MoSi masks. Position measurement uncertainty for the new center of gravity (CofG) measurement algorithm, important for in-die measurement capability, is evaluated. The results are compared with results obtained using the traditional edge detection algorithm.

  9. EBDW technology for EB shuttle at 65nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, T.; Takakuwa, M.; Kojima, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamada, K.; Kon, J.; Miyajima, M.; Shimizu, A.; Machida, Y.; Hoshino, H.; Takita, H.; Sugatani, S.; Tsuchikawa, H.

    2008-03-01

    When manufacturing prototype devices or low volume custom logic LSIs, the products are being less profitable because of the skyrocketing mask and design costs recent technology node. For 65nm technology node and beyond, the reduction of mask cost becomes critical issue for logic devices especially. We attempt to apply EBDW mainly to critical interconnect layers to reduce the mask expenditure for the reason of technical output reusability. For 65nm node production, new 300mm EB direct writer had been installed. The process technologies have also been developing to meet sufficient qualities and productivities.

  10. Advanced Write Tool Effects on 100-nm Node OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Peter D.; Green, Kent G.; Ibsen, Kent B.; Nakagawa, Kent H.; Hong, Dongsung; Krishnan, Prakash; Coburn, Dianna

    2002-12-01

    It has long been understood that there is an image fidelity difference between the integrated circuit design pattern and the photomask made from that pattern, largely due to the finite spot size of pattern generators. Furthermore, there are known differences in photomask image fidelity (rounding, jogs, etc.) between e-beam and laser pattern generators. Using a novel technique developed by DuPont Photomasks, Inc. (DPI), actual photomask fidelity has been simulated from design data to produce a more true-to-life representation of the mask. We have performed analytical simulations and printed-wafer measurements on Cypress 100-nm technology designs to determine the differences and effects on optical proximity correction (OPC) of two types of pattern generators: 50 keV e-beam and DUV laser. Both JEOL 9000MV-II+ and ETEC ALTA 4000 images were simulated and saved in GDSII format ("mask-GDSII"). These new mask images were processed through standard lithography simulation software to predict the effects each mask writer has on localized optical proximity effects. Simulations were compared to printed wafer results. A detailed comparison of the accuracy of the mask-GDSII and original design GDSII is performed. Furthermore, comparison of 50 keV e-beam and DUV laser image fidelity is completed, and recommendations are made on how to correct OPC models for each type of photomask generator. Lastly, conclusions are drawn about the use of DUV laser and 50 keV e-beam photomasks.

  11. Analysis of P-Doped Polycrystalline Silicon Missing of W-Polycide Gate for 2X nm NAND Flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Yang, Wen-Chung; Yin, Te-Yuan; Chien, Hung-Ju; Ying, Tzung-Hua

    2013-03-01

    We studied the control-gate (CG-Poly) missing behavior after post in-situ steam generation (ISSG) re-oxidation for W-polycide gate of 2X nm NAND Flash and attempted to determine the possible mechanism. On the other hand, various effective countermeasures were also been proposed. We found that Si atoms diffuse upward on WSi2.3 films, driven out of the underlying doped polycrystalline silicon film during steam radical oxidation process based on energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. A 2.5 nm remaining of SiN at least on sidewall before oxidation results in CG-Poly missing free and WSix deformation improvement simultaneously. A selective oxidation such as water vapor generator (WVG) and rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) can achieve the same efficient performance. Additionally, less intrinsic tensile stress of WSix film employment also shows immunity against CG-Poly missing. Satisfactory sidewall barrier utilization for ISSG oxidation, diverse thermal oxidation selection, and even by WSix film property modifying might avoid poly-Si missing occurrence and reduce the WSix film deformation extent for the narrower dimension of 2X nm and beyond.

  12. Implementation of templated DSA for via layer patterning at the 7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronheid, Roel; Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Ryckaert, Julien; Vandenberghe, Geert; Cao, Yi; Lin, Guanyang; Somervell, Mark; Fenger, Germain; Fuchimoto, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    In recent years major advancements have been made in the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP). Insertion of DSA for IC fabrication is seriously considered for the 7nm node. At this node the DSA technology could alleviate costs for double patterning and limit the number of masks that would be required per layer. At imec multiple approaches for inserting DSA into the 7nm node are considered. One of the most straightforward approaches for implementation would be for via patterning through templated DSA (grapho-epitaxy), since hole patterns are readily accessible through templated hole patterning of cylindrical phase BCP materials. Here, the pre-pattern template is first patterned into a spin-on hardmask stack. After optimizing the surface properties of the template the desired hole patterns can be obtained by the BCP DSA process. For implementation of this approach to be implemented for 7nm node via patterning, not only the appropriate process flow needs to be available, but also appropriate metrology (including for pattern placement accuracy) and DSA-aware mask decomposition are required. In this paper the imec approach for 7nm node via patterning will be discussed.

  13. Viability of pattern shift for defect-free EUV photomasks at the 7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Rankin, Jed; Narita, Eisuke; Kagawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Several challenges hinder EUV photomask fabrication and its readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM). The lack in availability of pristine defect-free blanks as well as the absence of a robust mask repair technique mandates defect mitigation through pattern shift for the production of defect-free photomasks. By using known defect locations on a blank, the mask design can be intentionally shifted to avoid patterning directly over a defect. The work presented here provides a comprehensive look at pattern shift implementation to intersect EUV HVM for the 7 nm technology node. An empirical error budget to compensate for various measurement errors, based on the latest HVM inspection and write tool capabilities, is first established and then verified post-patterning. The validated error budget is applied to 20 representative EUV blanks and pattern shift is performed using OPC'd 7 nm node fully functional chip designs that were also recently used to fabricate working 7 nm node devices. Probability of defect-free masks are explored for various 7 nm mask levels, including metal, contact, and gate cut layers. From these results, an assessment is made on the current viability of defect-free EUV masks for the 7 nm node.

  14. Writing time estimation of EB mask writer EBM-9000 for hp16nm/logic11nm node generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of semiconductor devices is slowing down because of the difficulty in establishing their functionality at the nano-size level and also because of the limitations in fabrications, mainly the delay of EUV lithography. While multigate devices (FinFET) are currently the main driver for scalability, other types of devices, such as 3D devices, are being realized to relax the scaling of the node. In lithography, double or multiple patterning using ArF immersion scanners is still a realistic solution offered for the hp16nm node fabrication. Other lithography candidates are those called NGL (Next Generation Lithography), such as DSA (Directed-Self-Assembling) or nanoimprint. In such situations, shot count for mask making by electron beam writers will not increase. Except for some layers, it is not increasing as previously predicted. On the other hand, there is another aspect that increases writing time. The exposure dose for mask writing is getting higher to meet tighter specifications of CD uniformity, in other words, reduce LER. To satisfy these requirements, a new electron beam mask writer, EBM-9000, has been developed for hp16nm/logic11nm generation. Electron optical system, which has the immersion lens system, was evolved from EBM-8000 to achieve higher current density of 800A/cm2. In this paper, recent shot count and dose trend are discussed. Also, writing time is estimated for the requirements in EBM-9000.

  15. Lithography of choice for the 45-nm node: new medium, new wavelength, or new beam?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Katsumata, Mikio; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Takeuchi, Koichi; Omori, Shinji; Yoshizawa, Masaki; Kawahira, Hiroichi

    2004-05-01

    In order to clarify the direction of the lithography for the 45 nm node, the feasibilities of various lithographic techniques for gate, metal, and contact layers are studied by using experimental data and aerial image simulations. The focus and exposure budget have been determined from the actual data and the realistic estimation such as the focus distributions across a wafer measured by the phase shift focus monitor (PSFM), the focus and exposure reproducibility of the latest exposure tools, and the anticipated 45 nm device topography, etc. 193 nm lithography with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.93 achieves the half pitch of 70 nm (hp70) by using an attenuated phase shift mask (att-PSM) and annular illumination. 193 nm immersion lithography has the possibility to achieve the hp60 without an alternative PSM (alt-PSM). For a gate layer, 50-nm/130-nm line-and-space (L/S) patterns as well as 50 nm isolated lines can be fabricated by an alt-PSM. Although specific aberrations degrade the critical dimension (CD) variation of an alt-PSM, +/-2.6 nm CD uniformity (CDU) is demonstrated by choosing the well-controlled projection lens and using a high flatness wafer. For a contact layers, printing 90 nm contacts is very critical by optical lithography even if the aggressive resolution enhancement technique (RET) is used. Especially for dense contact, the mask error factor (MEF) increases to around 10 and practical process margin is not available at all. On the other hand, low-energy electron-beam proximity-projection lithography (LEEPL) can fabricate 80 nm contact with large process margin. As a lithography tool for the contact layers of the 45 nm node devices, LEEPL is expected to replace 193 nm lithography.

  16. Achieving CDU requirement for 90-nm technology node and beyond with advanced mask making process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzu, San-De; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chi; Kliem, Karl-Heinz; Hudek, Peter; Beyer, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    For 90nm node and beyond technology generations, one of the most critical challenges is how to meet the local CD uniformity (proximity) and global CD uniformity (GCDU) requirements within the exposure field. Both of them must be well controlled in the mask making process: (1) proximity effect and, (2) exposure pattern loading effect, or the so-called e-beam "fogging effect". In this paper, we report a method to improve our global CDU by means of a long range fogging compensation together with the Leica SB350 MW. This exposure tool is operated at 50keV and 1nm design grid. The proximity correction is done by the software - package "PROXECCO" from PDF Solutions. We have developed a unique correction method to reduce the fogging effect in dependency of the pattern density of the mask. This allows us to meet our customers" CDU specifications for the 90nm node and beyond.

  17. Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks.

    PubMed

    Van Campenhout, Joris; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Vlasov, Yurii A

    2009-12-21

    We present an ultra-broadband Mach-Zehnder based optical switch in silicon, electrically driven through carrier injection. Crosstalk levels lower than -17 dB are obtained for both the 'on' and 'off' switching states over an optical bandwidth of 110 nm, owing to the implementation of broadband 50% couplers. Full 2 x 2 switching functionality is demonstrated, with low power consumption (approximately 3 mW) and a fast switching time (< 4 ns). The utilization of standard CMOS metallization results in a low drive voltage (approximately 1 V) and a record-low V(pi)L (approximately 0.06 V x mm). The wide optical bandwidth is maintained for temperature variations up to 30 K. PMID:20052114

  18. Particle removal challenges with EUV patterned mask for the sub-22nm HP node

    SciTech Connect

    Rastegar, A.; Eichenlaub, S.; Kadaksham, A. J.; Lee, B.; House, M.; Huh, S.; Cha, B.; Yun, H.; Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.

    2010-03-12

    The particle removal efficiency (PRE) of cleaning processes diminishes whenever the minimum defect size for a specific technology node becomes smaller. For the sub-22 nm half-pitch (HP) node, it was demonstrated that exposure to high power megasonic up to 200 W/cm{sup 2} did not damage 60 nm wide TaBN absorber lines corresponding to the 16 nm HP node on wafer. An ammonium hydroxide mixture and megasonics removes {ge}50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a very high PRE, A sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) in addition to ammonium hydroxide mixture (APM) and megasonic is required to remove {ge}28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a high PRE. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) studies show that the presence of O{sub 2} during a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ({lambda} = 172 nm) surface conditioning step will result in both surface oxidation and Ru removal, which drastically reduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask life time under multiple cleanings. New EUV mask cleaning processes show negligible or no EUV reflectivity loss and no increase in surface roughness after up to 15 cleaning cycles. Reviewing of defect with a high current density scanning electron microscope (SEM) drastically reduces PRE and deforms SiO{sub 2} particles. 28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on EUV masks age very fast and will deform over time, Care must be taken when reviewing EUV mask defects by SEM. Potentially new particles should be identified to calibrate short wavelength inspection tools, Based on actinic image review, 50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on top of the EUV mask will be printed on the wafer.

  19. Imaging challenges in 20nm and 14nm logic nodes: hot spots performance in Metal1 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkov, V.; Rio, D.; Liu, H.; Gillijns, W.; Wang, J.; Wong, P.; Van Den Heuvel, D.; Wiaux, V.; Nikolsky, P.; Finders, J.

    2013-10-01

    The 20nm Metal1 layer, based on ARM standard cells, has a 2D design with minimum pitch of 64nm. This 2D design requires a Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) double patterning. The whole design is divided in 2 splits: Me1A and Me1B. But solution of splitting conflicts needs stitching at some locations, what requires good Critical Dimension (CD) and overlay control to provide reliable contact between 2 stitched line ends. ASML Immersion NXT tools are aimed at 20 and 14nm logic production nodes. Focus control requirements become tighter, as existing 20nm production logic layouts, based on ARM, have about 50-60nm focus latitude and tight CD Uniformity (CDU) specifications, especially for line ends. IMEC inspected 20nm production Metal1 ARM standard cells with a Negative Tone Development (NTD) process using the Process Window Qualification-like technique experimentally and by Brion Tachyon LMC by simulations. Stronger defects were found thru process variations. A calibrated Tachyon model proved a good overall predictability capability for this process. Selected defects are likely to be transferred to hard mask during etch. Further, CDU inspection was performed for these critical features. Hot spots showed worse CD uniformity than specifications. Intra-field CDU contribution is significant in overall CDU budget, where reticle has major impact due to high MEEF of hot spots. Tip-to-Tip and tip-to-line hot spots have high MEEF and its variation over the field. Best focus variation range was determined by best focus offsets between hot spots and its variation within the field.

  20. Considering mask pellicle effect for more accurate OPC model at 45nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo

    2008-11-01

    Now it comes to the 45nm technology node, which should be the first generation of the immersion micro-lithography. And the brand-new lithography tool makes many optical effects, which can be ignored at 90nm and 65nm nodes, now have significant impact on the pattern transmission process from design to silicon. Among all the effects, one that needs to be pay attention to is the mask pellicle effect's impact on the critical dimension variation. With the implement of hyper-NA lithography tools, light transmits the mask pellicle vertically is not a good approximation now, and the image blurring induced by the mask pellicle should be taken into account in the computational microlithography. In this works, we investigate how the mask pellicle impacts the accuracy of the OPC model. And we will show that considering the extremely tight critical dimension control spec for 45nm generation node, to take the mask pellicle effect into the OPC model now becomes necessary.

  1. CP element based design for 14nm node EBDW high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Machida, Yasuhide; Sugatani, Shinji; Takita, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Hiromi; Hino, Toshio; Ito, Masaru; Yamada, Akio; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Komatsu, Satoshi; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    2012-03-01

    We had previously established CP (character projection) based EBDW technology for 65nm and 45nm device production. And recently we have confirmed the resolution of 14nm L&S patterns which meets 14nm and beyond node logic requirement with CP exposure. From these production achievement and resolution potential, with multi-beam EBDW and CP function, MCC [1] could be one of the most promising technologies for future high volume manufacturing if exposure throughput was drastically enhanced. We have set target throughput as 100 WPH to meet HVM (high volume manufacturing) requirement. Our designed parameters to attain 100 WPH for 14nm result in 150 beams, 10cluster, 100 Giga shots/wafer, 250A/cm^2 and 75uC/cm^2. In addition to multi-beam, drastic exposure shot reduction is indispensable to attain 100 WPH for 14nm node. We have aggressively targeted 100 Giga shot count which is equivalent to covering 300mm wafer with 0.8um x 0.8um square fairly large tile. All device circuit blocks should be structured with only CP defined parts and we should trace back to upstream design flow to RTL. We call this methodology "CP element based design". In near future, Litho-Friendly restricted design would be commonly used [3] [4]. Our CP defined tile based regular layout would be highly compatible with these ultra-regular design approaches. The primal design factors are Logic cell, Memory macro and random interconnect. We have established concepts to accomplish high volume production with CP-based EBDW at 14nm technology node.

  2. Photomask etch system and process for 10nm technology node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrachood, Madhavi; Grimbergen, Michael; Yu, Keven; Leung, Toi; Tran, Jeffrey; Chen, Jeff; Bivens, Darin; Yalamanchili, Rao; Wistrom, Richard; Faure, Tom; Bartlau, Peter; Crawford, Shaun; Sakamoto, Yoshifumi

    2015-10-01

    While the industry is making progress to offer EUV lithography schemes to attain ultimate critical dimensions down to 20 nm half pitch, an interim optical lithography solution to address an immediate need for resolution is offered by various integration schemes using advanced PSM (Phase Shift Mask) materials including thin e-beam resist and hard mask. Using the 193nm wavelength to produce 10nm or 7nm patterns requires a range of optimization techniques, including immersion and multiple patterning, which place a heavy demand on photomask technologies. Mask schemes with hard mask certainly help attain better selectivity and hence better resolution but pose integration challenges and defectivity issues. This paper presents a new photomask etch solution for attenuated phase shift masks that offers high selectivity (Cr:Resist > 1.5:1), tighter control on the CD uniformity with a 3sigma value approaching 1 nm and controllable CD bias (5-20 nm) with excellent CD linearity performance (<5 nm) down to the finer resolution. The new system has successfully demonstrated capability to meet the 10 nm node photomask CD requirements without the use of more complicated hard mask phase shift blanks. Significant improvement in post wet clean recovery performance was demonstrated by the use of advanced chamber materials. Examples of CD uniformity, linearity, and minimum feature size, and etch bias performance on 10 nm test site and production mask designs will be shown.

  3. Design and manufacturability tradeoffs in unidirectional and bidirectional standard cell layouts in 14 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Ng, Siew Hoon; Morris, Daniel; Lafferty, Neal; Liebmann, Lars; Bender, Mitchell; Huang, Wenbin; Lai, Kafai; Pileggi, Larry; Strojwas, Andrzej

    2012-03-01

    The 14 nm node is seeing the dominant use of three-dimensional FinFET architectures, local interconnects, multiple patterning processes and restricted design rules. With the adoption of these new process technologies and design styles, it becomes necessary to rethink the standard cell library design methodologies that proved successful in the past. In this paper, we compare the design efficiency and manufacturability of standard cell libraries that use either unidirectional or bidirectional Metal 1. In contrast to previous nodes, a 14 nm 9-track unidirectional standard cell layout results in up to 20% lower energy-delay-area product as compared to the 9-track bidirectional standard cell layout. Manufacturability assessment shows that the unidirectional standard cell layouts save one exposure on Metal 1, reduces process variability by 10% and layout construct count by 2-3X. As a result, the unidirectional standard cell layout could serve as a key enabler for affordable scaling.

  4. Holistic overlay control for multi-patterning process layers at the 10nm and 7nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstappen, Leon; Mos, Evert; Wardenier, Peter; Megens, Henry; Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Adam, Omer; Grzela, Grzegorz; van Heijst, Joost; Willems, Lotte; Wildenberg, Jochem; Ignatova, Velislava; Chen, Albert; Elich, Frank; Rajasekharan, Bijoy; Vergaij-Huizer, Lydia; Lewis, Brian; Kea, Marc; Mulkens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Multi-patterning lithography at the 10-nm and 7-nm nodes is driving the allowed overlay error down to extreme low values. Advanced high order overlay correction schemes are needed to control the process variability. Additionally the increase of the number of split layers results in an exponential increase of metrology complexity of the total overlay and alignment tree. At the same time, the process stack includes more hard-mask steps and becomes more and more complex, with as consequence that the setup and verification of the overlay metrology recipe becomes more critical. All of the above require a holistic approach that addresses total overlay optimization from process design to process setup and control in volume manufacturing. In this paper we will present the holistic overlay control flow designed for 10-nm and 7-nm nodes and illustrate the achievable ultimate overlay performance for a logic and DRAM use case. As figure 1 illustrates we will explain the details of the steps in the holistic flow. Overlay accuracy is the driver for target design and metrology tool optimization like wavelength and polarization. We will show that it is essential to include processing effects like etching and CMP which can result in a physical asymmetry of the bottom grating of diffraction based overlay targets. We will introduce a new method to create a reference overlay map, based on metrology data using multiple wavelengths and polarization settings. A similar approach is developed for the wafer alignment step. The overlay fingerprint correction using linear or high order correction per exposure (CPE) has a large amount of parameters. It is critical to balance the metrology noise with the ultimate correction model and the related metrology sampling scheme. Similar approach is needed for the wafer align step. Both for overlay control as well as alignment we have developed methods which include efficient use of metrology time, available for an in the litho-cluster integrated

  5. Evaluation of SCAA mask technology as a pathway to the 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Maslow, Mark J.; Gerold, David J.; McCafferty, Diane C.

    2003-06-01

    This study takes an integrated approach utilizing a combination of high NA 193 nm lithography, a sidewall chrome alternating aperture (SCAA) phase shift mask, optical proximity correction (OPC) and customized illumination in an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of using 193 nm lithography to support the 65 nm node. A SCAA mask was designed and built with line/space patterns ranging in pitch from 300 nm down to 140 nm. A range of mask biases were applied to the zero and pi spaces in order to examine to response of the lithography to a combination of the SCAA approach and asymmetric biasing. In combination to the asymmetric biasing, overlay bracketing was applied in order to measure the chrome overlay tolerances of the mask. Simulations suggested that an unconventionally small sigma of 0.15 would be the optimum coherence for a high 193 nm optical system. A custom 0.15 sigma partial coherence illuminator was, therefore, built and installed in the experimental ASML Micrascan V 0.75 NA 193 nm scanner. Wafers were exposed using 190 nm of 193 nm resist and an organic BARC. The 70 nm 1:1 line/space patterns resolved with a depth of focus of about 0.2 μm. The 75 nm 1:1 line/space patterns showed a 0.3-0.4 μm depth of focus. Both of these process windows were limited by pattern collapse. Addressing the pattern collapse may improve the depth of focus. Comparing mask measurements to wafer measurements show that little or no asymmetric biasing in necessary to balance the pitch. Moreover, the measured pitch was stable over a focus range of at least 0.4 microns demonstrating that any phase imbalance present was not significantly affecting the observed lithography.

  6. Challenges in the Plasma Etch Process Development in the sub-20nm Technology Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kaushik

    2013-09-01

    For multiple generations of semiconductor technologies, RF plasmas have provided a reliable platform for critical and non-critical patterning applications. The electron temperature of processes in a RF plasma is typically several electron volts. A substantial portion of the electron population is within the energy range accessible for different types of electron collision processes, such as electron collision dissociation and dissociative electron attachment. When these electron processes occur within a small distance above the wafer, the neutral species, radicals and excited molecules, generated from these processes take part in etching reactions impacting selectivity, ARDE and micro-loading. The introduction of finFET devices at 22 nm technology node at Intel marks the transition of planar devices to 3-dimensional devices, which add to the challenges to etch process in fabricating such devices. In the sub-32 nm technology node, Back-end-of-the-line made a change with the implementation of Trench First Metal Hard Mask (TFMHM) integration scheme, which has hence gained traction and become the preferred integration of low-k materials for BEOL. This integration scheme also enables Self-Aligned Via (SAV) patterning which prevents via CD growth and confines via by line trenches to better control via to line spacing. In addition to this, lack of scaling of 193 nm Lithography and non-availability of EUV based lithography beyond concept, has placed focus on novel multiple patterning schemes. This added complexity has resulted in multiple etch schemes to enable technology scaling below 80 nm Pitches, as shown by the memory manufacturers. Double-Patterning and Quad-Patterning have become increasingly used techniques to achieve 64 nm, 56 nm and 45 nm Pitch technologies in Back-end-of-the-line. Challenges associated in the plasma etching of these multiple integration schemes will be discussed in the presentation. In collaboration with A. Ranjan, TEL Technology Center, America

  7. The SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool: learning a the 22-nm node and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Goldstein, Michael; Hoef, Brian; Hudyma, Russ; Jones, Gideon; Koh, Chawon; La Fontaine, Bruno; McClinton, Brittany; Miyakawa, Ryan; Montgomery, Warren; Roller, John; Wallow, Tom; Wurm, Stefan

    2009-02-16

    Microfield exposure tools (METs) continue to playa dominant role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists. One of these tools is the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA MET operating as a SEMATECH resist and mask test center. Here we present an update summarizing the latest resist test and characterization results. The relatively small numerical aperture and limited illumination settings expected from 1st generation EUV production tools make resist resolution a critical issue even at the 32-nm node. In this presentation, sub 22 nm half pitch imaging results of EUV resists are reported. We also present contact hole printing at the 30-nm level. Although resist development has progressed relatively well in the areas of resolution and sensitivity, line-edge-roughness (LER) remains a significant concern. Here we present a summary of recent LER performance results and consider the effect of system-level contributors to the LER observed from the SEMA TECH Berkeley microfield tool.

  8. Characterization of optical proximity matching for 130-nm node gate line width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sandra; Zhang, Gary; Wang, ChangAn; Detweiler, Shangting F.

    2003-06-01

    As IC density shrinks based on Moore"s law, optical lithography continually is scaled to print ever-smaller features by using resolution enhancement techniques such as phase shift mask, optical proximity correction (OPC), off-axis illumination and sub-resolution assistant features. OPC has been playing a key role to maximize the overlapping process window through pitch in the sub-wavelength optical lithography. As an important cost control measure, one general OPC model is applied to the full exposure field across multiple scanners. To implement this technique, optical proximity matching of line width across the field and across multiple tools turns out to be very crucial particularly at gate pattern. In addition, it is very important to obtain reliable critical dimension (CD) data sets with low noise level and high accuracy from the metrology tool. Otherwise, extracting the real scanner fingerprint in term of CD can not be achieved with precision in the order of 1nm~2nm. Scatterometry CD measurements have demonstrated excellent results to overcome this problem. The methodology of Scatterometry is emerging as one of the best metrology tool candidates in terms of gate line width control for technology nodes beyond 130nm. This paper investigates the sources of error that consume the CD budget of optical proximity matching for line through pitch (LTP). The study focuses on the 130nm technology node and uses experimental data and Prolith resist vector model based simulations. Scatterometer CD measurements of LTP are used for the first time and effectively correlated to lens aberrations and effective partial coherence (EPC) measurements which were extracted by Litel In-situ Interferometer (ISI) and Source Metrology Instrument (SMI). Implications of optical proximity matching are also discussed for future technology nodes. From the results, the paper also demonstrates the efficacy of scatterometer line through pitch measurements for OPC characterization.

  9. EUV and optical lithographic pattern shift at the 5nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Thiruvengadam, Sathish; Cantone, Jason R.; Civay, Deniz E.; Schroeder, Uwe P.

    2016-03-01

    At the 5 nm technology node there are competing strategies for patterning: high-NA EUV, double patterning 0.33 NA EUV and a combination of optical self-aligned solutions with EUV. This paper investigates the impact of pattern shift based on the selected patterning strategy. A logic standard cell connection between TS and M0 is simulated to determine the impact of lithographic pattern shift on the overlay budget. At 5 nm node dimensions, high-NA EUV is necessary to expose the most critical layers with a single lithography exposure. The impact of high-NA EUV lithography is illustrated by comparing the pattern shift resulting from 0.33 NA vs. 0.5x NA. For the example 5 nm transistor, cost-beneficial lithography layers are patterned with EUV and the other layers are patterned optically. Both EUV and optical lithography simulations are performed to determine the maximum net pattern shift. Here, lithographic pattern shift is quantified in terms of through-focus error as well as pattern-placement error. The overlay error associated with a hybrid optical/self-aligned and EUV cut patterning scheme is compared with the results of an all EUV solution, providing an assessment of two potential patterning solutions and their impact the overall overlay budget.

  10. Top coat less resist process development for contact layer of 40nm node logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Masafumi; Uchiyama, Takayuki; Furusho, Tetsunari; Otsuka, Takahisa; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiro

    2010-04-01

    ArF immersion lithography has been introduced in mass production of 55nm node devices and beyond as the post ArF dry lithography. Due to the existence of water between the resist film and lens, we have many concerns such as leaching of PAG and quencher from resist film into immersion water, resist film swelling by water, keeping water in the immersion hood to avoid water droplets coming in contact with the wafer, and so on. We have applied to the ArF dry resist process an immersion topcoat (TC) process in order to ensure the hydrophobic property as well as one for protecting the surface. We investigate the TC-less resist process with an aim to improve CoO, the yield and productivity in mass production of immersion lithography. In this paper, we will report TC-less resist process development for the contact layer of 40nm node logic devices. It is important to control the resist surface condition to reduce pattern defects, in particular in the case of the contact layer. We evaluated defectivity and lithography performance of TC-less resist with changing hydrophobicity before and after development. Hydrophobicity of TC-less resist was controlled by changing additives with TC functions introduced into conventional ArF dry resist. However, the hydrophobicity control was not sufficient to reduce the number of Blob defects compared with the TC process. Therefore, we introduced Advanced Defect Reduction (ADR) rinse, which was a new developer rinse technique that is effective against hydrophobic surfaces. We have realized Blob defect reduction by hydrophobicity control and ADR rinse. Furthermore, we will report device performance, yield, and immersion defect data at 40nm node logic devices with TC-less resist process.

  11. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  12. Critical dimension metrology by through-focus scanning optical microscopy beyond the 22 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attota, Ravikiran; Bunday, Benjamin; Vartanian, Victor

    2013-06-01

    We present results using simulations and experiments to demonstrate metrological applications of the through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) down to features at and well below the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors' 22 nm node. The TSOM method shows the ability to detect sub-nanometer, three-dimensional shape variations such as line height, sidewall angle, width, and pitch in fins of fin-shaped field effect transistor structures using conventional optical microscopes. In addition, the method requires targets substantially smaller than the conventional target size. These results provide insight into the applicability of TSOM for economical critical dimension and yield enhancement metrology.

  13. Variable shaped beam writing throughput at the 45nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, A.; Shumway, M.; Kamna, M.; Wilcox, N.; Vernon, M.; Cole, D.; Chandramouli, M.

    2006-10-01

    Aggressive 193nm optical lithography solutions have in turn led to increasingly complex model-based OPC methodologies. This complexity married with the inevitable march of Moore's Law has produced a figure count explosion at the mask writer level. Variable shaped beam equipment manufacturers have tried to mollify the impact of this figure count explosion on the write time by the introduction of new technologies such as increased beam current density, faster DAC amplifiers and more efficient stage algorithms. Despite these efforts, mask manufacturers continue to explore ways of increasing writer throughput and available capacity. This study models the impact of further improvements in beam current density and settling times. Furthermore, this model will be used to prescribe the necessary improvement rates needed to keep pace with the shot count trends extending beyond the 45nm node.

  14. Limitations of optical reticle inspection for 45-nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, S.; Bzdurek, A.; Dürr, A. C.; Heumann, J.; Holfeld, C.

    2006-10-01

    Pushing the limits of optical lithography by immersion technology requires ever smaller feature sizes on the reticle. At the same time the k1-factor will be shifted close to the theoretical limit, e.g. the OPC structures on the reticle become very aggressive. For the mask shop it is essential to manufacture defect free masks. The minimum defect size, which needs to be found reliably, becomes smaller with decreasing feature sizes. Consequently optical inspection of masks for the 45nm node and below will be challenging. In this paper the limits of existing KLA inspection tools were investigated by systematic inspection of different structures without and with programmed defects. A test mask with isolated and dense lines/space patterns including programmed defects was manufactured, completely characterized by CD-SEM and inspected with state-of-the-art inspection system. AIMS TM measurements were used to evaluate the defect printing behavior. The analysis of the measurement data gives an input for requirements of reticle inspection of upcoming 45nm node and beyond.

  15. Practical use of hard mask process to fabricate fine photomasks for 45nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushida, Yasuyuki; Handa, Hitoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Yuuki; Fujimura, Yukihiro; Yokoyama, Toshifumi

    2007-10-01

    New process with hard-mask (HM) blanks was evaluated as one of candidates for photomasks beyond 45nm-node. Through the fabrication of gate-layer photomasks, aptitude of the HM process for practical use was confirmed from the view of controllability on CDs and defects. Although conventional process for attenuated PSM was shown to have critical CD error which belongs to the "patterns" in bright-field masks, experimental data proved effectiveness of the HM process to control CDs after process optimization. With the HM blanks, remarkable reduction of CD error more than 80% of conventional process was confirmed. In this report, peculiar opaque defects are also shown to be a critical issue on the HM process. From results of design of experiment (DOE), combining the proper means to prepare the HM blanks with the optimized HM etching condition, these defects were proved to be controlled within the tolerance for production. Through the investigations, validity of the HM process on practical use for mask fabrication of 45nm-node and beyond is considered as conclusions.

  16. An improved method for characterizing photoresist lithographic and defectivity performance for sub-20nm node lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amblard, Gilles; Purdy, Sara; Cooper, Ryan; Hockaday, Marjory

    2016-03-01

    The overall quality and processing capability of lithographic materials are critical for ensuring high device yield and performance at sub-20nm technology nodes in a high volume manufacturing environment. Insufficient process margin and high line width roughness (LWR) cause poor manufacturing control, while high defectivity causes product failures. In this paper, we focus on the most critical layer of a sub-20nm technology node LSI device, and present an improved method for characterizing both lithographic and post-patterning defectivity performance of state-of-the-art immersion photoresists. Multiple formulations from different suppliers were used and compared. Photoresists were tested under various process conditions, and multiple lithographic metrics were investigated (depth of focus, exposure dose latitude, line width roughness, etc.). Results were analyzed and combined using an innovative approach based on advanced software, providing clearer results than previously available. This increased detail enables more accurate performance comparisons among the different photoresists. Post-patterning defectivity was also quantified, with defects reviewed and classified using state-of-the-art inspection tools. Correlations were established between the lithographic and post-patterning defectivity performances for each material, and overall ranking was established among the photoresists, enabling the selection of the best performer for implementation in a high volume manufacturing environment.

  17. Optimum PEC Conditions Under Resist Heating Effect Reduction for 90nm Node Mask Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eu Sang; Lee, Jong Hwa; Park, Dong Il; Jeong, Woo Gun; Seo, Soon Kyu; Kim, Jin Min; Choi, Sang-Soo; Jeong, Soo-Hong

    2002-12-01

    For high-voltage vector e-beam writing systems, solving the resist heating effect problem is one of the highest priorities because it is a major factor affecting localized critical dimension (CD) uniformity. In order to write patterns for 90nm node devices, the utilization of proximity effect correction (PEC) is essential for e-beam mask writers to achieve high CD performance. In this study, the dependence of CD variation on e-beam write conditions was investigated under optimum PEC parameter conditions. Writing conditions such as current density, shot size, number of writing passes, and settling time were tested to see their affects on resist heating. Industry-standard Nippon Zeon ZEP 7000 resist was written by a Toshiba EBM-3500B 50KeV vector e-beam writer using patterns found in sub-130nm node devices. Results indicated that the main factor affecting resist heating CD variation for ZEP 7000 was in fact the e-beam writer shot size selected. Multi-pass writing was effective in reducing the CD variation, and the settling time of each shot in the EBM-3500B had very little influence.

  18. Lithography manufacturing implementation for 65 nm and 45 nm nodes with model-based scattering bars using IML technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Michael; Van Den Broeke, Doug; Laidig, Tom; Wampler, Kurt E.; Hollerbach, Uwe; Socha, Robert; Chen, J. F.; Hsu, Stephen; Shi, Xuelong

    2005-05-01

    Scattering Bars (SB) OPC, together with optimized illumination, is no doubt one of the critical enablers for low k1lithography manufacturing. (1) The manufacturing implementation of SB so far has been mainly based on rule-based approach. While thiis has been working well, a more effective model-based approach is much more desired lithographically for manufacturing at 65nm and 45nm nodes. This is necessary to ensure sufficient process margin using hyper NA for patterning random IC design. In our model-based SB (M-SB) OPC implementation, we have based on the patented IML. Technology from ASML MaskTools.(2,3) In this report, we use both dark field contact hole and clear field poly gate mask to demonstrate this implementation methodology. It is also quite applicable for dark field trench masks, such as local interconnect mask with damascene metal. For our full-chip implementation flow, the first step is to determine the critical design area and then to proceed with NA and illumination optimization. We show that, using LithoCruiser, we are able to select the best NA in combination with optimum illumination via a Diffraction Optical Element (DOE). The decision to use a custom DOE or one from the available DOE library from ASML can be made based on predicted process performance and cost effectiveness. With optimized illumination, it is now possible for MaskWeaver to construct an interference map for the full-chip mask pattern. Utilizing the interference map, M-SB OPC is generated. Next, model OPC can be applied with the presence of M-SB for the entire chip. It is important to note here, that from our experience, the model OPC must be calibrated with the presence of SB in order to achieve the desired accuracy. We report the full-chip processing benchmark using MaskWeaver to apply both M-SB and model OPC. For actual patterning performance, we have verified the full chip OPC treatment using SLiC, a DFM tool from Cadence. This implementation methodology can be applied to

  19. Meeting critical gate linewidth control needs at the 65 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahorowala, Arpan; Halle, Scott; Gabor, Allen; Chu, William; Barberet, Alexandra; Samuels, Donald; Abdo, Amr; Tsou, Len; Yan, Wendy; Iseda, Seiji; Patel, Kaushal; Dirahoui, Bachir; Nomura, Asuka; Ahsan, Ishtiaq; Azam, Faisal; Berg, Gary; Brendler, Andrew; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Faure, Tom

    2006-03-01

    With the nominal gate length at the 65 nm node being only 35 nm, controlling the critical dimension (CD) in polysilicon to within a few nanometers is essential to achieve a competitive power-to-performance ratio. Gate linewidths must be controlled, not only at the chip level so that the chip performs as the circuit designers and device engineers had intended, but also at the wafer level so that more chips with the optimum power-to-performance ratio are manufactured. Achieving tight across-chip linewidth variation (ACLV) and chip mean variation (CMV) is possible only if the mask-making, lithography, and etching processes are all controlled to very tight specifications. This paper identifies the various ACLV and CMV components, describes their root causes, and discusses a methodology to quantify them. For example, the site-to-site ACLV component is divided into systematic and random sub-components. The systematic component of the variation is attributed in part to pattern density variation across the field, and variation in exposure dose across the slit. The paper demonstrates our team's success in achieving the tight gate CD tolerances required for 65 nm technology. Certain key challenges faced, and methods employed to overcome them are described. For instance, the use of dose-compensation strategies to correct the small but systematic CD variations measured across the wafer, is described. Finally, the impact of immersion lithography on both ACLV and CMV is briefly discussed.

  20. Process characterization of pitch-split resist materials for application at 16nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Steven J.; Tang, Cherry; Arnold, John C.; Yin, Yunpeng; Chen, Rex; Fender, Nicolette; Osborn, Brian; Dabbagh, Gary; Liu, Sen; Colburn, Matthew; Varanasi, Rao P.; Slezak, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Lithographic scaling beyond the 22 nm node requires double patterning techniques to achieve pitch values below 80nm. The semiconductor industry is focusing on the development of several process techniques including track-only lithographic processing methods in order to reduce cost, cycle time and defects. Initial efforts for track-only double expose processes have relied on the use of chemical freeze materials to prevent inter-mixing of resists, and also by means of thermal curable materials. These two techniques may be complementary, in the sense that a chemical freeze may be very robust for protection of exposed regions, while thermal cure systems may provide strong protection of large unexposed areas. We will describe our results with mainly the thermal-cure double patterning resist materials, and the application of these materials to the fabrication of sub-80 nm pitch semiconductor structures. We will summarize the process window and defect capability of these materials, for both line/space and via applications.

  1. Mask roughness and its implications for LER at the 22- and 16-nm nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi A.; McClinton, Brittany M.

    2010-02-16

    Line-edge roughness (LER) remains the most significant challenge facing the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist. The mask, however, has been found to be a significant contributor to image-plane LER. This has long been expected based on modeling and has more recently been demonstrated experimentally. Problems arise from both mask-absorber LER as well as mask multilayer roughness leading to random phase variations in the reflected beam and consequently speckle. Understanding the implications this has on mask requirements for the 22-nm half pitch node and below is crucial. Modeling results indicate a replicated surface roughness (RSR) specification of 50 pm and a ruthenium capping layer roughness specification of 440 pm. Moreover, modeling indicates that it is crucial to achieve the current ITRS specifications for mask absorber LER which is significantly smaller than current capabilities.

  2. Materials and fabrication sequences for water soluble silicon integrated circuits at the 90 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lan; Bozler, Carl; Harburg, Daniel V.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Rogers, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten interconnects in silicon integrated circuits built at the 90 nm node with releasable configurations on silicon on insulator wafers serve as the basis for advanced forms of water-soluble electronics. These physically transient systems have potential uses in applications that range from temporary biomedical implants to zero-waste environmental sensors. Systematic experimental studies and modeling efforts reveal essential aspects of electrical performance in field effect transistors and complementary ring oscillators with as many as 499 stages. Accelerated tests reveal timescales for dissolution of the various constituent materials, including tungsten, silicon, and silicon dioxide. The results demonstrate that silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits formed with tungsten interconnects in foundry-compatible fabrication processes can serve as a path to high performance, mass-produced transient electronic systems.

  3. Phase-shifted assist feature OPC for sub-45-nm node optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Gi-Sung; Kim, Hee-Bom; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Choi, Seong-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2007-03-01

    Hyper numerical aperture (NA) implemented in immersion exposure system makes the semiconductor business enable to enter sub-45nm node optical lithography. Optical proximity correction(OPC) utilizing SRAF has been an essential technique to control critical dimension (CD) and to enhance across pitch performance in sub-wavelength lithography. Mask lithography, however, is getting more challenging with respect to patterning and processing sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs): the higher aspect ratio of mask structure, the more vulnerable. Mask manufacturing environment for DRAM and Flash becomes harsher mainly due to mask patterning problem especially pattern linearity, which causes pattern broken, inspection issue, and finally CD issue on wafer. When a pattern in relatively isolated pitches has small or large assist features, the assist features may bring unexpected CD or print on wafer. A frequency-preserving assist bar solution is the most preferred one, but it is difficult to realize for opaque assist features due to printability. In this paper, we propose a new type assist feature dubbed "Phase-shifted Assist Bar" to improve process window and to solve the resolution constraint of mask at sub-45nm manufacturing process node. The concept of phase-shift assist bar is applying phase-shift to SRAF realized with trench structure on general mask, such as Binary and Attenuated Phase-Shifted Mask (Att.PSM). The characteristics of phase-shift assist bar are evaluated with rigorous 3D lithography simulation and analyzed through verification mask, which is containing hugely various size and placement of main and assist feature. The analysis of verification mask has been done with aerial image verification tool. This work focuses on the performance of phase-shift assist bar as a promising OPC technique for "immersion era" in terms of resolution enhancement technique, optical proximity correction, and patterning on mask.

  4. Resolution enhancement technology for ArF dry lithography at 65 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Songbo; Li, Yanqui

    2007-12-01

    The performance of ArF dry lithography at 65 nm node was studied together with RET. Commercial software Prolith 9.0 and in-house-software MicroCruiser 5.0 were used for simulation and mass data process. The combination of different phase shift mask (PSM), off axis illumination and patterns were chosen for this research. The image contrast, nominal image log-slope (NILS), depth of focus (DOF) and resist profile were considered to judge the lithography performance. The results show that the combination of small sigma conventional illumination and alternating phase shift mask (alt- PSM) is the best choice for Line/Space (L/S) patterns of different pitches. The isolate L/S pattern can be imaged with a large image contrast and DOF if alt-PSM and several kinds of illumination (such as small sigma, annular, and quasar illumination) are joined together. For semi-dense and dense L/S pattern, good lithography performance can be reached by using only small sigma illumination and alt-PSM. The impact of polarization illumination was also considered. Y-polarization illumination enhances the image contrast, NILS and the DOF for most conditions. The Z-orientation resist image fidelity was studied by optimization of the double bottom anti-reflection coating (DBARC) and resist thickness. This research predicts that 65 nm L/S pattern can be fabricated by current ArF dry lithography system.

  5. Rigorous assessment of patterning solution of metal layer in 7 nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a 7 nm node (N7), the logic design requires a critical poly pitch of 42 to 45 nm and a metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28 to 32 nm. Such high-pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with a triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of the N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity budget, and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3-D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field, and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, the maximum electric field at M1 tip-to-tip, which is one of the most critical patterning locations, has been simulated and extracted. The approach helps to investigate the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We have also assessed the alternative M1 patterning flow with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyzed its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.

  6. Double exposure for the contact layer of the 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owe-Yang, Dah-Chung; Yu, S. S.; Chen, Harrison; Chang, C. Y.; Ho, Bang-Chein; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

    2005-05-01

    The critical dimension (CD) of contact holes for the 65-nm application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is 100 nm according to the 2002 update of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. The common through-pitch depth of focus (DOF) of such contact holes is very small using the current ArF exposure tool. High-numerical-aperture (NA) ArF exposure tools are not expected to improve the common DOF that scales by the square of the numerical half aperture. High-transmission attenuated phase-shifting masks increase the DOF of isolated contact holes. Off-axis illumination such as annular or quadrupole illumination improves the DOF of dense contact holes. Nonetheless, both the isolated and the dense contact holes need to be printed within spec on logic circuit. To delineate 100-nm contact holes at several different pitches, we proposed the pack-and-unpack (PAU) process which employs double exposures. First, dummy holes are added to the surroundings of isolated contact holes facilitating the patterning of the resultant dense pattern with a resolution enhancement technique that favors dense contact holes. For example, dense holes are packed to 180-nm pitch and imaged with high-NA lens setting and quadrupole illumination. Then, the second image is used to open the desired holes or block the dummy contact holes. The purpose of this study was to develop new methods and new materials for the patterning of the second image. Three approaches were investigated. The first approach was forming an isolation layer to protect the first image; second, applying UV curing to harden the first image; third, using alcohol-based resists to pattern the second image. Among those three approaches of printing the second image, using resist in alcohols is the most convenient method. Even though the CD control of the second image is not so critical, resolution and process window of resists may need further improvement for 45-nm node and below. Using the second approach allows

  7. Low-contrast photoresist development model for OPC application at 10nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-En; Wei, David; Zhang, Charlie; Song, Hua

    2015-03-01

    The Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) model, a key to process yield in the mask synthesis flow, is getting more and more complicated and challenging at advanced technology nodes (1X nm). To achieve accurate critical dimension (CD) prediction and model robustness on varied designed patterns, a rigorously tuned compact model (RTCM) [1] that takes the photoresist chemical effects into considerations is strongly desired. A lithography process consists of three main stages: Exposure, Post-Exposure Bake (PEB), and Photoresist Development. Each stage is characterized by its fundamental physics or chemistry that governs the process of illumination induced photo-acid generation, thermally activated chemical reaction-diffusion, and developer dependent photoresist dissolution, respectively. The final resist profile is determined by the process details of all these stages directly or indirectly. For an ideal resist that the development contrast approaches infinity, resist development is aptly represented by a threshold model applied to the PEB latent image (acid or inhibitor concentration). So the quality of OPC modeling is largely determined by the fidelity of PEB latent image [2,3]. However, for some types of resist and developer used in Negative Tone Development (NTD), the development contrast shows a long tail without a sharp transition. For such low-contrast resist, the developed resist profile is no longer described well by the equilevel surface of PEB latent image. Going beyond the threshold approximation, we start from the fundamental equations of resist development physics and analyze the time evolution of development front that determines the resist profile. In this paper, a new compact model is derived to catch the main physics in resist Development, which is also simple and computationally efficient to suit for OPC applications. Comparison with S-LITHO rigorous solutions and real-wafer experiments with 1D and 2D test patterns have showed that the new compact model

  8. Hybrid OPC modeling with SEM contour technique for 10nm node process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keiichiro; Halle, Scott; Miller, Marshal; Graur, Ioana; Saulnier, Nicole; Dunn, Derren; Okai, Nobuhiro; Hotta, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Komuro, Hitoshi; Ishimoto, Toru; Koshihara, Shunsuke; Hojo, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Hybrid OPC modeling is investigated using both CDs from 1D and simple 2D structures and contours extracted from complex 2D structures, which are obtained by a Critical Dimension-Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM). Recent studies have addressed some of key issues needed for the implementation of contour extraction, including an edge detection algorithm consistent with conventional CD measurements, contour averaging and contour alignment. Firstly, pattern contours obtained from CD-SEM images were used to complement traditional site driven CD metrology for the calibration of OPC models for both metal and contact layers of 10 nm-node logic device, developed in Albany Nano-Tech. The accuracy of hybrid OPC model was compared with that of conventional OPC model, which was created with only CD data. Accuracy of the model, defined as total error root-mean-square (RMS), was improved by 23% with the use of hybrid OPC modeling for contact layer and 18% for metal layer, respectively. Pattern specific benefit of hybrid modeling was also examined. Resist shrink correction was applied to contours extracted from CD-SEM images in order to improve accuracy of the contours, and shrink corrected contours were used for OPC modeling. The accuracy of OPC model with shrink correction was compared with that without shrink correction, and total error RMS was decreased by 0.2nm (12%) with shrink correction technique. Variation of model accuracy among 8 modeling runs with different model calibration patterns was reduced by applying shrink correction. The shrink correction of contours can improve accuracy and stability of OPC model.

  9. Application of CPL reticle technology for the 65- and 50-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Will; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Socha, Robert J.; Wu, Wei; Litt, Lloyd C.; Lucas, Kevin; Nelson-Thomas, Carla M.; Roman, Bernard J.; Chen, J. Fung; Wampler, Kurt E.; Laidig, Thomas L.; Hsu, Stephen D.; Schaefer, Erika; Cassel, Shawn; Yu, Linda; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.; Progler, Christopher J.; Petersen, John S.; Gerold, David J.; Maslow, Mark John

    2003-06-01

    Each generation of semiconductor device technology drive new and interesting resolution enhancement technology (RET"s). The race to smaller and smaller geometry"s has forced device manufacturers to k1"s approaching 0.40. The authors have been investigating the use of Chromeless phase-shifting masks (CLM) exposed with ArF, high numerical aperture (NA), and off-axis illumination (OAI) has been shown to produce production worthy sub-100nm resist patterns with acceptable overlapped process window across feature pitch. There have been a number of authors who have investigated CLM in the past but the technology has never received mainstream attention due to constraints such as wet quartz etch during mask fabrication, limited approach to optical proximity correction (OPC), and exposure tool limitations such as on-axis illumination and too low of NA. With novel binary halftone OPC and a capable modern mask making process, it has become possible to achieve global and local pattern optimization of the phase shifter for a given layout especially for patterning features with dimension at sub-half-exposure wavelength. The authors have built a number of test structures that require superior 2D control for SRAM gate structures. In this paper the authors will focus on image process integration for the 65nm node. Emphasis on pattern layout, mask fabrication and image processing will be discussed. Furthermore, the authors will discuss defect printing, inspection and repair, mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) of 2D structures coupled with phase error, layout, and mask fabrication specifications.

  10. Enabling the 14nm node contact patterning using advanced RET solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeggaoui, N.; Landie, G.; Villaret, A.; Farys, V.; Yesilada, E.; Tritchkov, A.; Word, J.

    2015-09-01

    The 14nm node designs is getting more sophisticated, and printability issues become more critical which need more advanced techniques to fix. One of the most critical processes is the contact patterning due to the very aggressive design rules and the process window which becomes quickly limited. Despite the large number of RET applied, some hotspot configurations remain challenging. It becomes increasingly challenging to achieve sufficient process windows around the hot spots just using conventional process such as OPC and rule-based SRAF insertion. Although, it might be desirable to apply Inverse Lithography Technique (ILT) on all hot spots to guarantee ideal mask quality. However, because of the high number of hot spots to repair in the design, that solution might be much time consuming in term of OPC and mask processing. In this paper we present a hybrid OPC solution based on local ILT usage around hot spots. It is named as Local Printability Enhancement (LPE) flow. First, conventional OPC and SRAF placement is applied on the whole design. Then, we apply LPE solution only on the remaining problematic hot spots of the design. The LPE flow also takes into account the mask rules so that it maintains the mask rule check (MRC) compliance through the borders of the repaired hot spot's areas. We will demonstrate that the LPE flow enlarges the process window around hot spots and gives better lithography quality than baseline. The simulation results are confirmed on silicon wafer where all the hot spots are printed. We will demonstrate that LPE flow enlarges the depth of focus of the most challenging hot spot by 30nm compared to POR conventional solution. Because the proposed flow applies ILT solution on very local hot spot areas, the total OPC run time remains acceptable from manufacturing side.

  11. Recent CD AFM probe developments for sub-45 nm technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao-Chih; Osborne, Jason R.; Dahlen, Gregory A.; Greschner, Johann; Bayer, Thomas; Kalt, Samuel; Fritz, Georg

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on new developments of advanced CD AFM probes after the prior introduction of "trident probes" in SPIE Advanced Lithography 2007 [1]. Trident probes, having sharpened extensions in the tip apex region, make possible bottom CD measurements within a few nanometers of the feature bottom corner; an area where other CD probes have difficulties due to tip shape limitations. Moreover, new metrology applications of trident probes have been developed for novel devices such as FinFET and vertical read/write hard disk heads. For ever smaller technology nodes, new probes evolved from the design of the trident probe. For example, the number of sharpened tip flares was reduced from three (trident) to two (bi-pod) to prevent possible interference of the third leg in the slow scan direction, as shown in Figure 3. Maintaining tip lateral stiffness as the tip size shrinks to less than 30 nm is vital for successful scanning. Consequently, a significant recent improvement is the change of probe shank cross-sectional geometry in order to maintain tip vertical aspect ratio of 1:5 (and lateral stiffness > 1 N/m). Finally, modifications of probe substrate are proposed and evaluated for current and new CD AFM systems. Hydrophobic, self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings were applied on CD probes to reduced tip "pull-away" distance1 during CD AFM scanning. Test results show that the pull away distance can be reduced more than 5 times on average (in some cases, by a factor of 15). Consequently, use of hydrophobic SAM coatings on CD probes mitigates pull-away distance thus allowing narrow trench CD measurements. We discuss limitations of prior CD AFM probes and design considerations of new CD probes. The characterization of first prototypes and evaluation of scan performance are presented in this work.

  12. Defects caused by blank masks and repair solution with nanomachining for 20nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, HyeMi; Kim, ByungJu; Kim, MunSik; Jung, HoYong; Kim, Sang Pyo; Yim, DongGyu

    2014-09-01

    As the number of masks per wafer product set is increasing and low k1 lithography requires tight mask specifications, the patterning process below sub 20nm tech. node for critical layers will be much more expensive compared with previous tech. generations. Besides, the improved resolution and the zero defect level are necessary to meet tighter specifications on a mask and these resulted in the increased the blank mask price as well as the mask fabrication cost. Unfortunately, in spite of expensive price of blank masks, the certain number of defects on the blank mask is transformed into the mask defects and its ratio is increased. But using high quality blank mask is not a good idea to avoid defects on the blank mask because the price of a blank mask is proportional to specifications related to defect level. Furthermore, particular defects generated from the specific process during manufacturing a blank mask are detected as a smaller defect than real size by blank inspection tools because of its physical properties. As a result, it is almost impossible to prevent defects caused by blank masks during the mask manufacturing. In this paper, blank defect types which is evolved into mask defects and its unique characteristics are observed. Also, the repair issues are reviewed such as the pattern damage according to the defect types and the repair solution is suggested to satisfy the AIMS (Arial Image Measurement System) specification using a nanomachining tool.

  13. New tools to enable photomask repair to the 32nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Roessler, Ken; Arruza, Bernie; Hogle, Dennis; Archuletta, Mike; Lee, David

    2009-10-01

    The AFM-technology based technique of nanomachining has been well-proven in the area photomask repair since its introduction a decade ago. However, the problems and challenges facing the mask repair operator have changed significantly in this period, and ongoing engineering platform development has reflected these shifts, as well as refinements based on specialized experience with nanomachining repair technology. Improvements from this technical development include improved monitoring and control of the internal tool environment (to minimize AFM scan noise and thermal drift), and automation to easily and reliably clean and characterize the 3-dimensional shape of the NanoBitTM apex. For repair applications, improvements will be shown for the automated and operator-intuitive reconstruction of 3-dimensional nanometer-scale patterns on the photomask with referenced z-depth and xy alignment regardless of pattern orthogonality. Multiple pattern repair capability is also reviewed due to a greater diversity of available process options and multi-repair box capability with a common quartz-level z-reference point. Finally, it will be shown how all of these individual improvements work together to provide extended repair capability down to the 32 nm technology node.

  14. Device parameter optimization for sub-20 nm node HK/MG-last bulk FinFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xu; Huaxiang, Yin; Huilong, Zhu; Xiaolong, Ma; Weijia, Xu; Yongkui, Zhang; Zhiguo, Zhao; Jun, Luo; Hong, Yang; Chunlong, Li; Lingkuan, Meng; Peizhen, Hong; Jinjuan, Xiang; Jianfeng, Gao; Qiang, Xu; Wenjuan, Xiong; Dahai, Wang; Junfeng, Li; Chao, Zhao; Dapeng, Chen; Simon, Yang; Tianchun, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Sub-20 nm node bulk FinFET PMOS devices with an all-last high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) process are fabricated and the influence of a series of device parameters on the device scaling is investigated. The high and thin Fin structure with a tapered sidewall shows better performance than the normal Fin structure. The punch through stop layer (PTSL) and source drain extension (SDE) doping profiles are carefully optimized. The device without SDE annealing shows a larger drive current than that with SDE annealing due to better Si crystal regrowth in the amorphous Fin structure after source/drain implantation. The band-edged MG has a better short channel effect immunity, but the lower effective work function (EWF) MG shows a larger driveability. A tradeoff choice for different EWF MGs should be carefully designed for the device's scaling. Project supported by the National 02 IC Projects and the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Joint optimization of layout and litho for SRAM and logic towards the 20nm node using 193i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bisschop, Peter; Laenens, Bart; Iwase, Kazuya; Yao, Teruyoshi; Dusa, Mircea; Smayling, Michael C.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports on a simulation study in which we compare different possibilities to find a litho solution for SRAM and Logic for planar technology nodes between 28 nm and 20 nm, using 193 nm immersion lithography. At these nodes, it becomes essential to include the layout itself into the optimization process. The so-called gridded layout style is an attractive candidate to facilitate the printability of several layers, but the benefit of this style, as compared to less restricted layout styles, is not well quantified for the various technology nodes of interest. We therefore compare it with two other, less restricted, layout styles, on an identical (small) SRAM-Logic test chip. Exploring a number of paths in the layout-style - litho-options search space, we try to quantify merits and trade-offs for some of the relevant options. We will show that layout restrictions are really becoming mandatory for the technology nodes studied in this paper. Other important enablers for these aggressive nodes are multiple patterning, the use of a local-interconnect layer, negative-tone development, SMO and the use of optimized free-form illumination sources (from which we also include a few initial wafer results).

  16. Evaluation of ArF lithography for 45-nm node implant layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, T. C.; Maynollo, J.; Perez, J. J.; Popova, I.; Zhang, B.

    2007-03-01

    Scaling of designs to the 45nm or future nodes presents challenges for KrF lithography. The purpose of this work was to explore several aspects of ArF lithography for implant layers. A comparison of dark loss seen in a KrF resist and TARC system to that seen in an ArF system showed significant differences. While the KrF resist yielded dark loss that varied with CD and pitch, the ArF resist showed very little dark loss and no significant variation through the design space. ArF resist were observed to have marginal adhesion to various substrates. Improvements in adhesion performance were shown by pre-treating the substrate with various processes, of which an ozone clean provided the best results. Optimization of the HMDS priming conditions also improved adhesion, and it was observed that the HMDS reaction proceeds at different rates on different subsatrates, which is particularly important for implant layers where the resist must adhere to both Si and SiO II. The effect of ArF resist profile with varying reflectivity swing position is shown, and some investigation into reflectivity optimization techniques was performed. Low-index ArF TARC was shown to reduce the CD variation over polysilicon topography, and wet developable BARC was demonstrated to provide consistent profiles on both Si and SiO II substrates. Finally, a comparison of ArF and KrF resists after As implant indicates that the ArF resist showed similar shrinkage performance to the KrF resist.

  17. Estimate design sensitivity to process variation for the 14nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landié, Guillaume; Farys, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    Looking for the highest density and best performance, the 14nm technological node saw the development of aggressive designs, with design rules as close as possible to the limit of the process. Edge placement error (EPE) budget is now tighter and Reticle Enhancement Techniques (RET) must take into account the highest number of parameters to be able to get the best printability and guaranty yield requirements. Overlay is a parameter that must be taken into account earlier during the design library development to avoid design structures presenting a high risk of performance failure. This paper presents a method taking into account the overlay variation and the Resist Image simulation across the process window variation to estimate the design sensitivity to overlay. Areas in the design are classified with specific metrics, from the highest to the lowest overlay sensitivity. This classification can be used to evaluate the robustness of a full chip product to process variability or to work with designers during the design library development. The ultimate goal is to evaluate critical structures in different contexts and report the most critical ones. In this paper, we study layers interacting together, such as Contact/Poly area overlap or Contact/Active distance. ASML-Brion tooling allowed simulating the different resist contours and applying the overlay value to one of the layers. Lithography Manufacturability Check (LMC) detectors are then set to extract the desired values for analysis. Two different approaches have been investigated. The first one is a systematic overlay where we apply the same overlay everywhere on the design. The second one is using a real overlay map which has been measured and applied to the LMC tools. The data are then post-processed and compared to the design target to create a classification and show the error distribution. Figure:

  18. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  19. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry based Scatterometry enabling 193nm Litho and Etch process control for the 110nm technology node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hingst, Thomas; Marschner, Thomas; Moert, Manfred; Homilius, Jan; Guevremont, Marco; Hopkins, John; Elazami, Assim

    2003-05-01

    In the production of sub 140nm electronic devices, CD metrology is becoming more critical due to the increased demands placed on process control. CD metrology using CD-SEM is approaching its limits especially with respect to precision, resolution and depth of field. Potentially, scatterometry can measure structures down to 50nm with the appropriate precision. Additionally, as scatterometry is a model based technique it allows a full reconstruction of the line profile and the film stack. In this work we use SE based scatterometry in the control of a 110nm DRAM WSix Gate process at the Litho and the Mask Open step. We demonstrate the use of a single trapezoid as a basic shape model in FEM and field mapping applications as well as in a high volume production test. The scatterometry results are compared to CD-SEM data. We show that for the GC Litho application, n&k variations in some of the stack materials do not affect the scatterometry CD measurement significantly.

  20. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  1. Process development using negative tone development for the dark field critical layers in a 28nm node process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluijs, Janko; Truffert, Vincent; Murdoch, Gayle; De Bisschop, Peter; Trivkovic, Darko; Wiaux, Vincent; Kunnen, Eddy; Souriau, Laurent; Demuynck, Steven; Ercken, Monique

    2012-03-01

    The demand for ever shrinking semiconductor devices is driving efforts to reduce pattern dimensions in semiconductor lithography. In this work, the aim is to find a single patterning litho solution for a 28nm technology node using 193nm immersion lithography. Target poly pitch is 110nm and metal1 pitch is 90nm. For this, we have introduced a range of different techniques to reach this goal. At this node, it becomes essential to include the layout itself into the optimization process. This leads to the introduction of restricted design rules, together with the co-optimization of source and mask (SMO) and the use of customized illumination modes (freeform illumination sources; FlexrayTM). Also, negative tone development (NTD) is employed to further extend the applicability of 193nm immersion lithography. Traditionally, the printing of contacts and trenches is done by using a dark field mask in combination with a positive tone resist and positive tone development. The use of negative tone development enables images reversal. This allows benefiting from the improved imaging performance when exposing with bright field masks. The same features can be printed in positive tone resists and with improved process latitudes. At the same time intermediate metal (IM) layers are used to connect the front-end and back-end-of-line, resulting in huge area benefits compared to layouts without these IM layers. The use of these IM layers will not happen for the 28nm node, but is intended to be introduced towards the 20nm node, and beyond. Nevertheless, the choice was made to use this architecture to obtain a first learning cycle on this approach. In this study, the use of negative tone development is explored, and its use for the various dark field critical layers in a 28nm node process is successfully demonstrated. In order to obtain sufficiently large process windows, structures are printed larger than the designed target CD. As a consequence, a shrink of the structures needs to be

  2. A novel design-based global CDU metrology for 1X nm node logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Young-Keun; Chung, Dong H.; Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jung-Uk; Kim, Byung-Gook; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Hur, JiUk; Cho, Wonil; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    As dimension of device shrinks to 1X nm node, an extreme control of critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of masks becomes one of key techniques for mask and wafer fabrication. For memory devices, a large number of optical techniques have been studied and applied to mask production so far. The advantages of these methods are to eliminate the sampling dependency due to their high throughput, to minimize the local CD errors due to their large field of view (FOV) and to improve the correlation with wafer infield uniformity if they have scanner-like optics. For logic devices, however, CD-SEM has been a single solution to characterize CD performance of logic masks for a long time and simple monitoring patterns, instead of the cell patterns, have been measured to monitor the CD quality of masks. Therefore a global CDU of the mask tends to show its ambiguity because of the limited number of measurement sites and large local CD errors. An application of optical metrology for logic mask is a challenging task because patterns are more complex and random in shape and because there is no guarantee of finding patterns for CDU everywhere on the mask. CDU map still consists of the results from the indirect measurements and the traditional definition of uniformity, a statistical deviation of a typical pattern, seems to be unsuitable for logic CDU. A new definition of CDU is required in order to maximize the coverage area on a mask. In this study, we have focused of the possibility of measuring cell patterns and of using an inspection tool with data base handling capability, KLA Teron617, to find the areas and positions where the repeating patterns exist and the patterns which satisfy a certain set of condition and we have devised a new definition of CDU, which can handle multiple target CDs. Then we have checked the feasibility and validity of our new methodology through evaluation its fundamental performance such as accuracy, repeatability, and correlation with other CD metrology

  3. Data preparation solution for e-beam multiple pass exposure: reaching sub-22nm nodes with a tool dedicated to 45 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Luc; Manakli, Serdar; Bayle, Sébastien; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Gutsch, Manuela; Pradelles, Jonathan; Bustos, Jessy

    2011-04-01

    Electron Beam Direct Write (EBDW) lithography is used in the IC manufacturing industry to sustain optical lithography for prototyping applications and low volume manufacturing. It is also used in R&D to develop advanced technologies, ahead of mass production. As microelectronics is now moving towards the 32nm node and beyond, the specifications in terms of dimension control and roughness becomes tighter. In addition, the shrink of the size and pitch of features significantly reduces the process window of lithographic tools. In EBDW, the standard proximity effects corrections only based on dose modulation show difficulties to provide the required Energy Latitude for patterning structures designed below 45nm. A new approach is thus needed to improve the process window of EBDW lithography and push its resolution capabilities. In previous papers, a new writing strategy based on multiple pass exposure has been introduced and optimized to pattern critical dense lines. This new technique consists in adding small electron Resolution Improvement Features (eRIFs) on top of the nominal structures. Then this new design is exposed in two successive passes with optimized doses. Previous studies were led to evaluate this new writing technique and establish rules to optimize the design of the eRIF. Significant improvements have already been demonstrated on SRAM and Logic structures down to the 16nm node. These results were obtained with a tool dedicated to the 45nm node. The next step of this work is thus to automatically implement the eRIF to correct large-scale layouts. In this paper, a new data preparation flow is set up for EBDW lithography. It uses the eRIF solution as a full advanced correction method for critical structures. The specific correction rules established in our previous studies are implemented to improve the CD control and the patterning of corners and line ends. Moreover, the dose and shape of the eRIFs are automatically tuned to best fit the nominal design

  4. DOE experiment for scattering bars optimization at the 90nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouton, G.; Connolly, B.; Courboin, D.; Di Giacomo, A.; Gasnier, F.; Lallement, R.; Parker, D.; Pindo, M.; Richoilley, J. C.; Royere, F.; Rameau-Savio, A.; Tissier, M.

    2011-03-01

    Scattering bars (SB) are sub-resolution lines added to the original database during Resolution Enhancement Techniques (RET) treatments. Their goal is stabilizing the CD of the adjacent polygons (by suppressing or reducing secondary diffraction waves). SB increase the process window in the litho process by lowering the first derivative of the CD. Moreover, the detailed knowledge of SB behavior around the fab working point is a must for future shrinks and for preparing the next technology nodes. SB are inserted in the generation of critical levels for STMicroelectronics 90 nm technology embedded memories before invoking the Model for Optical Proximity Corrections (MBOPC). This allows the software to calculate their contribution to the intensity in the aerial image and integrate their effects in Edge Proximity Error (EPE) corrections. However the Rule-Based insertion of these assist features still leaves behind occurrences of conflicting priorities as in the image below. (See manuscript PDF)Detection of Hot Spots in 2D simulations for die treatment validation (done on BRION equipment on each critical level before mask making) is in most cases correlated with SB singularities, at least for CD non-uniformity, bridging issues and necking in correspondence with OPC fragmentation effects. Within the framework of the MaXSSIMM project, we established a joint STMicroelectronics and Toppan Photomasks team to explore the influence of assist features (CD, distance), convex and concave corner rounding and CD uniformity by means of specific test patterns. The proposed study concerns the algorithms used to define the mask shop input as well as the physical mask etching. A set of test cases, based on elementary test patterns, each one including a list of geometrical variations, has been defined. As the number of configurations becomes rapidly very large (tens of thousands) we had to apply Design of Experiments (DOE) algorithms in order to reduce the number of measurements to a

  5. Direct strain measurement in a 65 nm node strained silicon transistor by convergent-beam electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Istratov, Andrei A.; Weber, Eicke R.; Kisielowski, Christian; He, Haifeng; Nelson, Chris; Spence, John C.H

    2006-01-01

    Using the energy-filtered convergent-beam electron diffraction !CBED" technique in a transmission electron microscope, the authors report here a direct measurement of the lattice parameters of uniaxially strained silicon as close as 25 nm below the gate in a 65 nm node p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with SiGe source and drain. It is found that the dominant strain component (0.58%) is compressive along the source-drain direction. The compressive stress is 1.1 GPa along this direction. These findings demonstrate that CBED can serve as a strain metrology technique for the development of strained silicon device technology

  6. Applications of AFM in semiconductor R&D and manufacturing at 45 nm technology node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon-Keun; Shin, Minjung; Bao, Tianming; Song, Chul-Gi; Dawson, Dean; Ihm, Dong-Chul; Ukraintsev, Vladimir

    2009-03-01

    Continuing demand for high performance microelectronic products propelled integrated circuit technology into 45 nm node and beyond. The shrinking device feature geometry created unprecedented challenges for dimension metrology in semiconductor manufacturing and research and development. Automated atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to meet the challenge and characterize narrower lines, trenches and holes at 45nm technology node and beyond. AFM is indispensable metrology techniques capable of non-destructive full three-dimensional imaging, surface morphology characterization and accurate critical dimension (CD) measurements. While all available dimensional metrology techniques approach their limits, AFM continues to provide reliable information for development and control of processes in memory, logic, photomask, image sensor and data storage manufacturing. In this paper we review up-todate applications of automated AFM in every mentioned above semiconductor industry sector. To demonstrate benefits of AFM at 45 nm node and beyond we compare capability of automated AFM with established in-line and off-line metrologies like critical dimension scanning electron microscopy (CDSEM), optical scatterometry (OCD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM).

  7. Integration of e-beam direct write in BEOL processes of 28nm SRAM technology node using mix and match

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsch, Manuela; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hanisch, Norbert; Hohle, Christoph; Seidel, Robert; Steidel, Katja; Thrun, Xaver; Werner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Many efforts were spent in the development of EUV technologies, but from a customer point of view EUV is still behind expectations. In parallel since years maskless lithography is included in the ITRS roadmap wherein multi electron beam direct patterning is considered as an alternative or complementary approach for patterning of advanced technology nodes. The process of multi beam exposures can be emulated by single beam technologies available in the field. While variable shape-beam direct writers are already used for niche applications, the integration capability of e-beam direct write at advanced nodes has not been proven, yet. In this study the e-beam lithography was implemented in the BEoL processes of the 28nm SRAM technology. Integrated 300mm wafers with a 28nm back-end of line (BEoL) stack from GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Dresden, were used for the experiments. For the patterning of the Metal layer a Mix and Match concept based on the sequence litho - etch - litho - etch (LELE) was developed and evaluated wherein several exposure fields were blanked out during the optical exposure. E-beam patterning results of BEoL Metal and Via layers are presented using a 50kV VISTEC SB3050DW variable shaped electron beam direct writer at Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT. Etch results are shown and compared to the POR. In summary we demonstrate the integration capability of EBDW into a productive CMOS process flow at the example of the 28nm SRAM technology node.

  8. Resist process control for 32-nm logic node and beyond with NA > 1.30 immersion exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Seiji; Murakami, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Shinpei; Ueki, Makoto; Satake, Masaki; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Fujise, Hiroharu; Yonemitsu, Hiroki; Seino, Yuriko; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Asano, Masafumi; Kitamura, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Takayuki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Tominaga, Makoto

    2009-03-01

    Resist process challenges for 32-nm node and beyond are discussed in this paper. For line and space (L/S) logic patterns, we examine ways to balance the requirements of resolution-enhancement techniques (RETs). In 32-nm node logic patterning, two-dimensional (2D) layout pattern deformation becomes more severe with stronger RET (e.g., narrow angle CQUAD illumination). Also pattern collapse more frequently happens in 2D-pattern layouts when stronger RET is used. In contrast, milder RET (annular illumination) does not induce the severe pattern collapse in 2D-pattern layout. For 2D-pattern layouts, stronger RET seems to worsen image contrast and results in high background-light in the resist pattern, which induces more pattern collapse. For the minimum-pitch L/S pattern in 32-nm node logic, annular illumination is acceptable for patterning with NA1.35 scanner when high contrast resist is used. For contact/via patterns, it is necessary to expand the overlapping CD process window. Better process margin is realized through the combination of hole-shrink technique and precise acid-diffusion control in an ArF chemically amplified resist.

  9. Practical proof of CP element based design for 14nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Takita, Hiroshi; Ikeno, Rimon; Osawa, Morimi; Kojima, Yoshinori; Sugatani, Shinji; Hoshino, Hiromi; Hino, Toshio; Ito, Masaru; Iizuka, Tetsuya; Komatsu, Satoshi; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    2013-03-01

    To realize HVM (High Volume Manufacturing) with CP (Character Projection) based EBDW, the shot count reduction is the essential key. All device circuits should be composed with predefined character parts and we call this methodology "CP element based design". In our previous work, we presented following three concepts [2]. 1) Memory: We reported the prospects of affordability for the CP-stencil resource. 2) Logic cell: We adopted a multi-cell clustering approach in the physical synthesis. 3) Random interconnect: We proposed an ultra-regular layout scheme using fixed size wiring tiles containing repeated tracks and cutting points at the tile edges. In this paper, we will report the experimental proofs in these methodologies. In full chip layout, CP stencil resource management is critical key. From the MCC-POC (Proof of Concept) result [1], we assumed total available CP stencil resource as 9000um2. We should manage to layout all circuit macros within this restriction. Especially the issues in assignment of CP-stencil resource for the memory macros are the most important as they consume considerable degree of resource because of the various line-ups such as 1RW-, 2RW-SRAMs, Resister Files and ROM which require several varieties of large size peripheral circuits. Furthermore the memory macros typically take large area of more than 40% of die area in the forefront logic LSI products so that the shot count increase impact is serious. To realize CP-stencil resource saving we had constructed automatic CP analyzing system. We developed two types of extraction mode of simple division by block and layout repeatability recognition. By properly controlling these models based upon each peripheral circuit characteristics, we could minimize the consumption of CP stencil resources. The estimation for 14nm technology node had been performed based on the analysis of practical memory compiler. The required resource for memory macro is proved to be affordable value which is 60% of full

  10. Imaging study of positive and negative tone weak phase-shifted 65 nm node contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Greenway, Robert T.; Maslow, Mark J.; MacDonald, Susan S.; Margolis, Lee H.; Hughes, Gregory P.

    2005-05-01

    CPL and aerial image mapping type contact designs for both negative and positive tones were created, built and tested for 100 nm and sub-100 nm contacts. Experimental results illustrated the need for electromagnetic-field corrections in the simulations. Resolution down to 80nm dense contacts were seen with both negative and positive resists with acceptable process windows though some process optimization is still required as unacceptable CD variation and a reentrant profile was observed. High MEEF requires strict CD control on the mask. Data volume for the isolated contact designs can also challenge the mask build.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet mask defect inspection with a half pitch 16-nm node using simulated projection electron microscope images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Susumu; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Hirano, Ryoichi; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2013-04-01

    According to an International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS-2012) update, the sensitivity requirement for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask pattern inspection system is to be less than 18 nm for half pitch (hp) 16-nm node devices. The inspection sensitivity of extrusion and intrusion defects on hp 64-nm line-and-space patterned EUV mask were investigated using simulated projection electron microscope (PEM) images. The obtained defect images showed that the optimization of current density and image processing techniques were essential for the detection of defects. Extrusion and intrusion defects 16 nm in size were detected on images formed by 3000 electrons per pixel. The landing energy also greatly influenced the defect detection efficiency. These influences were different for extrusion and intrusion defects. These results were in good agreement with experimentally obtained yield curves of the mask materials and the elevation angles of the defects. These results suggest that the PEM technique has a potential to detect 16-nm size defects on an hp 64-nm patterned EUV mask.

  12. Scatterometry based 65nm node CDU analysis and prediction using novel reticle measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Vanoppen, Peter; van der Laan, Hans; Kiers, Ton; Janssen, Maurice

    2005-05-01

    Scatterometry was selected as CD metrology for the 65nm CDU system qualification. Because of the dominant reticle residuals component in the 65nm CD budget for dense lines, significant improvements in reticle CD metrology were required. SEM is an option but requires extensive measurements due to the scatterometry grating modules. Therefore a new technique was developed and called SERUM (Spot sensor Enabled Reticle Uniformity Measurements). It uses the on board exposure system metrology sensors to measure transmission that is converted to reticle CD. It has the advantage that an entire reticle is measured within two minutes with good repeatability. The reticle fingerprints correlate well to the SEM measurements. With the improvements in reticle CD metrology offered by SEM and SERUM the reticle residuals component no longer dominates the 65nm budget for CDU system qualification.

  13. DSA patterning options for FinFET formation at 7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chi-Chun C.; Franke, Elliott; Lie, Fee Li; Sieg, Stuart; Tsai, Hsinyu; Lai, Kafai; Truong, Hoa; Farrell, Richard; Somervell, Mark; Sanders, Daniel; Felix, Nelson; Guillorn, Michael; Burns, Sean; Hetzer, David; Ko, Akiteru; Arnold, John; Colburn, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Several 27nm-pitch directed self-assembly (DSA) processes targeting fin formation for FinFET device fabrication are studied in a 300mm pilot line environment, including chemoepitaxy for a conventional Fin arrays, graphoepitaxy for a customization approach and a hybrid approach for self-aligned Fin cut. The trade-off between each DSA flow is discussed in terms of placement error, Fin CD/profile uniformity, and restricted design. Challenges in pattern transfer are observed and process optimization are discussed. Finally, silicon Fins with 100nm depth and on-target CD using different DSA options with either lithographic or self-aligned customization approach are demonstrated.

  14. Effects of Postetching Treatment on Molecular-Pore-Stacking/Cu Interconnects for 28 nm Node and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshida, Daisuke; Kume, Ippei; Katsuyama, Hirokazu; Taiji, Toshiji; Maruyama, Takuya; Ueki, Makoto; Inoue, Naoya; Iguchi, Manabu; Fujii, Kunihiro; Oda, Noriaki; Sakurai, Michio

    2011-05-01

    The effects of postetching treatment (PET) using carbon-containing gas on molecular-pore-stacking (MPS)/Cu interconnects were investigated. By using this technology, a 5% reduction in wiring capacitance was obtained as a result of the hardening of exposed MPS at the trench bottom. Via-chain yield improvement was also confirmed as a result of eliminating of etching residues in via-holes. These results indicate that high production yield and reliability can be obtained by PET for 28-nm-node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices and beyond.

  15. Double patterning combined with shrink technique to extend ArF lithography for contact holes to 22nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xiangqun; Huli, Lior; Chen, Hao; Xu, Xumou; Woo, Hyungje; Bencher, Chris; Shu, Jen; Ngai, Chris; Borst, Christopher

    2008-03-01

    Lithography becomes much more challenging when CD shrinks to 22nm nodes. Since EUV is not ready, double patterning combined with Resolution Enhancement Technology (RET) such as shrink techniques seems to be the most possible solution. Companies such as TSMC [1] and IBM [2] etc. are pushing out EUV to extend immersion ArF lithography to 32nm/22nm nodes. Last year, we presented our development work on 32nm node contact (50nm hole at 100nm pitch) using dry ArF lithography by double patterning with SAFIER shrink process[3]. To continue the work, we further extend our dry litho capability towards the 22nm node. We demonstrated double patterning capability of 40nm holes at 80nm pitch using ASML XT1400E scanner. It seems difficult to print pitches below 140nm on dry scanner in single exposure which is transferred into 70nm pitch with double patterning. To push the resolution to 22nm node and beyond, we developed ArF immersion process on ASML XT1700i-P system at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (Albany, NY) combined with a SAFIER process. We achieved single exposure process capability of 25nm holes at 128nm pitch after shrink. It enables us to print ~25nm holes at pitch of 64nm with double patterning. Two types of hard mask (HM), i.e. TIN and a-Si were used in both dry and immersion ArF DP processes. The double patterning process consists of two HM litho-shrink-etch steps. The dense feature is designed into two complementary parts on two masks such that the density is reduced by half and minimum pitch is increased by at least a factor of 21/2 depending on design. The complete pattern is formed after the two HM litho-shrink-etch steps are finished.

  16. Photon flux requirements for EUV reticle imaging microscopy in the 22 and 16 nm nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wintz, D.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Huh, S.

    2010-03-12

    EUV-wavelength actinic microscopy yields detailed information about EUV mask patterns, architectures, defects, and the performance of defect repair strategies, without the complications of photoresist imaging. The measured aerial image intensity profiles provide valuable feedback to improve mask and lithography system modeling methods. In order to understand the photon-flux-dependent pattern measurement limits of EUV mask-imaging microscopy, we have investigated the effects of shot noise on aerial image linewidth measurements for lines in the 22 and 16-nm generations. Using a simple model of image formation near the resolution limit, we probe the influence of photon shot noise on the measured, apparent line roughness. With this methodology, we arrive at general flux density requirements independent of the specific EUV microscope configurations. Analytical and statistical analysis of aerial image simulations in the 22 and 16-nm generations reveal the trade-offs between photon energy density (controllable with exposure time), effective pixel dimension on the CCO (controlled by the microscope's magnification ratio), and image log slope (ILS). We find that shot-noise-induced linewidth roughness (LWR) varies imersely with the square root of the photon energy density, and is proportional to the imaging magnification ratio. While high magnification is necessary for adequate spatial resolution, for a given flux density, higher magnification ratios have diminishing benefits. With practical imaging parameters, we find that in order to achieve an LWR (3{sigma}) value of 5% of linewidth for dense, 88-nm mask features with 80% aerial image contrast and 13.5-nm effective pixel width (1000x magnification ratio), a peak photon flux of approximately 1400 photons per pixel per exposure is required.

  17. Process variation challenges and resolution in the negative-tone develop double patterning for 20nm and below technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sohan S.; Ganta, Lakshmi K.; Chauhan, Vikrant; Wu, Yixu; Singh, Sunil; Ann, Chia; Subramany, Lokesh; Higgins, Craig; Erenturk, Burcin; Srivastava, Ravi; Singh, Paramjit; Koh, Hui Peng; Cho, David

    2015-03-01

    Immersion based 20nm technology node and below becoming very challenging to chip designers, process and integration due to multiple patterning to integrate one design layer . Negative tone development (NTD) processes have been well accepted by industry experts for enabling technologies 20 nm and below. 193i double patterning is the technology solution for pitch down to 80 nm. This imposes tight control in critical dimension(CD) variation in double patterning where design patterns are decomposed in two different masks such as in litho-etch-litho etch (LELE). CD bimodality has been widely studied in LELE double patterning. A portion of CD tolerance budget is significantly consumed by variations in CD in double patterning. The objective of this work is to study the process variation challenges and resolution in the Negative Tone Develop Process for 20 nm and Below Technology Node. This paper describes the effect of dose slope on CD variation in negative tone develop LELE process. This effect becomes even more challenging with standalone NTD developer process due to q-time driven CD variation. We studied impact of different stacks with combination of binary and attenuated phase shift mask and estimated dose slope contribution individually from stack and mask type. Mask 3D simulation was carried out to understand theoretical aspect. In order to meet the minimum insulator requirement for the worst case on wafer the overlay and critical dimension uniformity (CDU) budget margins have slimmed. Besides the litho process and tool control using enhanced metrology feedback, the variation control has other dependencies too. Color balancing between the two masks in LELE is helpful in countering effects such as iso-dense bias, and pattern shifting. Dummy insertion and the improved decomposition techniques [2] using multiple lower priority constraints can help to a great extent. Innovative color aware routing techniques [3] can also help with achieving more uniform density and

  18. Design verification for sub-70-nm DRAM nodes via metal fix using E-beam direct write

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, K.; Jaschinsky, P.; Hohle, C.; Choi, K.-H.; Schneider, R.; Tesauro, M.; Thrum, F.; Zimmermann, R.; Kretz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Because of mask cost reduction, electron beam direct write (EBDW) is implemented for special applications such as rapid prototyping or small volume production in semiconductor industry. One of the most promising applications for EBDW is design verification by means of metal fix. Due to write time constrains, Mix & Match solutions have to be developed at smaller nodes. This study reports on several Mix and Match processes for the integration of E-Beam lithography into the optical litho process flow of Qimonda's 70 nm and 58 nm DRAM nodes. Different metal layers have been patterned in part with DUV litho followed by E-Beam litho using a 50 kV Vistec SB3050 shaped electron beam direct writer. All hardmask patterns were then simultaneously transferred into the DRAM stack. After full chip processing a yield study comprising electrical device characterization and defect investigation was performed. We show detailed results including CD and OVL as well as improvements of the alignment mark recognition. The yield of the E-Beam processed chips was found to be within the range of wafer-to-wafer fluctuation of the POR hardware. We also report on metal fix by electrical cutting of selected diodes in large chip scales which usually cannot be accessed with FIB methods. In summary, we show the capability of EBDW for quick and flexible design verification.

  19. Evaluation of compact models for negative-tone development layers at 20/14nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ao; Foong, Yee Mei; Zhang, Dong Qing; Zhang, Hongxin; Chung, Angeline; Fryer, David; Deng, Yunfei; Medvedev, Dmitry; Granik, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of negative tone develop (NTD) resists to production lithography nodes, multiple NTD resist modeling challenges have surpassed the accuracy limits of the existing modeling infrastructure developed for the positive polarity process. We report the evaluation of two NTD resist modeling algorithms. The new modeling terms represent, from the first principles, the NTD resist mechanisms of horizontal shrink and horizontal development bias. Horizontal shrink describes the impact of the physical process of out-gassing on remaining resist edge location. Horizontal development bias accounts for the differential in the peak and minimum development rate with exposure intensity observed in NTD formulations. We review specific patterning characteristics by feature type, modeling accuracy impact presented by these NTD mechanisms, and their description in our compact models (Compact Model 1, CM1). All the new terms complement the accuracy advantage observed with existing CM1 resist modeling infrastructure. The new terms were tested on various NTD layers. The results demonstrate consistent model accuracy improvement for both calibration and verification. Furthermore, typical NTD model fitting challenges, such as large SRAF-induced wafer CD jump, can be overcome by the new NTD terms. Finally, we propose a joint-tuning approach for the calibration of compact models for the NTD resist.

  20. Evaluation of lens heating effect in high transmission NTD processes at the 20nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Bumhwan; Lee, Sam; Subramany, Lokesh; Li, Chen; Pal, Shyam; Meyers, Sheldon; Mehta, Sohan; Wei, Yayi; Cho, David R.

    2014-04-01

    The NTD (Negative Tone Developer) process has been embraced as a viable alternative to traditionally, more conventional, positive tone develop processes. Advanced technology nodes have necessitated the adopting of NTD processes to achieve such tight design specifications in critical dimensions. Dark field contact layers are prime candidates for NTD processing due to its high imaging contrast. However, reticles used in NTD processes are highly transparent. The transmission rate of those masks can be over 85%. Consequently, lens heating effects result in a non-trivial impact that can limit NTD usability in a high volume mass production environment. At the same time, Source Mask Optimized (SMO) freeform pupils have become popular. This can also result in untoward lens heating effects which are localized in the lens. This can result in a unique drift behavior with each Zernike throughout the exposing of wafers. In this paper, we present our experience and lessons learned from lens heating with NTD processes. The results of this study indicate that lens heating makes impact on drift behavior of each Zernike during exposure while source pupil shape make an impact on the amplitude of Zernike drift. Existing lens models should be finely tuned to establish the correct compensation for drift. Computational modeling for lens heating can be considered as one of these opportunities. Pattern shapes, such as dense and iso pattern, can have different drift behavior during lens heating.

  1. Crossing the Resolution Limit in Near-Infrared Imaging of Silicon Chips: Targeting 10-nm Node Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Krishna; Chen, Rui; Koh, Lian Ser; Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Chen, Xudong

    2015-04-01

    The best reported resolution in optical failure analysis of silicon chips is 120-nm half pitch demonstrated by Semicaps Private Limited, whereas the current and future industry requirement for 10-nm node technology is 100-nm half pitch. We show the first experimental evidence for resolution of features with 100-nm half pitch buried in silicon (λ /10.6 ), thus fulfilling the industry requirement. These results are obtained using near-infrared reflection-mode imaging using a solid immersion lens. The key novel feature of our approach is the choice of an appropriately sized collection pinhole. Although it is usually understood that, in general, resolution is improved by using the smallest pinhole consistent with an adequate signal level, it is found that in practice for silicon chips there is an optimum pinhole size, determined by the generation of induced currents in the sample. In failure analysis of silicon chips, nondestructive imaging is important to avoid disturbing the functionality of integrated circuits. High-resolution imaging techniques like SEM or TEM require the transistors to be exposed destructively. Optical microscopy techniques may be used, but silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, mandating the use of near-infrared light and thus poor resolution in conventional optical microscopy. We expect our result to change the way semiconductor failure analysis is performed.

  2. Calibration of CD mask standards for the 65-nm node: CoG and MoSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J.; Heins, T.; Liebe, R.; Bodermann, B.; Diener, A.; Bergmann, D.; Frase, C. G.; Bosse, H.

    2007-02-01

    We report on the traceable calibration of linewidth (CD) photomask standards which are used as reference standards for production masks of the 65 nm node. Two different types of masks with identical layout were produced and calibrated, namely a binary mask (CoG) and a half-tone phase shifting mask (193MoSi PSM). We will in particular describe the applied calibration procedures and cross-correlate the results from different high resolution metrology tools, like SEM, UV microscopy and AFM. The layout of the CD photomask standard contains isolated as well as dense line features in both tones with nominal CD down to 100 nm. Calibration of the standards was performed at PTB by UV microscopy and LV-SEM, supported by additional AFM measurements. For analysis of the measured high resolution microscopy images and the deduced profiles appropriate signal modeling was applied for every metrology tool, which allows a meaningful comparison of geometrical parameters of the measured calibration structures. By this approach, e.g. the deduced feature widths at the top of the structures and the widths at 50% height of the structures can be related to the measured edge angles. The linearity e. g. of the measured top CD on different type of structures on the CoG CD standard was determined to be below 5 nm down to line feature dimensions well below 200 nm.

  3. Message to the undecided: using DUV dBARC for 32 nm node implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung-Rae; Popova, Irene Y.; Rolick, JoAnn M.; Gomez, Juan-Manuel; Bailey, Todd C.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, implant (block) level lithography has been transformed from being widely viewed as non-critical into one of the forefronts of material development. Ever-increasing list of substrates, coatings and films in the underlying stack clearly dictates the need for new materials and increased attention to this challenging area. Control of the substrate reflectivity and critical dimension (CD) on topography has become one of the key challenges for block level lithography and is required in order to meet their aggressive requirements for developing 32nm technology and beyond. The simulation results of wet-developable bottom anti-reflective coating (dBARC) show better reflectivity control on topography than the conventional top anti-reflective materials (TARCs), and make a convincing statement as to viability of dBARC as a working solution for block level lithography.1 Wet-developable BARC by definition offers substrate reflectivity and resist adhesion control, however there is a need to better understand the fundamental limitations of the dBARC process in comparison to the TARC process. In addition, some specific niche dBARC applications as facilitating adhesion to challenging substrates, such as capping layers in the high-k metal gate (HK/MG) stack, can also be envisioned as most imminent dBARC applications.2 However, most of the engineering community is still indecisive to use dBARC in production, bound by uncertainties of the robustness and lack of experience using dBARC in production. This work is designed to inspire more confidence in the potential use of this technology. Its objective is to describe testing of one of dBARC materials, which is not a photosensitive type, and its implementation on 32nm logic devices. The comparison between dBARC and TARC processes evaluates impacts of dBARC use in the lithographic process, with special attention to OPC behavior and reflectivity for controlling CD uniformity. This work also shows advantages and future

  4. Impact of EUV patterning scenario on different design styles and their ground rules for 7nm/5nm node BEOL layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Chen, Alek C.; Dusa, Mircea; Tseng, Shih-En

    2016-03-01

    As the IC industry moves forward to 7nm or 5nm node, the minimum pitch of back-end-of-line (BEOL) layers could be near 30nm. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) could be the most cost effective solution for patterning critical metal and via layers. Patterning of the critical layers would need greater than 4x exposures using ArFi lithography, leading to severe cost and yield issues. There are two potential design options, one-dimension (1D) and two-dimension (2D), for metal 1 layer. EUV's single exposure option offers superior image quality especially for the 2D design style, but scalability of a 2D design is limited by EUV with a fixed numerical aperture (NA). The single exposure of EUV is an appropriate patterning solution for printing a 1D design directly, but maintaining critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of lines and line-ends is a challenge. Scalability of the 1D design is also limited by the single exposure option. The 1D design can be patterned through a spacer film deposition to gain superior line CD control, followed by printing a cut or block pattern to create the line-ends. Since the minimum pitch of cut/block patterns is generally larger than the metal pitch, EUV's single exposure option has a potential to print the cut/block pattern at smaller pitch and resolution and offers an opportunity to further design shrink. An elongated via design helps design scalability due to an insensitive overlay error contribution to via-to-metal contact area and encroachment.

  5. Performance of immersion lithography for 45-nm-node CMOS and ultra-high density SRAM with 0.25um2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimotogi, Shoji; Uesawa, Fumikatsu; Tominaga, Makoto; Fujise, Hiroharu; Sho, Koutaro; Katsumata, Mikio; Hane, Hiroki; Ikegami, Atsushi; Nagahara, Seiji; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Asano, Masafumi; Kanai, Hideki; Kimura, Taiki; Iwai, Masaaki

    2007-03-01

    Immersion lithography was applied to 45nm node logic and 0.25um2 ultra-high density SRAM. The predictable enhancement of focus margin and resolution were obtained for all levels which were exposed by immersion tool. In particular, the immersion lithography enabled to apply the attenuating phase shift mask to the gate level. The enough lithography margin for the alternating phase shift mask was also obtained by using not only immersion tool but also dry tool for gate level. The immersion lithography shrunk the minimum hole pitch from 160nm to 140nm. Thus, the design rule for 45nm node became available by using immersion lithography.

  6. Performance and manufacturability trade-offs of pattern minimization for sub-22nm technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovner, Vyacheslav V.; Jhaveri, Tejas; Morris, Daniel; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry

    2011-04-01

    The traditional design rule paradigm of defining the illegal areas of the design space has been deteriorating at the advanced technology nodes. Radical design space restrictions, advocated by the regular design fabrics methodology, provide an opportunity to reshape the design/manufacturing interface by constraining the layout to a set of allowable patterns. As such, this would allow for guaranteed convergence of the source mask optimization techniques (SMO) and complete validation of the legal design space during technology development and ramp. However, the number of the unique patterns generated by the layout adhering to even the simplistic gridded design rules prohibits this approach. Nevertheless, we have found that just 10% of the unique geometric patterns are sufficient to represent 90% of all layout pattern instances. Furthermore, the overall number of layout patterns on Active, Contact, and Metal-1 design layers can be reduced through modification of existing layout shapes in the final layout database and insertion of non-essential layout features. Unlike the 'dummy fill' used for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the newly added shapes must resemble the patterning of the functional design features and be inserted in close proximity to them. In this paper, we evaluate the digital circuit performance impact of the additional layout parasitics introduced by these 'dummy' features. In particular, we have found that a significant pattern count reduction can be achieved with minimal performance penalty. These results have been used at PDF Solutions to enable a correct by construction layout style, such as the templates and connectors-based layout methodology presented in the companion paper.

  7. Electromagnetic field modeling for defect detection in 7 nm node patterned wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Zhang, Kedi; Davoudzadeh, Nima; Wang, Xiaozhen; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2016-03-01

    By 2017, the critical dimension in patterned wafers will shrink down to 7 nm, which brings great challenges to optics-based defect inspection techniques, due to the ever-decreasing signal to noise ratio with respect to defect size. To continue pushing forward the optics-based metrology technique, it is of great importance to analyze the full characteristics of the scattering field of a wafer with a defect and then to find the most sensitive signal type. In this article, the vector boundary element method is firstly introduced to calculate the scattering field of a patterned wafer at a specific objective plane, after which a vector imaging theory is introduced to calculate the field at an image plane for an imaging system with a high numerical aperture objective lens. The above methods enable the effective modeling of the image for an arbitrary vectorial scattering electromagnetic field coming from the defect pattern of the wafer.

  8. Particle control challenges in process chemicals and ultra-pure water for sub-10nm technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Abbas; Samayoa, Martin; House, Matthew; Kurtuldu, Hüseyin; Eah, Sang-Kee; Morse, Lauren; Harris-Jones, Jenah

    2014-04-01

    Particle contamination in ultra-pure water (UPW) and chemicals will eventually end up on the surface of a wafer and may result in killer defects. To improve the semiconductor processing yield in sub-10 nm half pitch nodes, it is necessary to control particle defectivity. In a systematic study of all major techniques for particle detection, counting, and sizing in solutions, we have shown that there is a gap in the required particle metrology which needs to be addressed by the industry. To reduce particles in solutions and improve filter retention for sub-10 nm particles with very low densities (<10 particles/mL), liquid particle counters that are able to detect small particles at low densities are required. Non-volatile residues in chemicals and UPW can result in nanoparticles. Measuring absolute non-volatile residues in UPW with concentrations in the ppb range is a challenge. However, by using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of non-volatile residues we found silica both in dissolved and colloidal particle form which is present in one of the cleanest UPW that we tested. A particle capture/release technique was developed at SEMATECH which is able to collect particles from UPW and release them in a controlled manner. Using this system we showed sub-10 nm particles are present in UPW. In addition to colloidal silica, agglomerated carbon containing particles were also found in UPW.

  9. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  10. Materials and fabrication sequences for water soluble silicon integrated circuits at the 90 nm node

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Lan; Harburg, Daniel V.; Rogers, John A.; Bozler, Carl; Omenetto, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-05

    Tungsten interconnects in silicon integrated circuits built at the 90 nm node with releasable configurations on silicon on insulator wafers serve as the basis for advanced forms of water-soluble electronics. These physically transient systems have potential uses in applications that range from temporary biomedical implants to zero-waste environmental sensors. Systematic experimental studies and modeling efforts reveal essential aspects of electrical performance in field effect transistors and complementary ring oscillators with as many as 499 stages. Accelerated tests reveal timescales for dissolution of the various constituent materials, including tungsten, silicon, and silicon dioxide. The results demonstrate that silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits formed with tungsten interconnects in foundry-compatible fabrication processes can serve as a path to high performance, mass-produced transient electronic systems.

  11. Study of alternative capping and absorber layers for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks for sub-16nm half-pitch nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, Abbas; House, Matthew; Tian, Ruahi; Laursen, Thomas; Antohe, Alin; Kearney, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Multiple challenges, including the availability of a reliable high power source, defect free mask, and proper resist material, have forced extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to be considered for sub-10 nm half-pitch nodes. Therefore, techniques such as phase shift masks (PSMs) or high numerical aperture (NA) lithography might be considered. Such techniques require thin EUV absorber materials to be optimized to reduce EUV mask shadowing effects. Despite the challenges in dry etching of Ni and finding proper chemistries with a high etch selectivity to suitable capping materials, we decided to examine the chemical stability of Ni for existing mask cleaning chemistries. Ni, after Ag, has the highest absorption in EUV light at λ = 13.5 nm, which makes it a proper candidate—in pure form or in mixing with other elements—for thin absorber film. Depending on the composition of the final material, proper integration schemes will be developed. We studied Ni stability in commonly used mask cleaning processes based on ammonium hydroxide/ hydrogen peroxide (APM) and water mixtures. Ni films deposited with an ion beam deposition technique with a thickness of 35 nm are sufficient to totally absorb EUV light at λ = 13.5 nm. Multiple cleanings of these Ni films resulted in Ni oxidation— confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) analysis as NiO with thickness about 1.5 nm. Furthermore, Ni oxidation processes are self-limiting and oxide layer thickness did not increase with a further cleaning. A three minute exposure to sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) can remove NiO and Ni totally. To protect Ni film from etching by SPM chemistry a 3 nm Si capping was used on top of Ni film. However, Si capping was removed by APM chemistry and could not protect Ni film against SPM chemistry. TiO2 may be a very good capping layer for EUV optics but it is not suitable for EUV mask blanks and will be removed by APM chemistries.

  12. Evaluation of soft error rates using nuclear probes in bulk and SOI SRAMs with a technology node of 90 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, Satoshi; Masuda, Naoyuki; Wakaya, Fujio; Onoda, Shinobu; Hirao, Toshio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Takai, Mikio

    2010-06-01

    The difference of soft error rates (SERs) in conventional bulk Si and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) with a technology node of 90 nm has been investigated by helium ion probes with energies ranging from 0.8 to 6.0 MeV and a dose of 75 ions/μm 2. The SERs in the SOI SRAM were also investigated by oxygen ion probes with energies ranging from 9.0 to 18.0 MeV and doses of 0.14-0.76 ions/μm 2. The soft error in the bulk and SOI SRAMs occurred by helium ion irradiation with energies at and above 1.95 and 2.10 MeV, respectively. The SER in the bulk SRAM saturated with ion energies at and above 2.5 MeV. The SER in the SOI SRAM became the highest by helium ion irradiation at 2.5 MeV and drastically decreased with increasing the ion energies above 2.5 MeV, in which helium ions at this energy range generated the maximum amount of excess charge carriers in a SOI body. The soft errors occurred by helium ions were induced by a floating body effect due to generated excess charge carriers in the channel regions. The soft error occurred by oxygen ion irradiation with energies at and above 10.5 MeV in the SOI SRAM. The SER in the SOI SRAM gradually increased with energies from 10.5 to 13.5 MeV and saturated at 18 MeV, in which the amount of charge carriers induced by oxygen ions in this energy range gradually increased. The computer calculation indicated that the oxygen ions with energies above 13.0 MeV generated more excess charge carriers than the critical charge of the 90 nm node SOI SRAM with the designed over-layer thickness. The soft errors, occurred by oxygen ions with energies at and below 12.5 MeV, were induced by a floating body effect due to the generated excess charge carriers in the channel regions and those with energies at and above 13.0 MeV were induced by both the floating body effect and generated excess carriers. The difference of the threshold energy of the oxygen ions between the experiment and the computer calculation might

  13. Hybrid Metrology and 3D-AFM Enhancement for CD Metrology Dedicated to 28 nm Node and Below Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.; Faurie, P.; Dourthe, L.

    2011-11-10

    The measurement accuracy is becoming one of the major components that have to be controlled in order to guarantee sufficient production yield. Already at the R and D level, we have to come up with the accurate measurements of sub-40 nm dense trenches and contact holes coming from 193 immersion lithography or E-Beam lithography. Current production CD (Critical Dimension) metrology techniques such as CD-SEM (CD-Scanning Electron Microscope) and OCD (Optical Critical Dimension) are limited in relative accuracy for various reasons (i.e electron proximity effect, outputs parameters correlation, stack influence, electron interaction with materials...). Therefore, time for R and D is increasing, process windows degrade and finally production yield can decrease because you cannot manufactured correctly if you are unable to measure correctly. A new high volume manufacturing (HVM) CD metrology solution has to be found in order to improve the relative accuracy of production environment otherwise current CD Metrology solution will very soon get out of steam.In this paper, we will present a potential Hybrid CD metrology solution that smartly tuned 3D-AFM (3D-Atomic Force Microscope) and CD-SEM data in order to add accuracy both in R and D and production. The final goal for 'chip makers' is to improve yield and save R and D and production costs through real-time feedback loop implement on CD metrology routines. Such solution can be implemented and extended to any kind of CD metrology solution. In a 2{sup nd} part we will discuss and present results regarding a new AFM3D probes breakthrough with the introduction of full carbon tips made will E-Beam Deposition process. The goal is to overcome the current limitations of conventional flared silicon tips which are definitely not suitable for sub-32 nm nodes production.

  14. Hybrid Metrology & 3D-AFM Enhancement for CD Metrology Dedicated to 28 nm Node and Below Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, J.; Faurie, P.; Dourthe, L.; Irmer, B.; Penzkofer, C.

    2011-11-01

    The measurement accuracy is becoming one of the major components that have to be controlled in order to guarantee sufficient production yield. Already at the R&D level, we have to come up with the accurate measurements of sub-40 nm dense trenches and contact holes coming from 193 immersion lithography or E-Beam lithography. Current production CD (Critical Dimension) metrology techniques such as CD-SEM (CD-Scanning Electron Microscope) and OCD (Optical Critical Dimension) are limited in relative accuracy for various reasons (i.e electron proximity effect, outputs parameters correlation, stack influence, electron interaction with materials…). Therefore, time for R&D is increasing, process windows degrade and finally production yield can decrease because you cannot manufactured correctly if you are unable to measure correctly. A new high volume manufacturing (HVM) CD metrology solution has to be found in order to improve the relative accuracy of production environment otherwise current CD Metrology solution will very soon get out of steam. In this paper, we will present a potential Hybrid CD metrology solution that smartly tuned 3D-AFM (3D-Atomic Force Microscope) and CD-SEM data in order to add accuracy both in R&D and production. The final goal for "chip makers" is to improve yield and save R&D and production costs through real-time feedback loop implement on CD metrology routines. Such solution can be implemented and extended to any kind of CD metrology solution. In a 2nd part we will discuss and present results regarding a new AFM3D probes breakthrough with the introduction of full carbon tips made will E-Beam Deposition process. The goal is to overcome the current limitations of conventional flared silicon tips which are definitely not suitable for sub-32 nm nodes production.

  15. Patterning process exploration of metal 1 layer in 7nm node with 3D patterning flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Oulmane, Mohamed; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In 7mn node (N7), the logic design requires the critical poly pitch (CPP) of 42-45nm and metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28- 32nm. Such high pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent 3D profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) budget and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, we will report extractions of maximum electric field at M1 tipto- tip which is one of the most critical patterning locations and we will demonstrate the potential of this approach for investigating the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We will also present simulations of an alternative M1 patterning flow, with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyze its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.

  16. Nanoscale dimensional focused ion beam repair of quartz defects on 90-nm node alternating aperture phase shift masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tod E.; Graupera, Anthony; Morrison, Troy B.; Ramstein, Marcus

    2004-08-01

    The effort to produce perfect dimension repairs of quartz bump defects on Alternating-Aperture Phase Shift Masks (AAPSM) has been brought to a new level with process developments to meet 90 nm technology node specifications. Decreasing photomask line and space dimensions pushes performance requirements for a mask repair system in terms of fine control in difficult to access structures on the mask surface. New repair strategies using a recently improved focused ion beam mask repair system for different defect types are discussed, along with their relative effectiveness. These strategies are then applied to the repair of full height extension and bridging defects in a line and space array. The role of quartz topography and its optical effects, Cr edge bias, and the combination of both strategies in a quartz bump repair are discussed. Additionally, effective process controls in repair are also discussed, along with analysis of metrology data received from a stylus nano-profilometer (SNP) system, and their relationship to potential imaging on the wafer by examination of AIMS data at a high numerical aperture. Several possible mask repair process flows are also reviewed in light of this work.

  17. Defect window analysis by using SEM-contour based shape quantifying method for sub-20nm node production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Daisuke; Hsu, Mingyi; Shindo, Hiroyuki; Izawa, Masayuki; Enomoto, Yuji; Lin, J. F.; Hu, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    The impact on yield loss due to systematic defect which remains after Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) modeling has increased, and achieving an acceptable yield has become more difficult in the leading technology beyond 20 nm node production. Furthermore Process-Window has become narrow because of the complexity of IC design and less process margin. In the past, the systematic defects have been inspected by human-eyes. However the judgment by human-eyes is sometime unstable and not accurate. Moreover an enormous amount of time and labor will have to be expended on the one-by-one judgment for several thousands of hot-spot defects. In order to overcome these difficulties and improve the yield and manufacturability, the automated system, which can quantify the shape difference with high accuracy and speed, is needed. Inspection points could be increased for getting higher yield, if the automated system achieves our goal. Defect Window Analysis (DWA) system by using high-precision-contour extraction from SEM image on real silicon and quantifying method which can calculate the difference between defect pattern and non-defect pattern automatically, which was developed by Hitachi High-Technologies, has been applied to the defect judgment instead of the judgment by human-eyes. The DWA result which describes process behavior might be feedback to design or OPC or mask. This new methodology and evaluation results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  18. Optimization of chemically amplified resist for high-volume manufacturing by electron-beam direct writing toward 14nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Jun-ichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Sugatani, Shinji; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Isobe, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Masaki; Yamada, Akio

    2012-03-01

    We investigated a high-resolution chemically amplified resist for introducing a multi-column cell electron-beam directwriting system into the manufacturing of sub-14 nm technology node LSIs. The target of total blur, which leads to an exposure latitude above 10%, is less than 13.6 nm for 14 nm logic node LSIs. We divided the total blur into three terms, forward-scattering, electron-beam and resist. At a 40 nm-thick resist, the forward-scattering blur was calculated as 1.0 nm in lithography simulation, and beam blur was estimated to be 7.1 nm from the patterning results of hydrogen silsesquioxane. We found that there is a proportional relation between resist blur and acid diffusion length by using a new evaluation method that uses a water-soluble polymer. By applying a chemically amplified resist with a short acid diffusion length, resist blur decreased to 14.5 nm. Even though total blur is still 16.2 nm, we have already succeeded in resolving 20 nm line and space patterns at an exposure dose of 79.6 μC/cm2.

  19. Integration of highly-strained SiGe materials in 14 nm and beyond nodes FinFET technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guilei; Abedin, Ahmad; Moeen, Mahdi; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Luo, Jun; Guo, Yiluan; Chen, Tao; Yin, Huaxiang; Zhu, Huilong; Li, Junfeng; Zhao, Chao; Radamson, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    SiGe has been widely used as stressors in source/drain (S/D) regions of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) to enhance the channel mobility. In this study, selectively grown Si1-xGex (0.33 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.35) with boron concentration of 1 × 1020 cm-3 was used to elevate the S/D regions on bulk FinFETs in 14 nm technology node. The epitaxial quality of SiGe layers, SiGe profile and the strain amount of the SiGe layers were investigated. In order to in-situ clean the Si-fins before SiGe epitaxy, a series of prebaking experiments at temperature ranging from 740 to 825 °C were performed. The results showed that the thermal budget needs to be limited to 780-800 °C in order to avoid any damage to the shape of Si-fins but to remove the native oxide which is essential for high epitaxial quality. In this study, a kinetic gas model was also applied to predict the SiGe growth profile on Si-fins with trapezoidal shape. The input parameters for the model include growth temperature, partial pressures of reactant gases and the chip layout. By knowing the epitaxial profile, the strain to the Si-fins exerted by SiGe layers can be calculated. This is important in understanding the carrier transport in the FinFETs. The other benefit of the modeling is that it provides a cost-effective alternative for epitaxy process development as the SiGe profile can be readily predicted for any chip layout in advance.

  20. Printing the metal and contact layers for the 32- and 22-nm node: comparing positive and negative tone development process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Look, L.; Bekaert, J.; Truffert, V.; Wiaux, V.; Lazzarino, F.; Maenhoudt, M.; Vandenberghe, G.; Reybrouck, Mario; Tarutani, Shinji

    2010-04-01

    A strong demand exists for techniques that can further extend the application of ArF immersion lithography. Besides techniques like litho-friendly design, dual exposure or patterning schemes, customized illumination modes, also alternative processing schemes are viable candidates to reach this goal. One of the most promising alternative process flows uses image reversal by means of a negative tone development (NTD) step with a FUJIFILM solvent-based developer. Traditionally, the printing of contacts and trenches is done by using a dark field mask in combination with positive tone resist and positive tone development. With NTD, the same features can be printed in positive resist using a light field mask, and consequently with a much better image contrast. In this paper, we present an overview of applications for the NTD technique, both for trench and contact patterning, comparing the NTD performance to that of the traditional positive tone development (PTD). This experimental work was performed on an ASML Twinscan XT:1900i scanner at 1.35 NA, and targets the contact/metal layers of the 32 & 22 nm node. For contact hole printing, we consider both single and dual exposure schemes for regular arrays and 2D patterns. For trench printing, we compare the NTD and PTD performance for one-dimensional patterns, line ends and twodimensional structures. We also assess the etch capability and CDU performance of the NTD process. This experimental study proves the added value of the NTD scheme. For contacts and trenches, it allows achieving a broader pitch range and/or smaller litho targets, which makes this process flow attractive for the most advanced lithography applications, including double patterning.

  1. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  2. Simulation study of scaled In0.53Ga0.47As and Si FinFETs for sub-16 nm technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, N.; Aldegunde, M.; Nagy, D.; Elmessary, M. A.; Indalecio, G.; García-Loureiro, A. J.; Kalna, K.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the performance and scalability of III-V-OI In0.53Ga0.47As and SOI Si FinFETs using state-of-the-art in-house-built 3D simulation tools. Three different technology nodes specified in the ITRS have been analysed with gate lengths (L G) of 14.0 nm, 12.8 and 10.4 nm for the InGaAs FinFETs and 12.8 nm, 10.7 and 8.1 nm for the Si devices. At a high drain bias, the 12.8 and 10.4 nm InGaAs FinFETs deliver 15% and 13% larger on-currents but 14% larger off-currents than the equivalent 12.8 and 10.7 nm Si FinFETs, respectively. For equivalent gate lengths, both the InGaAs and the Si FinFETs have the same I ON/I OFF ratio (5.9 × 104 when L G = 12.8 nm and 5.7 × 104 when L G = 10.4(10.7) nm). A more pronounced S/D tunnelling affecting the InGaAs FinFETs leads to a larger deterioration in their SS (less than 10%) and DIBL (around 20%) compared to the Si counterparts.

  3. Combined dose and geometry correction (DMG) for low energy multi electron beam lithography (5kV): application to the 16nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Luc; Manakli, Serdar; Bayle, Sebastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Soulan, Sebastien; Wiedemann, Pablo; Farah, Abdi; Schiavone, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Lithography faces today many challenges to meet the ITRS road-map. 193nm is still today the only existing industrial option to address high volume production for the 22nm node. Nevertheless to achieve such a resolution, double exposure is mandatory for critical level patterning. EUV lithography is still challenged by the availability of high power source and mask defectivity and suffers from a high cost of ownership perspective. Its introduction is now not foreseen before 2015. Parallel to these mask-based technologies, maskless lithography regularly makes significant progress in terms of potential and maturity. The massively parallel e-beam solution appears as a real candidate for high volume manufacturing. Several industrial projects are under development, one in the US, with the KLA REBL project and two in Europe driven by IMS Nanofabrication (Austria; MAPPER (The Netherlands). Among the developments to be performed to secure the takeoff of the multi-beam technology, the availability of a rapid and robust data treatment solution will be one of the major challenges. Within this data preparation flow, advanced proximity effect corrections must be implemented to address the 16nm node and below. This paper will detail this process and compare correction strategies in terms of robustness and accuracy. It will be based on results obtained using a MAPPER tool within the IMAGINE program driven by CEA-LETI, in Grenoble, France. All proximity effects corrections and the dithering step were performed using the software platform Inscale® from Aselta Nanographics. One important advantage of Inscale® is the ability to combine both model based dose and geometry adjustment to accurately pattern critical features. The paper will focus on the advantage of combining those two corrections at the 16nm node instead of using only geometry corrections. Thanks to the simulation capability of Inscale®, pattern fidelity and correction robustness will be evaluated and compared between

  4. Waveguide effect in high-NA EUV lithography: The key to extending EUV lithography to the 4-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Michael; Barouch, Eytan; Oh, Hye-Keun

    2015-06-01

    One of the main concerns about EUV lithography is whether or not it can be extended to very high numerical aperture. In this paper, rigorous electromagnetic simulation is first used to show that there is an interesting waveguide effect occurring in the 4-nm feature size regime. An exact mathematical analysis is then presented to explain the effect observed in the simulation. This waveguide effect is applied to simulate the printing of 4-nm lines and spaces with excellent aerial-image contrast and peak intensity. The feasibility of EUV lithography for printing logic circuits containing general two-dimensional patterns with 4-nm feature size is also demonstrated.

  5. Low leakage ZrO2 based capacitors for sub 20 nm dynamic random access memory technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, Milan; Knebel, Steve; Geyer, Maximilian; Schmelzer, Sebastian; Böttger, Ulrich; Kolomiiets, Nadiia; Afanas'ev, Valeri V.; Cho, Kyuho; Jung, Changhwa; Chang, Jaewan; Lim, Hanjin; Mikolajick, Thomas; Schroeder, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    During dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitor scaling, a lot of effort was put searching for new material stacks to overcome the scaling limitations of the current material stack, such as leakage and sufficient capacitance. In this study, very promising results for a SrTiO3 based capacitor with a record low capacitance equivalent thickness value of 0.2 nm at target leakage current are presented. Due to the material properties of SrTiO3 films (high vacancy concentration and low band gap), which are leading to an increased leakage current, a physical thickness of at least 8 nm is required at target leakage specifications. However, this physical thickness would not fit into an 18 nm DRAM structure. Therefore, two different new approaches to develop a new ZrO2 based DRAM capacitor stack by changing the inter-layer material from Al2O3 to SrO and the exchange of the top electrode material from TiN to Pt are presented. A combination of these two approaches leads to a capacitance equivalent thickness value of 0.47 nm. Most importantly, the physical thickness of <5 nm for the dielectric stack is in accordance with the target specifications. Detailed evaluation of the leakage current characteristics leads to a capacitor model which allows the prediction of the electrical behavior with thickness scaling.

  6. The study of EUVL mask defect inspection technology for 32-nm half-pitch node device and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemura, Hiroyuki; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Yasushi; Suga, Osamu; Terasawa, Tsuneo; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Hashimoto, Hideaki; Kameya, Norio; Takeda, Masaya; Kikuiri, Nobutaka; Hirano, Ryoichi; Hirono, Masatoshi

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we will report on our experimental and simulation results on the impact of EUVL mask absorber structure and of inspection system optics on mask defect detection sensitivity. We employed a commercial simulator EM-Suite (Panoramic Technology, Inc.) which calculated rigorously using FDTD (Finite-difference time-domain) method. By using various optical constants of absorber stacks, we calculated image contrasts and defect image signals as obtained from the mask defect inspection system. We evaluated the image contrast and the capability of detecting defects on the EUVL masks by using a new inspection tool made by NuFlare Technology, Inc. (NFT) and Advanced Mask Inspection Technology, Inc. (AMiT). This tool is based on NPI-5000 which is the leading-edge photomask defect inspection system using 199nm wavelength inspection optics. The programmed defect masks with LR-TaBN and LRTaSi absorbers were used which had various sized opaque and clear extension defects on hp-160nm, hp-225nm, and hp- 325nm line and space patterns. According to the analysis, reflectivity of EUVL mask absorber structures and the inspection optics have large influence on image contrast and defect sensitivity. It is very important to optimize absorber structure and inspection optics for the development of EUVL mask inspection technology, and for the improvement of performance of EUV lithographic systems.

  7. Black border, mask 3D effects: covering challenges of EUV mask architecture for 22nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; van Setten, Eelco; de Kruif, Robert; Connolly, Brid; Fukugami, Norihito; Kodera, Yutaka; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Rolff, Haiko; Ullrich, Albrecht; Jaganatharaja, Ramasubramanian Kottumakulal; Lammers, Ad; Oorschot, Dorothe; Man, Cheuk-Wah; Schiffelers, Guido; van Dijk, Joep

    2014-10-01

    Photomask is at the heart of a lithographic scanner's optical path. It cannot be left non-optimized from the imaging point of view. In this work we provide new insights on two critical aspects of EUV mask architecture: optimization of absorber for 16 nm half-pitch imaging and a systematic approach to black border EUV and DUV reflectance specifications. Good 16 nm imaging is demonstrated on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner. Currently a relatively high dose resist is used for imaging and the dose reduction is desired. Optimization (reduction) of absorber height and mask CD bias can allow for up to 30% dose reduction without essential contrast loss. Disadvantages of absorber height reduction are ~7 nm increase of best focus range through pitch and tighter absorber height mean to target and uniformity requirements. A disadvantage of a smaller reticle CD (down to 14 nm 1x) is manufacturing process uniformity over the reticle. A systematic approach of black border reflections impact on imaging is established. The image border is a pattern free dark area surrounding the image field and preventing exposure of the image field neighborhood on wafer. Currently accepted design of the black border on EUV reticle is an image border where the absorber and multilayer stack are etched down to the substrate and EUV reflectance is reduced to <0.05%. DUV reflectance of such a black border is about 5%. It is shown that a tighter DUV reflectance specification <1.5% is required driven by the impact of DUV reflections from the black border on imaging. NXE:3300 and NXE:3100 experimental imaging results are shown. The need of low DUV wavelength reflectance metrology (in the range 100-300 nm) is demonstrated using an estimated NXE scanner out-of-band DUV spectrum. Promising results of low DUV reflectance of the black border are shown.

  8. Phase-change memory technology with self-aligned μTrench cell architecture for 90 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirovano, A.; Pellizzer, F.; Tortorelli, I.; Riganó, A.; Harrigan, R.; Magistretti, M.; Petruzza, P.; Varesi, E.; Redaelli, A.; Erbetta, D.; Marangon, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Fackenthal, R.; Atwood, G.; Bez, R.

    2008-09-01

    A novel self-aligned μTrench-based cell architecture for phase change memory (PCM) process is presented. The low programming current and the good dimensional control of the sub-lithographic features achieved with the μTrench structure are combined with a self-aligned patterning strategy that simplify the integration process in term of alignment tolerances and of number of critical masks. The proposed architecture has been integrated in a 90 nm 128 Mb vehicle based on a pnp bipolar junction transistor for the array selection. The good active and leakage currents achieved by the purposely optimized selecting transistors combined with programming currents of 300 μA of the storage element and good distributions measured on the 128 Mb array demonstrate the suitability of the proposed architecture for the production of high-density PCM arrays at 90 nm and beyond.

  9. Single-digit-resolution nanopatterning with extreme ultraviolet light for the 2.5 nm technology node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojarad, N.; Hojeij, M.; Wang, L.; Gobrecht, J.; Ekinci, Y.

    2015-02-01

    All nanofabrication methods come with an intrinsic resolution limit, set by their governing physical principles and instrumentation. In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm wavelength, this limit is set by light diffraction and is ~3.5 nm. In the semiconductor industry, the feasibility of reaching this limit is not only a key factor for the current developments in lithography technologies, but also is an important factor in deciding whether photon-based lithography will be used for future high-volume manufacturing. Using EUV-interference lithography we show patterning with 7 nm resolution in making dense periodic line-space structures with 14 nm periodicity. Achieving such a cutting-edge resolution has been possible by integrating a high-quality synchrotron beam, precise nanofabrication of masks, very stable exposures instrumentation, and utilizing effective photoresists. We have carried out exposure on silicon- and hafnium-based photoresists and we demonstrated the extraordinary capability of the latter resist to be used as a hard mask for pattern transfer into Si. Our results confirm the capability of EUV lithography in the reproducible fabrication of dense patterns with single-digit resolution. Moreover, it shows the capability of interference lithography, using transmission gratings, in evaluating the resolution limits of photoresists.All nanofabrication methods come with an intrinsic resolution limit, set by their governing physical principles and instrumentation. In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at 13.5 nm wavelength, this limit is set by light diffraction and is ~3.5 nm. In the semiconductor industry, the feasibility of reaching this limit is not only a key factor for the current developments in lithography technologies, but also is an important factor in deciding whether photon-based lithography will be used for future high-volume manufacturing. Using EUV-interference lithography we show patterning with 7 nm

  10. An integrated imaging system for the 45-nm technology node contact holes using polarized OAI, immersion, weak PSM, and negative resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, John S.; Maslow, Mark J.; Greenway, Robert T.

    2005-05-01

    Imaging contact holes has become a major technology barrier for optical lithography in the deep sub-wavelength era. Using hyper-numerical aperture, extreme off-axis illumination with TE-polarization, weak PSM and negative-acting resists 50nm contacts on a 90nm pitch can be produced with better than 0.3 micron depth-of-focus with 5% exposure latitude and maximum exposure latitude of greater than 15% at best focus. Large depth-of-focus across-pitch range solutions for 50nm contacts require the use of multiple exposures using unique sources but smaller focus budgets can be reduced to single exposure. This work defines possible integrated imaging systems that will allow imaging of deep sub-wavelength sized contact holes and then compares these to other solutions that have been proposed in the literature. Specifically, source design through normalized-image-log-slope, normalized-resist-image-log-slope and process window mapping, development of contact hole primitives using full mask transform correction (where the mask pattern shape, material and topography are taken into account) and resist requirements will be discussed for developing dense, mid-range and isolated pitch contact hole imaging solutions for the 45nm technology node.

  11. High-etching selectivity of spin-on-carbon hard mask process for 22nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwao, Fumiko; Shimura, Satoru; Kyouda, Hideharu; Oyama, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Shohei; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2012-03-01

    As part of the trend toward finer semiconductor design rules, the resist film thickness is getting thinner, and the etching technology that uses resist masking is getting more difficult. To solve such a problem in recent years, the film structure used in the resist process also is changing from the single-layer process (BARC and resist stacked film) to the multi-layer process (Carbon hard-mask, middle layer and resist stacked film) The carbon hard-mask of multi-layer process can be divided into two kinds, which are the CVD-carbon (CVD-C) that uses the chemical vapor deposition method and Spin-on-carbon (SOC) that uses the spin-coating method. CVD-C is very attractive for ensuring the high etching selection ratio, but still has major challenges in particle reduction, lower planarization of substrate and high process cost. On the other hand, SOC is very attractive for low cost process, high level of planarization of substrate and no particles. Against this background, we verify the development of the SOC that had the high etch selection ratio by improving etching condition, material and SOC cure condition. Moreover, we can fabricate below 30nm SiO2 patterning and the possibility of development with extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) was suggested. This paper reports on the results of a comprehensive process evaluation of a SOC based multi-layer technology using lithography clusters, etching tools.

  12. Impact of the spacer dielectric constant on parasitic RC and design guidelines to optimize DC/AC performance in 10-nm-node Si-nanowire FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Ye-Ram; Jeong, Eui-Young; Yoon, Jun-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Baek, Rock-Hyun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an optimized design for Si-nanowire FETs in terms of spacer dielectric constant (κsp), extension length (LEXT), nanowire diameter (Dnw), and operation voltage (VDD) for the sub-10 nm technology node. Using well-calibrated TCAD simulations and analytic RC models, we have quantitatively evaluated geometry-dependent parasitic series resistances (RSD) and capacitances (Cpara). Compared with low-κ spacers, high-κ spacers exhibit a higher on/off-current ratio with a lower RSD, but show severe degradation in their AC performance owing to a higher Cpara. Considering the trade-off between RSD and Cpara, optimal geometry-dependent κsp values at various supply voltages (VDD) are determined using gate delay (CV/I) and current-gain cutoff frequency (fT). We found that as LEXT and VDD decrease and Dnw increases, the optimal κsp value shifts from the high-κ to low-κ regime.

  13. Low leakage Ru-strontium titanate-Ru metal-insulator-metal capacitors for sub-20 nm technology node in dynamic random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, M.; Swerts, J.; Redolfi, A.; Kaczer, B.; Aoulaiche, M.; Radu, I.; Clima, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Jurczak, M.

    2014-02-01

    Improved metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIMCAP) stacks with strontium titanate (STO) as dielectric sandwiched between Ru as top and bottom electrode are shown. The Ru/STO/Ru stack demonstrates clearly its potential to reach sub-20 nm technology nodes for dynamic random access memory. Downscaling of the equivalent oxide thickness, leakage current density (Jg) of the MIMCAPs, and physical thickness of the STO have been realized by control of the Sr/Ti ratio and grain size using a heterogeneous TiO2/STO based nanolaminate stack deposition and a two-step crystallization anneal. Replacement of TiN with Ru as both top and bottom electrodes reduces the amount of electrically active defects and is essential to achieve a low leakage current in the MIM capacitor.

  14. Low leakage Ru-strontium titanate-Ru metal-insulator-metal capacitors for sub-20 nm technology node in dynamic random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Popovici, M. Swerts, J.; Redolfi, A.; Kaczer, B.; Aoulaiche, M.; Radu, I.; Clima, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Jurczak, M.

    2014-02-24

    Improved metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIMCAP) stacks with strontium titanate (STO) as dielectric sandwiched between Ru as top and bottom electrode are shown. The Ru/STO/Ru stack demonstrates clearly its potential to reach sub-20 nm technology nodes for dynamic random access memory. Downscaling of the equivalent oxide thickness, leakage current density (J{sub g}) of the MIMCAPs, and physical thickness of the STO have been realized by control of the Sr/Ti ratio and grain size using a heterogeneous TiO{sub 2}/STO based nanolaminate stack deposition and a two-step crystallization anneal. Replacement of TiN with Ru as both top and bottom electrodes reduces the amount of electrically active defects and is essential to achieve a low leakage current in the MIM capacitor.

  15. Advanced mask technique to improve bit line CD uniformity of 90 nm node flash memory in low-k1 lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-doo; Choi, Jae-young; Kim, Jea-hee; Han, Jae-won

    2008-10-01

    As devices size move toward 90nm technology node or below, defining uniform bit line CD of flash devices is one of the most challenging features to print in KrF lithography. There are two principal difficulties in defining bit line on wafer. One is insufficient process margin besides poor resolution compared with ArF lithography. The other is that asymmetric bit line should be made for OPC(Optical Proximity Correction) modeling. Therefore advanced ArF lithography scanner should be used for define bit line with RETs (Resolution Enhancement Techniques) such as immersion lithography, OPC, PSM(Phase Shift Mask), high NA(Numerical Aperture), OAI(Off-Axis Illumination), SRAF(Sub-resolution Assistant Feature), and mask biasing.. Like this, ArF lithography propose the method of enhancing resolution, however, we must spend an enormous amount of CoC(cost of ownership) to utilize ArF photolithography process than KrF. In this paper, we suggest method to improve of bit line CD uniformity, patterned by KrF lithographic process in 90nm sFlash(stand alone Flash) devices. We applied new scheme of mask manufacturing, which is able to realize 2 different types of mask, binary and phase-shift, into one plate. Finally, we could get the more uniform bit lines and we expect to get more stable properties then before applying this technique.

  16. Integration and automation of DoseMapper in a logic fab APC system: application for 45/40/28nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gratiet, Bertrand; Salagnon, Christophe; de Caunes, Jean; Mikolajczak, Marc; Morin, Vincent; Chojnowski, Nicolas; Sundermann, Frank; Massin, Jean; Pelletier, Alice; Metz, Joel; Blancquaert, Yoann; Bouyssou, Regis; Pelissier, Arthur; Belmont, Olivier; Strapazzon, Anne; Phillips, Anna; Devoivre, Thierry; Bernard, Emilie; Batail, Estelle; Thevenon, Lionel; Bry, Benedicte; Bernard-Granger, Fabrice; Oumina, Ahmed; Baron, Marie-Pierre; Gueze, Didier

    2012-03-01

    The main difficulty related to DoseMapper correction is to generate an appropriate CD datacollection to feed DoseMapper and to generate DoseRecipe in a user friendly way, especially with a complex process mix. We could heavily measure the silicon and create, in feedback mode, the corresponding DoseRecipe. However, such approach in a logic fab becomes a heavy duty due to the number of different masks / product / processes. We have observed that process CD variability is significantly depending on systematic intrawafer and intrafield CD footprints that can be measured and applied has generic pre-correction for any new product/mask process in-line. The applied CD correction is based on a CD (intrafield: Mask + Straylight & intrawafer: Etch Bias) variability "model" handled by the FAB APC (Advanced Process Control). - Individual CD profile correction component are generated "off-line" (1) for Intrafield Mask via automatic CD extraction from a Reticle CD database (2) for Intrafield Straylight via a CD "model" (3) for Intrawafer Etch Bias via engineering input based on process monitoring. - These CD files are handled via the FAB APC/automation system which is remotely taking control of DoseMapper server via WEB services, so that CD profiles are generated "off-line" (before the lot is being processed) and stored in a profile database while DoseRecipes are created "real-time" on demand via the automation when the lot comes to the scanner to be processed. DoseRecipe and CD correction profiles management is done via the APC system. The automated DoseRecipe creation is now running since the beginning of 2011 contributing to bring both intrafield and intrawafer GATE CDu below 1nm 3sigma, for 45/40 & 28nm nodes.

  17. Optimization of SiGe selective epitaxy for source/drain engineering in 22 nm node complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. L.; Moeen, M.; Abedin, A.; Kolahdouz, M.; Luo, J.; Qin, C. L.; Zhu, H. L.; Yan, J.; Yin, H. Z.; Li, J. F.; Zhao, C.; Radamson, H. H.

    2013-09-01

    SiGe has been widely used for source/drain (S/D) engineering in pMOSFETs to enhance channel mobility. In this study, selective Si1-xGex growth (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.35) with boron concentration of 1-3 × 1020 cm-3 in the process for 22 nm node complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) has been investigated and optimized. The growth parameters were carefully tuned to achieve deposition of high quality and highly strained material. The thermal budget was decreased to 800 °C to suppress dopant diffusion, to minimize Si loss in S/D recesses, and to preserve the S/D recess shape. Two layers of Si1-xGex were deposited: a bottom layer with high Ge content (x = 0.35) which filled the recess and a cap layer with low Ge content (x = 0.25) which was elevated in the S/D regions. The elevated SiGe cap layer was intended to be consumed during the Ni-silicidation process in order to avoid strain reduction in the channel region arising from strain relaxation in SiGe S/D. In this study, a kinetic gas model was also applied to predict the pattern dependency of the growth and to determine the epi-profile in different transistor arrays. The input parameters include growth temperature, partial pressures of reactant gases, and chip layout. By using this model, the number of test wafers for epitaxy experiments can be decreased significantly. When the epitaxy process parameters can be readily predicted by the model for epi-profile control in an advanced chip design, fast and cost-effective process development can be achieved.

  18. P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  19. W versus Co-Al as Gate Fill-Metal for Aggressively Scaled Replacement High-k/Metal Gate Devices for (Sub-)22 nm Technology Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, Anabela; Aik Chew, Soon; Schram, Tom; Dekkers, Harold; Van Ammel, Annemie; Witters, Thomas; Tielens, Hilde; Heylen, Nancy; Devriendt, Katia; Sebaai, Farid; Brus, Stephan; Ragnarsson, Lars-Åke; Pantisano, Luigi; Eneman, Geert; Carbonell, Laure; Richard, Olivier; Favia, Paola; Geypen, Jef; Bender, Hugo; Higuchi, Yuichi; Phatak, Anup; Thean, Aaron; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2013-04-01

    In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of a novel, low-resistance Co-Al alloy vs W to fill aggressively scaled gates with high aspect-ratios [gate height (Hgate) ˜50-60 nm, gate length (Lgate) ≥20-25 nm]. We demonstrate that, with careful liner/barrier materials selection and tuning, well-behaved devices are obtained, showing: tight gate resistance (Rgate) distributions down to Lgate˜20 nm, low threshold voltage (VT) values, comparable DC and bias temperature instability (BTI) behavior, and improved RF response. The impact of fill-metals intrinsic stress, including the presence of occasional voids in narrow W-gates, on devices fabrication and performance is also explored.

  20. Impact of pattern dependency of SiGe layers grown selectively in source/drain on the performance of 22 nm node pMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guilei; Moeen, M.; Abedin, A.; Xu, Yefeng; Luo, Jun; Guo, Yiluan; Qin, Changliang; Tang, Zhaoyun; Yin, Haizhou; Li, Junfeng; Yan, Jiang; Zhu, Huilong; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Dapeng; Ye, Tianchun; Kolahdouz, M.; Radamson, Henry H.

    2015-12-01

    Pattern dependency of selective epitaxy of Si1-xGex (0.20 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.45) grown in recessed source/drain regions of 22 nm pMOSFETs has been studied. A complete substrate mapping over 200 mm wafers was performed and the transistors' characteristics were measured. The designed SiGe profile included a layer with Ge content of 40% at the bottom of recess (40 nm) and capped with 20% Ge as a sacrificial layer (20 nm) for silicide formation. The induced strain in the channel was simulated before and after silicidation. The variation of strain was localized and its effect on the transistors' performance was determined. The chips had a variety of SiGe profile depending on their distance (closest, intermediate and central) from the edge of the 200 mm wafer. SiGe layers with poor epi-quality were observed when the coverage of exposed Si of the chip was below 1%. This causes high Ge contents with layer thicknesses above the critical thickness.

  1. Optimization of self-aligned double patterning (SADP)-compliant layout designs using pattern matching for 10nm technology nodes and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lynn T.; Schroeder, Uwe Paul; Woo, Youngtag; Zeng, Jia; Madhavan, Sriram; Capodieci, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    A pattern-based methodology for optimizing Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP)-compliant layout designs is developed based on detecting cut-induced hotspot patterns and replacing them with pre-characterized fixing solutions. A pattern library with predetermined fixing solutions is built. A pattern-based engine searches for matching patterns in the layout designs. When a match is found, the engine opportunistically replaces the detected pattern with a pre-characterized fixing solution, preserving only the design rule check-clean replacements. The methodology is demonstrated on a 10nm routed block. A small library of fourteen patterns reduced the number of cut-induced design rule check violations by 100% and lithography hotspots by 23%.

  2. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The lymphatic system is a complex network of thin vessels, valves, ducts, nodes, and organs. It helps to protect and maintain the fluid ... The most common cause of swollen lymph nodes is infection, which might occur even if the infection ...

  3. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  4. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  5. Modulation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 Receptors by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatko, Anatoly; Foletti, Davide; Poulsen, Kris; Strop, Pavel; Zhu, Guoyun; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Melton Witt, Jody; Loo, Carole; Krimm, Stellanie; Pios, Ariel; Yu, Jessica; Brown, Colleen; Lee, John K; Stroud, Robert; Rajpal, Arvind; Shelton, David

    2016-06-01

    Purinergic homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels activated by ATP. Both receptors are predominantly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and an increase in extracellular ATP concentration under pathological conditions, such as tissue damage or visceral distension, induces channel opening, membrane depolarization, and initiation of pain signaling. Hence, these receptors are considered important therapeutic targets for pain management, and development of selective antagonists is currently progressing. To advance the search for novel analgesics, we have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against human P2X3 (hP2X3). We have found that these antibodies produce distinct functional effects, depending on the homomeric or heteromeric composition of the target, its kinetic state, and the duration of antibody exposure. The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nm on hP2X3 after short term exposure (up to 18 min), binding to the inactivated state of the channel to inhibit activity. By contrast, with the same short term application, 12D4 potentiated the slow inactivating current mediated by the heteromeric hP2X2/3 channel. Extending the duration of exposure to ∼20 h resulted in a profound inhibition of both homomeric hP2X3 and heteromeric hP2X2/3 receptors, an effect mediated by efficient antibody-induced internalization of the channel from the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of mAb12D4 was assessed in the formalin, complete Freund's adjuvant, and visceral pain models. The efficacy of 12D4 in the visceral hypersensitivity model indicates that antibodies against P2X3 may have therapeutic potential in visceral pain indications. PMID:27129281

  6. Printability study of pattern defects in the EUV mask as a function of hp nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Geun; Seo, Hwan-Seok; Kang, In-Yong; Jeong, Chang Young; Huh, Sungmin; Na, Jihoon; Kim, Seong-Sue; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2012-03-01

    Amplitude defects (or absorber defects), which are located in absorber patterns or multilayer surface, can be repaired during mask process while phase defects (or multilayer defects) cannot. Hence, inspection and handling of both defects should be separately progressed. Defect printability study of pattern defects is very essential since it provides criteria for mask inspection and repair. Printed defects on the wafer kill cells and reduce the device yield in wafer processing, and thus all the printable defects have to be inspected and repaired during the mask fabrication. In this study, pattern defect printability of the EUV mask as a function of hp nodes is verified by EUV exposure experiments. For 3x nm hp nodes, defect printability is evaluated by NXE3100. For 2x nm hp node, since resolution of a current EUV scanner is not enough, SEMATECH-Berkeley actinic inspection tool (AIT) as well as micro-field exposure tool (MET) in LBNL are utilized to verify it,. Furthermore those printability results are compared with EUV simulations. As a result, we define size of defects to be controlled in each device node.

  7. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  8. Toward 7nm target on product overlay for C028 FDSOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatefait, Maxime; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Goirand, Pierre Jerome; Lam, Auguste; Van Haren, Richard; Pastol, Anne; Doytcheva, Maya; Liu, Xing Lan; Beltman, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The continuous need for lithography overlay performance improvement is a key point for advanced integrated circuit manufacturing. Overlay control is more and more challenging in the 2x nm process nodes regarding functionality margin of the chip and tool capability. Transistor architecture rules which are set, confirm poly to contact space as the most critical one for 28nm technology node. Critical Dimension variability of these layers, even with best in class process stability, in addition to design constraint lead to on product overlay specifications of around 7nm. In order to ensure that the target is met in production environment and to identify potential ways for improvement, identification of the contributors to overlay errors is essential. We have introduced a novel budget breakdown methodology using both bottom-up and top-down overlay data. For the bottom up part, we have performed extensive testing with very high sampling scheme so as to quantify the main effects. In-line overlay metrology data has been used for top down approach to verify the overall performance in production. In this paper we focused on the 28nm contact to gate overlay in a FDSOI process. The initial inconsistency between bottom up and top down results led us to further exploration of the root cause of these inconsistencies. We have been able to highlight key figures to focus on, like reticle heating, wafer table contamination and etch processing effects. Finally, we conclude on 7nm overlay target achievement feasibility in high volume manufacturing environment.

  9. J-2X Engine Tested at Stennis

    NASA Video Gallery

    Another key component of NASA's new Space Launch System, the J-2X rocket engine, is put to a 500-second firing test at NASA's Stennis Space Center on Nov. 9 The J-2X rocket engine will help carry t...

  10. P2X Receptors as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The study of P2X receptors has long been handicapped by a poverty of small-molecule tools that serve as selective agonists and antagonists. There has been progress, particularly in the past 10 years, as cell-based high-throughput screening methods were applied, together with large chemical libraries. This has delivered some drug-like molecules in several chemical classes that selectively target P2X1, P2X3, or P2X7 receptors. Some of these are, or have been, in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis, pain, and cough. Current preclinical research programs are studying P2X receptor involvement in pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and bladder dysfunction. The determination of the atomic structure of P2X receptors in closed and open (ATP-bound) states by X-ray crystallography is now allowing new approaches by molecular modeling. This is supported by a large body of previous work using mutagenesis and functional expression, and is now being supplemented by molecular dynamic simulations and in silico ligand docking. These approaches should lead to P2X receptors soon taking their place alongside other ion channel proteins as therapeutically important drug targets. PMID:23253448

  11. NASA Continues J-2X Powerpack Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted a long duration test of the J-2X powerpack, 340 seconds total, at the Stennis Space Center in southern Mississippi on May 10, marking another step in SLS development, the next-genera...

  12. J-2X: Back in the Saddle

    NASA Video Gallery

    A J-2X power pack assembly burns brightly during a hot fire test Nov. 27 at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. Engineers pulled the assembly from the test stand in September to install add...

  13. J-2X Turbopump Cavitation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, I. Michael; Butas, John P.; Tyler, Thomas R., Jr.; Aguilar, Robert; Sowers, T. Shane

    2010-01-01

    The J-2X is the upper stage engine currently being designed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Propellant supply requirements for the J-2X are defined by the Ares Upper Stage to J-2X Interface Control Document (ICD). Supply conditions outside ICD defined start or run boxes can induce turbopump cavitation leading to interruption of J-2X propellant flow during hot fire operation. In severe cases, cavitation can lead to uncontained engine failure with the potential to cause a vehicle catastrophic event. Turbopump and engine system performance models supported by system design information and test data are required to predict existence, severity, and consequences of a cavitation event. A cavitation model for each of the J-2X fuel and oxidizer turbopumps was developed using data from pump water flow test facilities at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) together with data from Powerpack 1A testing at Stennis Space Center (SSC) and from heritage systems. These component models were implemented within the PWR J-2X Real Time Model (RTM) to provide a foundation for predicting system level effects following turbopump cavitation. The RTM serves as a general failure simulation platform supporting estimation of J-2X redline system effectiveness. A study to compare cavitation induced conditions with component level structural limit thresholds throughout the engine was performed using the RTM. Results provided insight into system level turbopump cavitation effects and redline system effectiveness in preventing structural limit violations. A need to better understand structural limits and redline system failure mitigation potential in the event of fuel side cavitation was indicated. This paper examines study results, efforts to mature J-2X turbopump cavitation models and structural limits, and issues with engine redline detection of cavitation and the use of vehicle-side abort triggers to augment the

  14. The relationship between P2X4 and P2X7: a physiologically important interaction?

    PubMed

    Craigie, Eilidh; Birch, Rebecca E; Unwin, Robert J; Wildman, Scott S

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic signaling within the kidney is becoming an important focus in the study of renal health and disease. The effectors of ATP signaling, the P2Y and P2X receptors, are expressed to varying extents in and along the nephron. There are many studies demonstrating the importance of the P2Y2 receptor on kidney function, and other P2 receptors are now emerging as participants in renal regulation. The P2X4 receptor has been linked to epithelial sodium transport in the nephron and expression levels of the P2X7 receptor are up-regulated in certain pathophysiological states. P2X7 antagonism has been shown to ameliorate rodent models of DOCA salt-induced hypertension and P2X4 null mice are hypertensive. Interestingly, polymorphisms in the genetic loci of P2X4 and P2X7 have been linked to blood pressure variation in human studies. In addition to the increasing evidence linking these two P2X receptors to renal function and health, a number of studies link the two receptors in terms of physical associations between their subunits, demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. This review will analyze the current literature regarding interactions between P2X4 and P2X7 and assess the potential impact of these with respect to renal function. PMID:23966951

  15. Lymphocytes from P2X7-deficient mice exhibit enhanced P2X7 responses

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Simon R. J.; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Sojka, Dorothy K.; Richardson, Jill C.; Sheardown, Steven A.; Harrison, Stephen M.; Pusey, Charles D.; Tam, Frederick W. K.; Elliott, James I.

    2009-01-01

    The purinergic receptor P2X7 is expressed on immune cells, and its stimulation results in the release of IL-1β from macrophages. Its absence, as evidenced from the analysis of two independent strains of P2X7-deficient mice, results in reduced susceptibility to inflammatory disease, and the molecule is an important, potential therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, P2X7 has also been detected in several neuronal cell types, although its function and even its presence in these cells are highly contested, with anti-P2X7 antibodies staining brain tissue from both strains of P2X7−/− mice identically to wild-type mice. It has therefore been suggested that neurons express a distinct “P2X7-like” protein that has similar antibody recognition epitopes to P2X7 and some properties of the genuine receptor. In this study, we show that whereas P2X7 activity is absent from macrophages and dendritic cells in P2X7−/− animals, T cells from one gene-deficient strain unexpectedly exhibit higher levels of P2X7 activity than that found in cells from control, unmanipulated C57BL/6 mice. A potential mechanism for this tissue-specific P2X7 expression in P2X7−/− animals is discussed, as is the implication that the immune and indeed neuronal functions of P2X7 may have been underestimated. PMID:19276178

  16. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  17. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  18. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  19. J-2X Abort System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, Louis M.; Butas, John P.; Aguilar, Robert B.; Sowers, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X is an expendable liquid hydrogen (LH2)/liquid oxygen (LOX) gas generator cycle rocket engine that is currently being designed as the primary upper stage propulsion element for the new NASA Ares vehicle family. The J-2X engine will contain abort logic that functions as an integral component of the Ares vehicle abort system. This system is responsible for detecting and responding to conditions indicative of impending Loss of Mission (LOM), Loss of Vehicle (LOV), and/or catastrophic Loss of Crew (LOC) failure events. As an earth orbit ascent phase engine, the J-2X is a high power density propulsion element with non-negligible risk of fast propagation rate failures that can quickly lead to LOM, LOV, and/or LOC events. Aggressive reliability requirements for manned Ares missions and the risk of fast propagating J-2X failures dictate the need for on-engine abort condition monitoring and autonomous response capability as well as traditional abort agents such as the vehicle computer, flight crew, and ground control not located on the engine. This paper describes the baseline J-2X abort subsystem concept of operations, as well as the development process for this subsystem. A strategy that leverages heritage system experience and responds to an evolving engine design as well as J-2X specific test data to support abort system development is described. The utilization of performance and failure simulation models to support abort system sensor selection, failure detectability and discrimination studies, decision threshold definition, and abort system performance verification and validation is outlined. The basis for abort false positive and false negative performance constraints is described. Development challenges associated with information shortfalls in the design cycle, abort condition coverage and response assessment, engine-vehicle interface definition, and abort system performance verification and validation are also discussed.

  20. Scalable Node Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Drotar, Alexander P.; Quinn, Erin E.; Sutherland, Landon D.

    2012-07-30

    Project description is: (1) Build a high performance computer; and (2) Create a tool to monitor node applications in Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) using code from Lightweight Data Metric Service (LDMS). The importance of this project is that: (1) there is a need a scalable, parallel tool to monitor nodes on clusters; and (2) New LDMS plugins need to be able to be easily added to tool. CBTF stands for Component Based Tool Framework. It's scalable and adjusts to different topologies automatically. It uses MRNet (Multicast/Reduction Network) mechanism for information transport. CBTF is flexible and general enough to be used for any tool that needs to do a task on many nodes. Its components are reusable and 'EASILY' added to a new tool. There are three levels of CBTF: (1) frontend node - interacts with users; (2) filter nodes - filters or concatenates information from backend nodes; and (3) backend nodes - where the actual work of the tool is done. LDMS stands for lightweight data metric servies. It's a tool used for monitoring nodes. Ltool is the name of the tool we derived from LDMS. It's dynamically linked and includes the following components: Vmstat, Meminfo, Procinterrupts and more. It works by: Ltool command is run on the frontend node; Ltool collects information from the backend nodes; backend nodes send information to the filter nodes; and filter nodes concatenate information and send to a database on the front end node. Ltool is a useful tool when it comes to monitoring nodes on a cluster because the overhead involved with running the tool is not particularly high and it will automatically scale to any size cluster.

  1. J-2X Powerpack Completes Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    The J-2X powerpack assembly was fired up one last time on Dec. 13 at NASA’s Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, finishing a year of testing on an important component of America’s next heavy-li...

  2. Final J-2X Test of 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted its final J-2X rocket engine test of the year Dec. 14, the 10th firing in a series of tests on the new upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than ever before. ...

  3. Heteromeric assembly of P2X subunits

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Anika; Hausmann, Ralf; Kless, Achim; Nicke, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts and/or proteins of P2X receptor (P2XR) subunits have been found in virtually all mammalian tissues. Generally more than one of the seven known P2X subunits have been identified in a given cell type. Six of the seven cloned P2X subunits can efficiently form functional homotrimeric ion channels in recombinant expression systems. This is in contrast to other ligand-gated ion channel families, such as the Cys-loop or glutamate receptors, where homomeric assemblies seem to represent the exception rather than the rule. P2XR mediated responses recorded from native tissues rarely match exactly the biophysical and pharmacological properties of heterologously expressed homomeric P2XRs. Heterotrimerization of P2X subunits is likely to account for this observed diversity. While the existence of heterotrimeric P2X2/3Rs and their role in physiological processes is well established, the composition of most other P2XR heteromers and/or the interplay between distinct trimeric receptor complexes in native tissues is not clear. After a description of P2XR assembly and the structure of the intersubunit ATP-binding site, this review summarizes the distribution of P2XR subunits in selected mammalian cell types and the biochemically and/or functionally characterized heteromeric P2XRs that have been observed upon heterologous co-expression of P2XR subunits. We further provide examples where the postulated heteromeric P2XRs have been suggested to occur in native tissues and an overview of the currently available pharmacological tools that have been used to discriminate between homo- and heteromeric P2XRs. PMID:24391538

  4. Infrared Absorption Study of Ca2- xNaxCuO2X2 (X=Cl, Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takumi; Ogita, Norio; Kondo, Toshihisa; Zenitani, Yuji; Kawashima, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Teruhiko; Akimitsu, Jun; Udagawa, Masayuki

    2006-09-01

    IR-active phonon spectra of Ca2- xNaxCuO2X2 (X=Cl, Br) have been measured by a CsI powder method in the energy region between 250 and 4000 cm-1 at room temperature. Two absorption peaks with the Eu symmetry have been clearly observed for the undoped crystals of Ca2CuO2Cl2 and Ca2CuO2Br2. However, the observed two peaks disappear for the Na-doped superconducting samples. From the comparison of the highest-energy Eu phonon, which is the Cu-O stretching vibration, the interaction of the Cu-O bond along the CuO2 plane for the T-structure is stronger by 20 % than that of the T'-structure in the 2-1-4 family. To understand the effect of the apical ions, first-principles calculations of the Eu phonon energy for T- and T'-structure La2CuO4 is performed and the preliminary results agree with the experimental tendency.

  5. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  6. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  7. Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Youngil; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and we illustrate the significance of networking information such as distance, reference color (symbol), and multiplexing-diversity mode transitions. In addition, in the V2X scenario of multiple access, we may achieve the simultaneous multiple access communication without node interferences by dividing the communication area using image processing. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the superior SER performance of the visual-MIMO scheme compared with LED-PD communication and show the numerical result of the GCM based visual-MIMO channel capacity versus distance. PMID:27120603

  8. Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Youngil; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and we illustrate the significance of networking information such as distance, reference color (symbol), and multiplexing-diversity mode transitions. In addition, in the V2X scenario of multiple access, we may achieve the simultaneous multiple access communication without node interferences by dividing the communication area using image processing. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the superior SER performance of the visual-MIMO scheme compared with LED-PD communication and show the numerical result of the GCM based visual-MIMO channel capacity versus distance. PMID:27120603

  9. Development of spin-on-carbon hard mask for advanced node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Takanori; Rahman, M. Dalil; McKenzie, Douglas; Anyadiegwu, Clement; Doerrenbaecher, Sandra; Zahn, Wolfgang; Padmanaban, Munirathna

    2014-03-01

    Spin-on-carbon (SOC) hard mask is useful for multilayer lithography process because of its high etch resistance, low cost of ownership, low defectivity, high alignment accuracy, good gap filling and planarization for topography. SOC is a high carbon containing polymer solution and as a coating material, the polymers need to be soluble in organic solvent and insoluble after curing for coating upper layer materials. High carbon content (>80%) of SOC is very important for good etch resistance. As the semiconductor industry is moving to 2X nm node and beyond, further improvement of SOC properties mentioned above is required to achieve higher resolution. We synthesized a series of novel monomers and high carbon polymers applicable for SOC applications of advanced nodes. The optimized SOC was a PGMEA based formulation, had high carbon content 90%, excellent filling/leveling properties, and adequate etching properties applicable to trilayer process. The SOC successfully transferred patterns from resist into substrate and the SOC patterns did not show deformation or wiggling down to CD 40nm. This paper describes some of the SOC polymer chemistry and the performance of an optimized SOC formulation.

  10. Development Status of the J-2X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kynard, Mike; Vilja, John

    2008-01-01

    In June 2006, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne began development of an engine for use on the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The development program will be completed in December 2012 at the end of a Design Certification Review and after certification testing of two flight configuration engines. A team of over 600 people within NASA and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne are currently working to prepare for the fall 2008 Critical Design Review (CDR), along with supporting an extensive risk mitigation test program. The J-2X will power the Ares I upper stage and the Ares V earth departure stage (EDS). The initial use will be in the Ares I, used to launch the Orion crew exploration vehicle. In this application, it will power the upper stage after being sent aloft on a Space Shuttle-derived. 5-segment solid rocket booster first stage. In this mission. the engine will ignite at altitude and provide the necessary acceleration force to allow the Orion to achieve orbital velocity. The Ares I upper stage, along with the J-2X. will then be expended. On the Ares V. first stage propulsion is provided by five RS-68B engines and two 5-segment boosters similar to the Ares I configuration. In the Ares V mission. the J-2X is first started to power the EDS and its payload. the Altair lunar lander. into earth orbit, then shut-down and get prepared for its next start. The EDS/Altair will remain in a parking orbit, awaiting rendezvous and docking with Orion. Once the two spacecraft are mated, the J-2X will be restarted to achieve earth departure velocity. After powering the Orion and Altair, the EDS will be expended. By using the J-2X Engine in both applications, a significant infrastructure cost savings is realized. Only one engine development is required, and the sustaining engineering and flight support infrastructures can be combined. There is also flexibility for changing, the production and flight manifest because

  11. Entanglement monogamy inequality in a 2 x 2 x 4 system

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Xijun; Jiang Wei

    2010-02-15

    In this report, we show explicitly that the tangles of an arbitrary pure state in a 2 x 2 x 4 system satisfy the monogamy relation. This relation is also generalized to mixed states. As the tangle is always larger than the square of the concurrence, our result implies that the monogamy relation holds for concurrence too. It also supports the idea that the tangle could qualify as an elementary bipartite entanglement measure.

  12. P2X6 Knockout Mice Exhibit Normal Electrolyte Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Viering, Daan H. H. M.; Bos, Caro; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.

    2016-01-01

    ATP-mediated signaling is an important regulator of electrolyte transport in the kidney. The purinergic cation channel P2X6 has been previously localized to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a nephron segment important for Mg2+ and Na+ reabsorption, but its role in ion transport remains unknown. In this study, P2x6 knockout (P2x6-/-) mice were generated to investigate the role of P2X6 in renal electrolyte transport. The P2x6-/- animals displayed a normal phenotype and did not differ physiologically from wild type mice. Differences in serum concentration and 24-hrs urine excretion of Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were not detected between P2x6+/+, P2x6+/- and P2x6-/- mice. Quantitative PCR was applied to examine potential compensatory changes in renal expression levels of other P2x subunits and electrolyte transporters, including P2x1-5, P2x7, Trpm6, Ncc, Egf, Cldn16, Scnn1, Slc12a3, Slc41a1, Slc41a3, Cnnm2, Kcnj10 and Fxyd2. Additionally, protein levels of P2X2 and P2X4 were assessed in P2x6+/+ and P2x6-/- mouse kidneys. However, significant changes in expression were not detected. Furthermore, no compensatory changes in gene expression could be demonstrated in heart material isolated from P2x6-/- mice. Except for a significant (P<0.05) upregulation of P2x2 in the heart of P2x6-/- mice compared to the P2x6+/+ mice. Thus, our data suggests that purinergic signaling via P2X6 is not significantly involved in the regulation of renal electrolyte handling under normal physiological conditions. PMID:27254077

  13. Calcium permeability and block at homomeric and heteromeric P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, and P2X receptors in rat nodose neurones

    PubMed Central

    Virginio, Caterina; North, R A; Surprenant, Annmarie

    1998-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were made from HEK 293 (human embryonic kidney) cells stably transfected with cDNAs encoding P2X2, P2X3 or both receptors (P2X2/3) and from cultured rat nodose neurones. Nodose neurones all showed immunoreactivity for both P2X2 and P2X3, but not P2X1, receptors. Reversal potentials were measured in extracellular sodium, N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) and NMDG containing 5 mM Ca2+; the values were used to compute relative permeabilities (PNMDG/PNa and PCa/PNa). PNMDG/PNa was not different for P2X2, P2X2/3 and nodose neurones (0.03) but was significantly higher (0.07) for P2X3 receptors. PCa/PNa was not different among P2X3, P2X2/3 and nodose neurones (1.2-1.5) but was significantly higher (2.5) for P2X2 receptors. External Ca2+ inhibited purinoceptor currents with half-maximal concentrations of 5 mM at the P2X2 receptor, 89 mM at the P2X3 receptor and 15 mM at both the P2X2/3 heteromeric receptor and nodose neurones. In each case, the inhibition was voltage independent and was overcome by increasing concentrations of agonist. These results may indicate that Ca2+ permeability of the heteromeric (P2X2/3) channel is dominated by that of the P2X3 subunit, while Ca2+ block of the receptor involves both P2X2 and P2X3 subunits. The correspondence in properties between P2X2/3 receptors and nodose ganglion neurones further supports the conclusion that the native α,β-methylene ATP-sensitive receptor is a P2X2/3 heteromultimer. PMID:9625864

  14. Silencing P2X7 receptor downregulates the expression of TCP-1 involved in lymphoma lymphatic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ziyi; Zeng, Jia; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yang; Kong, Ying; Ren, Shuangyi; Zuo, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    P2X7R is an ATP-gated cation channel that participates in cell proliferation and apoptosis. TCP-1 assists with the protein folding. According to our previous research, the P2X7R has a potential role in P388D1 lymphoid neoplasm cells dissemination to peripheral lymph nodes. In order to make a further exploration about the probable mechanism, the lymph nodes which metastasized by P2X7R-silenced P388D1 cells or non-silenced cells were analyzed by 2DE and a MALDI-TOF-based proteomics approach. In the 64 proteins which were differentially expressed between two groups, TCP-1 was found to be significantly decreased in P2X7R shRNA group compared to controls. This correlation was also found in subsequent experiments in vivo and in vitro. The positive correlation between P2X7R and TCP-1 was also proved in both lymphoma and benign lymphadenopathy tissues from patients. It indicates that TCP-1 may be a crucial downstream molecular of P2X7R and plays a novel role in lymphoid neoplasm metastasis. PMID:26556873

  15. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  16. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  17. Oxygen diffusion in UO2+x and (U,Pu)O2+-x

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders D.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2012-05-03

    In the first part of this report we revisit an earlier study of oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2+x}, in which we used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to parameterize a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model. The results from these earlier kMC simulations are reproduced in Fig. 1 and they indicate fairly good agreement with available experiments. This work was later expanded to include a larger temperature range. However, since the publication of this study there have been a number of advancements in DFT methodology for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2+x} providing increased accuracy. We have also gained better understanding of the oxygen clustering phenomena occurring in UO{sub 2+x}. For these two reasons, the DFT calculations of the migration barriers of single oxygen interstitials and di-interstitial clusters have been repeated using the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The earlier study used regular GGA and, even though this method captures similar trends as the more advanced LDA+U and GGA+U techniques, it does not fulfill the quantitative requirements set by some applications. Additionally, we have identified a mechanism for the most stable quad-interstitial clusters to migrate and here we calculate the corresponding barriers within both the LDA+U and GGA+U methodologies. The new LDA+U and GGA+U data sets are analyzed in terms of available experiments. In the second part of this report we present initial results for the impact of Pu on oxygen diffusion in UO{sub 2}. The first step in understanding this process is to calculate the binding energies of oxygen vacancies and interstitials to a Pu ion in the UO{sub 2} matrix. Possible diffusion mechanisms are discussed for (U,Pu)O{sub 2-x}, (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,Pu)O{sub 2+x}.

  18. Potent Suppressive Effects of 1-Piperidinylimidazole Based Novel P2X7 Receptor Antagonists on Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Hee; Williams, Darren R; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Lee, So-Deok; Lee, Je-Heon; Ko, Hyojin; Lee, Ga-Eun; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Jeong-Min; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; Müller, Christa E; Jung, Da-Woon; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2016-08-25

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has been reported as a key mediator in inflammatory processes and cancer invasion/metastasis. In this study, we report the discovery of novel P2X7R antagonists and their functional activities as potential antimetastatic agents. Modifications of the hydantoin core-skeleton and the side chain substituents of the P2X7R antagonist 7 were performed. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) and optimization demonstrated the importance of the sulfonyl group at the R1 position and the substituted position and overall size of R2 for P2X7R antagonism. The optimized novel analogues displayed potent P2X7 receptor antagonism (IC50 = 0.11-112 nM) along with significant suppressive effects on IL-1β release (IC50 = 0.32-210 nM). Moreover, representative antagonists (12g, 13k, and 17d) with imidazole and uracil core skeletons significantly inhibited the invasion of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells and cancer cell migration in a zebrafish xenograft model, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of these novel P2X7 antagonists to block metastatic cancer. PMID:27427902

  19. Intrathymic lymph nodes in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, A; Ushiyama, I; Kikui, Y; Yamamoto, H

    2001-04-01

    An unusual lymph node exists in the centre of the human thymus. This lymph node, which we call an intrathymic lymph node (ITLN), possesses some interesting morphological characteristics. In ontogeny, this node seems to appear at the latter half of fetal period. The function of the ITLN is still unknown, but it is assumed that it may play a different role in the immune system than other peripheral lymph nodes by its characteristics. PMID:11327211

  20. Intrathymic lymph nodes in humans

    PubMed Central

    TANEGASHIMA, A.; USHIYAMA, I.; KIKUI, Y.; YAMAMOTO, H.

    2001-01-01

    An unusual lymph node exists in the centre of the human thymus. This lymph node, which we call an intrathymic lymph node (ITLN), possesses some interesting morphological characteristics. In ontogeny, this node seems to appear at the latter half of fetal period. The function of the ITLN is still unknown, but it is assumed that it may play a different role in the immune system than other peripheral lymph nodes by its characteristics. PMID:11327211

  1. Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Cho-Rong; Park, Chul-Seung; Chang, Sunghoe; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2011-04-15

    The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5 in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  2. Ultrasmall Cu2-x S Nanodots for Highly Efficient Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mou, Juan; Li, Pei; Liu, Chengbo; Xu, Huixiong; Song, Liang; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Chen, Hangrong

    2015-05-20

    Monodisperse, ultrasmall (<5 nm) Cu(2-x)S nanodots (u-Cu(2-x)S NDs) with significantly strong near-infrared absorption and conversion are successfully demonstrated for effective deep-tissue photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Owing to ultrasmall nanoparticle size and high water dispersibility as well as long stability, such nanodots possess a prolonged circulation in blood and good passive accumulation within tumors through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. These u-Cu(2-x)S NDs have negligible side effects to both blood and normal tissues according to in vivo toxicity evaluations for up to 3 months, showing excellent hemo/histocompatibility. Furthermore, these u-Cu(2-x)S NDs can be thoroughly cleared through feces and urine within 5 days, showing high biosafety for further potential clinical translation. This novel photoacoustic imaging-guided photothermal therapy based on u-Cu(2-x)S NDs composed of a single component shows great prospects as a multifunctional nanoplatform with integration and multifunction for cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25641784

  3. Imaging P2X4 receptor subcellular distribution, trafficking, and regulation using P2X4-pHluorin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Chai, Hua; Ehinger, Konstantin; Egan, Terrance M; Srinivasan, Rahul; Frick, Manfred; Khakh, Baljit S

    2014-07-01

    P2X4 receptors are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channels present on the plasma membrane (PM) and also within intracellular compartments such as vesicles, vacuoles, lamellar bodies (LBs), and lysosomes. P2X4 receptors in microglia are up-regulated in epilepsy and in neuropathic pain; that is to say, their total and/or PM expression levels increase. However, the mechanisms underlying up-regulation of microglial P2X4 receptors remain unclear, in part because it has not been possible to image P2X4 receptor distribution within, or trafficking between, cellular compartments. Here, we report the generation of pH-sensitive fluorescently tagged P2X4 receptors that permit evaluations of cell surface and total receptor pools. Capitalizing on information gained from zebrafish P2X4.1 crystal structures, we designed a series of mouse P2X4 constructs in which a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein, superecliptic pHluorin (pHluorin), was inserted into nonconserved regions located within flexible loops of the P2X4 receptor extracellular domain. One of these constructs, in which pHluorin was inserted after lysine 122 (P2X4-pHluorin123), functioned like wild-type P2X4 in terms of its peak ATP-evoked responses, macroscopic kinetics, calcium flux, current-voltage relationship, and sensitivity to ATP. P2X4-pHluorin123 also showed pH-dependent fluorescence changes, and was robustly expressed on the membrane and within intracellular compartments. P2X4-pHluorin123 identified cell surface and intracellular fractions of receptors in HEK-293 cells, hippocampal neurons, C8-B4 microglia, and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Furthermore, it showed that the subcellular fractions of P2X4-pHluorin123 receptors were cell and compartment specific, for example, being larger in hippocampal neuron somata than in C8-B4 cell somata, and larger in C8-B4 microglial processes than in their somata. In ATII cells, P2X4-pHluorin123 showed that P2X4 receptors were secreted onto the PM when LBs

  4. Imaging P2X4 receptor subcellular distribution, trafficking, and regulation using P2X4-pHluorin

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ji; Chai, Hua; Ehinger, Konstantin; Egan, Terrance M.; Srinivasan, Rahul; Frick, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    P2X4 receptors are adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channels present on the plasma membrane (PM) and also within intracellular compartments such as vesicles, vacuoles, lamellar bodies (LBs), and lysosomes. P2X4 receptors in microglia are up-regulated in epilepsy and in neuropathic pain; that is to say, their total and/or PM expression levels increase. However, the mechanisms underlying up-regulation of microglial P2X4 receptors remain unclear, in part because it has not been possible to image P2X4 receptor distribution within, or trafficking between, cellular compartments. Here, we report the generation of pH-sensitive fluorescently tagged P2X4 receptors that permit evaluations of cell surface and total receptor pools. Capitalizing on information gained from zebrafish P2X4.1 crystal structures, we designed a series of mouse P2X4 constructs in which a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein, superecliptic pHluorin (pHluorin), was inserted into nonconserved regions located within flexible loops of the P2X4 receptor extracellular domain. One of these constructs, in which pHluorin was inserted after lysine 122 (P2X4-pHluorin123), functioned like wild-type P2X4 in terms of its peak ATP-evoked responses, macroscopic kinetics, calcium flux, current–voltage relationship, and sensitivity to ATP. P2X4-pHluorin123 also showed pH-dependent fluorescence changes, and was robustly expressed on the membrane and within intracellular compartments. P2X4-pHluorin123 identified cell surface and intracellular fractions of receptors in HEK-293 cells, hippocampal neurons, C8-B4 microglia, and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Furthermore, it showed that the subcellular fractions of P2X4-pHluorin123 receptors were cell and compartment specific, for example, being larger in hippocampal neuron somata than in C8-B4 cell somata, and larger in C8-B4 microglial processes than in their somata. In ATII cells, P2X4-pHluorin123 showed that P2X4 receptors were secreted onto the PM when LBs

  5. A novel radioligand for the ATP-gated ion channel P2X7: [3H] JNJ-54232334.

    PubMed

    Lord, Brian; Ameriks, Michael K; Wang, Qi; Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Vliegen, Maarten; Verluyten, Willy; Haspeslagh, Pieter; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Letavic, Michael A; Bhattacharya, Anindya

    2015-10-15

    The ATP-gated ion channel P2X7 has emerged as a potential central nervous system (CNS) drug target based on the hypotheses that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β that are released by microglia, may contribute to the etiology of various disorders of the CNS including depression. In this study, we identified two closely related P2X7 antagonists, JNJ-54232334 and JNJ-54140515, and then tritium labeled the former to produce a new radioligand for P2X7. JNJ-54232334 is a high affinity ligand for the rat P2X7 with a pKi of 9.3±0.1. In rat cortical membranes, [3H] JNJ-54232334 reached saturable binding with equilibrium dissociation (Kd) constant of 4.9±1.3 nM. The compound displayed monophasic association and dissociation kinetics with fast on and off rates. In rat brain sections, specific binding of [3H] JNJ-54232334 was markedly improved compared to the previously described P2X7 radioligand, [3H] A-804598. In P2X7 knockout mouse brain sections, [3H] A-804598 bound to non-P2X7 binding sites in contrast to [3H] JNJ-54232334. In rat or wild type mouse brain sections [3H] JNJ-54232334 bound in a more homogenous and region independent manner. The ubiquitous expression of P2X7 receptors was confirmed with immunohistochemistry in rat brain sections. The partial displacement of [3H] A-804598 binding resulted in the underestimation of the level of ex vivo P2X7 occupancy for JNJ-54140515. Higher levels of P2X7 ex vivo occupancy were measured using [3H] JNJ-54232334 due to less non-specific binding. In summary, we describe [3H] JNJ-54232334 as a novel P2X7 radioligand, with improved properties over [3H] A-804598. PMID:26386289

  6. XQL and Proximal Nodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

  7. 7nm logic optical lithography with OPC-Lite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Axelrad, Valery; Nakayama, Ryo; Oyama, Kenichi; Yamauchi, Shohei; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji

    2015-03-01

    The CMOS logic 22nm node was the last one done with single patterning. It used a highly regular layout style with Gridded Design Rules (GDR). Smaller nodes have required the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. A "line/cut" approach is being used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin.[1] As shown in Fig. 1, even with "line" patterns, pitch division will eventually be necessary. For the "cut" pattern, Design-Source-Mask Optimization (DSMO) has been demonstrated to be effective at the 20nm node and below.[2,3,4] Single patterning was found to be suitable down to 16nm, while double patterning extended optical lithography for cuts to the 10-12nm nodes. Design optimization avoided the need for triple patterning. Lines can be patterned with 193nm immersion with no complex OPC. The final line dimensions can be achieved by applying pitch division by two or four.[5] In this study, we extend the scaling using simplified OPC to the 7nm node for critical FEOL and BEOL layers. The test block is a reasonably complex logic function with ~100k gates of combinatorial logic and flip-flops, scaled from previous experiments. Simulation results show that for cuts at 7nm logic dimensions, the gate layer can be done with single patterning whose minimum pitch is 53nm, possibly some of the 1x metal layers can be done with double patterning whose minimum pitch is 53nm, and the contact layer will require triple patterning whose minimum pitch is 68nm. These pitches are less than the resolution limit of ArF NA=1.35 (72nm). However these patterns can be separated by a combination of innovative SMO for less than optical resolution limit and a process trick of hole-repair technique. An example of triple patterning coloring is shown in Fig 3. Fin and local interconnect are created by lines and trims. The number of trim patterns are 3 times (min. pitch=90nm) and twice (min. pitch=120nm), respectively. The small number of masks, large pitches, and

  8. Radiation Status of Sub-65 nm Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-scaled complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) includes commercial foundry capabilities at and below the 65 nm technology node Radiation evaluations take place using standard products and test characterization vehicles (memories, logic/latch chains, etc.) NEPP focus is two-fold: (1) Conduct early radiation evaluations to ascertain viability for future NASA missions (i.e. leverage commercial technology development). (2) Uncover gaps in current testing methodologies and mechanism comprehension -- early risk mitigation.

  9. Novel high refractive index fluids for 193nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, Julius; Otoguro, Akihiko; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi; Kagayama, Akifumi; Nakano, Takashi; Nakayama, Norio; Tamatani, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Shin

    2006-03-01

    Despite the early skepticism towards the use of 193-nm immersion lithography as the next step in satisfying Moore's law, it continuous to meet expectations on its feasibility in achieving 65-nm nodes and possibly beyond. And with implementation underway, interest in extending its capability for smaller pattern sizes such as the 32-nm node continues to grow. In this paper, we will discuss the optical, physical and lithographic properties of newly developed high index fluids of low absorption coefficient, 'Babylon' and 'Delphi'. As evaluated in a spectroscopic ellipsometer in the 193.39nm wavelength, the 'Babylon' and 'Delphi' high index fluids were evaluated to have a refractive index of 1.64 and 1.63 with an absorption coefficient of 0.05/cm and 0.08/cm, respectively. Lithographic evaluation results using a 193-nm 2-beam interferometric exposure tool show the imaging capability of both high index fluids to be 32-nm half pitch lines and spaces.

  10. P2X receptors: New players in cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Alessia; Adinolfi, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Pain is unfortunately a quite common symptom for cancer patients. Normally pain starts as an episodic experience at early cancer phases to become chronic in later stages. In order to improve the quality of life of oncological patients, anti-cancer treatments are often accompanied by analgesic therapies. The P2X receptor are adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gated ion channels expressed by several cells including neurons, cancer and immune cells. Purinergic signaling through P2X receptors recently emerged as possible common pathway for cancer onset/growth and pain sensitivity. Indeed, tumor microenvironment is rich in extracellular ATP, which has a role in both tumor development and pain sensation. The study of the different mechanisms by which P2X receptors favor cancer progression and relative pain, represents an interesting challenge to design integrated therapeutic strategies for oncological patients. This review summarizes recent findings linking P2X receptors and ATP to cancer growth, progression and related pain. Special attention has been paid to the role of P2X2, P2X3, P2X4 and P2X7 in the genesis of cancer pain and to the function of P2X7 in tumor growth and metastasis. Therapeutic implications of the administration of different P2X receptor blockers to alleviate cancer-associated pain sensations contemporarily reducing tumor progression are also discussed. PMID:25426266

  11. Extracellular ATP dissociates nonmuscle myosin from P2X(7) complex: this dissociation regulates P2X(7) pore formation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ben J; Rathsam, Catherine; Stokes, Leanne; McGeachie, Andrew B; Wiley, James S

    2009-08-01

    The P2X(7) receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that is highly expressed on monocyte-macrophages and that mediates the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular ATP. Dilation of the P2X(7) channel and massive K(+) efflux follows initial channel opening, but the mechanism of secondary pore formation is unclear. The proteins associated with P2X(7) were isolated by using anti-P2X(7) monoclonal antibody-coated Dynabeads from both interferon-gamma plus LPS-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells and P2X(7)-transfected HEK-293 cells. Two nonmuscle myosins, NMMHC-IIA and myosin Va, were found to associate with P2X(7) in THP-1 cells and HEK-293 cells, respectively. Activation of the P2X(7) receptor by ATP caused dissociation of P2X(7) from nonmuscle myosin in both cell types. The interaction of P2X(7) and NMMHC-IIA molecules was confirmed by fluorescent life time measurements and fluorescent resonance of energy transfer-based time-resolved flow cytometry assay. Reducing the expression of NMMHC-IIA or myosin Va by small interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA led to a significant increase of P2X(7) pore function without any increase in surface expression or ion channel function of P2X(7) receptors. S-l-blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NMMHC-IIA ATPase, inhibited both ATP-induced ethidium uptake and ATP-induced dissociation of P2X(7)-NMMHC-IIA complex. In both cell types nonmuscle myosin closely interacts with P2X(7) and is dissociated from the complex by extracellular ATP. Dissociation of this anchoring protein may be required for the transition of P2X(7) channel to a pore. PMID:19494237

  12. Magnetic ground state of UCu 2X 2 (X=Si, Ge) from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Samir F.; Siruguri, Vasudeva; Eyert, Volker

    2006-10-01

    The electronic and magnetic structures of UCu 2X 2 germanide and silicide are revisited in view of existing controversy from experimental findings. From self-consistent calculations carried out within the local spin density functional theory using the augmented spherical wave method, the ground state is found to be ferromagnetic within simple and super cell setups. An analysis of the density of states and the chemical bonding shows the dominant role of Cu 2Ge 2-nearly planar like entities within the crystal lattice.

  13. The lymph node neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Henry R; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs provide a specialized microenvironment tailored to foster communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions allow immune cells to coordinate multilayered defense against pathogens. Until recently dendritic cells and macrophages were thought to comprise the main innate immune cell subsets responsible for delivering signals that drive the adaptive immune response, while the function of neutrophils was largely confined to the innate immune system. However, the discovery of neutrophils in lymph nodes has raised the question of whether neutrophils might play a more extensive role not only in innate immunity per se, but also in coordinating the interactions between innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes and how this recruitment influences subsequent immune responses both in situ and at distant sites. PMID:27025975

  14. One node driving synchronisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  15. One node driving synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators. PMID:26656718

  16. P2X7 Receptors in Neurological and Cardiovascular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Skaper, Stephen D.; Debetto, Patrizia; Giusti, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels that mediate fast excitatory transmission in diverse regions of the brain and spinal cord. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X7, have the unusual property of changing their ion selectivity during prolonged exposure to ATP, which results in a channel pore permeable to molecules as large as 900 daltons. The P2X7 receptor was originally described in cells of hematopoietic origin, and mediates the influx of Ca2+ and Na+ and Ca2+ and Na+ ions as well as the release of proinflammatory cytokines. P2X7 receptors may affect neuronal cell death through their ability to regulate the processing and release of interleukin-1β, a key mediator in neurodegeneration, chronic inflammation, and chronic pain. Activation of P2X7, a key mediator in neurodegeneration, chronic inflammation, and chronic pain. Activation of P2X7 receptors provides an inflammatory stimulus, and P2X7 receptor-deficient mice have substantially attenuated inflammatory responses, including models of neuropathic and chronic inflammatory pain. Moreover, P2X7 receptor activity, by regulating the release of proinflammatory cytokines, may be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Apoptotic cell death occurs in a number of vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and hypertension, and may be linked to the release of ATP from endothelial cells, P2X7 receptor activation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and endothelial cell apoptosis. In this context, the P2X7 receptor may be viewed as a gateway of communication between the nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. PMID:20029634

  17. P2X3 receptors and peripheral pain mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    North, R Alan

    2004-01-01

    ATP released from damaged or inflamed tissues can act at P2X receptors expressed on primary afferent neurones. The resulting depolarization can initiate action potentials that are interpreted centrally as pain. P2X3 subunits are found in a subset of small-diameter, primary afferent neurones, some of which are also sensitive to capsaicin. They can form homo-oligomeric channels, or they can assemble with P2X2 subunits into hetero-oligomers. Studies with antagonists selective for P2X3-containing receptors, experiments with antisense oligonucleotides to reduce P2X3 subunit levels, and behavioural testing of P2X3 knock-out mice, all suggest a role for the P2X2/3 receptor in the signalling of chronic inflammatory pain and some features of neuropathic pain. The availability of such tools and experimental approaches promises to accelerate our understanding of the other physiological roles for P2X receptors on primary afferent neurones. PMID:12832496

  18. Structural and Molecular Modeling Features of P2X Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Luiz Anastacio; da Silva, João Herminio Martins; Ferreira, Dinarte Neto Moreira; Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Teixeira, Pedro Celso Nogueira; de Souza, Cristina Alves Magalhães; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl; de Freitas, Mônica Santos

    2014-01-01

    Currently, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) is recognized as the extracellular messenger that acts through P2 receptors. P2 receptors are divided into two subtypes: P2Y metabotropic receptors and P2X ionotropic receptors, both of which are found in virtually all mammalian cell types studied. Due to the difficulty in studying membrane protein structures by X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques, there is little information about these structures available in the literature. Two structures of the P2X4 receptor in truncated form have been solved by crystallography. Molecular modeling has proven to be an excellent tool for studying ionotropic receptors. Recently, modeling studies carried out on P2X receptors have advanced our knowledge of the P2X receptor structure-function relationships. This review presents a brief history of ion channel structural studies and shows how modeling approaches can be used to address relevant questions about P2X receptors. PMID:24637936

  19. AF-353, a novel, potent and orally bioavailable P2X3/P2X2/3 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Gever, Joel R; Soto, Rothschild; Henningsen, Robert A; Martin, Renee S; Hackos, David H; Panicker, Sandip; Rubas, Werner; Oglesby, Ian B; Dillon, Michael P; Milla, Marcos E; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Ford, Anthony PDW

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Purinoceptors containing the P2X3 subunit (P2X3 homotrimeric and P2X2/3 heterotrimeric) are members of the P2X family of ion channels gated by ATP and may participate in primary afferent sensitization in a variety of pain-related diseases. The current work describes the in vitro pharmacological characteristics of AF-353, a novel, orally bioavailable, highly potent and selective P2X3/P2X2/3 receptor antagonist. Experimental approach: The antagonistic potencies (pIC50) of AF-353 for rat and human P2X3 and human P2X2/3 receptors were determined using methods of radioligand binding, intracellular calcium flux and whole cell voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Key results: The pIC50 estimates for these receptors ranged from 7.3 to 8.5, while concentrations 300-fold higher had little or no effect on other P2X channels or on an assortment of receptors, enzymes and transporter proteins. In contrast to A-317491 and TNP-ATP, competition binding and intracellular calcium flux experiments suggested that AF-353 inhibits activation by ATP in a non-competitive fashion. Favourable pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in rat, with good oral bioavailability (%F = 32.9), reasonable half-life (t1/2 = 1.63 h) and plasma-free fraction (98.2% protein bound). Conclusions and implications: The combination of a favourable pharmacokinetic profile with the antagonist potency and selectivity for P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors suggests that AF-353 is an excellent in vivo tool compound for study of these channels in animal models and demonstrates the feasibility of identifying and optimizing molecules into potential clinical candidates, and, ultimately, into a novel class of therapeutics for the treatment of pain-related disorders. PMID:20590629

  20. ATP P2X3 receptors and neuronal sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Fabbretti, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the importance of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the modulation of neuronal function. In particular, fine control of ATP release and the selective and discrete ATP receptor operation are crucial elements of the crosstalk between neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In peripheral neurons, ATP signaling gives an important contribution to neuronal sensitization, especially that involved in neuropathic pain. Among other subtypes, P2X3 receptors expressed on sensory neurons are sensitive even to nanomolar concentrations of extracellular ATP, and therefore are important transducers of pain stimuli. P2X3 receptor function is highly sensitive to soluble factors like neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and is controlled by transduction mechanisms, protein-protein interactions and discrete membrane compartmentalization. More recent findings have demonstrated that P2X3 receptors interact with the synaptic scaffold protein calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) in a state dependent fashion, indicating that CASK plays a crucial role in the modulation of P2X3 receptor stability and efficiency. Activation of P2X3 receptors within CASK/P2X3 complex has important consequences for neuronal plasticity and possibly for the release of neuromodulators and neurotransmitters. Better understanding of the interactome machinery of P2X3 receptors and their integration with other receptors and channels on neuronal surface membranes, is proposed to be essential to unveil the process of neuronal sensitization and related, abnormal pain signaling. PMID:24363643

  1. Imaging P2X4 Receptor Lateral Mobility in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Toulme, Estelle; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-gated ionotropic P2X4 receptors are up-regulated in activated microglia and are critical for the development of neuropathic pain, a microglia-associated disorder. However, the nature of how plasma membrane P2X4 receptors are regulated in microglia is not fully understood. We used single-molecule imaging to track quantum dot-labeled P2X4 receptors to explore P2X4 receptor mobility in the processes of resting and activated microglia. We find that plasma membrane P2X4 receptor lateral mobility in resting microglial processes is largely random, consisting of mobile and slowly mobile receptors. Moreover, lateral mobility is P2X subunit- and cell-specific, increased in an ATP activation and calcium-dependent manner, and enhanced in activated microglia by the p38 MAPK pathway that selectively regulates slowly mobile receptors. Thus, our data indicate that P2X4 receptors are dynamically regulated mobile ATP sensors, sampling more of the plasma membrane in response to ATP and during the activated state of microglia that is associated with nervous system dysfunction. PMID:22393055

  2. A Dual Role for P2X7 Receptor during Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Junior, E S; Morandini, A C; Almeida-da-Silva, C L C; Franco, E J; Potempa, J; Nguyen, K A; Oliveira, A C; Zamboni, D S; Ojcius, D M; Scharfstein, J; Coutinho-Silva, R

    2015-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a role for purinergic signaling in the activation of multiprotein intracellular complexes called inflammasomes, which control the release of potent inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) -1β and -18. Porphyromonas gingivalis is intimately associated with periodontitis and is currently considered one of the pathogens that can subvert the immune system by limiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. We recently showed that P. gingivalis can dampen eATP-induced IL-1β secretion by means of its fimbriae in a purinergic P2X7 receptor-dependent manner. Here, we further explore the role of this purinergic receptor during eATP-induced IL-1β processing and secretion by P. gingivalis-infected macrophages. We found that NLRP3 was necessary for eATP-induced IL-1β secretion as well as for caspase 1 activation irrespective of P. gingivalis fimbriae. Additionally, although the secretion of IL-1β from P. gingivalis-infected macrophages was dependent on NLRP3, its adaptor protein ASC, or caspase 1, the cleavage of intracellular pro-IL-1β to the mature form was found to occur independently of NLRP3, its adaptor protein ASC, or caspase 1. Our in vitro findings revealed that P2X7 receptor has a dual role, being critical not only for eATP-induced IL-1β secretion but also for intracellular pro-IL-1β processing. These results were relevant in vivo since P2X7 receptor expression was upregulated in a P. gingivalis oral infection model, and reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 were detected in draining lymph node cells from P2rx7(-/-) mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that P2X7 receptor and NLRP3 transcription were modulated in human chronic periodontitis. Overall, we conclude that the P2X7 receptor has a role in periodontal immunopathogenesis and suggest that targeting of the P2X7/NLRP3 pathway should be considered in future therapeutic interventions in periodontitis. PMID:26152185

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Cu/SiO 2- x composite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, A. Z.; Wang, Y. G.; Zhang, Z.

    2003-05-01

    Copper/silica-based nanostructures with different morphologies and microstructures have been synthesized on Si wafer by thermal evaporation of CuO and SiO powders in an argon-hybridized hydrogen ambient at high temperatures. Systematically studies by scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy show that the composite nanowires have a core-shell structure with an average diameter of ˜120 nm and lengths of several hundred nanometers to several ten microns. Electron diffraction pattern and electron energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis reveal that the core coincides with copper and the shell corresponds to amorphous silicon oxide with chemical composition SiO 2- x (0≦ x≦0.5). Besides the Cu/SiO 2- x nanowires, many other nanostructures such as octpous-, pine-, and chain-like structures have also been found. The growth mechanisms of these products were briefly discussed.

  4. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environmentsmore » for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.« less

  5. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Labello, R.; Nichols, J.; Weeden-Wright, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environments for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.

  6. Helium release and microstructural changes in Er(D,T)2-x3Hex films).

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D. S.; Browning, James Frederick; Snow, Clark Sheldon; Banks, James Clifford; Mangan, Michael A.; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Brewer, Luke N.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    Er(D,T){sub 2-x} {sup 3}He{sub x}, erbium di-tritide, films of thicknesses 500 nm, 400 nm, 300 nm, 200 nm, and 100 nm were grown and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Ion Beam Analysis to determine variations in film microstructure as a function of film thickness and age, due to the time-dependent build-up of {sup 3}He in the film from the radioactive decay of tritium. Several interesting features were observed: One, the amount of helium released as a function of film thickness is relatively constant. This suggests that the helium is being released only from the near surface region and that the helium is not diffusing to the surface from the bulk of the film. Two, lenticular helium bubbles are observed as a result of the radioactive decay of tritium into {sup 3}He. These bubbles grow along the [111] crystallographic direction. Three, a helium bubble free zone, or 'denuded zone' is observed near the surface. The size of this region is independent of film thickness. Four, an analysis of secondary diffraction spots in the Transmission Electron Microscopy study indicate that small erbium oxide precipitates, 5-10 nm in size, exist throughout the film. Further, all of the films had large erbium oxide inclusions, in many cases these inclusions span the depth of the film.

  7. J-2X Engine Continues to Set Standards

    NASA Video Gallery

    Testing of the next-generation J-2X rocket engine continues to set standards. Last fall, the engine attained 100 percent power in just its fourth test and became the fastest U.S. rocket engine to a...

  8. J-2X Rocket Engine, 40-Second Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted a 40-second test of the J-2X rocket engine Sept. 28, the most recent in a series of tests of the next-generation engine selected as part of the Space Launch System architecture that ...

  9. J-2X Nozzle Extension Goes the Distance

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers conducted a 550-second test of the new J-2X rocket engine at Stennis Space Center in Mississippi on July 13. The test, conducted on the A-2 Test Stand, continued a series of firings ...

  10. J-2X Test Articles Using FDM Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Ted; Ruf, Joe; Steele, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a brief history of the J-2X engine, along with detailed description of the material demonstrator and test articles that were created using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process.

  11. Successful First J-2X Combustion Stability Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA conducted a key stability test firing of the J-2X rocket engine Dec. 1, marking another step forward in development of the upper-stage engine that will carry humans farther into space than eve...

  12. Close Encounter With 'Fired Up' J-2X Engine

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a spillway view of the 550-second, full-duration test of the J-2X engine on Feb. 27 at Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. Data from the test will provide critical information abo...

  13. Throttle Up! J-2X Powerpack Test Sets Record

    NASA Video Gallery

    During a record-breaking June 8 test, engineers throttled the J-2X powerpack up and down several times to explore numerous operating points required for the fuel and oxidizer turbopumps. The result...

  14. J-2X Engine Ready For Second Test Series

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse video of the installation of J-2X engine 10001 in the A-2 test-stand at Stennis, complete with clamshell assembly and nozzle extension. With these enhancements test engineers will measur...

  15. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time line below for healthy mouth information. Email Link Kids' Care Timeline Brush 2min2x - ...

  16. J-2X Engine Test, May 16, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    The shake, rattle and roar lasted just seven seconds, but the short J-2X test conducted May 16 at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center moved the space agency closer to a return to deep space. NASA o...

  17. J-2X Powerpack Test Lights Up the Sky

    NASA Video Gallery

    A burst of flame from a J-2X Powerpack test-firing lights up the sky on Dec. 5, 2012 at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. For the first time, the Space Launch System team invited Twitter ...

  18. Start Me Up! J-2X Rocket Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers conducted the first in a new round of tests on the next-generation J-2X rocket engine Feb. 15 at Stennis Space Center. The 35-second test continued progress in development of the eng...

  19. J-2X Engine 'Goes the Distance' at Stennis

    NASA Video Gallery

    J-2X rocket engine testing continues at NASA's Stennis Space Center in Mississippi with the second in a series of tests conducted on Feb. 27. The 550-second, full-duration test provided critical in...

  20. J-2X Powerpack Test, July 24, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers surpassed their previously set J-2X powerpack record at Stennis's Test Complex A with a 1,350-second test on July 24. In this video there are three aspects featured:the outside test ...

  1. Manipulation of P2X Receptor Activities by Light Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors are involved in amplification of inflammatory responses in peripheral nociceptive fibers and in mediating pain-related signals to the CNS. Control of P2X activation has significant importance in managing unwanted hypersensitive neuron responses. To overcome the limitations of chemical ligand treatment, optical stimulation methods of optogenetics and photoswitching achieve efficient control of P2X activation while allowing specificity at the target site and convenient stimulation by light illumination. There are many potential applications for photosensitive elements, such as improved uncaging methods, photoisomerizable ligands, photoswitches, and gold nanoparticles. Each technique has both advantages and downsides, and techniques are selected according to the purpose of the application. Technical advances not only provide novel approaches to manage inflammation or pain mediated by P2X receptors but also suggest a similar approach for controlling other ion channels. PMID:26884649

  2. Functional characterization of intracellular Dictyostelium discoideum P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Melanie J; Durai, Latha; Ennion, Steven J

    2009-12-11

    Indicative of cell surface P2X ion channel activation, extracellular ATP evokes a rapid and transient calcium influx in the model eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum. Five P2X-like proteins (dP2XA-E) are present in this organism. However, their roles in purinergic signaling are unclear, because dP2XA proved to have an intracellular localization on the contractile vacuole where it is thought to be required for osmoregulation. To determine functional properties of the remaining four dP2X-like proteins and to assess their cellular roles, we recorded membrane currents from expressed cloned receptors and generated a quintuple knock-out Dictyostelium strain devoid of dP2X receptors. ATP evoked inward currents at dP2XB and dP2XE receptors but not at dP2XC or dP2XD. beta,gamma-Imido-ATP was more potent than ATP at dP2XB but a weak partial agonist at dP2XE. Currents in dP2XB and dP2XE were strongly inhibited by Na(+) but insensitive to copper and the P2 receptor antagonists pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin. Unusual for P2X channels, dP2XA and dP2XB were also Cl(-)-permeable. The extracellular purinergic response to ATP persisted in p2xA/B/C/D/E quintuple knock-out Dictyostelium demonstrating that dP2X channels are not responsible. dP2XB, -C, -D, and -E were found to be intracellularly localized to the contractile vacuole with the ligand binding domain facing the lumen. However, quintuple p2xA/B/C/D/E null cells were still capable of regulating cell volume in water demonstrating that, contrary to previous findings, dP2X receptors are not required for osmoregulation. Responses to the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium, however, were reduced in p2xA/B/C/D/E null cells suggesting that dP2X receptors play a role in intracellular calcium signaling. PMID:19833731

  3. Right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Zhang1 and colleagues at Peking Union Medical College in Beijing have described their experience of dissecting the right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis and correlated the overall incidence to important prognostic factors of the primary tumor and lateral nodal metastasis. Zhang et al., reviewed their experience of 246 patients who underwent surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma. They noted right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (RPELN) in 33 patients (13.4%). Their multivariate analysis showed higher incidence of RPELN metastasis in patients with right sided tumor, 3 of more lateral positive lymph nodes and positive right central compartment nodes. The prevalence of RPELN metastasis was significantly higher (26%) in recurrent cases. PMID:26610750

  4. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory. PMID:24658233

  5. UV - ALBUQUERQUE NM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 109 is located in Albuquerque NM, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc....

  6. La2-xSrxCuO4 superconductor nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litombe, N. E.; Bollinger, A. T.; Hoffman, J. E.; Božović, I.

    2014-11-01

    La2-xSrxCuO4 nanowire devices have been fabricated and characterized using electrical transport measurements. Nanowires with widths down to 80 nm are patterned using high-resolution electron beam lithography. However, the narrowest nanowires show incomplete superconducting transitions with some residual resistance at T = 4 K. Here, we report on the refinement of the fabrication process to achieve narrower nanowire devices with complete superconducting transitions, opening the path to the study of novel physics arising from dimension-limited superconductivity on the nanoscale.

  7. La2-xSrxCuO4 superconductor nanowire devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Litombe, N. E.; Bollinger, A. T.; Hoffman, J. E.; Božović, I.

    2014-07-02

    La2-xSrxCuO₄ nanowire devices have been fabricated and characterized using electrical transport measurements. In addition, nanowires with widths down to 80 nm are patterned using high-resolution electron beam lithography. However, the narrowest nanowires show incomplete superconducting transitions with some residual resistance at T = 4 K. Here, we report on refinement of the fabrication process to achieve narrower nanowire devices with complete superconducting transitions, opening the path to the study of novel physics arising from dimension-limited superconductivity on the nanoscale.

  8. High-index nanocomposite photoresist for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Woo Jin; Trikeriotis, Makros; Rodriguez, Robert; Zettel, Michael F.; Piscani, Emil; Ober, Christopher K.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Zimmerman, Paul

    2009-03-01

    In immersion lithography, high index fluids are used to increase the numerical aperture (NA) of the imaging system and decrease the minimum printable feature size. Water has been used in first generation immersion lithography at 193 nm to reach the 45 nm node, but to reach the 38 and 32 nm nodes, fluids and resists with a higher index than water are needed. A critical issue hindering the implementation of 193i at the 32 nm node is the availability of high refractive index (n > 1.8) and low optical absorption fluids and resists. It is critical to note that high index resists are necessary only when a high refractive index fluid is in use. High index resist improves the depth of focus (DOF) even without high index fluids. In this study, high refractive index nanoparticles have been synthesized and introduced into a resist matrix to increase the overall refractive index. The strategy followed is to synthesize PGMEA-soluble nanoparticles and then disperse them into a 193 nm resist. High index nanoparticles 1-2 nm in diameter were synthesized by a combination of hydrolysis and sol-gel methods. A ligand exchange method was used, allowing the surface of the nanoparticles to be modified with photoresist-friendly moieties to help them disperse uniformly in the resist matrix. The refractive index and ultraviolet absorbance were measured to evaluate the quality of next generation immersion lithography resist materials.

  9. High-performance 193nm photoresists based on fluorosulfonamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjie; Chen, Kuang-Jung; Kwong, Ranee; Lawson, Margaret C.; Khojasteh, Mahmoud; Popova, Irene; Varanasi, P. Rao; Shimokawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Yoshikazu; Kusumoto, Shiro; Sugiura, Makoto; Kawakami, Takanori; Slezak, Mark; Dabbagh, Gary; Liu, Zhi

    2007-03-01

    The combination of immersion lithography and reticle enhancement techniques (RETs) has extended 193nm lithography into the 45nm node and possibly beyond. In order to fulfill the tight pitch and small critical dimension requirements of these future technology nodes, the performance of 193nm resist materials needs to further improve. In this paper, a high performance 193nm photoresist system based on fluorosulfonamide (FSM) is designed and developed. The FSM group has good transparency at 193nm. Compared to the commonly used hexafluoroalcohol (HFA) group, the trifluoromethyl sulfonamide (TFSM) functionality has a lower pKa value and contains less fluorine atoms. Polymers containing the TFSM functionality have exhibited improved dissolution properties and better etch resistance than their HFA counterparts. Resists based on the FSM-containing polymers have shown superior lithographic performance for line, trench and contact hole levels under the 45nm node exposure conditions. In addition, FSM resists have also demonstrated excellent bright field and dark field compatibility and thereby make it possible to use one resist for both bright field and dark field level applications. The structure, property and lithographic performance of the FSM resist system are reported.

  10. [Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, N V

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas is a rather rare phenomenon; according to different authors, the incidence of lymph node metastasis is 4 to 11%. The detection of lymph node metastases in osteosarcoma is associated with a significant reduction in the 5-year survival of patients and allows its classification as clinical stage IV tumor. The risk factors for lymph node metastases in patients with bone sarcomas are age (≥64 years), gender (female), nosological entity (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma), tumor depth (muscle, bone), and the size of primary tumor (>5 сm). The mechanism of lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas seems to be related to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. PMID:27600784

  11. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  12. P2X7 receptor at the heart of disease

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Ei; Montero, R M; Turner, C M; Vergoulas, G

    2010-01-01

    Purinergic signaling is a crucial component of disease whose pathophysiological basis is now well established. This review focuses on P2X7, a unique bifunctional purinoreceptor that either opens a non selective cation channel or forms a large, cytolytic pore depending on agonist application and leading to membrane blebbing and to cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. Activation of P2X7 receptor has been shown to stimulate the release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages, with the IL-1b to be the most extensively studied among them. These findings were verified by the use of knockout P2X7 (-/-) mice. Update information coming from all fields of research implicate this receptor at the very heart of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, depression, Alzheimer disease, and to kidney damage, in renal fibrosis and experimental nephritis. Clinical studies are currently underway with the newly developed selective antagonists for P2X7 receptor, the results of which are eagerly anticipated. These studies together with data from in-vivo experiments with the P2X7 knockout mice and in-vitro experiments will shed light in this exciting area. PMID:20981163

  13. Novel methyl substituted 1-(5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl)methanones are P2X7 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Dale A; Alcazar, Jesus; Ameriks, Michael K; Anton, Ana Belen; Ao, Hong; Bonaventure, Pascal; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Chrovian, Christa C; De Angelis, Meri; Lord, Brian; Rech, Jason C; Wang, Qi; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Andres, Jose Ignacio; Letavic, Michael A

    2015-08-15

    The optimization efforts that led to a novel series of methyl substituted 1-(5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl)methanones that are potent rat and human P2X7 antagonists are described. These efforts resulted in the discovery of compounds with good drug-like properties that are capable of high P2X7 receptor occupancy in rat following oral administration, including compounds 7n (P2X7 IC50 = 7.7 nM) and 7u (P2X7 IC50 =7 .7 nM). These compounds are expected to be useful tools for characterizing the effects of P2X7 antagonism in models of depression and epilepsy, and several of the compounds prepared are candidates for effective P2X7 PET tracers. PMID:26099534

  14. Emerging roles of P2X receptors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Elena; Capece, Marina; Amoroso, Francesca; De Marchi, Elena; Franceschini, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment composition strongly conditions cancer growth and progression, acting not only at cancer itself but also modifying its interactions with immune, endothelial and nervous cells. Extracellular ATP and its receptors recently gained increasing attention in the oncological field. ATP accumulates in cancer milieu through spontaneous release, tumor necrosis or chemotherapy exerting a trophic activity on cancer cells, modulating the cross talk among tumor, and surrounding tissues. Accordingly, ATP gated P2X receptors emerged as central players in tumor development, invasion, progression and related symptoms. Indeed, P2X receptors are expressed and are functional not only on tumor cells but also in immune-infiltrate and nearby neurons. In this review, we summarize recent findings on P2X receptors role in tumor cell differentiation, bioenergetics, angiogenesis, metastasis and associated pain, giving an outline of the potential anti-neoplastic activity of receptor agonists and antagonists. PMID:25312206

  15. Epithelial P2X purinergic receptor channel expression and function

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amanda L.; Schwiebert, Lisa M.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; King, Chris; Jones, Julie R.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Schwiebert, Erik M.

    1999-01-01

    P2X purinergic receptor (P2XR) channels bind ATP and mediate Ca2+ influx — 2 signals that stimulate secretory Cl– transport across epithelia. We tested the hypotheses that P2XR channels are expressed by epithelia and that P2XRs transduce extracellular ATP signals into stimulation of Cl– transport across epithelia. Electrophysiological data and mRNA analysis of human and mouse pulmonary epithelia and other epithelial cells indicate that multiple P2XRs are broadly expressed in these tissues and that they are active on both apical and basolateral surfaces. Because P2X-selective agonists bind multiple P2XR subtypes, and because P2X agonists stimulate Cl– transport across nasal mucosa of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients as well as across non-CF nasal mucosa, P2XRs may provide novel targets for extracellular nucleotide therapy of CF. PMID:10510328

  16. Testing for the J-2X Upper Stage Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA selected the J-2X Upper Stage Engine in 2006 to power the upper stages of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Based on the proven Saturn J-2 engine, this new engine will provide 294,000 pounds of thrust and a specific impulse of 448 seconds, making it the most efficient gas generator cycle engine in history. The engine's guiding philosophy emerged from the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005. Goals established then called for vehicles and components based, where feasible, on proven hardware from the Space Shuttle, commercial, and other programs, to perform the mission and provide an order of magnitude greater safety. Since that time, the team has made unprecedented progress. Ahead of the other elements of the Constellation Program architecture, the team has progressed through System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), and Critical Design Review (CDR). As of February 2010, more than 100,000 development engine parts have been ordered and more than 18,000 delivered. Approximately 1,300 of more than 1,600 engine drawings were released for manufacturing. A major factor in the J-2X development approach to this point is testing operations of heritage J-2 engine hardware and new J-2X components to understand heritage performance, validate computer modeling of development components, mitigate risk early in development, and inform design trades. This testing has been performed both by NASA and its J-2X prime contractor, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). This body of work increases the likelihood of success as the team prepares for testing the J-2X powerpack and first development engine in calendar 2011. This paper will provide highlights of J-2X testing operations, engine test facilities, development hardware, and plans.

  17. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  18. Witnessing quantum discord in 2xN systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bylicka, Bogna; Chruscinski, Dariusz

    2010-06-15

    Bipartite states with vanishing quantum discord are necessarily separable and hence positive partial transpose (PPT). We show that 2xN states satisfy additional property: the positivity of their partial transposition is recognized with respect to the canonical factorization of the original density operator. We call such states strong PPT (SPPT). Therefore, we provide a natural witness for a quantum discord: if a 2xN state is not SPPT it must contain nonclassical correlations measured by quantum discord. It is an analog of the celebrated Peres-Horodecki criterion: if a state is not PPT it must be entangled.

  19. Lymph node mapping using quantum dot-labeled polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Nikolova, Biliana; Murayama, Shuhei; Lazarova, Desislava; Tsoneva, Iana; Aoki, Ichio

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether poly-ion complex hollow vesicles (polymersomes), based on chemically-modified chitosan, are appropriate for lymph node mapping in the context of their application in the development of theranostic nanosized drug delivery systems (nano-DDS). The experiments were performed on Balb/c nude mice (colon cancer-grafted). The mice were subjected to anesthesia and quantum dot (QD(705))-labeled polymersomes (d-120 nm) were injected intravenously via the tail vein. The optical imaging was carried out on Maestro EX Imaging System (excitation filter: 435-480 nm; emission filter: 700 nm). A strong fluorescent signal, corresponding to QD(705) fluorescence, was detected in the lymph nodes, as well as in the tumor. A very weak fluorescent signal was found in the liver area. The half-life of QD(705)-labelled polymersomes was 6 ± 2 hours in the bloodstream and 11 ± 3 hours in the lymph nodes. The data suggest that polymersomes are very promising carriers for lymph node mapping using QD as a contrast agent. They are useful matrix for development of nano-formulations with theranostic capabilities. PMID:26221745

  20. Testing and Functions of the J2X Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I, NASA s new solid rocket based crew launch vehicle, is a two stage in line rocket that has made its waytothe forefront of NASA s endeavors. The Ares I s Upper Stage (US) will be propelled by a J-2X engine which is fueled by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. The J-2X is a variation based on two of its predecessor s, the J-2 and J-2S engines. ET50 is providing the design support for hardware required to run tests on the J-2X Gas Generator (GG) that increases the delivery pressure of the supplied combustion fuels that the engine burns. The test area will be running a series of tests using different lengths and curved segments of pipe and different sized nozzles to determine the configuration that best satisfies the thrust, heat, and stability requirements for the engine. I have had to research the configurations that are being tested and gain an understanding of the purpose of the tests. I then had to research the parts that would be used in the test configurations. I was taken to see parts similar to the ones used in the test configurations and was allowed to review drawings and dimensions used for those parts. My job over this summer has been to use the knowledge I have gained to design, model, and create drawings for the un-fabricated parts that are necessary for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator Phase IIcTest.

  1. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2%" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-%" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the propellant cutter as it was originally installed (JPL negative no. 381-2274A, 29 June 1962) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 4. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 21" color negative is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-1" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the control room in use, with JPL employees Ron Wright, Harold Anderson, and John Morrow presiding. (JPL negative no. JPL-10288A, 27 January 1989.) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Weigh & Control Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2'" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-'" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. View shows small autoclave demonstrated by JPL staff member Milton Clay (JPL negative no. JPL-10286AC, 27 January 1989). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Quadrupole Order in the Frustrated Pyrochlore Tb2 +xTi2 -xO7 +y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, H.; Onoda, S.; Kittaka, S.; Kasahara, A.; Kono, Y.; Sakakibara, T.; Kato, Y.; Fâk, B.; Ollivier, J.; Lynn, J. W.; Taniguchi, T.; Wakita, M.; Kadowaki, H.

    2016-05-01

    A hidden order that emerges in the frustrated pyrochlore Tb2 +xTi2 -xO7 +y with Tc=0.53 K is studied using specific heat, magnetization, and neutron scattering experiments on a high-quality single crystal. Semiquantitative analyses based on a pseudospin-1 /2 Hamiltonian for ionic non-Kramers magnetic doublets demonstrate that it is an ordered state of electric quadrupole moments. The elusive spin liquid state of the nominal Tb2 Ti2 O7 is most likely a U (1 ) quantum spin-liquid state.

  5. Quadrupole Order in the Frustrated Pyrochlore Tb_{2+x}Ti_{2-x}O_{7+y}.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, H; Onoda, S; Kittaka, S; Kasahara, A; Kono, Y; Sakakibara, T; Kato, Y; Fåk, B; Ollivier, J; Lynn, J W; Taniguchi, T; Wakita, M; Kadowaki, H

    2016-05-27

    A hidden order that emerges in the frustrated pyrochlore Tb_{2+x}Ti_{2-x}O_{7+y} with T_{c}=0.53  K is studied using specific heat, magnetization, and neutron scattering experiments on a high-quality single crystal. Semiquantitative analyses based on a pseudospin-1/2 Hamiltonian for ionic non-Kramers magnetic doublets demonstrate that it is an ordered state of electric quadrupole moments. The elusive spin liquid state of the nominal Tb_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} is most likely a U(1) quantum spin-liquid state. PMID:27284670

  6. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.

  7. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  8. Synthesis of WS2xSe2-2x Alloy Nanosheets with Composition-Tunable Electronic Properties.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xidong; Wang, Chen; Fan, Zheng; Hao, Guolin; Kou, Liangzhi; Halim, Udayabagya; Li, Honglai; Wu, Xueping; Wang, Yicheng; Jiang, Jianhui; Pan, Anlian; Huang, Yu; Yu, Ruqin; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-01-13

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have recently emerged as a new class of atomically thin semiconductors for diverse electronic, optoelectronic, and valleytronic applications. To explore the full potential of these 2D semiconductors requires a precise control of their band gap and electronic properties, which represents a significant challenge in 2D material systems. Here we demonstrate a systematic control of the electronic properties of 2D-TMDs by creating mixed alloys of the intrinsically p-type WSe2 and intrinsically n-type WS2 with variable alloy compositions. We show that a series of WS2xSe2-2x alloy nanosheets can be synthesized with fully tunable chemical compositions and optical properties. Electrical transport studies using back-gated field effect transistors demonstrate that charge carrier types and threshold voltages of the alloy nanosheet transistors can be systematically tuned by adjusting the alloy composition. A highly p-type behavior is observed in selenium-rich alloy, which gradually shifts to lightly p-type, and then switches to lightly n-type characteristics with the increasing sulfur atomic ratio, and eventually evolves into highly n-doped semiconductors in sulfur-rich alloys. The synthesis of WS2xSe2-2x nanosheets with tunable optical and electronic properties represents a critical step toward rational design of 2D electronics with tailored spectral responses and device characteristics. PMID:26633760

  9. Ionothermal Synthesis of High-Voltage Alluaudite Na2+2xFe2-x(SO4)3 Sodium Insertion Compound: Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Insights.

    PubMed

    Dwibedi, Debasmita; Ling, Chris D; Araujo, Rafael B; Chakraborty, Sudip; Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram; Munichandraiah, Nookala; Ahuja, Rajeev; Barpanda, Prabeer

    2016-03-23

    Exploring future cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries, alluaudite class of Na2Fe(II)2(SO4)3 has been recently unveiled as a 3.8 V positive insertion candidate (Barpanda et al. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4358). It forms an Fe-based polyanionic compound delivering the highest Fe-redox potential along with excellent rate kinetics and reversibility. However, like all known SO4-based insertion materials, its synthesis is cumbersome that warrants careful processing avoiding any aqueous exposure. Here, an alternate low temperature ionothermal synthesis has been described to produce the alluaudite Na2+2xFe(II)2-x(SO4)3. It marks the first demonstration of solvothermal synthesis of alluaudite Na2+2xM(II)2-x(SO4)3 (M = 3d metals) family of cathodes. Unlike classical solid-state route, this solvothermal route favors sustainable synthesis of homogeneous nanostructured alluaudite products at only 300 °C, the lowest temperature value until date. The current work reports the synthetic aspects of pristine and modified ionothermal synthesis of Na2+2xFe(II)2-x(SO4)3 having tunable size (300 nm ∼5 μm) and morphology. It shows antiferromagnetic ordering below 12 K. A reversible capacity in excess of 80 mAh/g was obtained with good rate kinetics and cycling stability over 50 cycles. Using a synergistic approach combining experimental and ab initio DFT analysis, the structural, magnetic, electronic, and electrochemical properties and the structural limitation to extract full capacity have been described. PMID:26931644

  10. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  11. Engine Gimbal Requirements for Ground Testing of J-2X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalcik, Julia; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Apollo-era J-2 that powered the second and third stages of the Saturn V, the current J-2X is the liquid hydrogen and oxygen high-altitude rocket engine in development for both the Ares I Upper Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage. During my summer 2009 internship, J-2X was at a stage in its design maturity where verification testing needed to be considered for the benefit of adequate test facility preparation. My task was to focus on gimbal requirements and gimbal related hot-fire test plans. Facility capabilities were also of interest, specifically for hot-fire testing slated to occur at test stands A-1, A-2, and A-3 at Stennis Space Center(SSC) in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Gimbal requirements and stage interface conditions were investigated by applying a top-to-bottom systems engineering approach, which involved system level requirements, engine level requirements from both government and engine contractor perspectives, component level requirements, and the J-2X to Upper Stage and Earth Departure Stage interface control documents. Previous hydrogen and oxygen liquid rocket engine gimbal verification methods were researched for a glimpse at lessons learned. Discussion among the J-2X community affected by gimballing was organized to obtain input relative to proper verification of their respective component. Implementing suggestions such as gimbal pattern, angulated dwell time, altitude testing options, power level, and feed line orientation, I was able to match tests to test stands in the A Complex at SSC. Potential test capability gaps and risks were identified and pursued. The culmination of all these efforts was to coordinate with SSC to define additional facility requirements for both the A-3 altitude test stand that is currently under construction and the A-1 sea level test stand which is being renovated

  12. Activation and Regulation of Purinergic P2X Receptor Channels

    PubMed Central

    Coddou, Claudio; Yan, Zonghe; Obsil, Tomas; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian ATP-gated nonselective cation channels (P2XRs) can be composed of seven possible subunits, denoted P2X1 to P2X7. Each subunit contains a large ectodomain, two transmembrane domains, and intracellular N and C termini. Functional P2XRs are organized as homomeric and heteromeric trimers. This review focuses on the binding sites involved in the activation (orthosteric) and regulation (allosteric) of P2XRs. The ectodomains contain three ATP binding sites, presumably located between neighboring subunits and formed by highly conserved residues. The detection and coordination of three ATP phosphate residues by positively charged amino acids are likely to play a dominant role in determining agonist potency, whereas an AsnPheArg motif may contribute to binding by coordinating the adenine ring. Nonconserved ectodomain histidines provide the binding sites for trace metals, divalent cations, and protons. The transmembrane domains account not only for the formation of the channel pore but also for the binding of ivermectin (a specific P2X4R allosteric regulator) and alcohols. The N- and C- domains provide the structures that determine the kinetics of receptor desensitization and/or pore dilation and are critical for the regulation of receptor functions by intracellular messengers, kinases, reactive oxygen species and mercury. The recent publication of the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4.1R in a closed state provides a major advance in the understanding of this family of receptor channels. We will discuss data obtained from numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments accumulated during the last 15 years with reference to the crystal structure, allowing a structural interpretation of the molecular basis of orthosteric and allosteric ligand actions. PMID:21737531

  13. J-2X, The Engine of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gail

    2009-01-01

    My project was two-fold, with both parts involving the J-2X Upper Stage engine (which will be used on both the Ares I and V). Mainly, I am responsible for using a program called Iris to create visual represen tations of the rocket engine's telemetry data. Also, my project includes the application of my newly acquired Pro Engineer skills in develo ping a 3D model of the engine's nozzle.

  14. J-2X Fuel Pump Impeller Seal Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmauch, Preston B.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The J-2X engine was originally designed for the upper stage of the previously cancelled Crew Launch Vehicle. Although the Crew Launch Vehicle was cancelled the J-2X engine, which is currently undergoing hot-fire testing, may be used on future programs. The J-2X engine is a direct descendent of the J-2 engine which powered the upper stage during the Apollo program. Many changes including a thrust increase from 230K to 294K lbf have been implemented in this engine. The rotor-dynamic stability of the fuel turbopump is highly dependent on the tangential velocity of the fluid as it enters the the front face impeller seal. Rotor-dynamic analysis predicts that a much lower tangential velocity will be required for stability than was needed for previous engines. The geometry at the seal entrance for this engine is very complex and vastly different than previous engines. In order to better determine the fluid dynamics and tangential velocity in this seal several CFD simulations were performed. The results of these simulations show that for this seal geometry a great reduction in the tangential velocity is to be expected. The simulations also provided insight into methods that could be employed to drive the swirl velocity to near zero. Unsteady and time-averaged results of several simulations will be presented.

  15. P2X4R+ microglia drive neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon; Trang, Tuan; Salter, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, the most debilitating of all clinical pain syndromes, may be a consequence of trauma, infection or pathology from diseases that affect peripheral nerves. Here we provide a framework for understanding the spinal mechanisms of neuropathic pain as distinct from those of acute pain or inflammatory pain. Recent work suggests that a specific microglia response phenotype characterized by de novo expression of the purinergic receptor P2X4 is critical for the pathogenesis of pain hypersensitivity caused by injury to peripheral nerves. Stimulating P2X4 receptors initiates a core pain signaling pathway mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which produces a disinhibitory increase in intracellular chloride in nociceptive (pain-transmitting) neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. The changes caused by signaling from P2X4R+ microglia to nociceptive transmission neurons may account for the main symptoms of neuropathic pain in humans, and they point to specific interventions to alleviate this debilitating condition. PMID:22837036

  16. The J-2X Fuel Turbopump - Design, Development, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tellier, James G.; Hawkins, Lakiesha V.; Shinguchi, Brian H.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), a NASA subcontractor, is executing the design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) of a liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen two hundred ninety four thousand pound thrust rocket engine initially intended for the Upper Stage (US) and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) of the Constellation Program Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A key element of the design approach was to base the new J-2X engine on the heritage J-2S engine with the intent of uprating the engine and incorporating SSME and RS-68 lessons learned. The J-2S engine was a design upgrade of the flight proven J-2 configuration used to put American astronauts on the moon. The J-2S Fuel Turbopump (FTP) was the first Rocketdyne-designed liquid hydrogen centrifugal pump and provided many of the early lessons learned for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbopumps. This paper will discuss the design trades and analyses performed for the current J-2X FTP to increase turbine life; increase structural margins, facilitate component fabrication; expedite turbopump assembly; and increase rotordynamic stability margins. Risk mitigation tests including inducer water tests, whirligig turbine blade tests, turbine air rig tests, and workhorse gas generator tests characterized operating environments, drove design modifications, or identified performance impact. Engineering design, fabrication, analysis, and assembly activities support FTP readiness for the first J-2X engine test scheduled for July 2011.

  17. Activation of P2X7 receptors in glial satellite cells reduces pain through downregulation of P2X3 receptors in nociceptive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Congying; Li, GuangWen; Gu, Yanping; Huang, Li-Yen Mae

    2008-01-01

    Purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are closely associated with excitotoxicity and nociception. Inhibition of P2X7R activation has been considered as a potentially useful strategy to improve recovery from spinal cord injury and reduce inflammatory damage to trauma. The physiological functions of P2X7Rs, however, are poorly understood, even though such information is essential for making the P2X7R an effective therapeutic target. We show here that P2X7Rs in satellite cells of dorsal root ganglia tonically inhibit the expression of P2X3Rs in neurons. Reducing P2X7R expression using siRNA or blocking P2X7R activity by antagonists elicits P2X3R up-regulation, increases the activity of sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli, and evokes abnormal nociceptive behaviors in rats. Thus, contrary to the notion that P2X7R activation is cytotoxic, P2X7Rs in satellite cells play a crucial role in maintaining proper P2X3R expression in dorsal root ganglia. Studying the mechanism underlying the P2X7R–P2X3R control, we demonstrate that activation of P2X7Rs evokes ATP release from satellite cells. ATP in turn stimulates P2Y1 receptors in neurons. P2Y1 receptor activation appears to be necessary and sufficient for the inhibitory control of P2X3R expression. We further determine the roles of the P2X7R–P2Y1–P2X3R inhibitory control under injurious conditions. Activation of the inhibitory control effectively prevents the development of allodynia and increases the potency of systemically administered P2X7R agonists in inflamed rats. Thus, direct blocking P2X7Rs, as proposed before, may not be the best strategy for reducing pain or lessening neuronal degeneration because it also disrupts the protective function of P2X7Rs. PMID:18946042

  18. A fluorescent approach for identifying P2X1 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Ruepp, Marc-David; Brozik, James A.; de Esch, Iwan J.P.; Farndale, Richard W.; Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth D.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    There are no commercially available, small, receptor-specific P2X1 ligands. There are several synthetic derivatives of the natural agonist ATP and some structurally-complex antagonists including compounds such as PPADS, NTP-ATP, suramin and its derivatives (e.g. NF279, NF449). NF449 is the most potent and selective ligand, but potencies of many others are not particularly high and they can also act at other P2X, P2Y and non-purinergic receptors. While there is clearly scope for further work on P2X1 receptor pharmacology, screening can be difficult owing to rapid receptor desensitisation. To reduce desensitisation substitutions can be made within the N-terminus of the P2X1 receptor, but these could also affect ligand properties. An alternative is the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes that respond to membrane potential changes resulting from channel opening. Here we utilised this approach in conjunction with fragment-based drug-discovery. Using a single concentration (300 μM) we identified 46 novel leads from a library of 1443 fragments (hit rate = 3.2%). These hits were independently validated by measuring concentration-dependence with the same voltage-sensitive dye, and by visualising the competition of hits with an Alexa-647-ATP fluorophore using confocal microscopy; confocal yielded kon (1.142 × 106 M−1 s−1) and koff (0.136 s−1) for Alexa-647-ATP (Kd = 119 nM). The identified hit fragments had promising structural diversity. In summary, the measurement of functional responses using voltage-sensitive dyes was flexible and cost-effective because labelled competitors were not needed, effects were independent of a specific binding site, and both agonist and antagonist actions were probed in a single assay. The method is widely applicable and could be applied to all P2X family members, as well as other voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology

  19. Study of 193-nm resist degradation under various etch chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, Arnaud; May, Michael; Pargon, Erwine; Mortini, Benedicte; Joubert, Olivier

    2007-03-01

    The effectivity of 193nm photoresists as dry etch masks is becoming more and more critical as the size of integrated devices shrinks. 193nm resists are known to be much less resistant to dry etching than 248nm resists based on a poly(hydroxystyrene) polymer backbone. The decrease in the resist film budget implies a better etch resistance to use single layer 193nm photoresists for the 65nm node and beyond. In spite of significant improvements made in the past decade regarding the etch resistance of photoresists, much of the fundamental chemistry and physics that could explain the behaviour of these materials has to be better understood. Such knowledge is necessary in order to propose materials and etch processes for the next technology nodes (45nm and below). In this paper, we report our studies on the etch behaviour of different 193nm resist materials as a function of etch chemistry. In a first step, we focus our attention on the interactions between photoresists and the reactive species of a plasma during a dry etch step. Etch experiments were carried out in a DPS (Decoupled Plasma Source) high density chamber. The gas chemistry in particular was changed to check the role of the plasma reactive species on the resist. O II, Cl II, CF 4, HBr and Ar gas were used. Etch rates and chemical modifications of different materials were quantified by ellipsometry, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-Ray Photoelectrons Spectroscopy (XPS). We evaluated different materials including 248nm model polymer backbones (pure PHS or functionalized PHS), and 193nm model polymers (PMMA and acrylate polymers) or resist formulations. Besides the influence of resist chemistry, the impact of plasma parameters was addressed.

  20. Structurally Well-Defined Au@Cu2- x S Core-Shell Nanocrystals for Improved Cancer Treatment Based on Enhanced Photothermal Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ji, Muwei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Huang, Liu; Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Yong; Gu, Lin; Yu, Youxing; Hao, Weichang; An, Pengfei; Zheng, Lirong; Zhu, Hesun; Zhang, Jiatao

    2016-04-01

    Au@Cu2- x S core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) have been synthesized under large lattice mismatch with high crystallinity, controllable shape, and nonstoichiometric composition. Both experimental observations and simulations are used to verify the flexible dual-mode plasmon coupling. The enhanced photothermal effect is harnessed for diverse HeLa cancer cell ablation applications in the NIR-I window (750-900 nm) and the NIR-II window (1000-1400 nm). PMID:26913692

  1. Synthesis of a new CaxY2-xVxSn2-xO7 yellow pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargori, C.; Galindo, R.; Cerro, S.; García, A.; Llusar, M.; Monrós, G.

    In this communication a new ceramic pigment based on codoping pyrochlore Y 2Sn2O7 with V 5+ and Ca2+ has been obtained. The limit of solid solution of CaxY 2-xV xSn2-xO7 is around x = 0.16. Pigment becomes stable in double firing glazes (CIEL∗a∗b∗=78/5/35 5% w. enamelled) but unstable in single firing glazes such as based on CaO-ZnO-SiO2 chemical system. Using unconventional methods of synthesis the reactivity of the system and final pigmenting power of the powder is enhanced in the case of ammonia coprecipitation of a mixture of nitrates and tin chloride.

  2. Global analysis of general SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1) models with precision data

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ken; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Yuan, C.-P.; Schmitz, Kai

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of a global analysis of a class of models with an extended electroweak gauge group of the form SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), often denoted as G(221) models, which include as examples the left-right, the leptophobic, the hadrophobic, the fermiophobic, the un-unified, and the nonuniversal models. Using an effective Lagrangian approach, we compute the shifts to the coefficients in the electroweak Lagrangian due to the new heavy gauge bosons, and obtain the lower bounds on the masses of the Z{sup '} and W{sup '} bosons. The analysis of the electroweak parameter bounds reveals a consistent pattern of several key observables that are especially sensitive to the effects of new physics and thus dominate the overall shape of the respective parameter contours.

  3. A potential therapeutic role for P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) antagonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Unwin, Robert J.; Tam, Frederick W. K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has an important role in inflammation and immunity, but until recently, clinical application has been limited by a lack of specific antagonists. Recent studies using P2X7R knockout (KO) mice and specific receptor antagonists have shown that the P2X7R is an important therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. Areas covered We have reviewed the current literature on the role of the P2X7R in inflammatory diseases, focusing on potential therapeutic applications of selective P2X7R antagonists as an anti-inflammatory agent. Particular emphasis has been placed on the potential role of P2X7R in common inflammatory diseases. The latest developments in phase I and II clinical trials of P2X7R antagonists are covered. Expert opinion Recent studies using gene KO mice and selective P2X7R antagonists suggest that P2X7R is a viable therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. However, efficacious P2X7R antagonists for use in clinical studies are still at an early stage of development. Future challenges include: identifying potential toxicity and side effects of treatment, timing of treatment initiation and its duration in chronic inflammatory conditions, optimum dosage, and development of a functional assay for P2X7R that would help to guide treatment. PMID:21510825

  4. Synthesis and magnetic properties of NiFe2-xSmxO4 nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S. A.; Behbahanian, Shahrzad; Amighian, Jamshid

    2016-07-01

    NiFe2-xSmxO4 (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanopowders were synthesized via a sol-gel combustion route. The structural studies were carried out by X-ray diffractometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD results confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel cubic structure. The crystallite size decreased with an increase of samarium ion concentration, while lattice parameter and lattice strain increased with samarium substitution. TEM micrographs showed that agglomerated nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 35 to 90 nm were obtained. The magnetic studies were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) of NiFe2-xSmxO4 nanoparticles decreases with increasing Sm3+substitution. The reduction of saturation magnetization is attributed to the dilution of the magnetic interaction. The coercivity (Hc) of samples increases by adding samarium.

  5. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  6. Binary 193nm photomasks aging phenomenon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaye, Félix; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Hidenori, Yoshioka; Charras, Nathalie; Brochard, Christophe; Thivolle, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long period. These 193nm binary masks seem to be well-known but recent studies have shown surprising degrading effects, like Electric Field induced chromium Migration (EFM) [1] or chromium migration [2] [3] . Phase shift Masks (PSM) or Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) might not be concerned by these effects [4] [6] under certain conditions. In this paper, we will focus our study on two layers gate and metal lines. We will detail the effects of mask aging, with SEM top view pictures revealing a degraded chromium edge profile and TEM chemical analyses demonstrating the growth of a chromium oxide on the sidewall. SEMCD measurements after volume production indicated a modified CD with respect to initial CD data after manufacture. A regression analysis of these CD measurements shows a radial effect, a die effect and an isolated-dense effect. Mask cleaning effectiveness has also been investigated, with sulphate or ozone cleans, to recover the mask quality in terms of CD. In complement, wafer intrafield CD measurements have been performed on the most sensitive structure to monitor the evolution of the aging effect on mask CD uniformity. Mask CD drift have been correlated with exposure dose drift and isolated-dense bias CD drift on wafers. In the end, we will try to propose a physical explanation of this aging phenomenon and a solution to prevent from it occurring.

  7. Nonlinear dynamical behavior of Xenon atoms along dislocation lines in UO2+ x nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, PengFei; Dai, ZhenHong

    2015-05-01

    Experimental results showed that there are a few Xenon atom bubbles connected by the dislocation line in the UO2+ x nuclear fuel, and the largest radius of bubbles is about 45 nm. This phenomenon is in contrast to traditional bubble formation mechanism. This phenomenon is very important in understanding the properties of nuclear fuel. In this work, we apply a time-dependent microscopic atom transport equation and take into account stress coherent potential in the boundary of the dislocation. Using the equation, we numerically solved the stress coherence effect and studied the transfer properties of Xenon atoms along the dislocation line. Our numerical results show that the transport of the Xenon atoms along the dislocation changes nonlinearly with the external driving energy, and reaches at the saturation values. It explains the growth limit of Xenon atom bubbles that is in agreement with the experiment results.

  8. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.; Million, R.R.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. In 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.

  9. SensorNet Node Suite

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  10. The UC2-x - Carbon eutectic: A laser heating study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, D.; Boboridis, K.; Morel, S.; De Bruycker, F.

    2015-11-01

    The UC2-x - carbon eutectic has been studied by laser heating and fast multi-wavelength pyrometry under inert atmosphere. The study has been carried out on three compositions, two of which close to the phase boundary of the UC2-x - C miscibility gap (with C/U atomic ratios 2 and 2.1), and one, more crucial, with a large excess of carbon (C/U = 2.82). The first two compositions were synthesised by arc-melting. This synthesis method could not be applied to the last composition, which was therefore completed directly by laser irradiation. The U - C - O composition of the samples was checked by using a combustion method in an ELTRA® analyser. The eutectic temperature, established to be 2737 K ± 20 K, was used as a radiance reference together with the cubic - tetragonal (α → β) solid state transition, fixed at 2050 K ± 20 K. The normal spectral emissivity of the carbon-richer compounds increases up to 0.7, whereas the value 0.53 was established for pure hypostoichiometric uranium dicarbide at the limit of the eutectic region. This increase is analysed in the light of the demixing of excess carbon, and used for the determination of the liquidus temperature (3220 K ± 50 K for UC2.82). Due to fast solid state diffusion, also fostered by the cubic - tetragonal transition, no obvious signs of a lamellar eutectic structure could be observed after quenching to room temperature. The eutectic surface C/UC2-x composition could be qualitatively, but consistently, followed during the cooling process with the help of the recorded radiance spectra. Whereas the external liquid surface is almost entirely constituted by uranium dicarbide, it gets rapidly enriched in demixed carbon upon freezing. Demixed carbon seems to quickly migrate towards the inner bulk during further cooling. At the α → β transition, uranium dicarbide covers again the almost entire external surface.

  11. The Exponential Diophantine Equation 2x + by = cz

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yahui; Li, Xiaoxue

    2014-01-01

    Let b and c be fixed coprime odd positive integers with min{b, c} > 1. In this paper, a classification of all positive integer solutions (x, y, z) of the equation 2x + by = cz is given. Further, by an elementary approach, we prove that if c = b + 2, then the equation has only the positive integer solution (x, y, z) = (1,1, 1), except for (b, x, y, z) = (89,13,1, 2) and (2r − 1, r + 2,2, 2), where r is a positive integer with r ≥ 2. PMID:24959613

  12. Signal transmission within the P2X2 trimeric receptor.

    PubMed

    Keceli, Batu; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-01

    P2X2 receptor channel, a homotrimer activated by the binding of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to three intersubunit ATP-binding sites (each located ∼50 Å from the ion permeation pore), also shows voltage-dependent activation upon hyperpolarization. Here, we used tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) harboring critical mutations at the ATP-binding, linker, and pore regions to investigate how the ATP activation signal is transmitted within the trimer and how signals generated by ATP and hyperpolarization converge. Analysis of voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in these TTCs showed that: (a) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating of P2X2 requires binding of at least two ATP molecules. (b) D315A mutation in the β-14 strand of the linker region connecting the ATP-binding domains to the pore-forming helices induces two different gating modes; this requires the presence of the D315A mutation in at least two subunits. (c) The T339S mutation in the pore domains of all three subunits abolishes the voltage dependence of P2X2 gating in saturating [ATP], making P2X2 equally active at all membrane potentials. Increasing the number of T339S mutations in the TTC results in gradual changes in the voltage dependence of gating from that of the wild-type channel, suggesting equal and independent contributions of the subunits at the pore level. (d) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in TTCs differs depending on the location of one D315A relative to one K308A that blocks the ATP binding and downstream signal transmission. (e) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating does not depend on where one T339S is located relative to K308A (or D315A). Our results suggest that each intersubunit ATP-binding signal is directly transmitted on the same subunit to the level of D315 via the domain that contributes K308 to the β-14 strand. The signal subsequently spreads equally to all three subunits at the level of the pore, resulting in symmetric and independent contributions of the three

  13. Signal transmission within the P2X2 trimeric receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    P2X2 receptor channel, a homotrimer activated by the binding of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to three intersubunit ATP-binding sites (each located ∼50 Å from the ion permeation pore), also shows voltage-dependent activation upon hyperpolarization. Here, we used tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) harboring critical mutations at the ATP-binding, linker, and pore regions to investigate how the ATP activation signal is transmitted within the trimer and how signals generated by ATP and hyperpolarization converge. Analysis of voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in these TTCs showed that: (a) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating of P2X2 requires binding of at least two ATP molecules. (b) D315A mutation in the β-14 strand of the linker region connecting the ATP-binding domains to the pore-forming helices induces two different gating modes; this requires the presence of the D315A mutation in at least two subunits. (c) The T339S mutation in the pore domains of all three subunits abolishes the voltage dependence of P2X2 gating in saturating [ATP], making P2X2 equally active at all membrane potentials. Increasing the number of T339S mutations in the TTC results in gradual changes in the voltage dependence of gating from that of the wild-type channel, suggesting equal and independent contributions of the subunits at the pore level. (d) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in TTCs differs depending on the location of one D315A relative to one K308A that blocks the ATP binding and downstream signal transmission. (e) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating does not depend on where one T339S is located relative to K308A (or D315A). Our results suggest that each intersubunit ATP-binding signal is directly transmitted on the same subunit to the level of D315 via the domain that contributes K308 to the β-14 strand. The signal subsequently spreads equally to all three subunits at the level of the pore, resulting in symmetric and independent contributions of the three

  14. Laboratory Investigations of the Collisional Removal of O2(X3Σ g-, υ = 1, 2, and 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Copeland, R. A.; Slanger, T. G.

    2001-12-01

    One of the tasks of the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite is to measure atmospheric water vapor by making observations of H2O emission. Two important processes in the production of this emission are the collisional removal of O2(X3Σ g-, υ = 1) by H2O and O(3P). Mlynczak et al.1 have recently highlighted the need for an improved laboratory measurement of the collisional removal rate coefficient of O2(X3Σ g-, \\upsilon} = 1) by oxygen atoms as essential to a reliable interpretation of the SABER data. We have initiated an experimental program aiming to resolve the uncertainty in laboratory measurements involving O2(X3Σ g-, υ = 1) and oxygen atoms. In our experiments, laser light at 266 nm photolyzes ozone in a mixture of molecular oxygen and ozone. This step produces vibrationally excited O2(a1Δ g) which rapidly populates O2(X3Σ g-, υ = 1 - 3) in a resonant process. In addition, a large amount of O atoms is generated. A second laser pulse near 193 nm excites O2(X3Σ g-, υ = 1 - 3) via the (7, 1), (10, 2) and (14, 3) B3Σ u--X3Σ g- bands, respectively, and the fluorescence is detected through a 360 nm interference filter by a photomultiplier tube. The time evolution of the population of O2(X3Σ g-, \\upsilon} = 1, 2, and 3) is monitored by varying the delay between the two laser pulses. The concentration of ozone in the cell is determined by absorption measurements at 253.7 nm. Our results indicate that the collisional removal rate coefficients for O2(X3Σ g-, \\upsilon} = 2, 3) by O2 at room temperature have values of (1.3 +/- 0.4) x 10-13 and (1.9 +/- 0.3) x 10-13 cm3s-1, respectively. These values represent the first laboratory measurement of these rate coefficients and are in good agreement with recent theoretical calculations.2 Because the removal of O2(X3Σ g-, \\upsilon} = 1) by O2 at room temperature is extremely slow ( ~3 x 10-18 cm3s-1), collisions with the photolytically generated O atoms control the lifetime of υ = 1. We have made

  15. 10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

    2012-05-01

    For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

  16. Powerpack Testing of the J2-X Oxidizer Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jambusaria, Mitul; Szabo, Roland; Becht, David; Mulder, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The J-2X PPA-2 (Powerpack 2) test series was conducted from February through December 2012 on the A1 test stand at NASA Stennis Space Center in a joint effort between Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The series consisted of 13 tests for a total hotfire duration close to 6500 seconds. Among the chief test objectives was characterization of the capabilities of the new J-2X turbopumps. This paper concentrates on the test results pertaining specifically to the Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) operation in liquid oxygen (LOX). The two bladed inducer configuration that was tested had a 0.81% blade height tip clearance and incorporated the B-groove modification to the inducer tunnel outboard of the inducer leading edge. Data was collected on inducer suction performance, pump radial loading, and the pump dynamic environment in LOX. Comparisons were made to prior data collected on two geometrically similar subscale inducers tested in water at NASA MSFC (70% scale) and Concepts NREC (52% scale). In overview, the results of the powerpack testing were consistent with the radial load assessment from the water tests. The inducer performed differently in the other two categories, however. The inducer suction performance capability in LOX was notably improved. This was expected and is probably attributable to thermal suppression head (TSH) effects. While the dynamic environment was similar in most aspects to water test observations, the higher order cavitation (HOC) during the powerpack testing was much more benign.

  17. A mechanism of intracellular P2X receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Venketesh; Fountain, Samuel J

    2012-08-17

    P2X receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-activated calcium-permeable ligand-gated ion channels traditionally viewed as sensors of extracellular ATP during diverse physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and taste. However, in addition to a cell surface residency P2XRs also populate the membranes of intracellular compartments, including mammalian lysosomes, phagosomes, and the contractile vacuole (CV) of the amoeba Dictyostelium. The function of intracellular P2XRs is unclear and represents a major gap in our understanding of ATP signaling. Here, we exploit the genetic versatility of Dictyostelium to investigate the effects of physiological concentrations of ATP on calcium signaling in isolated CVs. Within the CV, an acidic calcium store, P2XRs are orientated to sense luminal ATP. Application of ATP to isolated vacuoles leads to luminal translocation of ATP and release of calcium. Mechanisms of luminal ATP translocation and ATP-evoked calcium release share common pharmacology, suggesting that they are linked processes. The ability of ATP to mobilize stored calcium is reduced in vacuoles isolated from P2X(A)R knock-out amoeba and ablated in cells devoid of P2XRs. Pharmacological inhibition of luminal ATP translocation or depletion of CV calcium attenuates CV function in vivo, manifesting as a loss of regulatory cell volume decrease following osmotic swelling. We propose that intracellular P2XRs regulate vacuole activity by acting as calcium release channels, activated by translocation of ATP into the vacuole lumen. PMID:22736763

  18. The J-2X Oxidizer Turbopump - Design, Development, and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozowski, Laura A.; Beatty, D. Preston; Shinguchi, Brian H.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), a NASA subcontractor, is executing the Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of a liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen two hundred ninety-four thousand pound thrust rocket engine initially intended for the Upper Stage (US) and Earth Departure Stage (EDS) of the Constellation Program Ares-I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). A key element of the design approach was to base the new J-2X engine on the heritage J-2S engine which was a design upgrade of the flight proven J-2 engine used to put American astronauts on the moon. This paper will discuss the design trades and analyses performed to achieve the required uprated Oxidizer Turbopump performance; structural margins and rotordynamic margins; incorporate updated materials and fabrication capability; and reflect lessons learned from legacy and existing Liquid Rocket Propulsion Engine turbomachinery. These engineering design, analysis, fabrication and assembly activities support the Oxidizer Turbopump readiness for J-2X engine test in 2011.

  19. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  20. Frequency upconversion luminescence in Yb3+-sensitized Er3+- and Pr3+-codoped PbGeO3:PbF2:xF2 (x = Mg, Ba) glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Alexandre O.; Gouveia-Neto, Artur; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    The optical properties and energy-transfer upconversion luminescence of Er3+- and Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped PbGeO3-PbF2-xF2 (x=Mg, Ba) glass and glass-ceramic under infrared excitation at 975 nm is investigated. In Er3+/Yb3+-codoped samples, green (525 and 550 nm) and red (662 nm) luminescence corresponding to the H2→I4, S4→I4 e F4→I4, respectively, was readily observed. In the Pr3+/Yb3+-codoped system, emission peaks around 485, 530, 610, and 645, which were ascribed to the P03-HJ3 (J=4,5,6) and P03-FJ3 (J=2,3,4) transitions, respectively, were observed. The population of the praseodymium P03 emitting level was accomplished through a combination of ground-state absorption of Yb ions at F2, energy-transfer Yb3+(F2)-Pr3+(H43), and excited-state absorption of Pr ions provoking the G41-P03 transition. The dependence of the upconversion emission on glass composition, pump power, and doping contents was also examined. Glassy and glass-ceramic samples were compared in order to determine the system with better luminescence efficiency.

  1. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  2. New electron optics for mask writer EBM-7000 to challenge hp 32nm generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Golladay, Steven; Kendall, Rodney; Katsap, Victor; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Nishimura, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Rieko; Iizuka, Osamu; Nakayama, Takahito; Shinkawa, Shunji; Nishiyama, Tetsurou; Tamamushi, Shuichi

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor scaling is expected to continue to hp32nm and beyond, accompanied by explosive data volume expansion. Required minimum feature size at hp 32nm will be less than 50nm on the mask, according to ITRS2007(1). EBM 7000 is a newly designed mask writer for the hp32 nm node with an improved electron optical column providing the beam resolution (10 nm measured in situ) and beam current density (200 A/cm2) necessary for cost effective mask production at hp32nm node. In this paper we report on column improvements, the in situ beam blur measurement method and writing results from EBM 7000. Written patterns show dose margin (CD change [nm] / 1 % dose change) of .94 nm /1 % dose for line/space arrays using chemically amplified resist PRL009 and our standard processing. Using a simple model to relate the measured beam intensity distribution to the measured dose margin, we infer an effective total blur of 30 nm, dominated by a contribution of 28 nm from the resist exposure and development process. Further evidence of the dominance of the process contribution is the measured improvement in dose margin to .64 nm/% dose obtained by modifying our standard process. Even larger process improvements will be needed for successful fabrication of hp22nm masks.

  3. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    John, Roy M; Kumar, Saurabh

    2016-05-10

    Although sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial arrhythmias frequently coexist and interact, the putative mechanism linking the 2 remain unclear. Although SND is accompanied by atrial myocardial structural changes in the right atrium, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disease of variable interactions between left atrial triggers and substrate most commonly of left atrial origin. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the development and progression of SND and AF. Although some patients manifest SND as a result of electric remodeling induced by periods of AF, others develop progressive atrial structural remodeling that gives rise to both conditions together. The treatment strategy will thus vary according to the predominant disease phenotype. Although catheter ablation will benefit patients with predominantly AF and secondary SND, cardiac pacing may be the mainstay of therapy for patients with predominant fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy. This contemporary review summarizes current knowledge on sinus node pathophysiology with the broader goal of yielding insights into the complex relationship between sinus node disease and atrial arrhythmias. PMID:27166347

  4. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  5. Structural and luminescence properties of Y(2-x)GeMoO8:REx (RE = Eu, Tb) phosphors.

    PubMed

    Li, Naixu; Zhou, Jiancheng; Sun, Yueming

    2014-08-01

    Y(2-x)GeMoO8:REx (RE = Eu, Tb) phosphors were synthesized using a facile sol-gel method. The morphology and structure of the phosphors were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); while their luminescent properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectrometry. Our results reveal that all of these Y(2-x)GeMoO8:REx (RE = Eu, Tb) phosphors adopted the tetragonal phase, belonging to Scheelite (CaWO4 ) structure. The obtained YGeMoO8:Eu phosphors exhibit a strong emission in the red light range which can be assigned to the (5)D0  → (7)F2 transition of Eu(3+) when it is excited at 459 nm. Under 392 and 489 nm excitation, the YGeMoO8:Tb phosphors present predominant green emission ((5)D4  → (7)F5) at 540 nm. The highest emission of the phosphors can be achieved by adjusting the doping concentration to be 0.25 for Eu(3+) and 0.15 for Tb(3+), respectively. The promising luminescence properties of these materials indicate that they can be potentially applied to white-light-emitting diodes. PMID:23832824

  6. Planar Fully-Depleted-Silicon-On-Insulator technologies: Toward the 28 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doris, B.; DeSalvo, B.; Cheng, K.; Morin, P.; Vinet, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the research done in the last decade on planar Fully-Depleted-Silicon-On-Insulator (FDSOI) technologies in the frame of the joint development program between IBM, ST Microelectronics and CEA-LETI. In particular, we review the technological developments ranging from substrate engineering to process modules that enable functionality and improve FDSOI performance over several generations. Various multi Vt integration schemes to maximize the benefits of the thin BOX FDSOI platform are discussed. Manufacturability as well as scalability concerns are highlighted and addressed. In addition, this work provides understanding of the performance/power trade-offs for FDSOI circuits and device variability. Finally, clear directions for future application-specific products are given, demonstrating that FDSOI is an attractive CMOS option for next generation high performance and low-power applications.

  7. Faster qualification of 193-nm resists for 100-nm development using photo cell monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chris M.; Kallingal, Chidam; Zawadzki, Mary T.; Jeewakhan, Nazneen N.; Kaviani, Nazila N.; Krishnan, Prakash; Klaum, Arthur D.; Van Ess, Joel

    2003-05-01

    The development of 100-nm design rule technologies is currently taking place in many R&D facilities across the world. For some critical alyers, the transition to 193-nm resist technology has been required to meet this leading edge design rule. As with previous technology node transitions, the materials and processes available are undergoing changes and improvements as vendors encounter and solve problems. The initial implementation of the 193-nm resits process did not meet the photolithography requirements of some IC manufacturers due to very high Post Exposure Bake temperature sensitivity and consequently high wafer to wafer CD variation. The photoresist vendors have been working to improve the performance of the 193-nm resists to meet their customer's requirements. Characterization of these new resists needs to be carried out prior to implementation in the R&D line. Initial results on the second-generation resists evaluated at Cypress Semicondcutor showed better CD control compared to the aelrier resist with comparable Depth of Focus (DOF), Exposure Latitute, Etch Resistance, etc. In addition to the standard lithography parameters, resist characterization needs to include defect density studies. It was found that the new resists process with the best CD control, resulted in the introduction of orders of magnitude higher yield limiting defects at Gate, Contact adn Local Interconnect. The defect data were shared with the resists vendor and within days of the discovery the resist vendor was able to pinpoint the source of the problem. The fix was confirmed and the new resists were successfully released to production. By including defect monitoring into the resist qualification process, Cypress Semiconductor was able to 1) drive correction actions earlier resulting in faster ramp and 2) eliminate potential yield loss. We will discuss in this paper how to apply the Micro Photo Cell Monitoring methodology for defect monitoring in the photolithogprhay module and the

  8. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  9. Dielectric propertiies of the compositionally graded BaZrxTi2-xO5 thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yi Ping; Guo, Dong Yun; Wang, Chuan Bin; Shen, Qiang; Meng Zhang, Lian

    2013-03-01

    The downgraded and upgraded BaZrxTi2-xO5 (x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04) films normal to Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates were prepared by sol-gel method. The microstructure and dielectric properties of the compositionally graded BaZrxTi2-xO5 films were investigated. The single-phase downgraded and upgraded films were obtained as the films were annealed at 900 °C for 30 min. The downgraded BaZrxTi2-xO5 film had dense surface, while there were pores in the surface of the upgraded BaZrxTi2-xO5 film. The thicknesses of both upgraded and downgraded BaZrxTi2-xO5 films were about 500 nm. The values of permittivity (epsilonr) for the downgraded and upgraded BaZrxTi2-xO5 films were 84 and 100, respectively, at 1 MHz.

  10. 32nm design rule and process exploration flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; Cobb, Jonathan; Yang, Amy; Li, Ji; Lucas, Kevin; Sethi, Satyendra

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor manufacturers spend hundreds of millions of dollars and years of development time to create a new manufacturing process and to design frontrunner products to work on the new process. A considerable percentage of this large investment is aimed at producing the process design rules and related lithography technology to pattern the new products successfully. Significant additional cost and time is needed in both process and design development if the design rules or lithography strategy must be modified. Therefore, early and accurate prediction of both process design rules and lithography options is necessary for minimizing cost and timing in semiconductor development. This paper describes a methodology to determine the optimum design rules and lithography conditions with high accuracy early in the development lifecycle. We present results from the 32nm logic node but the methodology can be extended to the 22nm node or any other node. This work involves: automated generation of extended realistic logic test layouts utilizing programmed teststructures for a variety of design rules; determining a range of optical illumination and process conditions to test for each critical design layer; using these illumination conditions to create a extrapolatable process window OPC model which is matched to rigorous TCAD lithography focus-exposure full chemically amplified resist models; creating reticle enhancement technique (RET) recipes which are flexible enough to be used over a variety of design rule and illumination conditions; OPC recipes which are flexible enough to be used over a variety of design rule and illumination conditions; and OPC verification to find, categorize and report all patterning issues found in the different design and illumination variations. In this work we describe in detail the individual steps in the methodology, and provide results of its use for 32nm node design rule and process optimization.

  11. SU(2) x U(1) vacuum and the Centauro events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the fireballs invoked to explain the Centauro events are bubbles of a metastable superdense state of nuclear matter, created in high energy (E approximately 10 to the 15th power eV) cosmic ray collisions at the top of the atmosphere. If these bubbles are created with a Lorentz factor gamma approximately equals 10 at their CM frame, the objections against the origin of these events in cosmic ray interactions are overcome. A relationship then between their lifetime, tau, and the threshold energy for bubble formation, E sub th, appears to be insensitive to the value of tau and always close to E sub th approximately 10 to 15th power eV. Finally it is speculated that these bubbles might be manifestations of the SU(2) x U(1) false vacuum excited in these collisions. The absence of in the Centauro events is then explained by the decay modes of these excitations.

  12. Magnetic structure of NiS2 -xSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, S.; Louca, Despina; Yang, J.; Chatterjee, U.; Bugaris, D. E.; Chung, D. Y.; Peng, L.; Grayson, M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-01-01

    NiS2 -2 xSex is revisited to determine the magnetic structure using neutron diffraction and magnetic representational analysis. Upon cooling, the insulating parent compound, NiS2, becomes antiferromagnetic with two successive magnetic transitions. The first transition (M 1 ) occurs at TN˜39 K with Γ1ψ1 symmetry and a magnetic propagation vector of k =(000 ) . The second transition (M 2 ) occurs at TN˜30 K with k =(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) and a Γ1ψ2 symmetry with face-centered translations, giving rise to four possible magnetic domains. With doping, the system becomes metallic. The transition to the M 2 state is suppressed prior to x =0.4 while the M 1 state persists. The M 1 magnetic structure gradually vanishes by x ˜0.8 at a lower concentration than previously reported. The details of the magnetic structures are provided.

  13. Thermodynamics of fission products in UO2+-x

    SciTech Connect

    Nerikar, Pankaj V

    2009-01-01

    The stabilities of selected fission products - Xe, Cs, and Sr - are investigated as a function of non-stoichiometry x in UO{sub 2{+-}x}. In particular, density functional theory (OFT) is used to calculate the incorporation and solution energies of these fission products at the anion and cation vacancy sites, at the divacancy, and at the bound Schottky defect. In order to reproduce the correct insulating state of UO{sub 2}, the DFT calculations are performed using spin polarization and with the Hubbard U tenn. In general, higher charge defects are more soluble in the fuel matrix and the solubility of fission products increases as the hyperstoichiometry increases. The solubility of fission product oxides is also explored. CS{sub 2}O is observed as a second stable phase and SrO is found to be soluble in the UO{sub 2} matrix for all stoichiometries. These observations mirror experimentally observed phenomena.

  14. Management of optics. [for HEAO-2 X ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, T. E.; Russell, M.

    1981-01-01

    American Science and Engineering, Inc., designed the large X-ray optic for the HEAO-2 X-ray Telescope. The key element in this project was the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA), subcontracting the fabrication of the optical surfaces and their assembly and alignment. The roles and organization of the key participants in the creation of HRMA are defined, and the degree of interaction between the groups is described. Management of this effort was extremely complex because of the intricate weaving of responsibilities, and AS&E, as HEAO-2 Program managers, needed to be well versed in the scientific objectives, the technical requirements, the program requirements, and the subcontract management. Understanding these factors was essential for implementing both technical and management controls, such as schedule and budget constraints, in-process control, residence requirements, and scientist review and feedback. Despite unforeseen technical problems and interaction differences, the HEAO-2 was built on schedule and to specification.

  15. P2X receptors in cochlear Deiters' cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Bobbin, Richard P

    1998-01-01

    The ionotropic purinoceptors in isolated Deiters' cells of guinea-pig cochlea were characterized by use of the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique.Extracellular application of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) induced a dose-dependent inward current when the cells were voltage-clamped at −80 mV. The ATP-induced current showed desensitization and had a reversal potential around −4 mV.Increasing intracellular free Ca2+ by decreasing the concentration of EGTA in the pipette solution reduced the amplitude of the ATP-gated current.The order of agonist potency was: 2-methylthioATP (2-meSATP)>ATP>benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (BzATP)>α,β-methyleneATP (α,β,meATP>adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP)>uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP)>adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)=adenosine (Ad).Pretreatment with forskolin (10 μM), 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclophosphate (8-Br-cyclic AMP, 1 mM), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, 1 mM) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, 1 μM) reversibly reduced the ATP-induced peak current.The results are consistent with molecular biological data which indicate that P2X2 purinoceptors are present in Deiters' cells. In addition, the reduction of the ATP-gated current by activators of protein kinase A and protein kinase C indicates that these P2X2 purinoceptors can be functionally modulated by receptor phosphorylation. PMID:9641551

  16. Combustion Stability Analyses for J-2X Gas Generator Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Protz, C. S.; Casiano, M. J.; Kenny, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen rocket engine for upper stage and trans-lunar applications of the Ares vehicles for the Constellation program. This engine, designated the J-2X, is a higher pressure, higher thrust variant of the Apollo-era J-2 engine. Development was contracted to Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in 2006. Over the past several years, development of the gas generator for the J-2X engine has progressed through a variety of workhorse injector, chamber, and feed system configurations. Several of these configurations have resulted in injection-coupled combustion instability of the gas generator assembly at the first longitudinal mode of the combustion chamber. In this paper, the longitudinal mode combustion instabilities observed on the workhorse test stand are discussed in detail. Aspects of this combustion instability have been modeled at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center with several codes, including the Rocket Combustor Interaction Design and Analysis (ROCCID) code and a new lumped-parameter MatLab model. To accurately predict the instability characteristics of all the chamber and injector geometries and test conditions, several features of the submodels in the ROCCID suite of calculations required modification. Finite-element analyses were conducted of several complicated combustion chamber geometries to determine how to model and anchor the chamber response in ROCCID. A large suite of sensitivity calculations were conducted to determine how to model and anchor the injector response in ROCCID. These modifications and their ramification for future stability analyses of this type are discussed in detail. The lumped-parameter MatLab model of the gas generator assembly was created as an alternative calculation to the ROCCID methodology. This paper also describes this model and the stability calculations.

  17. Purinergic signaling via P2X7 receptor mediates IL-1β production in Kupffer cells exposed to silica nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Shuji; Negishi, Yusuke; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Takenouchi, Takato; Kitani, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ken

    2014-07-01

    There is extensive evidence that nanoparticles (NPs) cause adverse effects in multiple organs, including liver, though the mechanisms involved remain to be fully established. Kupffer cells are macrophages resident in the liver, and play important roles in liver inflammation induced by various toxic agents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members IL-1α,β are released from LPS-primed macrophages exposed to NPs, including silica NPs (SNPs), via activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 inflammasomes. Here, we investigated the mechanism of production of IL-1β via activation of inflammasomes in mouse Kupffer cell line KUP5, focusing on the role of purinergic signaling via P2X7 receptor. IL-1β production by LPS-primed KUP5 cells exposed to SNPs was increased dose-dependently, and was greatest in response to SNPs with a diameter of 30 nm (SNP30), as compared with 70-nm and 300-nm SNPs (SNP70 and SNP300). ATP release was also highest in cells exposed to SNP30. Treatment of LPS-primed KUP5 cells with ATP also induced a high level of IL-1β production, similar to that induced by SNP30. IL-1β production was significantly inhibited by apyrase (an ecto-nucleotidase) and A438079 (a P2X7 antagonist/ATP-release inhibitor). Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was confirmed in cells exposed to SNP30. In conclusion, ATP released from P2X7 receptor in response to stimulation of KUP5 cells with SNP30 induces ROS production via cell-membrane NADPH oxidase. The ROS causes activation of inflammasomes, leading to caspase-1-dependent processing of IL-1β. PMID:24685903

  18. A novel double patterning approach for 30nm dense holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Dennis Shu-Hao; Wang, Walter; Hsieh, Wei-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Yen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Shih, Steven

    2011-04-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) was commonly accepted as the major workhorse beyond water immersion lithography for sub-38nm half-pitch line patterning before the EUV production. For dense hole patterning, classical DPT employs self-aligned spacer deposition and uses the intersection of horizontal and vertical lines to define the desired hole patterns. However, the increase in manufacturing cost and process complexity is tremendous. Several innovative approaches have been proposed and experimented to address the manufacturing and technical challenges. A novel process of double patterned pillars combined image reverse will be proposed for the realization of low cost dense holes in 30nm node DRAM. The nature of pillar formation lithography provides much better optical contrast compared to the counterpart hole patterning with similar CD requirements. By the utilization of a reliable freezing process, double patterned pillars can be readily implemented. A novel image reverse process at the last stage defines the hole patterns with high fidelity. In this paper, several freezing processes for the construction of the double patterned pillars were tested and compared, and 30nm double patterning pillars were demonstrated successfully. A variety of different image reverse processes will be investigated and discussed for their pros and cons. An economic approach with the optimized lithography performance will be proposed for the application of 30nm DRAM node.

  19. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  20. La2-xSrxCuO4 superconductor nanowire devices

    SciTech Connect

    Litombe, N. E.; Bollinger, A. T.; Hoffman, J. E.; Božović, I.

    2014-07-02

    La2-xSrxCuO₄ nanowire devices have been fabricated and characterized using electrical transport measurements. In addition, nanowires with widths down to 80 nm are patterned using high-resolution electron beam lithography. However, the narrowest nanowires show incomplete superconducting transitions with some residual resistance at T = 4 K. Here, we report on refinement of the fabrication process to achieve narrower nanowire devices with complete superconducting transitions, opening the path to the study of novel physics arising from dimension-limited superconductivity on the nanoscale.

  1. Magneto-optical trap for metastable helium at 389 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Stas, R.J.W.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2003-05-01

    We have constructed a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for metastable triplet helium atoms utilizing the 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}{yields}3 {sup 3}P{sub 2} line at 389 nm as the trapping and cooling transition. The far-red-detuned MOT (detuning {delta}=-41 MHz) typically contains few times 10{sup 7} atoms at a relatively high ({approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) density, which is a consequence of the large momentum transfer per photon at 389 nm and a small two-body loss rate coefficient (2x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s<{beta}<1.0x10{sup -9} cm{sup 3}/s). The two-body loss rate is more than five times smaller than in a MOT on the commonly used 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}{yields}2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} line at 1083 nm. Furthermore, laser cooling at 389 nm results in temperatures somewhat lower than those achieved using 1083 nm. The 389-nm MOT exhibits small losses due to two-photon ionization, which have been investigated as well.

  2. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and EUV Lithography: An Update on Imaging at 20-40 nm Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, D.; Anderson, E.; Denbeaux, G.; Goldberg, K.; Naulleau, P.; Schneider, G.

    2002-11-01

    Major advances in both soft x-ray microscopy, at wavelengths from 0.6 to 4 nm, and EUV lithography, at wavelengths between 13 and 14 nm, are reviewed. In the XRL-2000 proceedings we reported soft x-ray microscopy resolved to 25 nm, in static two-dimensional imaging, with applications to biology, magnetic materials, and various "wet" environmental samples. In this 2002 update we report significant extensions to three-dimensional tomographic imaging, dynamical studies of magnetic and electronic devices, and static two-dimensional microscopy poised for extension to below 20 nm spatial resolution. In the XRL-2000 proceedings we reported EUV lithographic imaging of 50 nm lines/100 nm spaces in static microfield (approx100 mum) exposures. In this 2002 update we report scanned full-field (25 mm by 32 mm) images at better than 100 nm lines/100 nm spaces, static microfield exposures down to 50 nm lines/50 nm spaces, and isolated lines to 39 nm wide at 0.1 NA. With soon to be available 0.3 NA optics, we expect to print isolated lines, in static micro exposures, at 16-20 nm width in 2003. These results will demonstrate EUV lithography's ability to meet not only the ITRS Roadmap 45 nm node (26 nm isolated lines in resist) in 2007, but also the 32 nm node (18 nm isolated lines in resist) in 2009, both of which the semiconductor industry is now preparing for.

  3. 469nm Fiber Laser Source

    SciTech Connect

    Drobshoff, A; Dawson, J W; Pennington, D M; Payne, S A; Beach, R

    2005-01-20

    We have demonstrated 466mW of 469nm light from a frequency doubled continuous wave fiber laser. The system consisted of a 938nm single frequency laser diode master oscillator, which was amplified in two stages to 5 Watts using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers and then frequency doubled in a single pass through periodically poled KTP. The 3cm long PPKTP crystal was made by Raicol Crystals Ltd. with a period of 5.9 {micro}m and had a phase match temperature of 47 degrees Centigrade. The beam was focused to a 1/e{sup 2} diameter in the crystal of 29 {micro}m. Overall conversion efficiency was 11% and the results agreed well with standard models. Our 938nm fiber amplifier design minimizes amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing an optimized core to cladding size ratio. This design allows the 3-level transition to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the 1088nm 4-level transition. We have also carefully chosen the fiber coil diameter to help suppress propagation of wavelengths longer than 938 nm. At 2 Watts, the 938nm laser had an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >10:1).

  4. Novel EUV resist development for sub-14nm half pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masafumi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Fujisawa, Tomohisa; Kimoto, Takakazu; Shiratani, Motohiro; Nagai, Tomoki; Ayothi, Ramakrishnan; Hishiro, Yoshi; Hoshiko, Kenji; Kimura, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has emerged as a promising candidate for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices at the sub-14nm half pitch lines and spaces (LS) pattern for 7 nm node and beyond. The success of EUV lithography for the high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices depends on the availability of suitable resist with high resolution and sensitivity. It is well-known that the key challenge for EUV resist is the simultaneous requirement of ultrahigh resolution (R), low line edge roughness (L) and high sensitivity (S). In this paper, we investigated and developed new chemically amplified resist (CAR) materials to achieve sub-14 nm hp resolution. We found that both resolution and sensitivity were improved simultaneously by controlling acid diffusion length and efficiency of acid generation using novel PAG and sensitizer. EUV lithography evaluation results obtained for new CAR on Micro Exposure Tool (MET) and NXE3300 system are described and the fundamentals are discussed.

  5. A 4-node Bilinear Isoparametric Element in Rockwell NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, C.; Allison, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the Rockwell NASTRAN four node quadrilateral (QUAD4) element is presented. The element derivation utilizes bilinear isoparametric techniques both for membrane and bending characteristics. The QUAD4 element coordinate system, membrane properties, lumped mass matrix, and treatment of warping are based upon the COSMIC/NASTRAN QDMEMI element while the bending characteristics are based on a paper by T. J. R. Hughes. The effects of warping on the bending stiffness, consistent mass, and geometric stiffness are based upon a paper by R. H. MacNeal. Numerical integration is accomplished by Gaussian quadrature on a 2 x 2 grid. Practical user support features include variable element thickness, thermal analysis and layered composite material definitions.

  6. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. PMID:23010587

  7. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  8. Approach to intensely enhancing neck nodes

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Amit; Gummalla, Krishna Mohan; Loke, Siu Cheng; Goh, Julian; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical node evaluation is one of the most common problems encountered by a radiologist. Here, we present a pictorial review of intensely enhancing neck nodes. While enhancement in a cervical node is a common radiologic finding on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, only few conditions cause intense enhancement in cervical nodes. We discuss the common causes of intensely enhancing neck nodes along with pertinent radiologic features and key differentiating points that aid radiologists in reaching a diagnosis. In addition, we discuss certain potential non-nodal mimics, which need to be excluded. PMID:26782154

  9. Novel Phenyl-Substituted 5,6-Dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazine P2X7 Antagonists with Robust Target Engagement in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Chrovian, Christa C; Soyode-Johnson, Akinola; Ao, Hong; Bacani, Genesis M; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lord, Brian; Nguyen, Leslie; Rech, Jason C; Wang, Qi; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Letavic, Michael A

    2016-04-20

    Novel 5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazine P2X7 antagonists were optimized to allow for good blood-brain barrier permeability and high P2X7 target engagement in the brain of rats. Compound 25 (huP2X7 IC50 = 9 nM; rat P2X7 IC50 = 42 nM) achieved 80% receptor occupancy for 6 h when dosed orally at 10 mg/kg in rats as measured by ex vivo radioligand binding autoradiography. Structure-activity relationships within this series are described, as well as in vitro ADME results. In vivo pharmacokinetic data for key compounds is also included. PMID:26752113

  10. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  11. Full-field imprinting of sub-40 nm patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jeongho; Kim, Hoyeon; Eynon, Ben

    2008-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been included on the ITRS Lithography Roadmap at the 32, 22 and 16 nm nodes. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL (R)) is a unique patterning method that has been designed from the beginning to enable precise overlay to enable multilevel device fabrication. A photocurable low viscosity resist is dispensed dropwise to match the pattern density requirements of the device, thus enabling patterning with a uniform residual layer thickness across a field and across multiple wafers. Further, S-FIL provides sub-50 nm feature resolution without the significant expense of multi-element projection optics or advanced illumination sources. However, since the technology is 1X, it is critical to address the infrastructure associated with the fabrication of imprint masks (templates). For sub-32 nm device manufacturing, one of the major technical challenges remains the fabrication of full-field 1x imprint masks with commercially viable write times. Recent progress in the writing of sub-40 nm patterns using commercial variable shape e-beam tools and non-chemically amplified resists has demonstrated a very promising route to realizing these objectives, and in doing so, has considerably strengthened imprint lithography as a competitive manufacturing technology for the sub-32nm node. Here we report the first imprinting results from sub-40 nm full-field patterns, using Samsung's current flash memory production device design. The fabrication of the imprint mask and the resulting critical dimension control and uniformity are discussed, along with image placement results. The imprinting results are described in terms of CD uniformity, etch results, and overlay.

  12. 32 nm imprint masks using variable shape beam pattern generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selinidis, Kosta; Thompson, Ecron; Schmid, Gerard; Stacey, Nick; Perez, Joseph; Maltabes, John; Resnick, Douglas J.; Yeo, Jeongho; Kim, Hoyeon; Eynon, Ben

    2008-05-01

    Imprint lithography has been included on the ITRS Lithography Roadmap at the 32, 22 and 16 nm nodes. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is a unique method that has been designed from the beginning to enable precise overlay for creating multilevel devices. A photocurable low viscosity monomer is dispensed dropwise to meet the pattern density requirements of the device, thus enabling imprint patterning with a uniform residual layer across a field and across entire wafers. Further, S-FIL provides sub-100 nm feature resolution without the significant expense of multi-element, high quality projection optics or advanced illumination sources. However, since the technology is 1X, it is critical to address the infrastructure associated with the fabrication of templates. For sub-32 nm device manufacturing, one of the major technical challenges remains the fabrication of full-field 1x templates with commercially viable write times. Recent progress in the writing of sub-40 nm patterns using commercial variable shape e-beam tools and non-chemically amplified resists has demonstrated a very promising route to realizing these objectives, and in doing so, has considerably strengthened imprint lithography as a competitive manufacturing technology for the sub 32nm node. Here we report the first imprinting results from sub-40 nm full-field patterns, using Samsung's current flash memory production device design. The fabrication of the template is discussed and the resulting critical dimension control and uniformity are discussed, along with image placement results. The imprinting results are described in terms of CD uniformity, etch results, and overlay.

  13. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Jamil; Yin, Qian; Uehara, Mayuko; Ohori, Shunsuke; Tang, Li; Cai, Kaimin; Ichimura, Takaharu; McGrath, Martina; Maarouf, Omar; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Loughhead, Scott; Petr, Jarolim; Sun, Qidi; Kwon, Mincheol; Tullius, Stefan; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Cheng, Jianjun; Abdi, Reza

    2016-05-10

    Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo. PMID:27134176

  14. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  15. High Internal Gain Axial SiOx-In2-xO3-y/Au Heterostructure Nanocolumnar Array Based Schottky Detector for Broad Band Recognition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naorem Khelchand; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2015-08-01

    Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) was employed to fabricate the SiOx-In2-xO3-y axial heterostructure nanocolumn. The fabricated heterostructure nanocolumn was annealed at 550 °C for 1 hour at open air condition. The XRD analysis revealed the polycrystalline nature of the annealed SiOx-In2-xO3-y nanocolumn. The emission at 378 nm (~3.3 eV, FWHM 39.101 nm) from Photoluminescence (PL), corresponds to main band gap of In2O3. The In2-xO3-y-SiOx nanocolumn based Schottky detector processed maximum photoresponsivity of 199 A/W at 375 nm, as well as UV-Vis broad band detection. The high internal gain of ~659 at UV region (375 nm) was calculated for the device. The detector exhibited increase in photoresponsivity with decrease in room temperature upto 160 K, which further reduced at low temperature. A very sharp rise time (~1.82 s) and decay time (~1.78 s) was recorded at the applied potential of -2 V and -3 V. PMID:26369205

  16. Coloring elimination in Sr1 - x Ce x F2 + x crystals in the visible spectral range during growth from melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, D. N.; Ivanovskaya, N. A.; Samsonova, N. V.; Sorokin, N. I.; Sobolev, B. P.; Popov, P. A.

    2013-09-01

    Crystals of the Sr1 - x Ce x F2 + x compositions close to the congruent one ( x ˜ 0.3) are fabricated by the vertical directional crystallization. It is shown that the use of CF4 to form a fluorinating atmosphere during growth leads to additional spurious absorption in the crystals in the range 350-600 nm. The use of PbF2 and ZnF2 for fluorination makes it possible to obtain colorless Sr1 - x Ce x F2 + x crystals of the desired optical quality from melt. The thermal conductivity of crystal with x ˜ 0.28 in the temperature range 80-500 K lies within 1.50 ± 0.03 W m-1 K-1. High ionic conductivity makes the Sr1 - x Ce x F2 + x crystals promising for application in solid-state ionics.

  17. Speciation and unusual reactivity in PuO2+x.

    PubMed

    Conradson, Steven D; Begg, Bruce D; Clark, David L; Den Auwer, Christophe; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J; Gordon, Pamela L; Hess, Nancy J; Hess, Ryan; Keogh, D Webster; Morales, Luis A; Neu, Mary P; Runde, Wolfgang; Tait, C Drew; Veirs, D Kirk; Villella, Phillip M

    2003-06-16

    Pu L(3) XAFS measurements show that the excess oxygen in single phase PuO(2+)(x)() occurs as oxo groups with Pu-O distances of 1.83-1.91 A. This distance and the energy of the edge (via comparison with a large number of related compounds) are more consistent with a Pu(IV/V) than a Pu(IV/VI) mixture. Analogous to Pu(IV) colloids, although the Pu-Pu pair distribution remains single site even when it shows substantial disorder, the Pu-O distribution can display a number of additional shells at specific distances up to 3.4 A even in high fired materials when no oxo groups are present, implying intrinsic H(+)/OH(-)(/H(2)O). The number of oxo atoms increases when samples are equilibrated with humid air at ambient temperature, indicating that the Pu reactivity in this solid system differs notably from that of isolated complexes and demonstrating the importance of nanoscale cooperative phenomena and total free energy in determining its chemical properties. PMID:12793805

  18. Effects of antidepressants on P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xiang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Liu, Wei-Zhi; Shang, Zhi-Lei

    2016-08-30

    Antidepressants including paroxetine, fluoxetine and desipramine are commonly used for treating depression. P2×7 receptors are member of the P2X family. Recent studies indicate that these receptors may constitute a novel potential target for the treatment of depression. In the present study, we examined the action of these antidepressants on cloned rat P2×7 receptors that were stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and found that paroxetine at a dose of 10µM could significantly reduce the inward currents evoked by the P2×7 receptors agonist BzATP by pre-incubation for 6-12 but not by acute application (10µM) or pre-incubation for 2-6h at a dose of 1µM, 3µM or 10µM paroxetine. Neither fluoxetine nor desipramine had significant effects on currents evoked by BzATP either applied acutely or by pre-incubation at various concentrations. These results suggest that the sensitivity of rat P2×7 receptors to antidepressants is different, which may represent an unknown mechanism by which these drugs exert their therapeutic effects and side effects. PMID:27318632

  19. SU(2) x U(1) vacuum and the Centauro events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, D.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that the fireballs invoked to explain the Centauro events are bubbles of a metastable superdense state of nuclear matter, created in high energy (E is approximately 10 to the 15th power eV) cosmic ray collisions at the top of the atmosphere. If these bubbles are created with a Lorentz factor gamma approximately = 10 at their CM frame, the objections against the origin of these events in cosmic ray interactions are overcome. Assuming further, that the Centauro events are to the explosive decay of these metastable bubbles, a relationship between their lifetime, tau, and the threshold energy for bubble formation, E sub th, is derived. The minimum lifetime consistent with such an interpretation in tau is approximately 10 to the -8th power sec, while the E sub th appears to be insensitive to the value of tau and always close to E sub th is approximately 10 to the 15th power eV. Finally it is speculated that if the available CM energy is thermalized in such collisions, these bubbles might be manifestations of excitations of the SU(2) x U(1) false vacuum. The absence of neutral pions in the Centauro events is then explained by the decay of these excitations.

  20. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-05-01

    Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes. PMID:26273225

  1. Spectroscopic investigation on tunable luminescence by energy transfer in Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, P. Mani; Vimal, G.; Biju, P. R.; Joseph, Cyriac; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    New Sm3+ activated Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphors were synthesized through sol-gel method. The structural and luminescence properties have been studied by XRD, TEM and photoluminescence measurements. The XRD pattern confirms that the Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 crystallizes in the same orthorhombic structure of Tb2(MoO4)3. The spectroscopic and laser parameters of Sm3+ ion in Tb2-x(MoO4)3 matrix were evaluated for the first time using Judd-Ofelt theoretical analysis. The higher value of stimulated emission cross-section of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 transition of Sm3+ is favorable for low threshold and high gain to obtain continuous wave laser action. The photoluminescence excitation spectra suggest that this novel phosphor can be excited over a broad range from nUV to blue light (300-490 nm). Under the excitation of UV, Tb2-xSmx(MoO4)3 nanophosphor exhibits the characteristic emissions of Tb3+ and Sm3+. By varying the doping concentration of Sm3+, the emission color of the phosphors can be tuned and white emission in a single composition can be obtained under host excitation, in which an energy transfer from MoO42- → Sm3+/ Tb3+ and Tb3+ → Sm3+ was observed. The investigation of the luminescence decay curves and lifetime values implies the energy transfer between Tb3+ → Sm3+ and confirms the absence of Sm3+ → Tb3+ energy transfer. These phosphors might be a promising material for use in nUV LEDs and can exhibit tricolor luminescence under single excitation wavelength.

  2. Probing hydrodesulfurization over bimetallic phosphides using monodisperse Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Samuel J.; Liyanage, D. Ruchira; Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Ilic, Boris; Brock, Stephanie L.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Metal phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica provide a well-defined system for probing the fundamental chemistry of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction over this new class of hydrotreating catalysts. To investigate composition effects in bimetallic phosphides, the HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out over a series of Ni-rich Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 (M = Co, Fe) nanocatalysts (x ≤ 0.50). The Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles (average diameters: 11-13 nm) were prepared by solution-phase arrested precipitation and encapsulated in mesoporous silica, characterized by a range of techniques (XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, BET surface area, CO chemisorption) and tested for DBT HDS activity and selectivity. The highest activity was observed for a Ni1.92Co0.08P@mSiO2 nanocatalyst, but the overall trend was a decrease in HDS activity with increasing Co or Fe content. In contrast, the highest turnover frequency (TOF) was observed for the most Co- and Fe-rich compositions based on sites titrated by CO chemisorption. IR spectral studies of adsorbed CO on the Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 catalysts indicate that an increase in electron density occurs on Ni sites as the Co or Fe content is increased, which may be responsible for the increased TOFs of the catalytic sites. The Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 nanocatalysts exhibit a strong preference for the direct desulfurization pathway (DDS) for DBT HDS that changes only slightly with increasing Co or Fe content.

  3. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Libshitz, H I; McKenna, R J

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Specificity was 66% (43/65). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Of these, 21 had mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm; 10 harbored metastases and 11 did not. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. In both of these groups, metastatic nodal disease was found in only 25% of nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. PMID:6332469

  4. Spectroscopic and phonon side band analysis of Tb2-xEux(MoO4)3 nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Kamal P.; Vimal, G.; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Ittyachen, M. A.; Joseph, Cyriac

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical calculation of the spectroscopic parameters of Tb2-xEux(MoO4)3 nanophosphor using Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory and its experimental verification were presented along with Phonon side band (PSB) analysis. The intensity parameters, radiative properties and stimulated emission parameters of the samples were evaluated using J-O theory and are compared with experimental results. Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the vibrational modes associated with the sample and the chemical composition was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The phonon side band analysis and nonradiative decay due to multiphonon relaxation in Tb2-xEux(MoO4)3 were also reported. PSB are observed in the excitation spectra of Eu3+ at 446 and 427 nm, on monitoring the 5D0→7F2 transition at 612 nm. PSB in Eu3+ ions are associated with the 7F0→5D2 transition or zero phonon line, and are used to analyze the phonon energy, electron-phonon coupling strength and multiphonon relaxation of the sample. The correlation between Raman vibrational modes and PSB spectra were established. The photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra were used to study the luminescence properties of the sample. Under host excitation, the prepared sample exhibit the characteristic emission of Eu3+ corresponding to 5D0→7F1,2,3,4 transitions due to an energy transfer from MoO42- and Tb3+ to Eu3+. These studies indicate that Tb2-xEux(MoO4)3 phosphor is a promising material for photonic applications such as fluorescent lamps and color display fields.

  5. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices. PMID:23812946

  6. Tubby-RFP Balancers for Developmental Analysis: FM7c 2xTb-RFP, CyO 2xTb-RFP and TM3 2xTb-RFP

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Cara; Pignoni, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    We report here the construction of Tubby-RFP balancers for the X, 2nd and 3rd chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. The insertion of a 2xTb-RFP transgene on the FM7c, CyO and TM3 balancer chromosomes introduces two easily scorable, dominant, developmental markers. The strong Tb phenotype is visible to the naked eye at the larval L2, L3 and pupal stages. The RFP associated with the cuticle is easily detected at all stages from late embryo to adult with the use of a fluorescence stereomicroscope. The FM7c Bar 2xTb-RFP, CyO Cy 2xTb-RFP and TM3 Sb 2xTb-RFP balancers will greatly facilitate the analysis of lethals and other developmental mutants in L2/L3 larvae and pupae, but also provide coverage of other stages beginning in late embryogenesis through to the adult. PMID:21913310

  7. Clinical Overview of MDM2/X-Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Andrew; Chia, Kee Ming; Haupt, Sue; Thomas, David; Haupt, Ygal; Lim, Elgene

    2016-01-01

    MDM2 and MDMX are the primary negative regulators of p53, which under normal conditions maintain low intracellular levels of p53 by targeting it to the proteasome for rapid degradation and inhibiting its transcriptional activity. Both MDM2 and MDMX function as powerful oncogenes and are commonly over-expressed in some cancers, including sarcoma (~20%) and breast cancer (~15%). In contrast to tumors that are p53 mutant, whereby the current therapeutic strategy restores the normal active conformation of p53, MDM2 and MDMX represent logical therapeutic targets in cancer for increasing wild-type (WT) p53 expression and activities. Recent preclinical studies suggest that there may also be situations that MDM2/X inhibitors could be used in p53 mutant tumors. Since the discovery of nutlin-3a, the first in a class of small molecule MDM2 inhibitors that binds to the hydrophobic cleft in the N-terminus of MDM2, preventing its association with p53, there is now an extensive list of related compounds. In addition, a new class of stapled peptides that can target both MDM2 and MDMX have also been developed. Importantly, preclinical modeling, which has demonstrated effective in vitro and in vivo killing of WT p53 cancer cells, has now been translated into early clinical trials allowing better assessment of their biological effects and toxicities in patients. In this overview, we will review the current MDM2- and MDMX-targeted therapies in development, focusing particularly on compounds that have entered into early phase clinical trials. We will highlight the challenges pertaining to predictive biomarkers for and toxicities associated with these compounds, as well as identify potential combinatorial strategies to enhance its anti-cancer efficacy. PMID:26858935

  8. The ATP Receptors P2X7 and P2X4 Modulate High Glucose and Palmitate-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sathanoori, Ramasri; Swärd, Karl; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels are principal players in vascular inflammatory responses. Dysregulation of endothelial cell function caused by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia often result in impaired vasoregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered barrier function. Various stressors including high glucose stimulate the release of nucleotides thus initiating signaling via purinergic receptors. However, purinergic modulation of inflammatory responses in endothelial cells caused by high glucose and palmitate remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the effect of high glucose and palmitate is mediated by P2X7 and P2X4 and if they play a role in endothelial cell dysfunction. Transcript and protein levels of inflammatory genes as well as reactive oxygen species production, endothelial-leukocyte adhesion, and cell permeability were investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to high glucose and palmitate. We report high glucose and palmitate to increase levels of extracellular ATP, expression of P2X7 and P2X4, and inflammatory markers. Both P2X7 and P2X4 antagonists inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced interleukin-6 levels with the former having a significant effect on interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2. The effect of the antagonists was confirmed with siRNA knockdown of the receptors. In addition, P2X7 mediated both high glucose and palmitate-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Blocking P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, high glucose and palmitate enhanced endothelial cell permeability that was dependent on both P2X7 and P2X4. Furthermore, antagonizing the P2X7 inhibited high glucose and palmitate-mediated activation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase

  9. Network model with structured nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisco, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    We present a network model in which words over a specific alphabet, called structures, are associated to each node and undirected edges are added depending on some distance measure between different structures. This model shifts the underlying principle of network generation from a purely mathematical one to an information-based one. It is shown how this model differs from the Barábasi-Albert and duplication models and how it can generate networks with topological features similar to biological networks: power law degree distribution, low average path length, clustering coefficient independent from the network size, etc. Two biological networks: S. cerevisiae gene network and E. coli protein-protein interaction network, are replicated using this model.

  10. New anatase-type Til-2xNbxAlxO2 solid solution nanoparticles: direct formation, phase stability, and photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masanori; Ito, Takaharu

    2006-12-01

    New anatase-type titania solid solutions co-doped with niobium and aluminum (Til-2xNbxAIlxO2 (X = 0 -0.20)) were synthesized as nanoparticles from precursor solutions of TiOSO4, NbCl5, and Al(NO3)3 under mild hydrothermal conditions at 180 degrees C for 5 h using the hydrolysis of urea. The lattice parameters a0 and c0 of anatase slightly and gradually increased, when the content of niobium and aluminum increased from X = 0 to 0.20. The crystallite size of anatase increased from 12 to 28 nm with increasing the value of X from 0 to 0.20. Their photocatalytic activity and adsorptivity were evaluated separately by the measurement of the concentration of methylene blue (MB) remained in the solution in the dark or under UV-light irradiation. The adsorptivity of TiO2 was improved by the formation of anatase-type Til-2xNbxAlxO2 solid solutions. The photocatalytic activity of anatase-type Til-2xNbxAlxO2 solid solutions was superior to that of commercially available anatase-type pure TiO2 (ST-01) and anatase-type pure TiO2 hydrothermally prepared. The new anatase phase of Til-2xNbxAlxO2 (X = 0-0.20) solid solutions existed stably up to 850 0C during heat treatment in air. In comparison with hydrothermal pure TiO2, the starting temperature of anatase-to-rutile phase transformation was delayed by the formation of Ti1-2xNbxAlxO, (X = 0-0.20) solid solutions, although its completing temperature was accelerated. PMID:17256336

  11. Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Chow, V. I.; Williams, S. L.; Botsford, L. W.; Morgan, S. G.; Nyden, B.; Tustin, J. A.; McAfee, S.; Shideler, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON) is comprised of radar mapping of surface currents, a moored current profiler, and shoreline oceanographic and meteorological observations. Ongoing shoreline data on temperature and salinity date back to 1955, with continuous records of sealevel, wind, meteorology, and chlorophyll fluorescence starting more recently. Radar observations started in 2001 with deployment of two CODAR antennae. Together with a third CODAR unit deployed in 2002, these provide coverage from Pt Reyes north to the CODE line. Real-time ADCP data from the mooring started in late 2004. Plans include nearshore wave data, CTD/fluorescence data from the mooring, and deployment of a nutrient sensor at the shoreline. This coastal ocean observing node is part of the state-funded COCMP-NC program and the CeNCOOS regional association for central and northern California. Ancillary regional data are available on offshore winds (NDBC buoys), offshore waves (CDIP buoy), river flow, and satellite observations. The value of this suite of measurements is built on (1) detailed understanding of circulation, derived from WEST, CODE, and other prior studies of this region, including mesoscale atmosphere and ocean modeling, (2) active integration of circulation patterns in ongoing studies of planktonic and benthic ecology, and (3) direct interaction with local, state and federal agencies with interest in this region. To-date, the ongoing data series have shown potential for improved understanding and monitoring of fishery populations such as salmon and crab, as well as water quality concerns including oil spills and toxic pollutants. Through an active involvement in local studies and environmental management issues, BOON seeks to develop alternatives to supply-side thinking in the design of coastal ocean observing systems. BOON is based at the Bodega Marine Laboratory and thus provides invaluable support for academic study of more fundamental questions, such as carbon budgets

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence properties of CaY2-xEuxGe3O10 (x=0-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipina, Olga A.; Surat, Ludmila L.; Melkozerova, Marina A.; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Leonidov, Ivan I.; Zubkov, Vladimir G.

    2013-10-01

    The novel red emitting phosphors based on CaY2-xEuxGe3O10 (x=0-2) have been prepared using both a conventional solid-state reaction and a synthesis route via EDTA-complexing process. Powder XRD study has revealed that CaY2-xEuxGe3O10 (x=0.1-0.8, 2.0) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, Z=4. The trivalent europium ions occupy three different sites (4e) with the C1 symmetry. The phosphors exhibit a strong red emission under excitations at 250 nm and 393 nm. The light emission efficiency depends on the excitation wavelength, the activator content and the method of synthesis. Appropriate CIE chromaticity coordinates for CaY1.7Eu0.3Ge3O10 are x=0.54 and y=0.29.

  13. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  14. Bit Distribution and Reliability of High Density 1.5 V Ferroelectric Random Access Memory Embedded with 130 nm, 5 lm Copper Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K. R.; Boku, K.; Remack, K. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Summerfelt, S. R.; Celii, F. G.; Aggarwal, S.; Martin, J. S.; Hall, L.; Matz, L.; Rathsack, B.; McAdams, H.; Moise, T. S.

    2006-04-01

    High density embedded ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM), operable at 1.5 V, has been fabricated within a 130 nm, 5 lm Cu/fluorosilicate glass (FSG) logic process. To evaluate FRAM extendability to future process nodes, we have measured the bit distribution and reliability properties of arrays with varying individual capacitor areas ranging from 0.40 μm2 (130 nm node) to 0.15 μm2 (˜65 nm node). Wide signal margins, stable retention (≫10 years at 85 °C), and high endurance read/write cycling (≫1012 cycles) have been demonstrated, suggesting that reliable, high density FRAM can be realized.

  15. Drainage of cells and soluble antigen from the CNS to regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Laman, Jon D; Weller, Roy O

    2013-09-01

    Despite the absence of conventional lymphatics, there is efficient drainage of both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains from the subarachnoid space by channels that pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to the nasal mucosa and cervical lymph nodes in animals and in humans; antigen presenting cells (APC) migrate along this pathway to lymph nodes. ISF and solutes drain from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes by a separate route along 100-150 nm wide basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries. This pathway is too narrow for the migration of APC so it is unlikely that APC traffic directly from brain parenchyma to lymph nodes by this route. We present a model for the pivotal involvement of regional lymph nodes in immunological reactions of the CNS. The role of regional lymph nodes in immune reactions of the CNS in virus infections, the remote influence of the gut microbiota, multiple sclerosis and stroke are discussed. Evidence is presented for the role of cervical lymph nodes in the induction of tolerance and its influence on neuroimmunological reactions. We look to the future by examining how nanoparticle technology will enhance our understanding of CNS-lymph node connections and by reviewing the implications of lymphatic drainage of the brain for diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the CNS ranging from neuroimmunological disorders to dementias. Finally, we review the challenges and opportunities for progress in CNS-lymph node interactions and their involvement in disease processes. PMID:23695293

  16. UWB-WBAN sensor node design.

    PubMed

    Keong, Ho Chee; Yuce, M R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hardware development of a UWB sensor node for wireless body area networks. A few unique UWB pulse generation techniques have been discussed. The sensor node transmits multiple pulses per bit to increase the average power of the transmitted signal in order to improve the bit-error rate (BER) performance. The multiple-pulse per bit technique is also used as the coding scheme to identify the individual sensor nodes when more than one sensor forms a network. The sensors nodes are able to transmit body signals up to 2 m with a BER lower than 10(-5). PMID:22254770

  17. What's the Best Node for Your Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2000-03-01

    A well designed cluster requires a node containing the most appropriate balance of resources for the problems it will be solving. For many scientific problems, memory bandwidth or peripheral bandwidth can be a severe bottleneck, and spending extra money on a faster processor will not increase performance significantly. This talk will cover the options available for cluster nodes including processors, memory speeds and standards, and peripheral busses. There will also be a discussion of when SMP nodes should be used, and how many processors can be accomodated per node.

  18. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  19. A four-interleaving HBD SRAM cell based on dual DICE for multiple node collection mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liu; Suge, Yue; Shijin, Lu

    2015-11-01

    A 4-interleaving cell of 2-dual interlocked cells (DICE) is proposed, which reduces single event induced multiple node collection between the sensitive nodes of sensitive pairs in a DICE storage cell in 65 nm technology. The technique involves the 4-interleaving of dual DICE cells at a layout level to meet the required spacing between sensitive nodes in an area-efficient manner. Radiation experiments using a 65 nm CMOS test chip demonstrate that the LETth of our 4-interleaving cell of dual DICE encounters are almost 4× larger and the SEU cross section per bit for our proposed dual DICE design is almost two orders of magnitude less compared to the reference traditional DICE cell.

  20. Megahertz FDML laser with up to 143nm sweep range for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 1050nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Eibl, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We present a new design of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser (FDML laser), which provides a new record in sweep range at ~1μm center wavelength: At the fundamental sweep rate of 2x417 kHz we reach 143nm bandwidth and 120nm with 4x buffering at 1.67MHz sweep rate. The latter configuration of our system is characterized: The FWHM of the point spread function (PSF) of a mirror is 5.6μm (in tissue). Human in vivo retinal imaging is performed with the MHz laser showing more details in vascular structures. Here we could measure an axial resolution of 6.0μm by determining the FWHM of specular reflex in the image. Additionally, challenges related to such a high sweep bandwidth such as water absorption are investigated.

  1. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Louis-Philippe; Ase, Ariel R.; Séguéla, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn) are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane. All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e., homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C (PLC)-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and microglia. PMID:24324400

  2. Single Channel Properties of P2X2 Purinoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shinghua; Sachs, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    The single channel properties of cloned P2X2 purinoceptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and Xenopus oocytes were studied in outside-out patches. The mean single channel current–voltage relationship exhibited inward rectification in symmetric solutions with a chord conductance of ∼30 pS at −100 mV in 145 mM NaCl. The channel open state exhibited fast flickering with significant power beyond 10 kHz. Conformational changes, not ionic blockade, appeared responsible for the flickering. The equilibrium constant of Na+ binding in the pore was ∼150 mM at 0 mV and voltage dependent. The binding site appeared to be ∼0.2 of the electrical distance from the extracellular surface. The mean channel current and the excess noise had the selectivity: K+ > Rb+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. ATP increased the probability of being open (Po) to a maximum of 0.6 with an EC50 of 11.2 μM and a Hill coefficient of 2.3. Lowering extracellular pH enhanced the apparent affinity of the channel for ATP with a pKa of ∼7.9, but did not cause a proton block of the open channel. High pH slowed the rise time to steps of ATP without affecting the fall time. The mean single channel amplitude was independent of pH, but the excess noise increased with decreasing pH. Kinetic analysis showed that ATP shortened the mean closed time but did not affect the mean open time. Maximum likelihood kinetic fitting of idealized single channel currents at different ATP concentrations produced a model with four sequential closed states (three binding steps) branching to two open states that converged on a final closed state. The ATP association rates increased with the sequential binding of ATP showing that the binding sites are not independent, but positively cooperative. Partially liganded channels do not appear to open. The predicted Po vs. ATP concentration closely matches the single channel current dose–response curve. PMID:10228183

  3. Z2 x Z3 Symmetry of Multferroic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2014-03-01

    Hexagonal REMnO3 (RE = rare earths) with RE =Ho-Lu, Y, and Sc, is an improper ferroelectric where the size mismatch between RE and Mn induces a trimerization-type structural phase transition, and this structural transition leads to three structural domains, each of which can support two directions of ferroelectric polarization. We reported that domains in h-REMnO3 meet in cloverleaf arrangements that cycle through all six domain configurations, Occurring in pairs, the cloverleafs can be viewed as vortices and antivortices, in which the cycle of domain configurations is reversed. Vortices and antivortices are topological defects: even in a strong electric field they won't annihilate. These ferroelectric vortices/antivortices are found to be associated with intriguing collective magnetism at domain walls, reflecting the multiferroic nature of vortices. We have found that an intriguing, but seemingly irregular network of a zoo of multiferroic vortices and antivortices in h-REMnO3 can be neatly analyzed in terms of graph theory, and this graph theoretical analysis reveals the emergence of Z2 × Z3 symmetry in the vortices/antivortices network. In addition, poling or self-poling due to a surface charge boundary condition induces global topological condensation of the network through breaking of the Z2 part of the Z2 × Z3 symmetry. The opposite process of restoring the Z2 symmetry can be considered as topological evaporation. It turns out that these Z2xZ3 vortices are, in fact, three-dimensional vortex loops, which result from the emergent continuous U(1) symmetry near the critical temperature. This spontaneous trapping of topological defects in the process of undergoing a continuous phase transition is important to understand numerous novel phenomena such as the early stage of universe after big bang. The so-called Kibble-Zurek mechanism was proposed for the trapping process of topological defects right after big bang. It appears that the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is also

  4. Macrophage activation and polarization modify P2X7 receptor secretome influencing the inflammatory process

    PubMed Central

    de Torre-Minguela, Carlos; Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Gómez, Ana I.; Martín-Sánchez, Fátima; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) on M1 polarized macrophages induces the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the establishment of the inflammatory response. However, P2X7R signaling to the NLRP3 inflammasome is uncoupled on M2 macrophages without changes on receptor activation. In this study, we analyzed P2X7R secretome in wild-type and P2X7R-deficient macrophages polarized either to M1 or M2 and proved that proteins released after P2X7R stimulation goes beyond caspase-1 secretome. The characterization of P2X7R-secretome reveals a new function of this receptor through a fine-tuning of protein release. We found that P2X7R stimulation in macrophages is able to release potent anti-inflammatory proteins, such as Annexin A1, independently of their polarization state suggesting for first time a potential role for P2X7R during resolution of the inflammation and not linked to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These results are of prime importance for the development of therapeutics targeting P2X7R. PMID:26935289

  5. Calcium release through P2X4 activates calmodulin to promote endolysosomal membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qi; Zhong, Xi Zoë; Zou, Yuanjie; Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth; Zhu, Michael X.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-endolysosomal Ca2+ release is required for endolysosomal membrane fusion with intracellular organelles. However, the molecular mechanisms for intra-endolysosomal Ca2+ release and the downstream Ca2+ targets involved in the fusion remain elusive. Previously, we demonstrated that endolysosomal P2X4 forms channels activated by luminal adenosine triphosphate in a pH-dependent manner. In this paper, we show that overexpression of P2X4, as well as increasing endolysosomal P2X4 activity by alkalinization of endolysosome lumen, promoted vacuole enlargement in cells and endolysosome fusion in a cell-free assay. These effects were prevented by inhibiting P2X4, expressing a dominant-negative P2X4 mutant, and disrupting the P2X4 gene. We further show that P2X4 and calmodulin (CaM) form a complex at endolysosomal membrane where P2X4 activation recruits CaM to promote fusion and vacuolation in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. Moreover, P2X4 activation-triggered fusion and vacuolation were suppressed by inhibiting CaM. Our data thus suggest a new molecular mechanism for endolysosomal membrane fusion involving P2X4-mediated endolysosomal Ca2+ release and subsequent CaM activation. PMID:26101220

  6. Structural transformation in nano-structured CuAl{sub x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-2x}O{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, D. K.; Chhantbar, M. C.; Joshi, H. H.

    2015-06-24

    Polycrystalline spinel ferrite system CuAl{sub x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-2x}O{sub 4} (x=0.2, 0.6) was synthesized by solid-state reaction route. Nanoparticles of the samples have been prepared by using high energy ball milling technique with different milling durations and characterized by X-ray Diffraction and Tunneling Electron Microscope. It is observed that the structural transformation occurred from Cubic to tetragonal and particle size varied between 29 nm -14 nm with increase of milling time.

  7. Implementation of reflected light die-to-die inspection and ReviewSmart to improve 65nm DRAM mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Won Il; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Cha, Byung Chul; Choi, Seong Woon; Han, Woo Sung; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Nam Wook; Hess, Carl; Ma, Weimin; Kim, David

    2005-11-01

    As the design rule continues to shrink towards 65nm size and beyond the defect criteria are becoming ever more challenging. Pattern fidelity and reticle defects that were once considered as insignificant or nuisance are now becoming significant yield impacting defects. The intent of this study is to utilize the new generation DUV system to compare Die-to-Die Reflected Light inspection and Die-to-Die Transmitted Light Inspection to increase defect detection for optimization of the 65nm node process. In addition, the ReviewSmart will be implemented to help categorically identify systematic tool and process variations and thus allowing user to expedite the learning process to develop a production worthy 65nm node mask process. The learning will be applied to Samsung's pattern inspection strategy, complementing Transmitted Light Inspection, on critical layers of 65 nm node to gain ability to find defects that adversely affect process window.

  8. Photoionization of Nitromethane at 355nm and 266nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Denhi; Betancourt, Francisco; Poveda, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Alfonso; Cisneros, Carmen; Álvarez, Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    Nitromethane is one of the high-yield clean liquid fuels, i.e., thanks to the oxygen contained in nitromethane, much less atmospheric oxygen is burned compared to hydrocarbons such as gasoline, making the nitromethane an important prototypical energetic material, the understanding of its chemistry is relevant in other fields such as atmospheric chemistry or biochemistry. In this work we present the study of photoionization dynamics by multiphoton absorption with 355 nm and 266 nm wavelength photons, using time of flight spectrometry in reflectron mode (R-TOF). Some of the observed ion products appear for both wavelength and other only in one of them; both results were compared with preview observations and new ions were detected. This work is supported by CONACYT grant 165410 and DGAPA-UNAM grants IN-107-912 and IN-102-613.

  9. The phase transition of ɛ-InxFe2-xO3 nanomagnets with a large thermal hysteresis loop (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kana; Tokoro, Hiroko; Yoshikiyo, Marie; Yorinaga, Takenori; Namai, Asuka; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2012-04-01

    A large thermal hysteresis loop was observed in the phase transition on rod-shaped ɛ-InxFe2-xO3 (x ˜ 0.04) nanomagnets. The width of the thermal hysteresis loop, ΔT, increased with increasing rod length (l), i.e., ΔT = 6 K (l = 25 nm), 14 K (40 nm), 25 K (80 nm), and 47 K (170 nm). The observed ΔT value of 47 K is one of the largest values among insulating ferromagnetic materials. The thermal hysteresis loops were analyzed by the Slichter and Drickamer model, and the results showed that the transition enthalpy and entropy do not change. However, the elastic interaction parameter between the transition sites increases with an increasing l value. Maybe the correlation length of a propagating phonon due to elastic interaction competes with the rod length of the samples, causing the rod-length dependence of the thermal hysteresis loop.

  10. The Planetary Data System Geosciences Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Slavney, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node is to archive and distribute planetary geosciences datasets relevant to the surfaces and interiors of the terrestrial planets and moons. This objective is accomplished through the following efforts. The Node works with planetary missions to help ensure that data of relevance to the geosciences discipline are properly documented and archived. The Node restores and publishes selected geoscience datasets from past missions on CD-ROM for distribution to the planetary science community. Data archived at the Node are distributed on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, CD-WO, or by electronic transfer over the Internet. The Geo-sciences Node provides information and expert assistance on its data holdings. Derived image, geophysics, microwave, spaceborne thermal, and radio science data are archived at the lead node or at one of the subnodes. Currently, the amount of data archived at the Node is on the order of 500 Gbytes stored on a combination of nearly 800 CD-ROMs and CD-WOs. Current archives within the Node include data from the Magellan and Viking missions, the Geological Remote Sensing Field Experiment, and a collection of radar, altimetry, and gravity datasets for Venus, Mercury, Mars, Earth, and the Moon, together with software to analyze the data. The Node maintains on-line catalogs that enable the science community to search through the Geosciences Node archives and to order selected datasets. Access to the Node's catalogs and on-line datasets is available via the Internet using a remote login or via the World Wide Web (WWW).

  11. Design strategy for integrating DSA via patterning in sub-7 nm interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgos, Ioannis; Ryckaert, Julien; Tung, Maryann C.; Wong, H.-S. P.; Gronheid, Roel; Bekaert, Joost; Karageorgos, Evangelos; Croes, Kris; Vandenberghe, Geert; Stucchi, Michele; Dehaene, Wim

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, major advancements have been made in the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs). As a result, the insertion of DSA for IC fabrication is being actively considered for the sub-7nm nodes. At these nodes the DSA technology could alleviate costs for multiple patterning and limit the number of litho masks that would be required per metal layer. One of the most straightforward approaches for DSA implementation would be for via patterning through templated DSA, where hole patterns are readily accessible through templated confinement of cylindrical phase BCP materials. Our in-house studies show that decomposition of via layers in realistic circuits below the 7nm node would require at least many multi-patterning steps (or colors), using 193nm immersion lithography. Even the use of EUV might require double patterning in these dimensions, since the minimum via distance would be smaller than EUV resolution. The grouping of vias through templated DSA can resolve local conflicts in high density areas. This way, the number of required colors can be significantly reduced. For the implementation of this approach, a DSA-aware mask decomposition is required. In this paper, our design approach for DSA via patterning in sub-7nm nodes is discussed. We propose options to expand the list of DSA-compatible via patterns (DSA letters) and we define matching cost formulas for the optimal DSA-aware layout decomposition. The flowchart of our proposed approach tool is presented.

  12. OISL transmitter at 985 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Robert; Lauzon, Jocelyn; Mohrdiek, Stefan; Harder, Christoph S.; Changkakoti, Rupak; Park, Peter

    1999-04-01

    For high data rate (greater than 1 Gbps) Optical Inter- Satellite Link (OISL), a compact laser transmitter with high power and good efficiency is required. A trade-off analysis between the technologies such as the mature 840 nm laser diodes, 1064 nm diode-pumped solid state laser and the more recent 1550 nm Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is used to find the optical solution. The Si-APDs are preferred for their large detector areas and good noise figures which reduce the tracking requirements and simplify optical design of the receiver. Because of significant amount of power needed to close the link distance up to 7000 km (LEO-LEO), use of 840 nm diodes is limited. In this paper, we present an alternative system based on a system concept denoted as the SLYB (Semiconductor Laser Ytterbium Booster). The SLYB uses a polarization maintaining double-clad ytterbium fiber as a power amplifier. The device houses two semiconductor diodes that are designed to meet telecom reliability: a broad-area 917 nm pump diode and a directly modulated FP laser for signal generation. The output signal is in a linearly polarized state with an extinction ratio of 20 dB. The complete module (15 X 12 X 4.3 cm3) weighs less than 0.9 kg and delivers up to 27 dBm average output power at 985 nm. Designed primarily for direct detection using Si APDs, the transmitter offers a modulation data rate of at least 1.5 Gb/s with a modulation extinction ratio better than 13 dB. Total power consumption is expected to be lower than 8 W by using an uncooled pump laser. Preliminary radiation testing of the fiber indicates output power penalty of 1.5 dB at the end of 10 years in operation. We are presently investigating the fabrication of an improved radiation-hardened Yb-fiber for the final prototype to reduce this penalty. For higher data rate the design can be extended to a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) scheme adding multiple channels.

  13. The crystal structures of m,o-Ce3Pt4Sn6 and Ce1-xPt6Al13+2x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschinger, Werner; Yubuta, Kunio; Saiga, Yuta; Takabatake, Toshiro; Giester, Gerald; Rogl, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of two novel ternary compounds, Ce3Pt4Sn6 and Ce1-xPt6Al13+2x (x = 0.207), have been derived by direct methods from X-ray single crystal data. Whereas Ce1-xPt6Al13+2x is of a new structure type (a = 1.42224(2) nm, c = 0.87367(1) nm, space group P 6 bar 2 m), Ce3Pt4Sn6 was found to crystallize in two different crystal modifications, (i) a monoclinic variant (a = 0.93682(2) nm, b = 0.46145(1) nm, c = 1.40434(3) nm, β = 99.635(1)°, space group P21/m), which is isotypic with the Y3Pt4Ge6-type and (ii) an orthorhombic modification (a = 2.76394(4) nm, b = 0.460588(7) nm, c = 0.93530(1) nm, space group Pnma), which crystallizes with the ordered Pr3Pt4Ge6-type. For the monoclinic arrangement m-Ce3Pt4Sn6 an intrinsically defect growth pattern was found - it grows in two related motifs (opposite directions of pentagonal units) in the ratio of 90% : 10% ensuring a stoichiometric composition. TEM observation directly revealed intrinsic building defects detected by single crystal X-ray diffraction for m-Ce3Pt4Sn6. Diffuse streaks in electron diffraction and inhomogeneous contrasts in a high resolution TEM image indicate the existence of a random stacking sequence between two related motifs.

  14. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  15. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  16. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node. PMID:26675994

  17. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  18. Testnodes: a Lightweight Node-Testing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R.; Bland, J.

    2014-06-01

    A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.

  19. Deletion of P2X7 attenuates hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury via inflammasome suppression.

    PubMed

    Galam, Lakshmi; Rajan, Ashna; Failla, Athena; Soundararajan, Ramani; Lockey, Richard F; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2016-03-15

    Increasing evidence shows that hyperoxia is a serious complication of oxygen therapy in acutely ill patients that causes excessive production of free radicals leading to hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI). Our previous studies have shown that P2X7 receptor activation is required for inflammasome activation during HALI. However, the role of P2X7 in HALI is unclear. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of P2X7 receptor gene deletion on HALI. Wild-type (WT) and P2X7 knockout (P2X7 KO) mice were exposed to 100% O2 for 72 h. P2X7 KO mice treated with hyperoxia had enhanced survival in 100% O2 compared with the WT mice. Hyperoxia-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells and elevation of IL-1β, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-6 levels were attenuated in P2X7 KO mice. P2X7 deletion decreased lung edema and alveolar protein content, which are associated with enhanced alveolar fluid clearance. In addition, activation of the inflammasome was suppressed in P2X7-deficient alveolar macrophages and was associated with suppression of IL-1β release. Furthermore, P2X7-deficient alveolar macrophage in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) coculture model abolished protein permeability across mouse type II AEC monolayers. Deletion of P2X7 does not lead to a decrease in epithelial sodium channel expression in cocultures of alveolar macrophages and type II AECs. Taken together, these findings show that deletion of P2X7 is a protective factor and therapeutic target for the amelioration of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. PMID:26747786

  20. Enteric P2X receptors as potential targets for drug treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galligan, James J

    2004-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting millions of patients. IBS symptoms include diarrhea, constipation and pain. The etiology of IBS is due partly to changes in the function of nerves supplying the gastrointestinal tract, immune system activation and to psychological factors. P2X receptors are multimeric ATP-gated cation channels expressed by neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Sensory nerve endings in the gastrointestinal tract express P2X receptors. ATP released from gastrointestinal cells activates P2X receptors on sensory nerve endings to stimulate motor reflexes and to transmit nociceptive signals. Antagonists acting at P2X receptors on sensory nerves could attenuate abdominal pain in IBS patients. Primary afferent neurons intrinsic to the gut, and enteric motor- and interneurons express P2X receptors. These neurons participate in motor reflexes. Agonists acting at enteric P2X receptors may enhance gastrointestinal propulsion and secretion, and these drugs could be useful for treating constipation-predominant IBS. Antagonists acting at enteric P2X receptors would decrease propulsion and secretion and they might be useful for treating diarrhea-predominant IBS. Current knowledge of P2X receptor distribution and function in the gut of laboratory animals provides a rational basis for further exploration of the therapeutic potential for drugs acting at P2X receptors in IBS patients. However, more information about P2X receptor distribution and function in the human gastrointestinal tract is needed. Data on the distribution and function of P2X receptors on gastrointestinal immune cells would also provide insights into the therapeutic potential of P2X receptor agents in IBS. PMID:15051631

  1. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  2. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  3. Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  4. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  5. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide Inhibits the Channel Activity of the P2X7 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

  7. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits the channel activity of the P2X7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Coddou, Claudio; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Penna, Antonello; Lopez, Ximena; Neira, Tanya; Fernández, Ricardo; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel; Escobar, Jorge; Montoya, Margarita; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Escobar, Alejandro; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role during the immune response, participating in several events such as cytokine release, apoptosis, and necrosis. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the strongest stimuli of the immune response, and it has been shown that P2X7R activation can modulate LPS-induced responses. Moreover, a C-terminal binding site for LPS has been proposed. In order to evaluate if LPS can directly modulate the activity of the P2X7R, we tested several signaling pathways associated with P2X7R activation in HEK293 cells that do not express the TLR-4 receptor. We found that LPS alone was unable to induce any P2X7R-related activity, suggesting that the P2X7R is not directly activated by the endotoxin. On the other hand, preapplication of LPS inhibited ATP-induced currents, intracellular calcium increase, and ethidium bromide uptake and had no effect on ERK activation in HEK293 cells. In splenocytes-derived T-regulatory cells, in which ATP-induced apoptosis is driven by the P2X7R, LPS inhibited ATP-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that LPS modulates the activity of the P2X7R and suggest that this effect could be of physiological relevance. PMID:21941410

  8. Accelerated tumor progression in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Elena; Capece, Marina; Franceschini, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Giuliani, Anna L; Rotondo, Alessandra; Sarti, Alba C; Bonora, Massimo; Syberg, Susanne; Corigliano, Domenica; Pinton, Paolo; Jorgensen, Niklas R; Abelli, Luigi; Emionite, Laura; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Pistoia, Vito; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2015-02-15

    The ATP receptor P2X7 (P2X7R or P2RX7) has a key role in inflammation and immunity, but its possible roles in cancer are not firmly established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of host genetic deletion of P2X7R in the mouse on the growth of B16 melanoma or CT26 colon carcinoma cells. Tumor size and metastatic dissemination were assessed by in vivo calliper and luciferase luminescence emission measurements along with postmortem examination. In P2X7R-deficient mice, tumor growth and metastatic spreading were accelerated strongly, compared with wild-type (wt) mice. Intratumoral IL-1β and VEGF release were drastically reduced, and inflammatory cell infiltration was abrogated nearly completely. Similarly, tumor growth was also greatly accelerated in wt chimeric mice implanted with P2X7R-deficient bone marrow cells, defining hematopoietic cells as a sufficient site of P2X7R action. Finally, dendritic cells from P2X7R-deficient mice were unresponsive to stimulation with tumor cells, and chemotaxis of P2X7R-less cells was impaired. Overall, our results showed that host P2X7R expression was critical to support an antitumor immune response, and to restrict tumor growth and metastatic diffusion. PMID:25542861

  9. P2X7 receptor as predictor gene for glioma radiosensitivity and median survival.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Marina P; Kipper, Franciele; Nicoletti, Natália F; Sperotto, Nathalia D; Zanin, Rafael; Tamajusuku, Alessandra S K; Flores, Debora G; Meurer, Luise; Roesler, Rafael; Filho, Aroldo B; Lenz, Guido; Campos, Maria M; Morrone, Fernanda B

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered the most lethal intracranial tumor and the median survival time is approximately 14 months. Although some glioma cells present radioresistance, radiotherapy has been the mainstay of therapy for patients with malignant glioma. The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is responsible for ATP-induced death in various cell types. In this study, we analyzed the importance of ATP-P2X7R pathway in the radiotherapy response P2X7R silenced cell lines, in vivo and human tumor samples. Both glioma cell lines used in this study present a functional P2X7R and the P2X7R silencing reduced P2X7R pore activity by ethidium bromide uptake. Gamma radiation (2Gy) treatment reduced cell number in a P2X7R-dependent way, since both P2X7R antagonist and P2X7R silencing blocked the cell cytotoxicity caused by irradiation after 24h. The activation of P2X7R is time-dependent, as EtBr uptake significantly increased after 24h of irradiation. The radiotherapy plus ATP incubation significantly increased annexin V incorporation, compared with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that ATP acts synergistically with radiotherapy. Of note, GL261 P2X7R silenced-bearing mice failed in respond to radiotherapy (8Gy) and GL261 WT-bearing mice, that constitutively express P2X7R, presented a significant reduction in tumor volume after radiotherapy, showing in vivo that functional P2X7R expression is essential for an efficient radiotherapy response in gliomas. We also showed that a high P2X7R expression is a good prognostic factor for glioma radiosensitivity and survival probability in humans. Our data revealed the relevance of P2X7R expression in glioma cells to a successful radiotherapy response, and shed new light on this receptor as a useful predictor of the sensitivity of cancer patients to radiotherapy and median survival. PMID:26358881

  10. Insights into the channel gating of P2X receptors from structures, dynamics and small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Yu, Ye

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors, as ATP-gated non-selective trimeric ion channels, are permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Comparing with other ligand-gated ion channel families, P2X receptors are distinct in their unique gating properties and pathophysiological roles, and have attracted attention as promising drug targets for a variety of diseases, such as neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and thrombus. Several small molecule inhibitors for distinct P2X subtypes have entered into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the gating mechanism of P2X remain unsolved. The structural determinations of P2X receptors at the resting and ATP-bound open states revealed that P2X receptor gating is a cooperative allosteric process involving multiple domains, which marks the beginning of the post-structure era of P2X research at atomic level. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship of P2X receptors, depict the whole picture of allosteric changes during the channel gating, and summarize the active sites that may contribute to new strategies for developing novel allosteric drugs targeting P2X receptors. PMID:26725734

  11. The microglial ATP-gated ion channel P2X7 as a CNS drug target.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Biber, Knut

    2016-10-01

    Based on promising preclinical evidence, microglial P2X7 has increasingly being recognized as a target for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, despite this knowledge no P2X7-related drug has yet entered clinical trials with respect to CNS diseases. We here discuss the current literature on P2X7 being a drug target and identify unsolved issues and still open questions that have hampered the development of P2X7 dependent therapeutic approaches for CNS diseases. It is concluded here that the lack of brain penetrating P2X7 antagonists is a major obstacle in the field and that central P2X7 is a yet untested clinical drug target. In the CNS, microglial P2X7 activation causes neuroinflammation, which in turn plays a role in various CNS disorders. This has resulted in a surge of brain penetrant P2X7 antagonists. P2X7 is a viable, clinically untested CNS drug target. GLIA 2016;64:1772-1787. PMID:27219534

  12. Selective P2X7 receptor antagonists for chronic inflammation and pain

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly-Roberts, Diana; Jarvis, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    ATP, acting on P2X7 receptors, stimulates changes in intracellular calcium concentrations, maturation, and release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and following prolonged agonist exposure, cell death. The functional effects of P2X7 receptor activation facilitate several proinflammatory processes associated with arthritis. Within the nervous system, these proinflammatory processes may also contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Emerging data from genetic knockout studies have indicated specific roles for P2X7 receptors in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. The discovery of multiple distinct chemical series of potent and highly selective P2X7 receptor antagonists have enhanced our understanding of P2X7 receptor pharmacology and the diverse array of P2X7 receptor signaling mechanisms. These antagonists have provided mechanistic insight into the role(s) P2X7 receptors play under pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we integrate the recent discoveries of novel P2X7 receptor-selective antagonists with a brief update on P2X7 receptor pharmacology and its therapeutic potential. PMID:18568426

  13. Multiwavelength lidar node development and simulation for a regional tropospheric aerosol monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelko, E. E.; Ristori, P. R.; Otero, L. A.; Pallotta, J. V.; Quel, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This work studies multiwavelength lidar node operation requirements to operate in a regional aerosol monitoring network. Some of the parameters taken into account are simplicity and robustness of the system in continuous and remote operation conditions. Sub-system modularity and accessibility is also contemplated. A numerical simulation is performed on a synthetic atmospheric signal to analyze the behaviour of this system in a) the visible (532 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) spectral regions; b) the main atmospheric compound Raman spectral region (nitrogen, oxygen water vapor). Adding depolarization channels in the 532 nm spectral region is also contemplated.

  14. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  15. Sub-20nm hybrid lithography using optical, pitch-division, and e-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belledent, J.; Smayling, M.; Pradelles, J.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Barnola, S.; Mage, L.; Icard, B.; Lapeyre, C.; Soulan, S.; Pain, L.

    2012-03-01

    A roadmap extending far beyond the current 22nm CMOS node has been presented several times. [1] This roadmap includes the use of a highly regular layout style which can be decomposed into "lines and cuts."[2] The "lines" can be done with existing optical immersion lithography and pitch division with self-aligned spacers.[3] The "cuts" can be done with either multiple exposures using immersion lithography, or a hybrid solution using either EUV or direct-write ebeam.[ 4] The choice for "cuts" will be driven by the availability of cost-effective, manufacturing-ready equipment and infrastructure. Optical lithography improvements have enabled scaling far beyond what was expected; for example, soft x-rays (aka EUV) were in the semiconductor roadmap as early as 1994 since optical resolution was not expected for sub-100nm features. However, steady improvements and innovations such as Excimer laser sources and immersion photolithography have allowed some manufacturers to build 22nm CMOS SOCs with single-exposure optical lithography. With the transition from random complex 2D shapes to regular 1D-patterns at 28nm, the "lines and cuts" approach can extend CMOS logic to at least the 7nm node. The spacer double patterning for lines and optical cuts patterning is expected to be used down to the 14nm node. In this study, we extend the scaling to 18nm half-pitch which is approximately the 10-11nm node using spacer pitch division and complementary e-beam lithography. For practical reasons, E-Beam lithography is used as well to expose the "mandrel" patterns that support the spacers. However, in a production mode, it might be cost effective to replace this step by a standard 193nm exposure and applying the spacer technique twice to divide the pitch by 3 or 4. The Metal-1 "cut" pattern is designed for a reasonably complex logic function with ~100k gates of combinatorial logic and flip-flops. Since the final conductor is defined by a Damascene process, the "cut" patterns become islands

  16. Caveolin-1 regulates P2X7 receptor signaling in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Vimal; Nohe, Anja; Caplan, Jeffrey; Czymmek, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of new bone in response to a novel applied mechanical load requires a complex series of cellular signaling events in osteoblasts and osteocytes. The activation of the purinergic receptor P2X7R is central to this mechanotransduction signaling cascade. Recently, P2X7R have been found to be associated with caveolae, a subset of lipid microdomains found in several cell types. Deletion of caveolin-1 (CAV1), the primary protein constituent of caveolae in osteoblasts, results in increased bone mass, leading us to hypothesize that the P2X7R is scaffolded to caveolae in osteoblasts. Thus, upon activation of the P2X7R, we postulate that caveolae are endocytosed, thereby modulating the downstream signal. Sucrose gradient fractionation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts showed that CAV1 was translocated to the denser cytosolic fractions upon stimulation with ATP. Both ATP and the more specific P2X7R agonist 2′(3′)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP (BzATP) induced endocytosis of CAV1, which was inhibited when MC3T3-E1 cells were pretreated with the specific P2X7R antagonist A-839977. The P2X7R cofractionated with CAV1, but, using superresolution structured illumination microscopy, we found only a subpopulation of P2X7R in these lipid microdomains on the membrane of MC3T3-E1 cells. Suppression of CAV1 enhanced the intracellular Ca2+ response to BzATP, suggesting that caveolae regulate P2X7R signaling. This proposed mechanism is supported by increased mineralization in CAV1 knockdown MC3T3-E1 cells treated with BzATP. These data suggest that caveolae regulate P2X7R signaling upon activation by undergoing endocytosis and potentially carrying with it other signaling proteins, hence controlling the spatiotemporal signaling of P2X7R in osteoblasts. PMID:25318104

  17. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yijen A.; Stone, Leslie M.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C.; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (P2X2 and P2X3 double knockout, or “DKO” mice). The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca2+ in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we employed reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion. PMID:21940456

  18. Involvement of the P2X7-NLRP3 axis in leukemic cell proliferation and death.

    PubMed

    Salaro, Erica; Rambaldi, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Amoroso, Francesca Saveria; Franceschini, Alessia; Sarti, Alba Clara; Bonora, Massimo; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Ciccone, Maria; Audrito, Valentina; Deaglio, Silvia; Pelegrin, Pablo; Pinton, Paolo; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte growth and differentiation are modulated by extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors. We previously showed that the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R or P2RX7) is overexpressed in circulating lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the present study we investigated the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in lymphocytes from a cohort of 23 CLL patients. P2X7R, ASC and NLRP3 were investigated by Western blot, PCR and transfection techniques. P2X7R was overexpressed and correlated with chromosome 12 trisomy in CLL patients. ASC mRNA and protein were also overexpressed. On the contrary, NLRP3 was dramatically down-modulated in CLL lymphocytes relative to lymphocytes from healthy donors. To further investigate the correlation between P2X7R, NLRP3 and cell growth, NLRP3 was silenced in THP-1 cells, a leukemic cell line that natively expresses both NLRP3 and P2X7R. NLRP3 silencing enhanced P2X7R expression and promoted growth. On the contrary, NLRP3 overexpression caused accelerated apoptosis. The P2X7R was also up-modulated in hematopoietic cells from NLRP3-KO mice. In conclusion, we show that NLRP3 down-modulation stimulates P2X7R expression and promotes growth, while NLRP3 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis. These findings suggest that NLRP3 is a negative regulator of growth and point to a role of the P2X7R/NLRP3 axis in CLL. PMID:27221966

  19. Involvement of the P2X7-NLRP3 axis in leukemic cell proliferation and death

    PubMed Central

    Salaro, Erica; Rambaldi, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Amoroso, Francesca Saveria; Franceschini, Alessia; Sarti, Alba Clara; Bonora, Massimo; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Ciccone, Maria; Audrito, Valentina; Deaglio, Silvia; Pelegrin, Pablo; Pinton, Paolo; Cuneo, Antonio; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Lymphocyte growth and differentiation are modulated by extracellular nucleotides and P2 receptors. We previously showed that the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R or P2RX7) is overexpressed in circulating lymphocytes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. In the present study we investigated the P2X7R/NLRP3 inflammasome axis in lymphocytes from a cohort of 23 CLL patients. P2X7R, ASC and NLRP3 were investigated by Western blot, PCR and transfection techniques. P2X7R was overexpressed and correlated with chromosome 12 trisomy in CLL patients. ASC mRNA and protein were also overexpressed. On the contrary, NLRP3 was dramatically down-modulated in CLL lymphocytes relative to lymphocytes from healthy donors. To further investigate the correlation between P2X7R, NLRP3 and cell growth, NLRP3 was silenced in THP-1 cells, a leukemic cell line that natively expresses both NLRP3 and P2X7R. NLRP3 silencing enhanced P2X7R expression and promoted growth. On the contrary, NLRP3 overexpression caused accelerated apoptosis. The P2X7R was also up-modulated in hematopoietic cells from NLRP3-KO mice. In conclusion, we show that NLRP3 down-modulation stimulates P2X7R expression and promotes growth, while NLRP3 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis. These findings suggest that NLRP3 is a negative regulator of growth and point to a role of the P2X7R/NLRP3 axis in CLL. PMID:27221966

  20. Ivermectin Antagonizes Ethanol Inhibition in Purinergic P2X4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Maya; Perkins, Daya; Trudell, James R.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    ATP-gated purinergic P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) are expressed in the central nervous system and are sensitive to ethanol at intoxicating concentrations. P2XRs are trimeric; each subunit consists of two transmembrane (TM) α-helical segments, a large extracellular domain, and intracellular amino and carboxyl terminals. Recent work indicates that position 336 (Met336) in the TM2 segment is critical for ethanol modulation of P2X4Rs. The anthelmintic medication ivermectin (IVM) positively modulates P2X4Rs and is believed to act in the same region as ethanol. The present study tested the hypothesis that IVM can antagonize ethanol action. We investigated IVM and ethanol effects in wild-type and mutant P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes by using a two-electrode voltage clamp. IVM antagonized ethanol-induced inhibition of P2X4Rs in a concentration-dependent manner. The size and charge of substitutions at position 336 affected P2X4R sensitivity to both ethanol and IVM. The first molecular model of the rat P2X4R, built onto the X-ray crystal structure of zebrafish P2X4R, revealed a pocket formed by Asp331, Met336, Trp46, and Trp50 that may play a role in the actions of ethanol and IVM. These findings provide the first evidence for IVM antagonism of ethanol effects in P2X4Rs and suggest that the antagonism results from the ability of IVM to interfere with ethanol action on the putative pocket at or near position 336. Taken with the building evidence supporting a role for P2X4Rs in ethanol intake, the present findings suggest that the newly identified alcohol pocket is a potential site for development of medication for alcohol use disorders. PMID:20543096

  1. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-02-10

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  2. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  3. Strain-induced giant second-harmonic generation in monolayered 2H-MoX2 (X = S, Se, Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, S. H.; Kim, Yong Soo; Freeman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic second-order nonlinear susceptibilities, χ(2)(2 ω,ω,ω)≡χ(2)(ω) , are calculated here within a fully first-principles scheme for monolayered molybdenum dichalcogenides, 2H-MoX2 (X = S, Se, and Te). The absolute values of χ(2)(ω) across the three chalcogens critically depend on the band gap energies upon uniform strain, yielding the highest χ(2)(0 )˜140 pm/V for MoTe2 in the static limit. Under this uniform in-plane stress, 2H-MoX2 can undergo direct-to-indirect transition of band gaps, which in turn substantially affects χ(2)(ω) . The tunability of χ(2)(ω) by either compressive or tensile strain is demonstrated especially for two important experimental wavelengths, 1064 nm and 800 nm, where resonantly enhanced non-linear effects can be exploited: χ(2) of MoSe2 and MoTe2 approach ˜800 pm/V with -2% strain at 1064 nm.

  4. [INTRAOPERATIVE DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES USING INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEM IN LOCAL NON-SMALL CELL CARCINOMA OF LUNG].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V; Karlson, A; Gerasin, A V; Agishev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the first domestic experience of intraoperative fluorescence mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer. The research included 10 patients, who underwent surgery over the period of time from September 2013 to May 2014. After performing thoracotomy, the solution of indocyanine green (ICG) was injected using subpleural position above the tumor in 3-4 points. Fluorescence (ICG) image guided surgery was carried out by using infrared radiation (wave length 808 nm) on lung surface, root of lung, mediastinum in real time. Fluorescence lymph nodes were mapped. In case that metastatic lesions weren't revealed in sentinel lymph nodes, they weren't noted in other nodes. Method specificity consisted of 100%. Biopsy and histological study of sentinel lymph nodes mapped during fluorescence (ICG) image guided surgery could be useful for prevention of lymphodissection in patients with non-small cell carcinoma of lung. PMID:26601511

  5. EUV micro-exposure tool at 0.5 NA for sub-16 nm lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Michael; Hudyma, Russ; Naulleau, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan

    2008-09-26

    The resolution limit of present 0.3 NA 13.5 nm wavelength micro-exposure tools is compared to next generation lithography research requirements. Findings suggest that a successor design is needed for patterning starting at the 16 nm semiconductor process technology node. A two-mirror 0.5 NA optical design is presented, and performance expectations are established from detailed optical and lithographic simulation. Here, we report on the results from a SEMATECH program to fabricate a projection optic with an ultimate resolution limit of approximately 11 nm.

  6. Parallel node placement method by bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Qi, Nan; Li, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An efficient Parallel Node Placement method by Bubble Simulation (PNPBS), employing METIS-based domain decomposition (DD) for an arbitrary number of processors is introduced. In accordance with the desired nodal density and Newton’s Second Law of Motion, automatic generation of node sets by bubble simulation has been demonstrated in previous work. Since the interaction force between nodes is short-range, for two distant nodes, their positions and velocities can be updated simultaneously and independently during dynamic simulation, which indicates the inherent property of parallelism, it is quite suitable for parallel computing. In this PNPBS method, the METIS-based DD scheme has been investigated for uniform and non-uniform node sets, and dynamic load balancing is obtained by evenly distributing work among the processors. For the nodes near the common interface of two neighboring subdomains, there is no need for special treatment after dynamic simulation. These nodes have good geometrical properties and a smooth density distribution which is desirable in the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of numerical examples show that quasi linear speedup in the number of processors and high efficiency are achieved.

  7. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  8. Comparison of 885 nm pumping and 808 nm pumping in Nd:CNGG laser operating at 1061 nm and 935 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuxian; Li, Qinan; Zhang, Dongxiang; Feng, Baohua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2010-07-01

    A Nd:CNGG laser operated at 935 nm and 1061 nm pumped at 885 nm and 808 nm, respectively, is demonstrated. The 885 nm direct pumping scheme shows some advantages over the 808 nm traditional pumping scheme. It includes higher slope efficiency, lower threshold, and better beam quality at high output power. With the direct pumping, the slope efficiency increases by 43% and the threshold decreases by 10% compared with traditional pumping in the Nd:CNGG laser operated at 935 nm. When the Nd:CNGG laser operates at 1061 nm, the direct pumping increases the slope efficiency by 14% with a 20% reduction in the oscillation threshold.

  9. Vatalanib decrease the positive interaction of VEGF receptor-2 and P2X2/3 receptor in chronic constriction injury rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangmei; Xu, Changshui; Li, Guilin; Liu, Han; Xie, Jinyan; Tu, Guihua; Peng, Haiying; Qiu, Shuyi; Liang, Shangdong

    2012-05-01

    Neuropathic pain can arise from a lesion affecting the peripheral nervous system. Selective P2X(3) and P2X(2/3) receptors' antagonists effectively reduce neuropathic pain. VEGF inhibitors are effective for pain relief. The present study investigated the effects of Vatalanib (VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor) on the neuropathic pain to address the interaction of VEGFR-2 and P2X(2/3) receptor in dorsal root ganglia of chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. Neuropathic pain symptoms following CCI are similar to most peripheral lesions as assessed by the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, CCI group and CCI rats treated with Vatalanib group. Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured. Co-expression of VEGFR-2 and P2X(2) or P2X(3) in L4-6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was detected by double-label immunofluorescence. The modulation effect of VEGF on P2X(2/3) receptor agonist-activated currents in freshly isolated DRG neurons of rats both of sham and CCI rats was recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) in CCI group were lower than those in sham group (p<0.05). MWT and TWL in CCI rats treated with Vatalanib group were increased compared with those in CCI group (p<0.05). VEGFR-2 and P2X(2) or P2X(3) receptors were co-expressed in the cytoplasm and surface membranes of DRG. The co-expression of VEGFR-2 and P2X(2) or P2X(3) receptor in CCI group exhibited more intense staining than those in sham group and CCI rats treated with Vatalanib group, respectively. VEGF enhanced the amplitude of ATP and α,β-meATP -activated currents of both sham and CCI rats. Increment effects of VEGF on ATP and α,β-meATP -activated currents in CCI rats were higher than those in sham rats. Both ATP (100 μM) and α,β-meATP (10 μM)- activated currents enhanced by VEGF ( 1nM) were significantly blocked by Vatalanib (1

  10. EUV actinic defect inspection and defect printability at the sub-32 nm half pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Sungmin; Kearney, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan; Goodwin, Frank; Han, Hakseung; Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopp; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2009-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blanks with embedded phase defects were inspected with a reticle actinic inspection tool (AIT) and the Lasertec M7360. The Lasertec M7360, operated at SEMA TECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) in Albany, NY, has a sensitivity to multilayer defects down to 40-45 nm, which is not likely sufficient for mask blank development below the 32 nm half-pitch node. Phase defect printability was simulated to calculate the required defect sensitivity for a next generation blank inspection tool to support reticle development for the sub-32 nm half-pitch technology node. Defect mitigation technology is proposed to take advantage of mask blanks with some defects. This technology will reduce the cost of ownership of EUV mask blanks. This paper will also discuss the kind of infrastructure that will be required for the development and mass production stages.

  11. Energy transfer processes in Ca3Tb2-xEuxSi3O12 (x = 0-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, I.; Bartosiewicz, K.; Nikl, M.; Piccinelli, F.; Bettinelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    The luminescent properties of Tb3+ and Eu3+ have been studied in several silicates having a silico-carnotite-type structure. Fast energy migration among Tb3+ ions has been found in Ca3Tb2Si3O12 and Ca3Tb2-xEuxSi3O12 (x = 0-0.1). In the case of Ca3Tb2-xEuxSi3O12, Tb3+-Eu3+ energy transfer is observed upon excitation in the UV bands of Tb3+. The transfer gives rise to strong emission from Eu3+ in the red spectral region at 612 nm. The efficiency of the transfer at room temperature in Ca3Tb1.9Eu0.1Si3O12 has been evaluated. The temperature evolution of the luminescent properties of Ca3Tb2Si3O12 and Ca3Tb1.9Eu0.1Si3O12 has been studied at temperatures ranging from 8 to 330 K.

  12. Optical properties of Ni(1-x)Mn(2+x)O4 films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Hou, Yun; Huang, Zhiming; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Yanqing

    2010-10-01

    Transition metal oxide (TMO) has been extensively focused in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of a typical TMO material of Ni(1-x)Mn(2+x)O4 (x=0-1) thin films. Different compositions of x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 thin films are grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition method under annealing temperature of 750°C. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that Ni(1-x)Mn(2+x)O4 thin films are polycrystalline with spinel structure. The optical properties are investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature in the wavelength range of 400-1700nm. By fitting the measured ellipsometric data with a three-phase model (air/sample/Pt), the optical constants of thin films are determined. The refractive index and extinction coefficient don't show apparent variation with different composition. The obtained optical constants are very significant in the potential applications of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Optical properties of Ni(1-x)Mn(2+x)O4 films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Hou, Yun; Huang, Zhiming; Zhou, Wei; Gao, Yanqing

    2011-02-01

    Transition metal oxide (TMO) has been extensively focused in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of a typical TMO material of Ni(1-x)Mn(2+x)O4 (x=0-1) thin films. Different compositions of x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 thin films are grown on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by chemical solution deposition method under annealing temperature of 750°C. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that Ni(1-x)Mn(2+x)O4 thin films are polycrystalline with spinel structure. The optical properties are investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature in the wavelength range of 400-1700nm. By fitting the measured ellipsometric data with a three-phase model (air/sample/Pt), the optical constants of thin films are determined. The refractive index and extinction coefficient don't show apparent variation with different composition. The obtained optical constants are very significant in the potential applications of optoelectronic devices.

  14. Flower-like morphology of blue and greenish-gray ZnCoxAl2-xO4 nanopigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahba, Adel Maher; Imam, N. G.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, ZnCoxAl2 - xO4 (x = 0.00-1.50) nanosized pigments were synthesized for the first time by citrate-precursor autocombustion method and heat treatment at 900 °C. In this new nanopigment system the vacancies participate in the spinel structure since the divalent cobalt ions substitute the trivalent Al ions. Structural, microstructural and optical properties were investigated using XRD, FTIR, TEM, HRSEM, XRF, and PL techniques. XRD and FTIR spectra proved the formation of a pure cubic spinel phase. Size of the synthesized nano-crystals ranges from 15 to 60 nm, which is further confirmed with TEM micrographs. HRSEM confirms the microporous nature with flower-like morphology of the prepared nanopigments. Cation distribution has been suggested for the whole samples that matches quite well with XRD and IR experimental data. PL results show that the ZnCoxAl2 - xO4 pigments have good potential for use as a yellow-orange phosphor for displays and/or white light-emitting diodes.

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  16. P2X7 on Mouse T Cells: One Channel, Many Functions

    PubMed Central

    Rissiek, Björn; Haag, Friedrich; Boyer, Olivier; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Adriouch, Sahil

    2015-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel that is expressed by several cells of the immune system. P2X7 is best known for its proinflammatory role in promoting inflammasome formation and release of mature interleukin (IL)-1β by innate immune cells. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 is also an important regulatory receptor of murine and human T cell functions. Murine T cells express a sensitive splice variant of P2X7 that can be activated either by non-covalent binding of ATP or, in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, by its covalent ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2. Prolonged activation of P2X7 by either one of these pathways triggers the induction of T cell death. Conversely, lower concentrations of ATP can activate P2X7 to enhance T cell proliferation and production of IL-2. In this review, we will highlight the molecular and cellular consequences of P2X7 activation on mouse T cells and its versatile role in T cell homeostasis and activation. Further, we will discuss important differences in the function of P2X7 on human and murine T cells. PMID:26042119

  17. Reduced vas deferens contraction and male infertility in mice lacking P2X1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Mulryan, K; Gitterman, D P; Lewis, C J; Vial, C; Leckie, B J; Cobb, A L; Brown, J E; Conley, E C; Buell, G; Pritchard, C A; Evans, R J

    2000-01-01

    P2X1 receptors for ATP are ligand-gated cation channels, present on many excitable cells including vas deferens smooth muscle cells. A substantial component of the contractile response of the vas deferens to sympathetic nerve stimulation, which propels sperm into the ejaculate, is mediated through P2X receptors. Here we show that male fertility is reduced by approximately 90% in mice with a targeted deletion of the P2X1 receptor gene. Male mice copulate normally--reduced fertility results from a reduction of sperm in the ejaculate and not from sperm dysfunction. Female mice and heterozygote mice are unaffected. In P2X1-receptor-deficient mice, contraction of the vas deferens to sympathetic nerve stimulation is reduced by up to 60% and responses to P2X receptor agonists are abolished. These results show that P2X1 receptors are essential for normal male reproductive function and suggest that the development of selective P2X1 receptor antagonists may provide an effective non-hormonal male contraceptive pill. Also, agents that potentiate the actions of ATP at P2X1 receptors may be useful in the treatment of male infertility. PMID:10638758

  18. Nociceptive transmission and modulation via P2X receptors in central pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yung-Hui; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Painful sensations are some of the most frequent complaints of patients who are admitted to local medical clinics. Persistent pain varies according to its causes, often resulting from local tissue damage or inflammation. Central somatosensory pathway lesions that are not adequately relieved can consequently cause central pain syndrome or central neuropathic pain. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie this pathogenesis is important for treating such pain. To date, evidence suggests the involvement of ion channels, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated cation channel P2X receptors, in central nervous system pain transmission and persistent modulation upon and following the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Several P2X receptor subtypes, including P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, have been shown to play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of central pain including the mediation of fast transmission in the peripheral nervous system and modulation of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. This review article highlights the role of the P2X family of ATP receptors in the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain and pain transmission. We discuss basic research that may be translated to clinical application, suggesting that P2X receptors may be treatment targets for central pain syndrome. PMID:27230068

  19. Comparative study of the P2X gene family in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhuoran; Cao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that can bind with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and have diverse functional roles in neuropathic pain, inflammation, special sense, and so on. In this study, 180 putative P2X genes, including 176 members in 32 animal species and 4 members in 3 species of lower plants, were identified. These genes were divided into 13 groups, including 7 groups in vertebrates and 6 groups in invertebrates and lower plants, through phylogenetic analysis. Their gene organization and motif composition are conserved in most predicted P2X members, while group-specific features were also found. Moreover, synteny relationships of the putative P2X genes in vertebrates are conserved while simultaneously experiencing a series of gene insertion, inversion, and transposition. Recombination signals were detected in almost all of the vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that intragenic recombination may play a significant role in the evolution of P2X genes. Selection analysis also identified some positively selected sites that acted on the evolution of most of the predicted P2X proteins. The phenomenon of alternative splicing occurred commonly in the putative P2X genes of vertebrates. This article explored in depth the evolutional relationship among different subtypes of P2X genes in animal and plants and might serve as a solid foundation for deciphering their functions in further studies. PMID:26874702

  20. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  1. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  2. Structure and radiation effect of Er-stuffed pyrochlore Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 (x = 0-0.667)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. Y.; Xu, C. P.; Fu, E. G.; Wen, J.; Liu, C. G.; Zhang, K. Q.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, Y. H.

    2015-08-01

    Er-stuffed pyrochlore series Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 (x = 0, 0.162, 0.286, 0.424 and 0.667) were synthesized using conventional ceramic processing procedures. The structure of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 is effectively tailored by the Er stuffing level (x). In order to study the radiation effect of Er-stuffed pyrochlores, irradiation experiments were performed with 400 keV Ne2+ ions to fluences ranging from 5 × 1014 to 3.0 × 1015 ions/cm2 at cryogenic condition. Irradiation induced microstructural evolution was examined using a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the irradiated layer of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 undergoes significant lattice disordering and swelling at fluences of ⩽1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 and amorphization at fluences of ⩾1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The radiation effect depends strongly on the chemical compositions of the samples. Both the lattice swelling percentage and the amorphous fraction decrease with increasing x. The experimental results are discussed in the context of cation antisite defect. The defect formation energy which varies as a function of x is responsible for the difference in the structural behaviors of Er2(Ti2-xErx)O7-x/2 under 400 keV Ne2+ ion irradiation.

  3. Molecular Structure and Regulation of P2X Receptors With a Special Emphasis on the Role of P2X2 in the Auditory System.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Chan, Brandon; Grati, M'hamed; Mittal, Jeenu; Patel, Kunal; Debs, Luca H; Patel, Amit P; Yan, Denise; Chapagain, Prem; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The P2X purinergic receptors are cation-selective channels gated by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). These purinergic receptors are found in virtually all mammalian cell types and facilitate a number of important physiological processes. Within the past few years, the characterization of crystal structures of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in its closed and open states has provided critical insights into the mechanisms of ligand binding and channel activation. Understanding of this gating mechanism has facilitated to design and interpret new modeling and structure-function experiments to better elucidate how different agonists and antagonists can affect the receptor with differing levels of potency. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the structure, activation, allosteric modulators, function, and location of the different P2X receptors. Moreover, an emphasis on the P2X2 receptors has been placed in respect to its role in the auditory system. In particular, the discovery of three missense mutations in P2X2 receptors could become important areas of study in the field of gene therapy to treat progressive and noise-induced hearing loss. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1656-1670, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26627116

  4. P2X7 receptor antagonist activity of the anti-allergic agent oxatomide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Ito, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Isao

    2015-11-15

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP is associated with various immune responses including allergic inflammation. Anti-allergic agents, such as H1-antihistamines, are known to inhibit the effects of different chemical mediators such as acetylcholine and platelet-activating factor. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anti-allergic agents might affect P2X7 receptor function. Using N18TG2 and J774 cells, which express functional P2X7 receptors, the effects of several anti-allergic agents on P2X7 receptor function were investigated by monitoring the ATP-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i). Among the various agents tested, oxatomide significantly inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)]i elevation in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the P2Y2 receptor-mediated response in both N18TG2 and J774 cells. Consistently, oxatomide inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated membrane current and downstream responses such as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, inflammation-related gene induction, and cell death. In addition, oxatomide inhibited P2X7 receptor-mediated degranulation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. Whole cell patch clamp analyses in HEK293 cells expressing human, mouse, and rat P2X7 receptors revealed that the inhibitory effect of oxatomide on ATP-induced current was most prominent for the human P2X7 receptor and almost non-existent for the rat P2X7 receptor. The potent inhibitory effects of oxatomide on human P2X7 receptor-mediated function were confirmed in RPMI8226 human B cell-like myeloma cells, which endogenously express the P2X7 receptor. Our results demonstrated that the antihistamine oxatomide also acts as a P2X7 receptor antagonist. Future studies should thus evaluate whether P2X7 receptor antagonism contributes to the anti-allergic effects of oxatomide. PMID:26463039

  5. Synthesis, SAR, and Pharmacological Characterization of Brain Penetrant P2X7 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and SAR of 1,2,3-triazolopiperidines as a novel series of potent, brain penetrant P2X7 antagonists. Initial efforts yielded a series of potent human P2X7R antagonists with moderate to weak rodent potency, some CYP inhibition, poor metabolic stability, and low solubility. Further work in this series, which focused on the SAR of the N-linked heterocycle, not only increased the potency at the human P2X7R but also provided compounds with good potency at the rat P2X7R. These efforts eventually delivered a potent rat and human P2X7R antagonist with good physicochemical properties, an excellent pharmacokinetic profile, good partitioning into the CNS, and demonstrated in vivo target engagement after oral dosing. PMID:26101572

  6. Nb doping effect on TiO2-x films for bolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young Bong; Kumar Reddy, Y. Ashok; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-04-01

    Nb-doped TiO2-x thin films were deposited using a 1 at% niobium doped titanium target by RF reactive magnetron sputtering at various oxygen partial pressures (pO2). The films appeared amorphous in the pO2 range of 4.4-4.7% with resistivity ranging from 0.39 Ω cm to 2.48 Ω cm. Compared to pure TiO2-x films, the resistivity of the Nb-doped TiO2-x films did not change sensitively with the oxygen partial pressure, indicating that the resistivity of the films can be accurately controlled. 1/f noise parameter of Nb-doped TiO2-x films were found to decrease largely while the measured temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the films was still high. The obtained results indicate that Nb-doped TiO2-x films have great potential as an alternative bolometric material.

  7. Mixed-valence metal oxide nanoparticles as electrochemical half-cells: substituting the Ag/AgCl of reference electrodes by CeO(2-x) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nagarale, Rajaram K; Hoss, Udo; Heller, Adam

    2012-12-26

    Cations of mixed valence at surfaces of metal oxide nanoparticles constitute electrochemical half-cells, with potentials intermediate between those of the dissolved cations and those in the solid. When only cations at surfaces of the particles are electrochemically active, the ratio of electrochemically active/all cations is ~0.1 for 15 nm diameter CeO(2-x) particles. CeO(2-x) nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel films on printed carbon and on sputtered gold constitute reference electrodes having a redox potential similar to that of Ag/AgCl in physiological (0.14 M) saline solutions. In vitro the characteristics of potentially subcutaneously implantable glucose monitoring sensors made with CeO(2-x) nanoparticle reference electrodes are undistinguishable from those of sensors made with Ag/AgCl reference electrodes. Cerium is 900 times more abundant than silver, and commercially produced CeO(2-x) nanoparticle solutions are available at prices well below those of the Ag/AgCl pastes used in the annual manufacture of ~10(9) reference electrodes of glucose monitoring strips for diabetes management. PMID:23171288

  8. Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dipanjan; Pramanik, Manojit; Senpan, Angana; Ghosh, Soumojit; Wickline, Samuel A; Wang, Lihong V; Lanza, Gregory M

    2010-05-01

    Detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) using photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technique for noninvasive axillary staging of breast cancer. Due to the absence of intrinsic contrast inside the lymph nodes, exogenous contrast agents are used for photoacoustic detection. In this work, we have demonstrated near infrared detection of SLN with gold nanobeacons (GNBs) providing the photoacoustic contrast in a rodent model. We found that size dictates the in vivo characteristics of these nanoparticles in SLN imaging. Larger nanobeacons with high payloads of gold were not as efficient as smaller size nanobeacons with lower payloads for this purpose. Colloidal GNBs were designed as a nanomedicine platform with "soft" nature that is amenable to bio-elimination, an essential feature for in vivo efficacy and safety. The GNBs were synthesized as lipid- or polymer-encapsulated colloidal particles incorporating tiny gold nanoparticles (2-4 nm) in three tunable sizes (90 nm, 150 nm and 290 nm). Smaller GNBs were noted trafficking through the lymphatic system and accumulating more efficiently in the lymph nodes in comparison to the bigger nanoagents. At 20 min, the GNBs reached the SLN and were no longer observed within the draining lymphatic vessel. Within 1 h post-injection, the contrast ratio of the lymph nodes with the surrounding blood vessels was 9:1. These findings were also supported by analytical measurements of the ex vivo tissue samples. Results indicate that cumulative nanoparticle deposition in lymph nodes is size dependent and that high payloads of gold, although offering greater contrast in vitro, may yield nanoagents with poor intradermal migration and lymphatic transport characteristics. PMID:20172607

  9. Front-end-of-line process development using 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, Ivan K.; Ercken, Monique; Eliat, Astrid; Delvaux, Christie; Jaenen, Patrick; Ronse, Kurt G.

    2001-04-01

    It is expected that 193nm lithography will be introduced in front-end-of-line processing for all critical layers at the 100nm node, and possibly also for some layers at the 130nm node, where critical layers are required to have the lowest mask cost. These processes are currently being investigated at IMEC for CMOS logic applications. While the lithographic performance of 193 nm resists has improved significantly in the last year, most materials still have important processing issues that need further improvement. On one hand, the resists material itself suffers from for example poor dry etch resistance and SEM CD shrinkage. On the other hand, interaction with other materials such as SiON inorganic ARCs becomes more challenging in terms of footing behavior, adhesion, and line edge roughness. In this paper, the 193nm processing experience gained at IMEC will be outlined, as well as solutions for manufacturability. Front- end-of-line integration results will also be shown, mainly for gate applications. It will be demonstrated that currently several commercial resist are capable of printing 130nm gates within the +/- 10 percent CD tolerance, even after gate etch. The impact of line edge roughness will also be discussed. Finally, the feasibility of printing 100nm logic patterns using only binary masks has been demonstrated, including gate etch.

  10. P2X purinoceptors as a link between hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Henshall, David C; Engel, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    There remains a need for more efficacious treatments for status epilepticus. Prolonged seizures result in the release of ATP from cells which activates the P2 class of ionotropic and metabotropic purinoceptors. The P2X receptors gate depolarizing sodium and calcium entry and are expressed by both neurons and glia throughout the brain, and a number of subtypes are upregulated after status epilepticus. Recent studies have explored the in vivo effects of targeting ATP-gated P2X receptors in preclinical models of status epilepticus, with particular focus on the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). The P2X7R mediates microglial activation and the release of the proepileptogenic inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β. The receptor may also directly modulate neurotransmission and gliotransmission and promote the recruitment of immune cells into brain parenchyma. Data from our group and collaborators show that status epilepticus produced by intraamygdala microinjection of kainic acid increases P2X7R expression in the hippocampus and neocortex of mice. Antagonism of the P2X7R in the model reduced seizure severity, microglial activation and interleukin 1β release, and neuronal injury. Coadministration of a P2X7R antagonist with a benzodiazepine also provided seizure suppression in a model of drug-refractory status epilepticus when either treatment alone was minimally effective. More recently, we showed that status epilepticus in immature rats is also reduced by P2X7R antagonism. Together, these findings suggest that P2X receptors may be novel targets for seizure control and interruption of neuroinflammation after status epilepticus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:25843343

  11. Purinergic signaling mediated by P2X7 receptors controls myelination in sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Faroni, A; Smith, R J P; Procacci, P; Castelnovo, L F; Puccianti, E; Reid, A J; Magnaghi, V; Verkhratsky, A

    2014-10-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate, the physiological ligand of P2X receptors, is an important factor in peripheral nerve development. P2X7 receptor is expressed in Schwann cells (SCs), but the specific effects of P2X7 purinergic signaling on peripheral nerve development, myelination, and function are largely unknown. In this study, sciatic nerves from P2X7 knockout mice were analyzed for altered expression of myelin-associated proteins and for alterations in nerve morphology. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, in the wild-type peripheral nerves, the P2X7 receptor was localized mainly in myelinating SCs, with only a few immunopositive nonmyelinating SCs. Complete absence of P2X7 receptor protein was confirmed in the sciatic nerves of the knockout mice by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis revealed that expression levels of the myelin proteins protein zero and myelin-associated glycoprotein are reduced in P2X7 knockout nerves. In accordance with the molecular results, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that P2X7 knockout nerves possess significantly more unmyelinated axons, contained in a higher number of Remak bundles. The myelinating/nonmyelinating SC ratio was also decreased in knockout mice, and we found a significantly increased number of irregular fibers compared with control nerves. Nevertheless, the myelin thickness in the knockout was unaltered, suggesting a stronger role for P2X7 in determining SC maturation than in myelin formation. In conclusion, we present morphological and molecular evidence of the importance of P2X7 signaling in peripheral nerve maturation and in determining SC commitment to a myelinating phenotype. PMID:24903685

  12. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of the dog P2X7 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Roman, S; Cusdin, FS; Fonfria, E; Goodwin, JA; Reeves, J; Lappin, SC; Chambers, L; Walter, DS; Clay, WC; Michel, AD

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human and rodent P2X7 receptors exhibit differences in their sensitivity to antagonists. In this study we have cloned and characterized the dog P2X7 receptor to determine if its antagonist sensitivity more closely resembles the human or rodent orthologues. Experimental approach: A cDNA encoding the dog P2X7 receptor was isolated from a dog heart cDNA library, expressed in U-2 OS cells using the BacMam viral expression system and characterized in electrophysiological, ethidium accumulation and radioligand binding studies. Native P2X7 receptors were examined by measuring ATP-stimulated interleukin-1β release in dog and human whole blood. Key results: The dog P2X7 receptor was 595 amino acids long and exhibited high homology (>70%) to the human and rodent orthologues although it contained an additional threonine at position 284 and an amino acid deletion at position 538. ATP possessed low millimolar potency at dog P2X7 receptors. 2′-&3′-O-(4benzoylbenzoyl) ATP had slightly higher potency but was a partial agonist. Dog P2X7 receptors possessed relatively high affinity for a number of selective antagonists of the human P2X7 receptor although there were some differences in potency between the species. Compound affinities in human and dog blood exhibited a similar rank order of potency as observed in studies on the recombinant receptor although absolute potency was considerably lower. Conclusions and implications: Dog recombinant and native P2X7 receptors display a number of pharmacological similarities to the human P2X7 receptor. Thus, dog may be a suitable species for assessing target-related toxicity of antagonists intended for evaluation in the clinic. PMID:19814727

  13. Composition and Interface Engineering of Alloyed MoS2 x Se2(1- x ) Nanotubes for Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Wu, Mei-Hui; Shi, Zheng-Tian; Jiang, Miao; Jian, Wen-Jing; Xiao, Zhangru; Li, Jixue; Lee, Chun-Sing; Xu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical MoS2 x Se2(1- x ) nanotubes assembled from several-layered nanosheets featuring tunable chalcogen compositions, expanded interlayer spacing and carbon modification, are synthesized for enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The chalcogen compositions of the MoS2 x Se2(1- x ) nanotubes are controllable by adjusting the selenization temperature and duration while the expanded (002) interlayer spacing varies from 0.98 to 0.68 nm. It is found that the MoS2 x Se2(1- x ) (x = 0.54) nanotubes with expanded interlayer spacing of 0.98 nm exhibit the highest electrocatalytic HER activity with a low onset potential of 101 mV and a Tafel slope of 55 mV dec(-1) . The improved electrocatalytic performance is attributed to the chalcogen composition tuning and the interlayer distance expansion to achieve benefitting hydrogen adsorption energy. The present work suggests a potential way to design advanced HER electrocatalysts through modulating their compositions and interlayer distances. PMID:27400859

  14. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  15. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  16. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  17. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  18. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite. PMID:24887872

  19. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  20. Self-assembly of [UO2X4]2- (X=Cl, Br) dianions with γ substituted pyridinium cations: Structural systematics and fluorescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surbella, Robert G.; Andrews, Michael B.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2016-04-01

    Room temperature self-assembly of [UO2X4]2- (X=Cl, Br) with γ substituted pyridinium cations has resulted in the formation of twelve compounds that were studied via single crystal X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy. Systematic variation of electron donating groups on the pyridinium species is shown to influence the presence and/or strength of various supramolecular synthons, including hydrogen bonding and pi interactions. Combinations of such non-covalent interactions (NCIs) have given rise to a range of supramolecular assemblies, and are shown to influence uranyl emission by way of second sphere coordination to equatorial ligands.

  1. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  2. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  3. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  4. Uniform Strain Elements for Three-Node Triangular and Four-Node Tetrahedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1999-03-02

    A family of uniform strain elements is presented for three-node triangular and four-node tetrahedral meshes. The elements use the linear interpolation functions of the original mesh, but each element is associated with a single node. As a result, a favorable constraint ratio for the volumetric response is obtained for problems in solid mechanics. The uniform strain elements do not require the introduction of additional degrees of freedom and their performance is shown to be significantly better than that of three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. In addition, nodes inside the boundary of the mesh are observed to exhibit superconvergent behavior for a set of example problems.

  5. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  6. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, N.; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients. PMID:26941496

  7. Subtype-specific control of P2X receptor channel signaling by ATP and Mg2+

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mufeng; Silberberg, Shai D.; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2013-01-01

    The identity and forms of activating ligands for ion channels are fundamental to their physiological roles in rapid electrical signaling. P2X receptor channels are ATP-activated cation channels that serve important roles in sensory signaling and inflammation, yet the active forms of the nucleotide are unknown. In physiological solutions, ATP is ionized and primarily found in complex with Mg2+. Here we investigated the active forms of ATP and found that the action of MgATP2− and ATP4− differs between subtypes of P2X receptors. The slowly desensitizing P2X2 receptor can be activated by free ATP, but MgATP2− promotes opening with very low efficacy. In contrast, both free ATP and MgATP2− robustly open the rapidly desensitizing P2X3 subtype. A further distinction between these two subtypes is the ability of Mg2+ to regulate P2X3 through a distinct allosteric mechanism. Importantly, heteromeric P2X2/3 channels present in sensory neurons exhibit a hybrid phenotype, characterized by robust activation by MgATP2− and weak regulation by Mg2+. These results reveal the existence of two classes of homomeric P2X receptors with differential sensitivity to MgATP2− and regulation by Mg2+, and demonstrate that both restraining mechanisms can be disengaged in heteromeric channels to form fast and sensitive ATP signaling pathways in sensory neurons. PMID:23959888

  8. Modulating P2X7 Receptor Signaling during Rheumatoid Arthritis: New Therapeutic Approaches for Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    P2X7 receptor-mediated purinergic signaling is a well-known mechanism involved in bone remodeling. The P2X7 receptor has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various bone and cartilage diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a widespread and complex chronic inflammatory disorder. The P2X7 receptor induces the release into the synovial fluid of the proinflammatory factors (e.g., interleukin-1β, prostaglandins, and proteases) responsible for the clinical symptoms of RA. Thus, the P2X7 receptor is emerging as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic target, and various selective P2X7 receptor antagonists are under clinical trials. Extracellular ATP signaling acting through the P2X7 receptor is a complex and dynamic scenario, which varies over the course of inflammation. This signaling is partially modulated by the activity of ectonucleotidases, which degrade extracellular ATP to generate other active molecules such as adenosine or pyrophosphates. Recent evidence suggests differential extracellular metabolism of ATP during the resolution of inflammation to generate pyrophosphates. Extracellular pyrophosphate dampens proinflammatory signaling by promoting alternative macrophage activation. Our paper shows that bisphosphonates are metabolically stable pyrophosphate analogues that are able to mimic the anti-inflammatory function of pyrophosphates. Bisphosphonates are arising per se as promising anti-inflammatory drugs to treat RA, and this therapy could be improved when administrated in combination with P2X7 receptor antagonists. PMID:22830074

  9. Saffron reduces ATP-induced retinal cytotoxicity by targeting P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Corso, Lucia; Cavallero, Anna; Baroni, Debora; Garbati, Patrizia; Prestipino, Gianfranco; Bisti, Silvia; Nobile, Mario; Picco, Cristiana

    2016-03-01

    P2X7-type purinergic receptors are distributed throughout the nervous system where they contribute to physiological and pathological functions. In the retina, this receptor is found in both inner and outer cells including microglia modulating signaling and health of retinal cells. It is involved in retinal neurodegenerative disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron protects photoreceptors from light-induced damage preserving both retinal morphology and visual function and improves retinal flicker sensitivity in AMD patients. To evaluate a possible interaction between saffron and P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), different cellular models and experimental approaches were used. We found that saffron positively influences the viability of mouse primary retinal cells and photoreceptor-derived 661W cells exposed to ATP, and reduced the ATP-induced intracellular calcium increase in 661W cells. Similar results were obtained on HEK cells transfected with recombinant rat P2X7R but not on cells transfected with rat P2X2R. Finally, patch-clamp experiments showed that saffron inhibited cationic currents in HEK-P2X7R cells. These results point out a novel mechanism through which saffron may exert its protective role in neurodegeneration and support the idea that P2X7-mediated calcium signaling may be a crucial therapeutic target in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26739703

  10. P2X receptors and their roles in astroglia in the central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Illes, Peter; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Franke, Heike

    2012-10-01

    Astrocytes are a class of neural cells that control homeostasis at all levels of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a bidirectional neuron-glia interaction via a number of extracellular signaling molecules, glutamate and ATP being the most widespread. ATP activates ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors, which operate in both neurons and astrocytes. Morphological, biochemical, and functional evidence indicates the expression of astroglial P2X(1/5) heteromeric and P2X(7) homomeric receptors, which mediate physiological and pathophysiological responses. Activation of P2X(1/5) receptors triggers rapid increase of intracellular Na(+) that initiates immediate cellular reactions, such as the depression of the glutamate transporter to keep high glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft, the activation of the local lactate shuttle to supply energy substrate to pre- and postsynaptic neuronal structures, and the reversal of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange resulting in additional Ca(2+) entry. The consequences of P2X(7) receptor activation are mostly but not exclusively mediated by the entry of Ca(2+) and result in reorganization of the cytoskeleton, inflammation, apoptosis/necrosis, and proliferation, usually at a prolonged time scale. Thus, astroglia detect by P2X(1/5) and P2X(7) receptors both physiological concentrations of ATP secreted from presynaptic nerve terminals and also much higher concentrations of ATP attained under pathological conditions. PMID:22013151

  11. P2X7 Deficiency Attenuates Renal Injury in Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Simon R.J.; Turner, Clare M.; Elliott, James I.; McDaid, John; Hewitt, Reiko; Smith, Jennifer; Pickering, Matthew C.; Whitehouse, Darren L.; Cook, H. Terence; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Pusey, Charles D.; Unwin, Robert J.; Tam, Frederick W.K.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor is a ligand-gated cation channel that is normally expressed by a variety of immune cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes. Because it leads to membrane blebbing, release of IL-1β, and cell death by apoptosis or necrosis, it is a potential therapeutic target for a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although the P2X7 receptor is usually not detectable in normal renal tissue, we previously reported increased expression of both mRNA and protein in mesangial cells and macrophages infiltrating the glomeruli in animal models of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis. In this study, we used P2X7-knockout mice in the same experimental model of glomerulonephritis and found that P2X7 deficiency was significantly renoprotective compared with wild-type controls, evidenced by better renal function, a striking reduction in proteinuria, and decreased histologic glomerular injury. In addition, the selective P2X7 antagonist A-438079 prevented the development of antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis in rats. These results support a proinflammatory role for P2X7 in immune-mediated renal injury and suggest that the P2X7 receptor is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:19389853

  12. Results of the VISA SASE FEL Experiment at 840 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Murokh, A.

    2004-01-20

    VISA (Visible to Infrared SASE Amplifier) is a high-gain self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL, which achieved saturation at 840 nm within a single-pass 4-m undulator. A gain length shorter than 18 cm has been obtained, yielding the gain of 2 x 10{sup 8} at saturation. The FEL performance, including spectral, angular, and statistical properties of SASE radiation, has been characterized for different electron beam conditions. The results are compared to 3-D SASE FEL theory and start-to-end numerical simulations of the entire injector, transport, and FEL system. Detailed agreement between simulations and experimental results is obtained over the wide range of the electron beam parameters.

  13. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  14. Pharmacological and molecular characterization of P2X receptors in rat pelvic ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Dunn, Philip M; Xiang, Zhenghua; Bo, Xuenong; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    The presence and characteristics of P2X receptors on neurons of the rat major pelvic ganglia (MPG) have been studied using whole cell voltage-clamp, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Rapid application of ATP (100 μM) to isolated rat MPG neurons induced moderately large inward currents (0.33–5.3 nA) in 39% of cells (108/277). The response to ATP occurred very rapidly, with an increase in membrane conductance, and desensitized slowly.The concentration-response curve for ATP yielded an EC50 of 58.9 μM. The agonist profile was ATP⩾2MeSATP=ATPγS>BzATP, while α,β-MeATP, β,γ-MeATP, UTP and ADP were all inactive at concentrations up to 100 μM.The response to ATP was antagonized by suramin (pA2=5.6), reactive blue-2 (IC50=0.7 μM) and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid (PPADS).Lowering the pH from 7.4 to 6.8 produced a marked potentiation (to 339% of control) of the responses to ATP (30 μM), while raising the pH to 8.0 attenuated the responses (to 20% of control). The EC50s for ATP were 28.8, 58.9 and 264 μM at pH 6.8, 7.4 and 8.0, respectively.Co-application of ATP with Zn2+ produced a marked enhancement of the responses to ATP, with an EC50 of 9.55 μM. In the presence of Zn2+ (30 μM), the EC50 for ATP was decreased to 4.57 μM.In situ hybridization revealed that the P2X receptor transcripts levels in rat MPG neurons are P2X2>P2X4>P2X1, P2X3, P2X5 and P2X6. The immunohistochemical staining revealed a small number of neurons with strong P2X2 immunoreactivity.In conclusion, our results indicate that there are P2X receptors present on MPG neurons. The pharmacological characteristics of these receptors, the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical evidence are consistent with them being of the P2X2 subtype, or heteromultimers, with P2X2 being the dominant component. PMID:9831914

  15. N-Type Negative Resistance in M/NiS2 - xSex/M Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudnovskii, F. A.; Pergament, A. L.; Stefanovich, G. B.; Somasundaram, P.; Honig, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    We present measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of metal/NiS2 - xSex/metal structures. Due to the unusual metal-insulator phase transition in NiS2 - xSex, in which the low-temperature phase is metallic-like, whereas above the transition temperature the material is a semiconductor, we observed N-type current-voltage characteristics. The switching time for NiS2 - xSex thin films is estimated to be roughly 10 - 8 s, which is sufficiently short to be of interest for applications.

  16. Structure-based identification and characterisation of structurally novel human P2X7 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Caseley, Emily A; Muench, Stephen P; Fishwick, Colin W; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2016-09-15

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays an important role in diverse conditions associated with tissue damage and inflammation, meaning that the human P2X7R (hP2X7R) is an attractive therapeutic target. The crystal structures of the zebrafish P2X4R in the closed and ATP-bound open states provide an unprecedented opportunity for structure-guided identification of new ligands. The present study performed virtual screening of ∼100,000 structurally diverse compounds against the ATP-binding pocket in the hP2X7R. This identified three compounds (C23, C40 and C60) out of 73 top-ranked compounds by testing against hP2X7R-mediated Ca(2+) responses. These compounds were further characterised using Ca(2+) imaging, patch-clamp current recording, YO-PRO-1 uptake and propidium iodide cell death assays. All three compounds inhibited BzATP-induced Ca(2+) responses concentration-dependently with IC50s of 5.1±0.3μM, 4.8±0.8μM and 3.2±0.2μM, respectively. C23 and C40 inhibited BzATP-induced currents in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner, with IC50s of 0.35±0.3μM and 1.2±0.1μM, respectively, but surprisingly C60 did not affect BzATP-induced currents up to 100μM. They suppressed BzATP-induced YO-PRO-1 uptake with IC50s of 1.8±0.9μM, 1.0±0.1μM and 0.8±0.2μM, respectively. Furthermore, these three compounds strongly protected against ATP-induced cell death. Among them, C40 and C60 exhibited strong specificity towards the hP2X7R over the hP2X4R and rP2X3R. In conclusion, our study reports the identification of three novel hP2X7R antagonists with micromolar potency for the first time using a structure-based approach, including the first P2X7R antagonist with preferential inhibition of large pore formation. PMID:27481062

  17. System Engineering and Technical Challenges Overcome in the J-2X Rocket Engine Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in 2006, NASA initiated the J-2X engine development effort to develop an upper stage propulsion system to enable the achievement of the primary objectives of the Constellation program (CxP): provide continued access to the International Space Station following the retirement of the Space Station and return humans to the moon. The J-2X system requirements identified to accomplish this were very challenging and the time expended over the five years following the beginning of the J- 2X effort have been noteworthy in the development of innovations in both the fields for liquid rocket propulsion and system engineering.

  18. New P2X3 receptor antagonists. Part 1: Discovery and optimization of tricyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Szántó, Gábor; Makó, Attila; Bata, Imre; Farkas, Bence; Kolok, Sándor; Vastag, Mónika; Cselenyák, Attila

    2016-08-15

    Purinergic P2X3 receptors are trimeric ligand-gated ion channels whose antagonism is an appealing yet challenging and not fully validated drug development idea. With the aim of identification of an orally active, potent human P2X3 receptor antagonist compound that can penetrate the central nervous system, the compound collection of Gedeon Richter was screened. A hit series of tricyclic compounds was subjected to a rapid, two-step optimization process focusing on increasing potency, improving metabolic stability and CNS penetrability. Attempts resulted in compound 65, a potential tool compound for testing P2X3 inhibitory effects in vivo. PMID:27423478

  19. New P2X3 receptor antagonists. Part 2: Identification and SAR of quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Szántó, Gábor; Makó, Attila; Vágó, István; Hergert, Tamás; Bata, Imre; Farkas, Bence; Kolok, Sándor; Vastag, Mónika

    2016-08-15

    Numerous potent P2X3 antagonists have been discovered and the therapeutic potential of P2X3 antagonism already comprises proof-of-concept data obtained in clinical trials with the most advanced compound. We have lately reported the discovery and optimization of thia-triaza-tricycle compounds with potent P2X3 antagonistic properties. This Letter describes the SAR of a back-up series containing a 4-oxo-quinazoline central ring. The discovery of the highly potent compounds 51 is presented. PMID:27426300

  20. New synthesis of excellent visible-light TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} photocatalyst using a very simple method

    SciTech Connect

    Li Danzhen Huang Hanjie; Chen Xu; Chen Zhixin; Li Wenjuan; Ye Dong; Fu Xianzhi

    2007-09-15

    An excellent visible-light-responsive (from 400 to 550 nm) TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} photocatalyst was prepared by a simple wet method. Hydrazine was used as a new nitrogen resource in this paper. Self-made amorphous titanium dioxide precursor powders were dipped into hydrazine hydrate, and calcined at low temperature (110 deg. C) in the air. The TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} was successfully synthesized, following by spontaneous combustion. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analysis of XPS indicated that N atoms were incorporated into the lattice of the titania crystal during the combustion of hydrazine on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. Ethylene was selected as a target pollutant under visible-light excitation to evaluate the activity of this photocatalyst. The newly prepared TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} photocatalyst with strong photocatalytic activity and high photochemical stability under visible-light irradiation was firstly demonstrated in the experiment. - Graphical abstract: The excellent visible-light-responsive (from 400 to 550 nm) TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x} photocatalyst was prepared by a simple wet method. Hydrazine was used as a new nitrogen resource in this paper. In the experiment, a strong photocatalytic activity with high photochemical stability under visible-light irradiation was demonstrated.

  1. Cosine transform generalized to lie groups SU(2)xSU(2), O(5), and SU(2)xSU(2)xSU(2): application to digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, Mickaël; Patera, Jiri; Allard, Yannick

    2006-02-01

    We propose to apply three of the multiple variants of the 2 and 3-dimensional of the cosine transform. We consider the Lie groups leading to square lattices, namely SU(2)xSU(2) and O(5) in the 2-dimensional space, and the cubic lattice SU(2)xSU(2)xSU(2) in the 3-dimensional space. We aim at evaluating the benefits of some Discrete Group Transform (DGT) techniques, in particular the Continuous Extension of the Discrete Cosine Transform (CEDCT), and at developing new techniques that refine image quality: this refinement is called the high-resolution process. This highest quality is useful to increase the effectiveness of standard features extraction, fusion and classification algorithms. All algorithms based on the 2 and 3-dimensional DGT have the advantage to give the exact value of the original data at the points of the grid lattice, and interpolate well the data values between the grid points. The quality of the interpolation is comparable with the most efficient data interpolation, which are currently used for purposes of image zooming. In our first application, we use DGT techniques to refine fully polarimetric radar images, and to increase the effectiveness of standard features extraction algorithms. In our second application, we apply DGT techniques on medical images extracted from a system and a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system.

  2. Thermal expansion of Cr{sub 2x}Fe{sub 2-2x}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}, Al{sub 2x}Fe{sub 2-2x}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Al{sub 2x}Cr{sub 2-2x}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ari, M.; Jardim, P.M.; Marinkovic, B.A. Rizzo, F.; Ferreira, F.F.

    2008-06-15

    The transition temperature from monoclinic to orthorhombic and the thermal expansion of the orthorhombic phase were investigated for three systems of the family A{sub 2}M{sub 3}O{sub 12}: Cr{sub 2x}Fe{sub 2-2x}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}, Al{sub 2x}Fe{sub 2-2x}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} and Al{sub 2x}Cr{sub 2-2x}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12}. It was possible to obtain a single-phase solid solution in all studied samples (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1). A linear relationship between the transition temperature and the fraction of A{sup 3+} cations (x) was observed for each system. In all orthorhombic solid solutions studied here the observed thermal expansion was anisotropic. These anisotropic thermal expansion properties of crystallographic axes a, b and c result in a low positive or near-zero overall linear coefficient of thermal expansion ({alpha}{sub l}={alpha}{sub V}/3). The relationship between the size of A{sup 3+} cations in A{sub 2}M{sub 3}O{sub 12} and the coefficient of thermal expansion is discussed. Near-zero thermal expansion of Cr{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} is explained by the behavior of Cr-O and Mo-O bond distances, Cr-Mo non-bond distances and Cr-O-Mo bond angles with increasing temperature, estimated by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. - Graphical abstract: In this figure, all published overall linear coefficients of thermal expansion for orthorhombic A{sub 2}M{sub 3}O{sub 12} family obtained through diffraction methods as a function of A{sup 3+} cation radii size, together with dilatometric results, are plotted. Our results indicate that Cr{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 12} does not exactly follow the established relationship.

  3. P2 purinergic receptor mRNA in rat and human sinoatrial node and other heart regions.

    PubMed

    Musa, Hanny; Tellez, James O; Chandler, Natalie J; Greener, Ian D; Maczewski, Michał; Mackiewicz, Urszula; Beresewicz, Andrzej; Molenaar, Peter; Boyett, Mark R; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2009-06-01

    It is known that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a cotransmitter in the heart. Additionally, ATP is released from ischemic and hypoxic myocytes. Therefore, cardiac-derived sources of ATP have the potential to modify cardiac function. ATP activates P2X(1-7) and P2Y(1-14) receptors; however, the presence of P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes in strategic cardiac locations such as the sinoatrial node has not been determined. An understanding of P2X and P2Y receptor localization would facilitate investigation of purine receptor function in the heart. Therefore, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization to measure the expression of mRNA of all known purine receptors in rat left ventricle, right atrium and sinoatrial node (SAN), and human right atrium and SAN. Expression of mRNA for all the cloned P2 receptors was observed in the ventricles, atria, and SAN of the rat. However, their abundance varied in different regions of the heart. P2X(5) was the most abundant of the P2X receptors in all three regions of the rat heart. In rat left ventricle, P2Y(1), P2Y(2), and P2Y(14) mRNA levels were highest for P2Y receptors, while in right atrium and SAN, P2Y(2) and P2Y(14) levels were highest, respectively. We extended these studies to investigate P2X(4) receptor mRNA in heart from rats with coronary artery ligation-induced heart failure. P2X(4) receptor mRNA was upregulated by 93% in SAN (P < 0.05), while a trend towards an increase was also observed in the right atrium and left ventricle (not significant). Thus, P2X(4)-mediated effects might be modulated in heart failure. mRNA for P2X(4-7) and P2Y(1,2,4,6,12-14), but not P2X(2,3) and P2Y(11), was detected in human right atrium and SAN. In addition, mRNA for P2X(1) was detected in human SAN but not human right atrium. In human right atrium and SAN, P2X(4) and P2X(7) mRNA was the highest for P2X receptors. P2Y(1) and P2Y(2) mRNA were the most abundant for P2Y receptors in the right atrium, while P2Y(1), P2Y(2), and P2Y(14

  4. Sub-180 nm generation with borate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chen; Yoshimura, Masashi; Tsunoda, Jun; Kaneda, Yushi; Imade, Mamoru; Sasaki, Takatomo; Mori, Yusuke

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrated a new scheme for the generation of 179 nm vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light with an all-solid-state laser system. It was achieved by mixing the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) of 198.8 nm and the infrared (IR) of 1799.9 nm. While CsB3O5 (CBO) did not satisfy the phase-matching at around 180 nm, 179 nm output was generated with LiB3O5 (LBO) for the first time. The phase-matching property of LBO at around 180 nm was also investigated. There was small deviation from theoretical curve in the measurement, which is still considered reasonable.

  5. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Moussa, Malaak N.; Paolini, Brielle M.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10–20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the “correct” method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves

  6. Lateral Growth of Composition Graded Atomic Layer MoS(2(1-x))Se(2x) Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Li, Honglai; Zhang, Qinglin; Duan, Xidong; Wu, Xueping; Fan, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Anlian; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-04-29

    Band gap engineering of transition-metal dichalcogenides is an important task for their applications in photonics, optoelectronics, and nanoelectronics. We report for the first time the continuous lateral growth of composition graded bilayer MoS(2(1-x))Se(2x) alloys along single triangular nanosheets by an improved chemical vapor deposition approach. From the center to the edge of the nanosheet, the composition can be gradually tuned from x = 0 (pure MoS2) to x = 0.68, leading to the corresponding bandgap being continuously modulated from 1.82 eV (680 nm) to 1.64 eV (755 nm). Local photoluminescence scanning from the center to the edge gives single band edge emission peaks, indicating high crystalline quality for the achieved alloy nanosheets, which was further demonstrated by the microstructure characterizations. These novel 2D structures offer an interesting system for probing the physical properties of layered materials and exploring new applications in functional nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25871953

  7. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Neuromodulation by extracellular ATP and P2X receptors in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Khakh, Baljit S.; North, R. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5’ triphosphate (ATP) is a widespread cell-to-cell signaling molecule in the brain, where it activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors define a protein family unlike other neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in terms of sequence, subunit topology, assembly and architecture. Within milliseconds of binding ATP, they catalyze the opening of a cation-selective pore. However, recent data show that P2X receptors often underlie neuromodulatory responses on slower time scales of seconds or longer. Herein, we review these findings at molecular, cellular and systems levels. We propose that, while P2X receptors are fast ligand-gated cation channels, they are most adept at mediating slow neuromodulatory functions that are more widespread and more physiologically utilized than fast ATP synaptic transmission in the CNS. PMID:23040806

  9. Structural Insights into Divalent Cation Modulations of ATP-Gated P2X Receptor Channels.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Go; Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Takemoto, Mizuki; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakada-Nakura, Yoshiko; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Hattori, Motoyuki; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation channels involved in physiological processes ranging widely from neurotransmission to pain and taste signal transduction. The modulation of the channel gating, including that by divalent cations, contributes to these diverse physiological functions of P2X receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of an invertebrate P2X receptor from the Gulf Coast tick Amblyomma maculatum in the presence of ATP and Zn(2+) ion, together with electrophysiological and computational analyses. The structure revealed two distinct metal binding sites, M1 and M2, in the extracellular region. The M1 site, located at the trimer interface, is responsible for Zn(2+) potentiation by facilitating the structural change of the extracellular domain for pore opening. In contrast, the M2 site, coupled with the ATP binding site, might contribute to regulation by Mg(2+). Overall, our work provides structural insights into the divalent cation modulations of P2X receptors. PMID:26804916

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  11. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  12. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  13. Weyl Nodes in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Singular points in the momentum space (Dirac nodes) have been under intensive investigation recently. Among various Dirac systems, materials having three-dimensional Dirac nodes without spin degeneracy (Weyl nodes) are of particular interest because of their topological nature. We study trigonal Te and Se as systems having both strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and broken inversion symmetry, which is necessary for the Weyl node. We calculate the electronic structure by using QMAS based on relativistic density functional theory, and add the self-energy correction in the GW approximation. Te and Se are insulating at ambient pressure. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture. The energy gap decreases with increasing pressure. In the metallic phase, the spin rotates twice around H on the kz = +/- π/c plane, which can be explained by the motion of the Weyl nodes under pressure. We also find that trigonal Te shows the Weyl semimetal phase with time-reversal symmetry under pressure.

  14. 147-nm photolysis of disilane

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, G.G.A.; Lampe, F.W.

    1980-05-21

    The photodecomposition of Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ at 147 nm results in the formation of H/sub 2/, SiH/sub 4/, Si/sub 3/H/sub 8/, Si/sub 4/H/sub 10/, Si/sub 5/H/sub 12/, and a solid film of amorphous silicon hydride (a-Si:H). Three primary processes are proposed to account for the results, namely, (a) Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ + h..nu.. ..-->.. SiH/sub 2/ + SiH/sub 3/ + H (phi/sub a/ = 0.61); (b) Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ + h..nu.. ..-->.. SiH/sub 3/SiH + 2H (phi/sub b/ = 0.18); (c) Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ + h..nu.. ..-->.. Si/sub 2/H/sub 5/ + H (phi/sub c/ = 0.21). The overall quantum yields depend on the pressure but at 1 Torr partial pressure of Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ are PHI(-Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) = 4.3 +- 0.2, PHI(SiH/sub 4/) = 1.2 +- 0.4, PHI(Si/sub 3/H/sub 8/) = 0.91 +- 0.08, PHI(Si/sub 4/H/sub 10/) = 0.62 +- 0.03, PHI(Si,wall) = 2.2. Quantum yields for H/sub 2/ formation were not measured. A mechanism is proposed which is shown to be in accord with the experimental facts.

  15. Critical Evaluation of P2X7 Receptor Antagonists in Selected Seizure Models

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Müller, Heiko; Dinkel, Klaus; Lord, Brian; Letavic, Michael A.; Henshall, David C.; Engel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-gated P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a non-selective cation channel which senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and has been suggested as a target for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of P2X7R antagonists may therefore be a viable approach for treating CNS pathologies, including epileptic disorders. Recent studies showed anticonvulsant potential of P2X7R antagonists in certain animal models. To extend this work, we tested three CNS-permeable P2X7R blocker (Brilliant Blue G, AFC-5128, JNJ-47965567) and a natural compound derivative (tanshinone IIA sulfonate) in four well-characterized animal seizure models. In the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test and the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure threshold test in mice, none of the four compounds demonstrated anticonvulsant effects when given alone. Notably, in combination with carbamazepine, both AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 increased the threshold in the maximal electroshock seizure test. In the PTZ-kindling model in rats, useful for testing antiepileptogenic activities, Brilliant Blue G and tanshinone exhibited a moderate retarding effect, whereas the potent P2X7R blocker AFC-5128 and JNJ-47965567 showed a significant and long-lasting delay in kindling development. In fully kindled rats, the investigated compounds revealed modest effects to reduce the mean seizure stage. Furthermore, AFC-5128- and JNJ-47965567-treated animals displayed strongly reduced Iba 1 and GFAP immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA3 region. In summary, our results show that P2X7R antagonists possess no remarkable anticonvulsant effects in the used acute screening tests, but can attenuate chemically-induced kindling. Further studies would be of interest to support the concept that P2X7R signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders. PMID:27281030

  16. Permeation Properties of a P2X Receptor in the Green Algae Ostreococcus tauri*

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Samuel J.; Cao, Lishuang; Young, Mark T.; North, R. Alan

    2008-01-01

    We have cloned a P2X receptor (OtP2X) from the green algae Ostreococcus tauri. The 42-kDa receptor shares ∼28% identity with human P2X receptors and 23% with the Dictyostelium P2X receptor. ATP application evoked flickery single channel openings in outside-out membrane patches from human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing OtP2X. Whole-cell recordings showed concentration-dependent cation currents reversing close to zero mV; ATP gave a half-maximal current at 250 μm. αβ-Methylene-ATP evoked only small currents in comparison to ATP (EC50 > 5 mm). 2′,3′-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP, βγ-imido-ATP, ADP, and several other nucleotide triphosphates did not activate any current. The currents evoked by 300 μm ATP were not inhibited by 100 μm suramin, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid, 2′,3′-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenol)-ATP, or copper. Ion substitution experiments indicated permeabilities relative to sodium with the rank order calcium >choline >Tris >tetraethylammonium >N-methyl-d-glucosamine. However, OtP2X had a low relative calcium permeability (PCa/PNa = 0.4) in comparison with other P2X receptors. This was due at least in part to the presence of an asparagine residue (Asn353) at a position in the second transmembrane domain in place of the aspartate that is completely conserved in all other P2X receptor subunits, because replacement of Asn353 with aspartate increased calcium permeability by ∼50%. The results indicate that the ability of ATP to gate cation permeation across membranes exists in cells that diverged in evolutionary terms from animals about 1 billion years ago. PMID:18381285

  17. Anthraquinone emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by antagonizing P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jelassi, Bilel; Anchelin, Monique; Chamouton, Julie; Cayuela, María Luisa; Clarysse, Lucie; Li, Junying; Goré, Jacques; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Roger, Sébastien

    2013-07-01

    The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is strongly upregulated in many tumors and cancer cells, and has an important role in cancer cell invasion associated with metastases. Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative originally isolated from Rheum officinale Baill known for decades to possess anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of emodin on P2X7R-dependent Ca(2+) signaling, extracellular matrix degradation, and in vitro and in vivo cancer cell invasiveness using highly aggressive human cancer cells. Inclusion of emodin at doses ≤10 µM in cell culture had no or very mild effect on the cell viability. ATP elicited increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were reduced by 35 and 60% by 1 and 10 µM emodin, respectively. Emodin specifically inhibited P2X7R-mediated currents with an IC50 of 3 µM and did not inhibit the currents mediated by the other human P2X receptors heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. ATP-induced increase in gelatinolytic activity, in cancer cell invasiveness in vitro and in cell morphology changes were prevented by 1 µM emodin. Furthermore, such ATP-evoked effects and inhibition by emodin were almost completely ablated in cancer cells transfected with P2X7R-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) but not with scrambled siRNA. Finally, the in vivo invasiveness of the P2X7R-positive MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells, assessed using a zebrafish model of micrometastases, was suppressed by 40 and 50% by 1 and 10 µM emodin. Taken together, these results provide consistent evidence to indicate that emodin inhibits human cancer cell invasiveness by specifically antagonizing the P2X7R. PMID:23524196

  18. Glucose transporter 2 expression is down regulated following P2X7 activation in enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Bourzac, Jean-François; L'Ériger, Karine; Larrivée, Jean-François; Arguin, Guillaume; Bilodeau, Maude S; Stankova, Jana; Gendron, Fernand-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    With the diabetes epidemic affecting the world population, there is an increasing demand for means to regulate glycemia. Dietary glucose is first absorbed by the intestine before entering the blood stream. Thus, the regulation of glucose absorption by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) could represent a way to regulate glycemia. Among the molecules involved in glycemia homeostasis, extracellular ATP, a paracrine signaling molecule, was reported to induce insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells by activating P2Y and P2X receptors. In rat's jejunum, P2X7 expression was previously immunolocalized to the apex of villi, where it has been suspected to play a role in apoptosis. However, using an antibody recognizing the receptor extracellular domain and thus most of the P2X7 isoforms, we showed that expression of this receptor is apparent in the top two-thirds of villi. These data suggest a different role for this receptor in IECs. Using the non-cancerous IEC-6 cells and differentiated Caco-2 cells, glucose transport was reduced by more than 30% following P2X7 stimulation. This effect on glucose transport was not due to P2X7-induced cell apoptosis, but rather was the consequence of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2)'s internalization. The signaling pathway leading to P2X7-dependent Glut2 internalization involved the calcium-independent activation of phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1), PKCδ, and PKD1. Although the complete mechanism regulating Glut2 internalization following P2X7 activation is not fully understood, modulation of P2X7 receptor activation could represent an interesting approach to regulate intestinal glucose absorption. PMID:22566162

  19. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of LuFe2- x Mn x O4 + δ multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamzatov, A. G.; Aliev, A. M.; Markelova, M. N.; Burunova, N. A.; Kaul', A. R.; Semisalova, A. S.; Perov, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the LuFe2- x Mn x O4 + δ ( x = 0, 0.05, 0.12) system have been studied. A partial substitution of manganese for iron leads to a noticeable decrease in the magnetization and the magnetocaloric effect. It has been shown that the magnetocaloric effect in LuFe2- x Mn x O4 + δ samples is determined by several mechanisms.

  20. Portable widefield imaging device for ICG-detection of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govone, Angelo Biasi; Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Carvalho, André Lopes; Capuzzo, Renato de Castro; Magalhães, Daniel Varela; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis is one of the major cancer complications, since the malignant cells detach from the primary tumor and reaches other organs or tissues. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymphatic structure to be affected by the malignant cells, but its location is still a great challenge for the medical team. This occurs due to the fact that the lymph nodes are located between the muscle fibers, making it visualization difficult. Seeking to aid the surgeon in the detection of the SLN, the present study aims to develop a widefield fluorescence imaging device using the indocyanine green as fluorescence marker. The system is basically composed of a 780nm illumination unit, optical components for 810nm fluorescence detection, two CCD cameras, a laptop, and dedicated software. The illumination unit has 16 diode lasers. A dichroic mirror and bandpass filters select and deliver the excitation light to the interrogated tissue, and select and deliver the fluorescence light to the camera. One camera is responsible for the acquisition of visible light and the other one for the acquisition of the ICG fluorescence. The software developed at the LabVIEW® platform generates a real time merged image where it is possible to observe the fluorescence spots, related to the lymph nodes, superimposed at the image under white light. The system was tested in a mice model, and a first patient with tongue cancer was imaged. Both results showed the potential use of the presented fluorescence imaging system assembled for sentinel lymph node detection.

  1. In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (=89) and good resolution (~500 µm). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740-820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer.

  2. P2X7 receptors mediate deleterious renal epithelial-fibroblast cross talk.

    PubMed

    Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Ma, Li; Gong, Rujun; Pang, Maoyin; Chin, Y Eugene; Zhuang, Shougang

    2011-01-01

    Peritubular fibroblasts in the kidney are the major erythropoietin-producing cells and also contribute to renal repair following acute kidney injury (AKI). Although few fibroblasts were observed in the interstitium adjacent to damaged tubular epithelium in the early phase of AKI, the underlying mechanism by which their numbers were reduced remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that damaged renal epithelial cells directly induce renal interstitial fibroblast death by releasing intracellular ATP and activating purinergic signaling. Exposure of a cultured rat renal interstitial fibroblast cell line (NRK-49F) to necrotic renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) lysate or supernatant induced NRK-49F cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. Depletion of ATP with apyrase or inhibition of the P2X purinergic receptor with pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid blocked the deleterious effect of necrotic RPTC supernatant. The P2X7 receptor, an ATP-sensitive purinergic receptor, was not detected in cultured NRK-49F cells but was inducible by necrotic RPTC supernatant. Treatment with A438079, a highly selective P2X7 receptor inhibitor, or knockdown of the P2X7 receptor with small interference RNA diminished renal fibroblast death induced by necrotic RPTC supernatant. Conversely, overexpression of the P2X7 receptor potentiated this response. Collectively, these findings provide strong evidence that damaged renal epithelial cells can directly induce the death of renal interstitial fibroblasts by ATP activation of the P2X7 receptor. PMID:20861083

  3. Physiological role for P2X1 receptors in renal microvascular autoregulatory behavior

    PubMed Central

    Inscho, Edward W.; Cook, Anthony K.; Imig, John D.; Vial, Catherine; Evans, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that P2X1 receptors mediate pressure-induced afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses. Afferent arterioles from rats and P2X1 KO mice were examined using the juxtamedullary nephron technique. Arteriolar diameter was measured in response to step increases in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Autoregulatory adjustments in diameter were measured before and during P2X receptor blockade with NF279 or A1 receptor blockade with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX). Acute papillectomy or furosemide perfusion was performed to interrupt distal tubular fluid flow past the macula densa, thus minimizing tubuloglomerular feedback–dependent influences on afferent arteriolar function. Under control conditions, arteriolar diameter decreased by 17% and 29% at RPP of 130 and 160 mmHg, respectively. Blockade of P2X1 receptors with NF279 blocked pressure-mediated vasoconstriction, reflecting an attenuated autoregulatory response. The A1 receptor blocker DPCPX did not alter autoregulatory behavior or the response to ATP. Deletion of P2X1 receptors in KO mice significantly blunted autoregulatory responses induced by an increase in RPP, and this response was not further impaired by papillectomy or furosemide. WT control mice exhibited typical RPP-dependent vasoconstriction that was significantly attenuated by papillectomy. These data provide compelling new evidence indicating that tubuloglomerular feedback signals are coupled to autoregulatory preglomerular vasoconstriction through ATP-mediated activation of P2X1 receptors. PMID:14679185

  4. Transcription factor IRF5 drives P2X4R+-reactive microglia gating neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Shosuke; Yoshinaga, Ryohei; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akira; Mak, Tak W.; Tamura, Tomohiko; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    In response to neuronal injury or disease, microglia adopt distinct reactive phenotypes via the expression of different sets of genes. Spinal microglia expressing the purinergic P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) are implicated in neuropathic pain. Here we show that interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF5), which is induced in spinal microglia after PNI, is responsible for direct transcriptional control of P2X4R. Upon stimulation of microglia by fibronectin, IRF5 induced de novo expression of P2X4R by directly binding to the promoter region of the P2rx4 gene. Mice lacking Irf5 did not upregulate spinal P2X4R after PNI, and also exhibited substantial resistance to pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that expression of IRF5 in microglia is regulated by IRF8. Thus, an IRF8-IRF5 transcriptional axis may contribute to shifting spinal microglia toward a P2X4R-expressing reactive state after PNI. These results may provide a new target for treating neuropathic pain. PMID:24818655

  5. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide inhibits fibroblast migration via P2X7 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shohei; Matsui, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Haruyo; Yamashita, Tomomi; Mohri, Tomomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Fibrosis is one of the most common pathological alterations in heart failure, and fibroblast migration is an essential process in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration followed by healing without residual fibrosis. However, the precise mechanisms mediating termination of inflammation and nonfibrotic healing remain to be elucidated. Microarray analysis of hearts from model mice at multiple time points after EAM induction identified several secreted proteins upregulated during nonfibrotic healing, including the anti-inflammatory cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Treatment with LL-37, a human homolog of CAMP, activated MAP kinases in fibroblasts but not in cardiomyocytes, indicating that fibroblasts were the target of CAMP activity. In addition, LL-37 decreased fibroblast migration in the in vitro scratch assay. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a well-known receptor for LL-37, was involved in LL-37 mediated biological effect on cardiac fibroblasts. Stimulation of BzATP, a P2X7R agonist, activated MAPK in fibroblasts, whereas the P2X7R antagonist, BBG, as well as P2X7R deletion abolished both LL-37-mediated MAPK activation and LL-37-induced reduction in fibroblast migration. These results strongly suggest that CAMP upregulation during myocarditis prevents myocardial fibrosis by restricting fibroblast migration via activation of the P2X7R-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:23867818

  6. New insights of P2X7 receptor signaling pathway in alveolar functions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amarjit

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated cation channel, is unique among all other family members because of its ability to respond to various stimuli and to modulate pro-inflammatory signaling. The activation of P2X7R in immune cells is absolutely required for mature interleukin -1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18 production and release. Lung alveoli are lined by the structural alveolar epithelial type I (AEC I) and alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II). AEC I plays important roles in alveolar barrier protection and fluid homeostasis whereas AEC II synthesizes and secrete surfactant and prevents alveoli from collapse. Earlier studies indicated that purinergic P2X7 receptors were specifically expressed in AEC I. However, their implication in alveolar functions has not been explored. This paper reviews two important signaling pathways of P2X7 receptors in surfactant homeostatsis and Acute Lung Injury (ALI). Thus, P2X7R resides at the critical nexus of alveolar pathophysiology. PMID:23634990

  7. Effect of intratracheal instillation of ultrafine carbon black on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release and mRNA expression in lung and lymph nodes of mice.

    PubMed

    Shwe, Tin-Tin-Win; Yamamoto, Shoji; Kakeyama, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Fujimaki, Hidekazu

    2005-11-15

    Our understanding of how ultrafine particles, which are constituents of particulate matter, affect immunological response is poor. To investigate the size-specific effect of ultrafine particles on pulmonary immune responses, translocation to lymph nodes, and chemokine mRNA expressions in lung and lymph nodes, we performed three experiments in 8-week-old male BALB/c mice. In experiment 1, we instilled 25 microg, 125 microg, or 625 microg of 14 nm carbon black (CB) particles intratracheally, once weekly for 4 weeks, and in experiment 2, we instilled 95 nm CB. For detection of total and differential cell counts and cytokine and chemokine protein release, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid 24 h after the last instillation of CB. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that 125 microg was the suitable dose for experiment 3, which we then performed on the same schedule and 4 h after the last instillation, we harvested the lung and mediastinal lymph node to detect chemokine mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR. The total cell count as well as the differential cell counts such as macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in BAL fluid increased significantly in mice exposed to 14 nm CB in a dose-dependent manner. Release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased significantly in BAL fluid in mice instilled with 14-nm CB. Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha/CCL-3 protein and mRNA expression were increased significantly in the lungs and lymph nodes of mice given 14 nm CB. Histologically, deposition of CB was observed greater in the mediastinal lymph nodes of mice given 14 nm than in 95 nm CB. These findings indicate that repeated intratracheal instillation of ultrafine carbon black in mice leads to pulmonary inflammation, their translocation to mediastinal lymph nodes and increased chemokine mRNA expression in lung and lymph nodes size-specifically. PMID:16331831

  8. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET pushing EUV development beyond 22-nm half pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Naulleau, P.; Anderson, C. N.; Backlea-an, L.-M.; Chan, D.; Denham, P.; George, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Hoef, B.; Jones, G.; Koh, C.; La Fontaine, B.; McClinton, B.; Miyakawa, R.; Montgomery, W.; Rekawa, S.; Wallow, T.

    2010-03-18

    Microfield exposure tools (METs) play a crucial role in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resists and masks, One of these tools is the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) MET, Using conventional illumination this tool is limited to approximately 22-nm half pitch resolution. However, resolution enhancement techniques have been used to push the patterning capabilities of this tool to half pitches of 18 nm and below, This resolution was achieved in a new imageable hard mask which also supports contact printing down to 22 nm with conventional illumination. Along with resolution, line-edge roughness is another crucial hurdle facing EUV resists, Much of the resist LER, however, can be attributed to the mask. We have shown that intenssionally aggressive mask cleaning on an older generation mask causes correlated LER in photoresist to increase from 3.4 nm to 4,0 nm, We have also shown that new generation EUV masks (100 pm of substrate roughness) can achieve correlated LER values of 1.1 nm, a 3x improvement over the correlated LER of older generation EUV masks (230 pm of substrate roughness), Finally, a 0.5-NA MET has been proposed that will address the needs of EUV development at the 16-nm node and beyond, The tool will support an ultimate resolution of 8 nm half-pitch and generalized printing using conventional illumination down to 12 nm half pitch.

  9. Layout dependent effects analysis on 28nm process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, Mealie; Wong, Waisum; Song, Huiyuan; Xu, Wei; Hurat, Philippe; Ding, Hua; Zhang, Yifan; Cote, Michel; Huang, Jason; Lai, Ya-ch

    2015-03-01

    Advanced process nodes introduce new variability effects due to increased density, new material, new device structures, and so forth. This creates more and stronger Layout Dependent effects (LDE), especially below 28nm. These effects such as WPE (Well Proximity Effect), PSE (Poly Spacing Effect) change the carrier mobility and threshold voltage and therefore make the device performances, such as Vth and Idsat, extremely layout dependent. In traditional flows, the impact of these changes can only be simulated after the block has been fully laid out, the design is LVS and DRC clean. It's too late in the design cycle and it increases the number of post-layout iteration. We collaborated to develop a method on an advanced process to embed several LDE sources into a LDE kit. We integrated this LDE kit in custom analog design environment, for LDE analysis at early design stage. These features allow circuit and layout designers to detect the variations caused by LDE, and to fix the weak points caused by LDE. In this paper, we will present this method and how it accelerates design convergence of advanced node custom analog designs by detecting early-on LDE hotspots on partial or fully placed layout, reporting contribution of each LDE component to help identify the root cause of LDE variation, and even providing fixing guidelines on how to modify the layout and to reduce the LDE impact.

  10. Lipid-Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Delivery to the Lymphatic System and SPECT/CT Imaging of Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng; Xu, Zhenghong; Guley, Kevin; Yuan, Hong; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle (NP) formulation (particle diameter ~25 nm) with superior siRNA delivery efficiency was developed and reported previously. Here, we describe the successful formulation of 111In into LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. Imaging and biodistribution studies showed that, polyethylene glycol grafted 111In-LCP preferentially accumulated in the lymph nodes at ~70% ID/g in both C57BL/6 and nude mice when the improved surface coating method was used. Both the liver and spleen accumulated only ~25% ID/g. Larger LCP (diameter ~67 nm) was less lymphotropic. These results indicate that 25 nm LCP was able to penetrate into tissues, enter the lymphatic system, and accumulate in the lymph nodes via lymphatic drainage due to 1) small size, 2) a well-PEGylated lipid surface, and 3) a slightly negative surface charge. The capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize an enlarged, tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated using a 4T1 breast cancer lymph node metastasis model. Systemic gene delivery to the lymph nodes after IV injection was demonstrated by the expression of red fluorescent protein cDNA. The potential of using LCP for lymphatic drug delivery is discussed. PMID:24613050

  11. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  12. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  13. New ultrasound techniques for lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Jenssen, Christian; Saftoiu, Adrian; Ignee, Andre; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2013-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the recommended imaging method for lymph node (LN) diseases with the advantages of high resolution, real time evaluation and relative low costs. Current indications of transcutaneous ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound include the detection and characterization of lymph nodes and the guidance for LN biopsy. Recent advances in US technology, such as contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), contrast enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS), and real time elastography show potential to improve the accuracy of US for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lymph nodes. In addition, CEUS and CE-EUS have been also used for the guidance of fine needle aspiration and assessment of treatment response. Complementary to size criteria, CEUS could also be used to evaluate response of tumor angiogenesis to anti-angiogenic therapies. In this paper we review current literature regarding evaluation of lymphadenopathy by new and innovative US techniques. PMID:23946589

  14. Saddle-node bifurcation of viscous profiles.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, Franz; Szmolyan, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Traveling wave solutions of viscous conservation laws, that are associated to Lax shocks of the inviscid equation, have generically a transversal viscous profile. In the case of a non-transversal viscous profile we show by using Melnikov theory that a parametrized perturbation of the profile equation leads generically to a saddle-node bifurcation of these solutions. An example of this bifurcation in the context of magnetohydrodynamics is given. The spectral stability of the traveling waves generated in the saddle-node bifurcation is studied via an Evans function approach. It is shown that generically one real eigenvalue of the linearization of the viscous conservation law around the parametrized family of traveling waves changes its sign at the bifurcation point. Hence this bifurcation describes the basic mechanism of a stable traveling wave which becomes unstable in a saddle-node bifurcation. PMID:23576830

  15. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  16. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  17. Predicting missing links via correlation between nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    As a fundamental problem in many different fields, link prediction aims to estimate the likelihood of an existing link between two nodes based on the observed information. Since this problem is related to many applications ranging from uncovering missing data to predicting the evolution of networks, link prediction has been intensively investigated recently and many methods have been proposed so far. The essential challenge of link prediction is to estimate the similarity between nodes. Most of the existing methods are based on the common neighbor index and its variants. In this paper, we propose to calculate the similarity between nodes by the Pearson correlation coefficient. This method is found to be very effective when applied to calculate similarity based on high order paths. We finally fuse the correlation-based method with the resource allocation method, and find that the combined method can substantially outperform the existing methods, especially in sparse networks.

  18. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  19. Space Station resource node flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.

  20. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node. PMID:27142063

  1. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  2. Diagnosis of pelvic lymph node metastasis in prostate cancer using single optical fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Denkçeken, Tuba; Canpolat, Murat; Baykara, Mehmet; Başsorgun, İbrahim; Aktaş-Samur, Anıl

    2016-09-01

    Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy system (ELSSS) is a biomedical tool which is used for detection of cancerous tissues ex-vivo. ELSSS spectra depend primarily on the size of scatterers in the tissue and are not directly related to changes in the absorption which are caused by variations of the biological macromolecules. In the present study, we aimed to detect metastasis in the pelvic lymph node by using combination of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Single-scattering spectra in the 450-750nm wavelength regions were obtained from the total of 83 reactive lymph node and 12 metastatic lymph node samples from 10 prostatic cancer patients. The ELSSS spectral data were compared against the "gold standard" histopathology results. Data analyses were done via using PCA, followed by LDA. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed for differentiating performance. The classification based on discriminant score provided sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96.4%, in differentiating non-metastatic (reactive) from metastatic pelvic lymph nodes, with a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 0.8, a Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 0.99 and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.99, respectively. In this study, it was shown that ELSSS system can accurately distinguish reactive and metastatic pelvic lymph nodes of prostate cancer with high PPV and NPV. It can be concluded that diagnostic accuracy of ELSSS system allows detecting metastatic tissues during operation. PMID:26526175

  3. 32 nm logic patterning options with immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, K.; Burns, S.; Halle, S.; Zhuang, L.; Colburn, M.; Allen, S.; Babcock, C.; Baum, Z.; Burkhardt, M.; Dai, V.; Dunn, D.; Geiss, E.; Haffner, H.; Han, G.; Lawson, P.; Mansfield, S.; Meiring, J.; Morgenfeld, B.; Tabery, C.; Zou, Y.; Sarma, C.; Tsou, L.; Yan, W.; Zhuang, H.; Gil, D.; Medeiros, D.

    2008-03-01

    The semiconductor industry faces a lithographic scaling limit as the industry completes the transition to 1.35 NA immersion lithography. Both high-index immersion lithography and EUV lithography are facing technical challenges and commercial timing issues. Consequently, the industry has focused on enabling double patterning technology (DPT) as a means to circumvent the limitations of Rayleigh scaling. Here, the IBM development alliance demonstrate a series of double patterning solutions that enable scaling of logic constructs by decoupling the pattern spatially through mask design or temporally through innovative processes. These techniques have been successfully employed for early 32nm node development using 45nm generation tooling. Four different double patterning techniques were implemented. The first process illustrates local RET optimization through the use of a split reticle design. In this approach, a layout is decomposed into a series of regions with similar imaging properties and the illumination conditions for each are independently optimized. These regions are then printed separately into the same resist film in a multiple exposure process. The result is a singly developed pattern that could not be printed with a single illumination-mask combination. The second approach addresses 2D imaging with particular focus on both line-end dimension and linewidth control [1]. A double exposure-double etch (DE2) approach is used in conjunction with a pitch-filling sacrificial feature strategy. The third double exposure process, optimized for via patterns also utilizes DE2. In this method, a design is split between two separate masks such that the minimum pitch between any two vias is larger than the minimum metal pitch. This allows for final structures with vias at pitches beyond the capability of a single exposure. In the fourth method,, dark field double dipole lithography (DDL) has been successfully applied to BEOL metal structures and has been shown to be

  4. Long-range order and spin-liquid states of polycrystalline Tb2+xTi2-xO7+y

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, T; Kadowaki, Hiroaki; Takatsu, Hiroshi; Fak, B; Yamazaki, Teruo; Saito, Tomonori; Yoshizawa, H.; Shimura, Y; Sakakibara, T; Hong, T; Goto, K; Yaraskavitch, L; Kycia, J

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature states of polycrystalline samples of a frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb2+xTi2 xO7+y have been investigated by specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, and neutron scattering experiments. We have found that this system can be tuned by a minute change of x from a spin-liquid state (x < xc) to a partly ordered state with a small antiferromagnetic ordering of the order of 0.1 B. Specific heat shows a sharp peak at a phase transition at Tc = 0.5 K for x = 0.005. Magnetic excitation spectra for this sample change from a quasielastic to a gapped type through Tc. The possibility of a Jahn-Teller transition is discussed.

  5. A solid solution series of atacamite type Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x}Cl(OH){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Bette, Sebastian; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Röder, Christian; Freyer, Daniela

    2015-08-15

    For the first time a complete solid solution series Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x}Cl(OH){sub 3} of an atacamite type alkaline main group metal chloride, Mg{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3}, and a transition group metal chloride, Ni{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3}, was prepared and characterized by chemical and thermal analysis as well as by Raman and IR spectroscopy, and high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. All members of the solid solution series crystallize in space group Pnam (62). The main building units of these crystal structures are distorted, edge-linked Ni/MgO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2} and Ni/MgO{sub 5}Cl octahedra. The distribution of Ni{sup 2+}- and Mg{sup 2+}-ions among these two metal-sites within the solid solution series is discussed in detail. The crystallization of the solid solution phases occurs via an intermediate solid solution series, (Ni/Mg)Cl{sub 2x}(OH){sub 2−2x}, with variable Cl: OH ratio up to the 1:3 ratio according to the formula Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x} Cl(OH){sub 3}. For one isolated intermediate solid solution member, Ni{sub 0.70}Mg{sub 0.30}Cl{sub 0.58}(OH){sub 1.42}, the formation and crystal structure is presented as well. - Graphical abstract: For the first time a complete solid solution series, Ni{sub 2x}Mg{sub 2−2x} Cl(OH){sub 3}, was synthesized and characterized. Structure solution by revealed that Ni{sup 2+} prefers to occupy the Jahn–Teller-like distorted hole, out of two available cation sites. Substitution of Ni{sup 2+} by Mg{sup 2+} in atacamite type Ni{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} results in systematic band shifts in Raman and IR spectra as well as in systematic changes in thermal properties. The α-polymorphs M{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} with M=Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and other divalent transition metal ions, as described in literature, were identified as separate compounds. - Highlights: • First synthesis of solid solution series between main and transition metal chloride. • Ni{sup 2+} prefers to occupy Jahn–Teller-like distorted octahedral holes

  6. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2 / (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices from first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, San-Dong

    2016-05-01

    To identify thermoelectric materials containing abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, we have studied the electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices with state-of-the-art first-principles calculations using a modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. Our results show that (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 are semi-metals using mBJ plus spin-orbit coupling (mBJ + SOC), while (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 is predicted to be a direct-gap semiconductor with a mBJ gap value of 0.46 eV and mBJ + SOC gap value of 0.44 eV. Thermoelectric properties are predicted by through solving the Boltzmann transport equations within the constant scattering time approximation. It is found that (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 has a larger Seebeck coefficient and power factor than (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 for both p-type and n-type doping. The detrimental influence of SOC on the power factor of p-type (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) is analyzed as a function of the carrier concentration, but there is a negligible SOC effect for n-type. These results can be explained by the influence of SOC on their valence and conduction bands near the Fermi level.

  7. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2008-01-04

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells.

  8. Bolometric properties of reactively sputtered TiO2-x films for thermal infrared image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Kang, In-Ku; Shin, Young Bong; Lee, Hee Chul

    2015-09-01

    A heat-sensitive layer (TiO2-x ) was successfully deposited by RF reactive magnetron sputtering for infrared (IR) image sensors at different relative mass flow of oxygen gas (R O2) levels. The deposition rate was decreased with an increase in the percentage of R O2 from 3.4% to 3.7%. TiO2-x samples deposited at room temperature exhibited amorphous characteristics. Oxygen deficiency causes a change in the oxidation state and is assumed to decrease the Ti4+ component on the surfaces of TiO2-x films. The oxygen stoichiometry (x) in TiO2-x films decreased from 0.35 to 0.05 with increasing the R O2 level from 3.4% to 3.7%, respectively. In TiO2-x -test-patterned samples, the resistivity decreased with the temperature, confirming the typical semiconducting property. The bolometric properties of the resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), and the flicker (1/ f) noise parameter were determined at different x values in TiO2-x samples. The rate of TCR dependency with regard to the 1/ f noise parameter is a universal bolometric parameter (β), acting as the dynamic element in a bolometer. It is high when a sample has a relatively low resistivity (0.82 Ω·cm) and a lower 1/ f noise parameter (3.16   ×   10-12). The results of this study indicate that reactively sputtered TiO2-x is a viable bolometric material for uncooled IR image sensor devices.

  9. Pharmacological characterization of a novel centrally permeable P2X7 receptor antagonist: JNJ-47965567

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Wang, Qi; Ao, Hong; Shoblock, James R; Lord, Brian; Aluisio, Leah; Fraser, Ian; Nepomuceno, Diane; Neff, Robert A; Welty, Natalie; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Bonaventure, Pascal; Wickenden, Alan D; Letavic, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE An increasing body of evidence suggests that the purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2X7) in the CNS may play a key role in neuropsychiatry, neurodegeneration and chronic pain. In this study, we characterized JNJ-47965567, a centrally permeable, high-affinity, selective P2X7 antagonist. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We have used a combination of in vitro assays (calcium flux, radioligand binding, electrophysiology, IL-1β release) in both recombinant and native systems. Target engagement of JNJ-47965567 was demonstrated by ex vivo receptor binding autoradiography and in vivo blockade of Bz-ATP induced IL-1β release in the rat brain. Finally, the efficacy of JNJ-47965567 was tested in standard models of depression, mania and neuropathic pain. KEY RESULTS JNJ-47965567 is potent high affinity (pKi 7.9 ± 0.07), selective human P2X7 antagonist, with no significant observed speciation. In native systems, the potency of the compound to attenuate IL-1β release was 6.7 ± 0.07 (human blood), 7.5 ± 0.07 (human monocytes) and 7.1 ± 0.1 (rat microglia). JNJ-47965567 exhibited target engagement in rat brain, with a brain EC50 of 78 ± 19 ng·mL−1 (P2X7 receptor autoradiography) and functional block of Bz-ATP induced IL-1β release. JNJ-47965567 (30 mg·kg−1) attenuated amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and exhibited modest, yet significant efficacy in the rat model of neuropathic pain. No efficacy was observed in forced swim test. Conclusion and Implications JNJ-47965567 is centrally permeable, high affinity P2X7 antagonist that can be used to probe the role of central P2X7 in rodent models of CNS pathophysiology. PMID:23889535

  10. The planarian P2X homolog in the regulation of asexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Toshihide; Lee, Hayoung; Kashima, Makoto; Saito, Yumi; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Kudome-Takamatsu, Tomomi; Nishimura, Osamu; Agata, Kiyokazu; Shibata, Norito

    2012-01-01

    The growth in size of freshwater planarians in response to nutrient intake is limited by the eventual separation of tail and body fragments in a process called fission. The resulting tail fragment regenerates the entire body as an artificially amputated tail fragment would do, and the body fragment regenerates a tail, resulting in two whole planarians. This regenerative ability is supported by pluripotent somatic stem cells, called neoblasts, which are distributed throughout almost the entire body of the planarian. Neoblasts are the only planarian cells with the ability to continuously proliferate and give rise to all types of cells during regeneration, asexual reproduction, homeostasis, and growth. In order to investigate the molecular characteristics of neoblasts, we conducted an extensive search for neoblast-specific genes using the High Coverage Expression Profiling (HiCEP) method, and tested the function of the resulting candidates by RNAi. Disruption of the expression of one candidate gene, DjP2X-A (Dugesia japonica membrane protein P2X homologue), resulted in a unique phenotype. DjP2X-A RNAi leads to an increase of fission events upon feeding.