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Sample records for 2x2 contingency tables

  1. Reconstructing 2 X 2 Contingency Tables from Odds Ratios Using the Di Pietrantonj Method: Difficulties, Constraints and Impact in Meta-Analysis Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Pavlides, Marios; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Salanti, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    A problem that is frequently encountered during the systematic review process is when studies that meet the inclusion criteria do not provide the appropriate numerical estimates to include in a meta-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, a method has been suggested by Di Pietrantonj for reconstructing the 2 × 2 table when the Odds Ratio…

  2. Elucidating the Foundations of Statistical Inference with 2 x 2 Tables

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Leena; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Dupont, William D.

    2015-01-01

    To many, the foundations of statistical inference are cryptic and irrelevant to routine statistical practice. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables, omnipresent in the scientific literature, is a case in point. Fisher's exact test is routinely used even though it has been fraught with controversy for over 70 years. The problem, not widely acknowledged, is that several different p-values can be associated with a single table, making scientific inference inconsistent. The root cause of this controversy lies in the table's origins and the manner in which nuisance parameters are eliminated. However, fundamental statistical principles (e.g., sufficiency, ancillarity, conditionality, and likelihood) can shed light on the controversy and guide our approach in using this test. In this paper, we use these fundamental principles to show how much information is lost when the tables origins are ignored and when various approaches are used to eliminate unknown nuisance parameters. We present novel likelihood contours to aid in the visualization of information loss and show that the information loss is often virtually non-existent. We find that problems arising from the discreteness of the sample space are exacerbated by p-value-based inference. Accordingly, methods that are less sensitive to this discreteness - likelihood ratios, posterior probabilities and mid-p-values - lead to more consistent inferences. PMID:25849515

  3. [A simple biostatistical method for meta analysis of the data on 2 x 2 table].

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Wang, J; Kang, D; Hong, Q

    2000-06-01

    Meta-analysis is a method in common use for data analysis in evidence-based medicine. In this paper, based on the Mantel-Haenszel and Peto methods used for Meta-analysis of the data on 2 x 2 table, we put forward a simple calculating method for clinicians. It is useful for Meta-analysis and can be easily applied to analysis of the data from multi-studies in evidence-based medicine.

  4. On Association Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Properties that Do Not Depend on the Marginal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss properties that association coefficients may have in general, e.g., zero value under statistical independence, and we examine coefficients for 2x2 tables with respect to these properties. Furthermore, we study a family of coefficients that are linear transformations of the observed proportion of agreement given the marginal…

  5. Decision trees for symbolic knowledge based on contingency table analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauber, Thomas W.; Steiger-Garcao, A. S.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we point out an alternative basis for splitting a node of a decision tree. We use exactly the same framework of the tree generation as ID3 does, in order to be able to compare the results properly. The splitting of the sample set is also done locally at a tree node, without considering earlier decisions about the partition of the samples. Only one attribute is used to split the samples. We point out different splitting criteria. Contingency tables are a technique in nonparametric statistics to analyze categorical (symbolic) populations. Among other useful applications of contingency tables, dependence tests between rows and columns of the table can be performed. A sample set is inserted into a contingency table with classes as columns and all values of an attribute as rows. A variety of measurements of dependence can then be derived. Results in respect to the two most important qualities of decision trees, the error rate and tree complexity, are presented. For a set of selected benchmark examples the performance of ID3 and the contingency table approach are compared. It is shown that in many cases the contingency table method exhibits lower estimated error rates or has less nodes for the generated decision tree.

  6. Contingency table techniques for three dimensional atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Moody, Michael P; Stephenson, Leigh T; Liddicoat, Peter V; Ringer, Simon P

    2007-03-01

    A contingency table analysis procedure is developed and applied to three dimensional atom probe data sets for the investigation of fine-scale solute co-/anti-segregation effects in multicomponent alloys. Potential sources of error and inaccuracy are identified and eliminated from the technique. The conventional P value testing techniques associated with chi(2) are shown to be unsatisfactory and can become ambiguous in cases of large block numbers or high solute concentrations. The coefficient of contingency is demonstrated to be an acceptable and useful basis of comparison for contingency table analyses of differently-conditioned materials. However, care must be taken in choice of block size and to maintain a consistent overall composition between experiments. The coefficient is dependent upon block size and solute composition, and cannot be used to compare analyses with significantly different solute compositions or to assess the extent of clustering without reference to that of the randomly ordered case. It is shown that as clustering evolves into larger precipitates and phases, contingency table analysis becomes inappropriate. Random labeling techniques are introduced to infer further meaning from the coefficient of contingency. We propose the comparison of experimental result, mu(exp), to the randomized value, micro(rand), as a new method by which to interpret the quantity of solute clustering present in a material. It is demonstrated that how this method may be utilized to identify an appropriate size of contingency table analysis blocks into which the data set is partitioned to optimize the significance of the results.

  7. Multivariate Normal Integrals and Contingency Tables with Ordered Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuchung J.

    1997-01-01

    A k-dimensional multivariate normal distribution is made discrete by partitioning the k-dimensional Euclidean space with rectangular grids. The probability integrals over the partitioned cubes forms a k-dimensional contingency table with ordered categories. A loglinear model with main effects plus two-way interactions provides an approximation for…

  8. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a two-way contingency table, and for drawing inferences about the marginal and interaction effects, cell parameters, and conditional probabilities. The prior distribution expresses uncertainty in a simple reduced model, in particular the independence model. The posterior estimates of the…

  9. Median tests for censored survival data; a contingency table approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaowu; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2012-09-01

    The median failure time is often utilized to summarize survival data because it has a more straightforward interpretation for investigators in practice than the popular hazard function. However, existing methods for comparing median failure times for censored survival data either require estimation of the probability density function or involve complicated formulas to calculate the variance of the estimates. In this article, we modify a K-sample median test for censored survival data (Brookmeyer and Crowley, 1982, Journal of the American Statistical Association 77, 433-440) through a simple contingency table approach where each cell counts the number of observations in each sample that are greater than the pooled median or vice versa. Under censoring, this approach would generate noninteger entries for the cells in the contingency table. We propose to construct a weighted asymptotic test statistic that aggregates dependent χ(2)-statistics formed at the nearest integer points to the original noninteger entries. We show that this statistic follows approximately a χ(2)-distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom. For a small sample case, we propose a test statistic based on combined p-values from Fisher's exact tests, which follows a χ(2)-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom. Simulation studies are performed to show that the proposed method provides reasonable type I error probabilities and powers. The proposed method is illustrated with two real datasets from phase III breast cancer clinical trials.

  10. F-Test Alternatives to Fisher's Exact Test and to the Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity in 2x2 Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; Starbuck, Robert R.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for homogeneity in two-by-two tables is developed. The method provides for Type I error rates which are closer to the stated alpha level than either of the alternatives. (JKS)

  11. Primary School Children's Strategies in Solving Contingency Table Problems: The Role of Intuition and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obersteiner, Andreas; Bernhard, Matthias; Reiss, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding contingency table analysis is a facet of mathematical competence in the domain of data and probability. Previous studies have shown that even young children are able to solve specific contingency table problems, but apply a variety of strategies that are actually invalid. The purpose of this paper is to describe primary school…

  12. Bayesian Evaluation of Inequality and Equality Constrained Hypotheses for Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugkist, Irene; Laudy, Olav; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian model selection approach is introduced that can select the best of a set of inequality and equality constrained hypotheses for contingency tables. The hypotheses are presented in terms of cell probabilities allowing researchers to test (in)equality constrained hypotheses in a format that is directly related to the data.…

  13. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions.

  14. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions. PMID:26964368

  15. Extended contingency table: Performance metrics for satellite observations and climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.

    2013-10-01

    Validation of gridded satellite observations and climate model simulations are fundamental to future improvements in retrieval algorithms and model developments. Among the metrics, the contingency table, which includes a number of categorical indices, is extensively used in evaluation studies. While the categorical indices offer invaluable information, they do not provide any insight into the volume of the variable detected correctly/incorrectly. In this study, the contingency table categorical metrics are extended to volumetric indices for evaluation of gridded data. The suggested indices include (a) Volumetric Hit Index (VHI): volume of correctly detected simulations relative to the volume of the correctly detected simulations and missed observations; (b) Volumetric False Alarm Ratio (VFAR): volume of false simulations relative to the sum of simulations; (c) Volumetric Miss Index (VMI): volume of missed observations relative to the sum of missed observations and correctly detected simulations; and (d) the Volumetric Critical Success Index (VCSI). The latter provides an overall measure of volumetric performance including volumetric hits, false alarms, and misses. First, using two synthetic time series, the volumetric indices are evaluated against the contingency table categorical metrics. Then, the volumetric indices are used to evaluate a gridded data set at the continental scale. The results show that the volumetric indices provide additional information beyond the commonly used categorical metrics that can be useful in evaluating gridded data sets.

  16. Testing spatial symmetry using contingency tables based on nearest neighbor relations.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Elvan

    2014-01-01

    We consider two types of spatial symmetry, namely, symmetry in the mixed or shared nearest neighbor (NN) structures. We use Pielou's and Dixon's symmetry tests which are defined using contingency tables based on the NN relationships between the data points. We generalize these tests to multiple classes and demonstrate that both the asymptotic and exact versions of Pielou's first type of symmetry test are extremely conservative in rejecting symmetry in the mixed NN structure and hence should be avoided or only the Monte Carlo randomized version should be used. Under RL, we derive the asymptotic distribution for Dixon's symmetry test and also observe that the usual independence test seems to be appropriate for Pielou's second type of test. Moreover, we apply variants of Fisher's exact test on the shared NN contingency table for Pielou's second test and determine the most appropriate version for our setting. We also consider pairwise and one-versus-rest type tests in post hoc analysis after a significant overall symmetry test. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the tests, prove their consistency under appropriate null hypotheses, and investigate finite sample performance of them by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The methods are illustrated on a real-life ecological data set.

  17. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  18. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. PMID:25126485

  19. The price of privately releasing contingency tables, and the spectra of random matrices with correlated rows

    SciTech Connect

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Rudelson, Mark; Smith, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Contingency tables are the method of choice of government agencies for releasing statistical summaries of categorical data. In this paper, we consider lower bounds on how much distortion (noise) is necessary in these tables to provide privacy guarantees when the data being summarized is sensitive. We extend a line of recent work on lower bounds on noise for private data analysis [10, 13. 14, 15] to a natural and important class of functionalities. Our investigation also leads to new results on the spectra of random matrices with correlated rows. Consider a database D consisting of n rows (one per individual), each row comprising d binary attributes. For any subset of T attributes of size |T| = k, the marginal table for T has 2{sup k} entries; each entry counts how many times in the database a particular setting of these attributes occurs. Imagine an agency that wishes to release all (d/k) contingency tables for a given database. For constant k, previous work showed that distortion {tilde {Omicron}}(min{l_brace}n, (n{sup 2}d){sup 1/3}, {radical}d{sup k}{r_brace}) is sufficient for satisfying differential privacy, a rigorous definition of privacy that has received extensive recent study. Our main contributions are: (1) For {epsilon}- and ({epsilon}, {delta})-differential privacy (with {epsilon} constant and {delta} = 1/poly(n)), we give a lower bound of {tilde {Omega}}(min{l_brace}{radical}n, {radical}d{sup k}{r_brace}), which is tight for n = {tilde {Omega}}(d{sup k}). Moreover, for a natural and popular class of mechanisms based on additive noise, our bound can be strengthened to {Omega}({radical}d{sup k}), which is tight for all n. Our bounds extend even to non-constant k, losing roughly a factor of {radical}2{sup k} compared to the best known upper bounds for large n. (2) We give efficient polynomial time attacks which allow an adversary to reconstruct sensitive infonnation given insufficiently perturbed contingency table releases. For constant k, we obtain a

  20. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  1. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2'" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-'" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. View shows small autoclave demonstrated by JPL staff member Milton Clay (JPL negative no. JPL-10286AC, 27 January 1989). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2%" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-%" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the propellant cutter as it was originally installed (JPL negative no. 381-2274A, 29 June 1962) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, X.; Lindsey, D.A.; Lai, Z.; Liu, Xiuying

    2010-01-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2. Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ?. 0.15. Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology. ?? 2009.

  4. Comparison of ANOVA, McSweeney, Bradley, Harwell-Serlin, and Blair-Sawilowsky Tests in the Balanced 2x2x2 Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, D. Lynn; And Others

    The Type I error and power properties of the 2x2x2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) and tests developed by McSweeney (1967), Bradley (1979), Harwell-Serlin (1989; Harwell, 1991), and Blair-Sawilowsky (1990) were compared using Monte Carlo methods. The ANOVA was superior under the Gaussian and uniform distributions. The Blair-Sawilowsky test was…

  5. A revisit to contingency table and tests of independence: bootstrap is preferred to Chi-square approximations as well as Fisher's exact test.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyh-Jiuan; Chang, Ching-Hui; Pal, Nabendu

    2015-01-01

    To test the mutual independence of two qualitative variables (or attributes), it is a common practice to follow the Chi-square tests (Pearson's as well as likelihood ratio test) based on data in the form of a contingency table. However, it should be noted that these popular Chi-square tests are asymptotic in nature and are useful when the cell frequencies are "not too small." In this article, we explore the accuracy of the Chi-square tests through an extensive simulation study and then propose their bootstrap versions that appear to work better than the asymptotic Chi-square tests. The bootstrap tests are useful even for small-cell frequencies as they maintain the nominal level quite accurately. Also, the proposed bootstrap tests are more convenient than the Fisher's exact test which is often criticized for being too conservative. Finally, all test methods are applied to a few real-life datasets for demonstration purposes.

  6. On Similarity Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Correction for Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance in coefficients that are linear functions of the observed proportion of agreement. The paper unifies and extends various results on correction for chance in the literature. A specific class of coefficients is used to illustrate the results derived in this paper. Coefficients in this class, e.g. the simple…

  7. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits. PMID:26184350

  8. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits.

  9. Regulation of P2X2 Receptors by the Neuronal Calcium Sensor VILIP1

    PubMed Central

    Chaumont, Severine; Compan, Vincent; Toulme, Estelle; Richler, Esther; Housley, Gary D.; Rassendren, Francois; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activates P2X receptors, which are involved in diverse physiological functions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified the neuronal calcium sensor VILIP1 as interacting with P2X2 receptors. We found that VILIP1 forms a signaling complex in vitro and in vivo with P2X2 receptors and regulates P2X2 receptor sensitivity to ATP, peak response, surface expression, and diffusion. VILIP1 constitutively binds to P2X2 receptors and displays enhanced interactions in an activation- and calcium-dependent manner owing to exposure of its binding segment in P2X2 receptors. VILIP1-P2X2 interactions are also enhanced in hippocampal neurons during conditions of action potential firing known to trigger P2X2 receptor activation. Our data thus reveal a previously unrecognized function for the neuronal calcium sensor protein VILIP1 and a mechanism for regulation of ATP-dependent P2X receptor signaling by neuronal calcium sensors. PMID:18922787

  10. Regulation of GABAA Receptor Dynamics by Interaction with Purinergic P2X2 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amulya Nidhi; Triller, Antoine; Sieghart, Werner; Sarto-Jackson, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) in the spinal cord are evolving as an important target for drug development against pain. Purinergic P2X2 receptors (P2X2Rs) are also expressed in spinal cord neurons and are known to cross-talk with GABAARs. Here, we investigated a possible “dynamic” interaction between GABAARs and P2X2Rs using co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells along with co-localization and single particle tracking studies in spinal cord neurons. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of P2X2Rs forms a transient complex with GABAARs inside the cell, thus stabilizing these receptors and using them for co-trafficking to the cell surface, where P2X2Rs and GABAARs are primarily located extra-synaptically. Furthermore, agonist-induced activation of P2X2Rs results in a Ca2+-dependent as well as an apparently Ca2+-independent increase in the mobility and an enhanced degradation of GABAARs, whereas P2X2Rs are stabilized and form larger clusters. Antagonist-induced blocking of P2XRs results in co-stabilization of this receptor complex at the cell surface. These results suggest a novel mechanism where association of P2X2Rs and GABAARs could be used for specific targeting to neuronal membranes, thus providing an extrasynaptic receptor reserve that could regulate the excitability of neurons. We further conclude that blocking the excitatory activity of excessively released ATP under diseased state by P2XR antagonists could simultaneously enhance synaptic inhibition mediated by GABAARs. PMID:21343285

  11. Temporal contingency.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior.

  12. Temporal contingency.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  13. The 2 x 2 Model of Perfectionism: A Comparison across Asian Canadians and European Canadians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franche, Veronique; Gaudreau, Patrick; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The 2 x 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of…

  14. Visualization of the trimeric P2X2 receptor with a crown-capped extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Ogura, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tomomi; Sato, Chikara

    2005-11-25

    The P2X2 purinergic receptor permeates cationic ions in response to stimulation by ATP and mediates fast synaptic transmission. Here, we purified the P2X2 receptor using baculovirus-Sf9 cell expression system and observed its structure using electron microscopy. The FLAG-tagged P2X2 receptor, which has intact ion channel function, was purified to be a single peak by affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. It was confirmed to be a trimer by introducing cross-linking. Negatively stained P2X2 protein images were homogeneous and picked up by automated pick-up programs, aligned, and classified using the modified growing neural gas network method. Similarly oriented projections were averaged to decrease the signal-to-noise ratio. These images demonstrate an inverted three-sided pyramid with the dimensions of 215 A in height and 200 A in side length. It is composed of a high-density trunk and a stain-permeable swollen extracellular domain of a crown-shaped structure. The internal cavities and constituent segments were clearly demonstrated in both the raw images and the averaged images. The threefold symmetrical top view demonstrates the first visual evidence of the trimeric composition of the P2X receptor family. PMID:16219297

  15. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  16. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  17. Window types: (from left to right) Pair of 2x2 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window types: (from left to right) Pair of 2x2 multipaned steel casements; triplet of 1x4 multipaned steel casements (center panel fixed); 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Building 20, facing southwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  19. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  20. Collegiate contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.; Rakos, Richard F.; Greenspoon, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We discuss contemporary trends and developments that affect colleges and universities and describe several central contingencies that have given rise to, maintain, and operate in response to these trends and developments. We identify the differential impacts of these contingencies on faculty, students, and administrators in various types of higher education institutions. These contingencies are sources of conflict between and among these three groups within the academy that, we argue, cause significant instability in contemporary academe. We discuss prominent domains of this dis-equilibrium and propose several general interventions to address the sources of the instability. PMID:22478348

  1. Structures and magnetism of two types of c(2x2)-Mn/Pd(001) surface alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuboi, N.; Okuyama, H.; Aruga, T.

    2005-05-15

    Mn/Pd(001) surface alloy was investigated by a tensor low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) analysis. After deposition of Mn on Pd(001) at room temperature, the surface was annealed at 570-620 K, which produced two types of c(2x2) surface alloys, according to the Mn coverage. At a low-Mn coverage, we obtained a Pd-capped c(2x2) surface, in which the first layer was composed of a (1x1)-Pd layer, and the second layer was a c(2x2)-MnPd mixed layer [{alpha}-c(2x2)]. The deposition of greater amounts of Mn followed by annealing resulted in another c(2x2) surface, in which Mn atoms existed in the substitutional sites of the first and third layers [{beta}-c(2x2)]. The first layer consisted of a c(2x2)-MnPd mixed layer, the second layer was a (1x1)-Pd layer, and the third layer was another c(2x2)-MnPd mixed layer. The structure of the {beta}-c(2x2) surface qualitatively agreed with the one previously investigated by LEED. These two types of surface alloys, {alpha}-c(2x2) and {beta}-c(2x2), may be considered as being precursors to the formation of the bulk MnPd{sub 3} alloy. We also investigated the magnetic properties of the {alpha}-c(2x2) and {beta}-c(2x2) surfaces by using surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and self-consistent, total-energy calculations. The MOKE measurements for both surface alloys show no hysterisis loop, even at 10 K. The total-energy calculation shows that Mn atoms have a local-spin moment of 3.9-4.1 {mu}{sub B} and that they are antiferromagnetically ordered in the ground state.

  2. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  3. Entanglement monogamy inequality in a 2 x 2 x 4 system

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Xijun; Jiang Wei

    2010-02-15

    In this report, we show explicitly that the tangles of an arbitrary pure state in a 2 x 2 x 4 system satisfy the monogamy relation. This relation is also generalized to mixed states. As the tangle is always larger than the square of the concurrence, our result implies that the monogamy relation holds for concurrence too. It also supports the idea that the tangle could qualify as an elementary bipartite entanglement measure.

  4. Water adsorption on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) from STM experiments andfirst-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera-Sanfelix, P.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Mugarza, A.; Shimizu,T.K.; Salmeron, M.; Arnau, A.

    2007-10-15

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of water adsorption on Ru(0001) pre-covered with 0.25 monolayers (ML) of oxygen forming a (2 x 2) structure. Several structures were analyzed by means of Density Functional Theory calculations for which STM simulations were performed and compared with experimental data. Up to 0.25 monolayers the molecules bind to the exposed Ru atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell via the lone pair orbitals. The molecular plane is almost parallel to the surface with its H atoms pointing towards the chemisorbed O atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell forming hydrogen bonds. The existence of these additional hydrogen bonds increases the adsorption energy of the water molecule to approximately 616 meV, which is {approx}220 meV more stable than on the clean Ru(0001) surface with a similar configuration. The binding energy shows only a weak dependence on water coverage, with a shallow minimum for a row structure at 0.125 ML. This is consistent with the STM experiments that show a tendency of the molecules to form linear rows at intermediate coverage. Our calculations also suggest the possible formation of water dimers near 0.25 ML.

  5. Operating manual holographic interferometry system for 2 x 2 foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic interferometer system was installed in a 2X2 foot transonic wind tunnel. The system incorporates a modern, 10 pps, Nd:YAG pulsed laser which provides reliable operation and is easy to align. The spatial filtering requirements of the unstable resonator beam are described as well as the integration of the system into the existing Schieren system. A two plate holographic interferometer is used to reconstruct flow field data. For static wind tunnel models the single exposure holograms are recorded in the usual manner; however, for dynamic models such as oscillating airfoils, synchronous laser hologram recording is used.

  6. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  7. Computing contingency statistics in parallel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  8. Activation of trimeric P2X2 receptors by fewer than three ATP molecules.

    PubMed

    Stelmashenko, Olga; Lalo, Ulyana; Yang, Yue; Bragg, Laricia; North, R Alan; Compan, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric membrane proteins. When they bind extracellular ATP, a conformational change occurs that opens a transmembrane ion channel. The ATP-binding pocket is formed in a cleft between two subunits, and a critical amino acid residue for ATP contact is Lys⁶⁹ (P2X2 numbering). In the present work, we sought to determine whether the binding of fewer than three ATP molecules could open the ion channel. We expressed eight concatenated cDNAs in human embryonic kidney cells, which encoded three serially joined, epitope-tagged, subunits with either Lys or Ala at position 69 (denoted as KKK, KKA, KAK, AKK, KAA, AKA, AAK, and AAA). Western blotting of surface-biotinylated proteins indicated that breakdown of concatemers to individual subunits was minimal. Recording of membrane currents in response to ATP (whole cell and excised outside-out patch) showed that all formed functional channels except AAK, AKA, and AAA. There was no difference in the kinetics of activation and deactivation among KKK, KKA, KAK, and AKK channels, and amplitude of the unitary conductances was in all cases not different from that found after expression of a single wild-type subunit. Currents through KKA and KAK receptors were larger than those observed for AKK receptors. The results indicate that trimeric P2X receptors containing only two intact binding sites can be readily activated by ATP.

  9. Robust optimization of 2x2 multimode interference couplers with fabrication uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Samee ur; Langelaar, Matthijs; Van Keulen, Fred

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel design-for-manufacture strategy for integrated photonics which specifically addresses the commonly encountered scenario in which probability distributions of the manufacturing variations are not available, however their bounds are known. The best design point for the device, in the presence of these uncertainties, can be found by applying robust optimization. This is performed by minimizing the maximum realizable value of the objective with respect to the uncertainty set so that an optimum is found whose performance is relatively immune to fabrication variations. Instead of applying robust optimization directly on a computationally expensive simulation model of the integrated photonic device, we construct a cheap surrogate model by uniformly sampling the simulated device at different values of the design variables and interpolating the resulting objective using a Kriging metamodel. By applying robust optimization on the constructed surrogate, the global robust optimum can be found at low computational cost. As an illustration of the method's general applicability, we apply the robust optimization approach on a 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler. We robustly minimize the imbalance in the presence of uncertainties arising from variations in the fabricated design geometry. For this example device, we also study the influence of the number of sample points on the quality of the metamodel and on the robust optimization process.

  10. P2X2 and P2X5 Receptors Mediate Bladder Hyperesthesia in ICC in Female Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mingsen; Zheng, Ji; Yan, Junan; Li, Qianwei; Fang, Qiang; Li, Weibing

    2015-06-01

    This study was set to explore the role of P2X2 and P2X5 as the important molecules in sensory afferent of bladder in female overactive bladder (OAB) patients with the bladder hyperesthesia. Sixty-eight OAB patients admitted in Southwest Hospital affiliated to the Third Military Medical University during September, 2011-December, 2012 were selected and included in the experimental group (OAB group) and 30 healthy volunteers during the same period were included as the control group. We recorded voiding diary and urodynamic results, and immunohistochemistry analysis was used to detect P2X2 and P2X5 receptor in interstitial cell of Caja (ICC) in bladder tissue of female OAB patients and healthy volunteers, to tentatively explore the effect of P2X2 and P2X5 in bladder hyperesthesia. Urodynamic study has important diagnostic value in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of OAB. P2X2 receptor was significantly up-regulated in bladder ICC in OAB group. The blockage of P2X2 receptor could significantly inhibit the contraction of bladder muscle strips, decrease the bladder pressure and the electric discharge of pelvic nerve. PET and urodynamic study showed that micturition desire sense in PAG area of pons in OAB patients was significantly increased compared with the control group. The up-regulation of P2X2 in ICC is an important factor to cause bladder hyperesthesia in OAB patients. PET and urodynamic study indicate that the bladder-originated nervous impulses are important cause of OAB. This study provides a basis for the study of P2X2 receptor in ICC in bladder hyperesthesia of OAB patients.

  11. Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

  12. Students' Attitudes and Perceived Purposes of Physical Education in Singapore: Perspectives from a 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K.; Lim, B. S.; Aplin, N. G.; Chia, Y. H. M.; McNeill, M.; Tan, W. K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to re-examine the relationships between achievement goals and perceived purposes of PE, perceived motivational climates, attitudes towards PE teachers and affective outcomes using the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Questionnaires were completed by 493 secondary school students (222 males, 262 females, 9 missing)…

  13. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  14. Growth of an {alpha}-Sn film on an InSb(111) A-(2x2) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Daiyu; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Shima, Masahide; Takeyama, Wakaba; Nakamura, Kenya; Ono, Kanta; Oshima, Masaharu; Kasukabe, Yoshitaka

    2004-12-15

    We have investigated the initial growth process of {alpha}-Sn films on the In-terminated InSb(111)A-(2x2) surface using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy. Taking the LEED observation and the Sn coverage-dependent integrated intensities of the In 4d, Sb 4d, and Sn 4d core-level spectra into account, we conclude that the {alpha}-Sn film grows epitaxially by a bilayer mode and that there is no interdiffusion of the substrate atoms as suggested in the literature. Furthermore, the coverage-dependent In 4d and Sn 4d core levels indicate that the In vacancy site of InSb(111)A-(2x2) surface is not the preferable Sn absorption site.

  15. Stabilization of the O p2x2 phase on Cu(001) sheltered by wrinkled BN over-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Sung; Ma, Chuanxu; Li, An-Ping; Yoon, Mina

    The 2 √3x √3R45°phase of oxygen (O) on the Cu(001) surface has been observed in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. Although the p2x2 phase of O on the Cu(001) surface has been proposed theoretically to be the most stable in O-lean conditions, it has not been observed in experiments for a long time. Recently, the O p2x2 phase has been found in STM on the Cu(001) surface with an overlying BN monolayer. In this theoretical study, we investigate what the role of BN over-layer is to stabilize the O p2x2 phase on the Cu(001) surface. The BN over-layer is lattice-matched with the Cu(001) surface and the BN mono-layer sheet is periodically wrinkled along the BN arm-chair direction and along the [100] or [010] direction on the Cu(001) surface. The interlayer space between the Cu(001) surface and the bulge of the wrinkled BN sheet is found to play as a preferential shelter for O to be adsorbed, and the boundary of the BN inner wall along the [010] or [100] direction makes the p2x2 phase more favorable against the 45°-tilted 2 √3x √3R45°phase of O on the Cu(001) surface. This was supported by Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, maaged by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. DOE.

  16. Contingency and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more general account of contingency and to integrate the concept with other behavioral processes. The third aspect is one of practical considerations in the application of the contingency concept in both laboratory and applied settings. PMID:22478219

  17. Modulation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 Receptors by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatko, Anatoly; Foletti, Davide; Poulsen, Kris; Strop, Pavel; Zhu, Guoyun; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Melton Witt, Jody; Loo, Carole; Krimm, Stellanie; Pios, Ariel; Yu, Jessica; Brown, Colleen; Lee, John K; Stroud, Robert; Rajpal, Arvind; Shelton, David

    2016-06-01

    Purinergic homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels activated by ATP. Both receptors are predominantly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and an increase in extracellular ATP concentration under pathological conditions, such as tissue damage or visceral distension, induces channel opening, membrane depolarization, and initiation of pain signaling. Hence, these receptors are considered important therapeutic targets for pain management, and development of selective antagonists is currently progressing. To advance the search for novel analgesics, we have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against human P2X3 (hP2X3). We have found that these antibodies produce distinct functional effects, depending on the homomeric or heteromeric composition of the target, its kinetic state, and the duration of antibody exposure. The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nm on hP2X3 after short term exposure (up to 18 min), binding to the inactivated state of the channel to inhibit activity. By contrast, with the same short term application, 12D4 potentiated the slow inactivating current mediated by the heteromeric hP2X2/3 channel. Extending the duration of exposure to ∼20 h resulted in a profound inhibition of both homomeric hP2X3 and heteromeric hP2X2/3 receptors, an effect mediated by efficient antibody-induced internalization of the channel from the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of mAb12D4 was assessed in the formalin, complete Freund's adjuvant, and visceral pain models. The efficacy of 12D4 in the visceral hypersensitivity model indicates that antibodies against P2X3 may have therapeutic potential in visceral pain indications. PMID:27129281

  18. Cheating Partners, Conditional Probability and Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Developing statistical literacy for older school students includes recognizing and interpreting conditional statements in the media. Data on couples' success in predicting whether their partners have cheated provides a motivating context for teachers to lead their students through this process.

  19. 60-GHz optical/wireless MIMO system integrated with optical subcarrier multiplexing and 2x2 wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Chiang, Shou-Chih; Chang, Hsi-Yu

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a 2x2 MIMO OFDM Radio-over-Fiber scheme based on optical subcarrier multiplexing and 60-GHz MIMO wireless transmission. We also schematically investigated the principle of optical subcarrier multiplexing, which is based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). In our simulation result, combining two MIMO OFDM signals to drive DP-MZM gives rise to the PAPR augmentation of less than 0.4 dB, which mitigates nonlinear distortion. Moreover, we applied a Levin-Campello bit-loading algorithm to compensate for the uneven frequency responses in the V-band. The resulting system achieves OFDM signal rates of 61.5-Gbits/s with BER of 10(-3) over 25-km SMF transmission followed by 3-m wireless transmission.

  20. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  1. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  2. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  3. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  4. Maltodextrin and fat preference deficits in "taste-blind" P2X2/P2X3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine triphosphate is a critical neurotransmitter in the gustatory response to the 5 primary tastes in mice. Genetic deletion of the purinergic P2X2/P2X3 receptor greatly reduces the neural and behavioral response to prototypical primary taste stimuli. In this study, we examined the behavioral response of P2X double knockout mice to maltodextrin and fat stimuli, which appear to activate additional taste channels. P2X double knockout and wild-type mice were given 24-h choice tests (vs. water) with ascending concentrations of Polycose and Intralipid. In Experiment 1, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.5-4%) Polycose solutions but preferred concentrated (8-32%) Polycose to water. In a retest, the Polycose-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, preferred all Polycose concentrations. In Experiment 2, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.313-2.5%) Intralipid emulsions but preferred concentrated (5-20%) Intralipid to water. In a retest, the fat-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, strongly preferred 0.313-5% Intralipid to water. These results indicate that the inherent preferences of mice for maltodextrin and fat are dependent upon adenosine triphosphate taste cell signaling. With experience, however, P2X double knockout mice develop strong preferences for the nontaste flavor qualities of maltodextrin and fat conditioned by the postoral actions of these nutrients.

  5. Properties of ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X2 subunits in mouse cochlear Reissner's membrane epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Morton-Jones, Rachel T; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Thorne, Peter R; Cockayne, Debra A; Ryan, Allen F; Housley, Gary D

    2015-12-01

    In the cochlea, Reissner's membrane separates the scala media endolymphatic compartment that sustains the positive endocochlear potential and ion composition necessary for sound transduction, from the scala vestibuli perilymphatic compartment. It is known that with sustained elevated sound levels, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is released into the endolymph and ATP-gated ion channels on the epithelial cells lining the endolymphatic compartment shunt the electrochemical driving force, contributing to protective purinergic hearing adaptation. This study characterises the properties of epithelial cell P2X(2)-type ATP-activated membrane conductance in the mouse Reissner's membrane, which forms a substantial fraction of the scale media surface. The cells were found to express two isoforms (a and b) of the P2X(2) subunit arising from alternative splicing of the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript that could contribute to the trimeric subunit assembly. The ATP-activated conductance demonstrated both immediate and delayed desensitisation consistent with incorporation of the combination of P2X(2) subunit isoforms. Activation by the ATP analogue 2meSATP had equipotency to ATP, whereas α,β-meATP and adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) were ineffective. Positive allosteric modulation of the P2X(2) channels by protons was profound. This native conductance was blocked by the P2X(2)-selective blocker pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) and the conductance was absent in these cells isolated from mice null for the P2rX2 gene encoding the P2X(2) receptor subunit. The activation and desensitisation properties of the Reissner's membrane epithelial cell ATP-gated P2X(2) channels likely contribute to the sensitivity and kinetics of purinergic control of the electrochemical driving force for sound transduction invoked by noise exposure.

  6. Deletion of P2X2 and P2X3 Receptor Subunits Does Not Alter Motility of the Mouse Colon

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Matthew P.; Vessalo, Megan; Galligan, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Purinergic P2X receptors contribute to neurotransmission in the gut. P2X receptors are ligand-gated cation channels that mediate synaptic excitation in subsets of enteric neurons. The present study evaluated colonic motility in vitro and in vivo in wild type (WT) and P2X2 and P2X3 subunit knockout (KO) mice. The muscarinic receptor agonist, bethanechol (0.3–3 μM), caused similar contractions of the longitudinal muscle in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 subunit KO mice. Nicotine (1–300 μM), acting at neuronal nicotinic receptors, caused similar longitudinal muscle relaxations in colonic segments from WT and P2X2 and P2X3 subunit KO mice. Nicotine-induced relaxations were inhibited by nitro-l-arginine (NLA, 100 μM) and apamin (0.1 μM) which block inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. ATP (1–1000 μM) caused contractions only in the presence of NLA and apamin. ATP-induced contractions were similar in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. The mouse colon generates spontaneous migrating motor complexes (MMCs) in vitro. The MMC frequency was higher in P2X2 KO compared to WT tissues; other parameters of the MMC were similar in colon segments from WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. 5-Hydroxytryptophan-induced fecal output was similar in WT, P2X2 and P2X3 KO mice. These data indicate that nicotinic receptors are located predominately on inhibitory motor neurons supplying the longitudinal muscle in the mouse colon. P2X2 or P2X3 subunit containing receptors are not localized to motor neurons supplying the longitudinal muscle. Synaptic transmission mediated by P2X2 or P2X3 subunit containing receptors is not required for propulsive motility in the mouse colon. PMID:20582262

  7. Self-organization in a simple model of adaptive agents playing 2 x 2 games with arbitrary payoff matrices.

    PubMed

    Fort, H; Viola, S

    2004-03-01

    We analyze, both analytically and numerically, the self-organization of a system of "selfish" adaptive agents playing an arbitrary iterated pairwise game (defined by a 2 x 2 payoff matrix). Examples of possible games to play are the prisoner's dilemma (PD) game, the chicken game, the hero game, etc. The agents have no memory, use strategies not based on direct reciprocity nor "tags" and are chosen at random, i.e., geographical vicinity is neglected. They can play two possible strategies: cooperate (C) or defect (D). The players measure their success by comparing their utilities with an estimate for the expected benefits and update their strategy following a simple rule. Two versions of the model are studied: (1) the deterministic version (the agents are either in definite states C or D) and (2) the stochastic version (the agents have a probability c of playing C). Using a general master equation we compute the equilibrium states into which the system self-organizes, characterized by their average probability of cooperation c(eq). Depending on the payoff matrix, we show that c(eq) can take five different values. We also consider the mixing of agents using two different payoff matrices and show that any value of c(eq) can be reached by tuning the proportions of agents using each payoff matrix. In particular, this can be used as a way to simulate the effect of a fraction d of "antisocial" individuals--incapable of realizing any value to cooperation--on the cooperative regime hold by a population of neutral or "normal" agents. PMID:15089364

  8. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  9. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-10-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  10. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-06-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  11. The rare-earth metal carbide halide superconductors RE 2C 2X 2 (RE=Y, La; X=Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, R. K.; Ahn, K.; Henn, R. W.; Mattausch, Hj; Schnelle, W.; Stolovits, A.; Simon, A.

    1999-05-01

    Superconductivity in layered yttrium carbide bromides and iodides with transition temperatures ranging up to 11.6 K is achieved by adjusting the Br:I, ratio to ≈1:3 in phases of Y 2C 2(Br,I) 2. In our contribution, we compile basic physical and chemical properties of Y 2C 2X 2 (X=Cl, Br, I) and present new results of the La-based phases La 2C 2X 2 (X=Br, I).

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy of GaX2-, Ga2X-, Ga2X2-, and Ga2X3-(X=P,As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Travis R.; Gómez, Harry; Asmis, Knut R.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2001-09-01

    Anion photoelectron spectra taken at various photodetachment wavelengths have been obtained for GaX2-, Ga2X-, Ga2X2-, and Ga2X3- (X=P,As). The incorporation of a liquid nitrogen cooled channel in the ion source resulted in substantial vibrational cooling of the cluster anions, resulting in resolved vibrational progressions in the photoelectron spectra of all species except Ga2X2-. Electron affinities, electronic term values, and vibrational frequencies are reported and compared to electronic structure calculations. In addition, similarities and differences between the phosphorus and arsenic-containing isovalent species are discussed.

  13. Contingency Fee Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    A contingency fee plan proposed for discussion and adoption by the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of the plan and its implications. Both the plan and discussion cover: (1) a reaffirmation of the Board's opposition to tuition and general fees; (2) an emphasis on the need for…

  14. Hanford facility contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1996-07-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit- specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. Applicability of this plan to Hanford Facility activities is described in the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion, General Condition II.A. General Condition II.A applies to Part III TSD units, Part V TSD units, and to releases of hazardous substances which threaten human health or the environment. Additional information about the applicability of this document may also be found in the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Handbook (DOE/RL-96-10). This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous substance spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. The term hazardous substances is defined in WAC 173-303-040 as: ``any liquid, solid, gas, or sludge, including any material, substance, product, commodity, or waste, regardless of quantity, that exhibits any of the physical, chemical or biological properties described in WAC 173-303-090 or 173-303-100.`` Whenever the term hazardous substances is used in this document, it will be used in the context of this definition. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases of hazardous substances occurring at areas between TSD units that may, or may not, threaten human health or the environment.

  15. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  16. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  17. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-05-01

    Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes. PMID:26273225

  18. Sport Ability Beliefs, 2 x 2 Achievement Goals, and Intrinsic Motivation: The Moderating Role of Perceived Competence in Sport and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R.; Stevenson, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the…

  19. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identify the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.

  20. Some contingencies of spelling.

    PubMed

    Lee, V L; Sanderson, G M

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some speculation about the contingencies that might select standard spellings. The speculation is based on a new development in the teaching of spelling-the process writing approach, which lets standard spellings emerge collateral to a high frequency of reading and writing. The paper discusses this approach, contrasts it with behavior-analytic research on spelling, and suggests some new directions for this latter research based on a behavioral interpretation of the process writing approach to spelling. PMID:22477529

  1. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed. PMID:18329187

  2. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed.

  3. Oil, biological communities and contingency planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Frink, Lynne; Ball-Weir, Katherine; Smith, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates the inclusion of a fish and wildlife response plan in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the creation of Area Committees that must develop an Area Contingency Plan (ACP). Area Contingency Plans must include a detailed annex containing a Fish and Wildlife and Sensitive Environments Plan. Tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities must have response plans consistent with the requirements of the NCP and the ACP. New regulations to supersede the Type A and B procedures of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment Regulations are being developed for oil spills. Currently, four assessment methods have been proposed: (1) Type A, (2) comprehensive (Type B), (3) intermediate (between types A and B), and (4) compensation tables. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund is approaching its ceiling of $1 billion, but only $50 million has been appropriated. Effective biological contingency planning requires extensive knowledge of (1) the environmental fate of petroleum, (2) the effects of petroleum on organisms, (3) the existing biological resources, and (4) the establishment of a system of biological priorities. The characteristics and fate of petroleum and the biological effects of petroleum are reviewed. Assessment of biological resources includes plant and animal distributions, important habitat, endangered or threatened species, and economic considerations. The establishment by Area Committees of priorities for environmental protection, injury assessment, and restoration will promote efficient spill response. Three special issues are discussed: (1) improving our ability to restore natural resources, (2) the potential role of biological diversity in spill response planning, and (3) planning for animal rehabilitation.

  4. Vatalanib decrease the positive interaction of VEGF receptor-2 and P2X2/3 receptor in chronic constriction injury rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangmei; Xu, Changshui; Li, Guilin; Liu, Han; Xie, Jinyan; Tu, Guihua; Peng, Haiying; Qiu, Shuyi; Liang, Shangdong

    2012-05-01

    Neuropathic pain can arise from a lesion affecting the peripheral nervous system. Selective P2X(3) and P2X(2/3) receptors' antagonists effectively reduce neuropathic pain. VEGF inhibitors are effective for pain relief. The present study investigated the effects of Vatalanib (VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor) on the neuropathic pain to address the interaction of VEGFR-2 and P2X(2/3) receptor in dorsal root ganglia of chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats. Neuropathic pain symptoms following CCI are similar to most peripheral lesions as assessed by the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, CCI group and CCI rats treated with Vatalanib group. Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured. Co-expression of VEGFR-2 and P2X(2) or P2X(3) in L4-6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was detected by double-label immunofluorescence. The modulation effect of VEGF on P2X(2/3) receptor agonist-activated currents in freshly isolated DRG neurons of rats both of sham and CCI rats was recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) in CCI group were lower than those in sham group (p<0.05). MWT and TWL in CCI rats treated with Vatalanib group were increased compared with those in CCI group (p<0.05). VEGFR-2 and P2X(2) or P2X(3) receptors were co-expressed in the cytoplasm and surface membranes of DRG. The co-expression of VEGFR-2 and P2X(2) or P2X(3) receptor in CCI group exhibited more intense staining than those in sham group and CCI rats treated with Vatalanib group, respectively. VEGF enhanced the amplitude of ATP and α,β-meATP -activated currents of both sham and CCI rats. Increment effects of VEGF on ATP and α,β-meATP -activated currents in CCI rats were higher than those in sham rats. Both ATP (100 μM) and α,β-meATP (10 μM)- activated currents enhanced by VEGF ( 1nM) were significantly blocked by Vatalanib (1

  5. RCRA hazardous waste contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.P. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) to prepare a contingency plan. The plan is a blueprint for emergency response, and must be designed to minimize health and environmental hazards resulting from fires, explosions or other unplanned hazardous releases. Hazardous waste contingency plans often are neglected and considered an unnecessary regulatory exercise by facility operators. However, an effective contingency plan is a valuable tool for reducing liability, protecting workers and the community, and avoiding costly shutdowns. The requirement under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) that regulated facilities report to EPA annually on releases to the environment has caused regulators to renew emphasis on the importance of RCRA contingency plans. However, regulatory agencies historically have provided insufficient information on the elements of an adequate contingency plan. Nevertheless, facility operators seriously should consider going beyond minimum regulatory requirements and create a comprehensive contingency plan.

  6. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  7. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  8. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identifymore » the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.« less

  9. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  10. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  11. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  12. Contingency Management and Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Clara

    Some educators are turning to the process of contingency management within a classroom as a short term, immediate motivator which can work for virtually every student, regardless of his/her final grade in the course. Contingency management consists of providing a set of alternatives from which those chosen by the student reward the students in…

  13. Perturbation Analysis of the (0,0) Band of the A2Π3/2 - X2Σ+ Transition in ZrN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, Kaitlin A.; Dahms, Taylor; O'Brien, Leah C.; O'Brien, James J.

    2014-06-01

    The (0,0) band of the A2Π3/2 - X2Σ+ transition of ZrN is known to be perturbed. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous perturbations are observed in the spectrum. A recent high-level ab initio calculation has helped to identify several possible perturbing states. PGOPHER is used to analyze the interactions. ZrN was produced in a hollow cathode sputter source, and the spectrum was recorded in emission by a high resolution FT spectrometer. Results of the analysis will be presented.

  14. Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001): thermal stability and inhibition of dissociation by H2O-O bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-08-01

    The effect of preadsorbed oxygen on the subsequent adsorption and reactions of water on Ru(0001) has been studied using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and DFT calculations. Experiments were carried out for O coverages close to 0.25 ML. It was found that no dissociation of water takes place up to the desorption temperature of {approx}180-230 K. DFT calculations show that intact water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) is {approx} 0.49 eV more stable than the dissociation products, H and OH, at their preferred fcc and top adsorption sites.

  15. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  16. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  17. A 2x2 multi-chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask: a stepping stone to large format microshutter arrays for coded aperture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNie, Mark E.; Brown, Alan G.; King, David O.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Gordon, Neil T.; Riches, Stephen; Rogers, Stanley

    2010-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously reported work focused on realising a 2x2cm single chip mask in the mid-IR based on polysilicon micro-optoelectro- mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and its integration with ASIC drive electronics using conventional wire bonding. It employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage and uses a hysteretic row/column scheme for addressing. In this paper we report on the latest results in the mid-IR for the single chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask, trials in scaling up to a mask based on a 2x2 multi-chip array and report on progress towards realising a large format mask comprising 44 MOEMS chips. We also explore the potential of such large, transmissive IR spatial light modulator arrays for other applications and in the current and alternative architectures.

  18. Computer-aided design of AD 2 X 2 intermetallics with a ThCr2Si2-type of crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselyova, N. N.; Sen'ko, O. V.; Kropotov, D. A.; Dokukin, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    Several hundred new AD 2 X 2 ( A and D are various elements; X = B, Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As, Sn, Sb) compounds are computer designed, and the types of their crystal structures under normal conditions are predicted. A special software package is used for the calculations; it includes a set of databases on the properties of inorganic substances and materials and a system for an analysis of these data, which is based on precedent pattern recognition methods. Only data on the properties of the elements entering into the compound compositions are used to predict unknown compounds. The parameters of elements in positions A and D (i.e., the Mendeleev-Pettifor numbers, the pseudopotential radii, and their algebraic functions) are found to mainly determine the possibility of formation of AD 2 X 2 compounds and the type of their crystal structures. New compounds of AD 2B2, AD 2Ga2, and AD 2Sn2 compositions are predicted for the first time.

  19. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency...

  20. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  1. Reinventing the Contingency Wheel: Scalable Visual Analytics of Large Categorical Data.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, B; Aigner, W; Miksch, S; Groller, M E

    2012-12-01

    Contingency tables summarize the relations between categorical variables and arise in both scientific and business domains. Asymmetrically large two-way contingency tables pose a problem for common visualization methods. The Contingency Wheel has been recently proposed as an interactive visual method to explore and analyze such tables. However, the scalability and readability of this method are limited when dealing with large and dense tables. In this paper we present Contingency Wheel++, new visual analytics methods that overcome these major shortcomings: (1) regarding automated methods, a measure of association based on Pearson's residuals alleviates the bias of the raw residuals originally used, (2) regarding visualization methods, a frequency-based abstraction of the visual elements eliminates overlapping and makes analyzing both positive and negative associations possible, and (3) regarding the interactive exploration environment, a multi-level overview+detail interface enables exploring individual data items that are aggregated in the visualization or in the table using coordinated views. We illustrate the applicability of these new methods with a use case and show how they enable discovering and analyzing nontrivial patterns and associations in large categorical data.

  2. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2 / (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices from first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, San-Dong

    2016-05-01

    To identify thermoelectric materials containing abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, we have studied the electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices with state-of-the-art first-principles calculations using a modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. Our results show that (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 are semi-metals using mBJ plus spin-orbit coupling (mBJ + SOC), while (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 is predicted to be a direct-gap semiconductor with a mBJ gap value of 0.46 eV and mBJ + SOC gap value of 0.44 eV. Thermoelectric properties are predicted by through solving the Boltzmann transport equations within the constant scattering time approximation. It is found that (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 has a larger Seebeck coefficient and power factor than (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 for both p-type and n-type doping. The detrimental influence of SOC on the power factor of p-type (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) is analyzed as a function of the carrier concentration, but there is a negligible SOC effect for n-type. These results can be explained by the influence of SOC on their valence and conduction bands near the Fermi level.

  3. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. PMID:26774064

  4. Born-Oppenheimer and Renner-Teller coupled-channel quantum reaction dynamics of O((3)P) + H2(+)(X(2)Σg(+)) collisions.

    PubMed

    Gamallo, Pablo; Defazio, Paolo; González, Miguel; Paniagua, Miguel; Petrongolo, Carlo

    2015-09-28

    We present Born-Oppenheimer (BO) and Renner-Teller (RT) time dependent quantum dynamics studies of the reactions O((3)P) + H2(+)(X(2)Σg(+)) → OH(+)(X(3)Σ(-)) + H((2)S) and OH(X(2)Π) + H(+). We consider the OH2(+) X[combining tilde](2)A'' and Ã(2)A' electronic states that correlate with a linear (2)Π species. The electronic angular momenta operators L[combining circumflex] and L[combining circumflex](2) are considered in nonadiabatic coupled-channel calculations, where the associated RT effects are due to diagonal V(RT) potentials that add up to the PESs and to off-diagonal C(RT) couplings between the potential energy surfaces (PESs). Initial-state-resolved reaction probabilities PI, integral cross sections σI, and rate constants kI are obtained using recent ab initio PESs and couplings and the real wavepacket formalism. Because the PESs are strongly attractive, PI have no threshold energy and are large, σI decrease with collision energy, and kI depend little on the temperature. The X[combining tilde](2)A'' PES is up to three times more reactive than the Ã(2)A' PES and H2(+) rotational effects (j0 = 0, 1) are negligible. The diagonal V(RT) potentials are strongly repulsive at the collinearity and nearly halve all low-energy observables with respect to the BO ones. The off-diagonal C(RT) couplings are important at low partial waves, where they mix the X[combining tilde](2)A'' and Ã(2)A' states up to ∼20%. However, V(RT) effects predominate over the C(RT) ones that change at most by ∼19% the BO values of σI and kI. The reaction O((3)P) + H2(+)(X(2)Σg(+)) → OH(+)(X(3)Σ(-)) + H((2)S) is probably one of the most reactive atom + diatom collisions because its RT rate constant at room temperature is equal to 2.26 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1). Within the BO approximation, the present results agree rather well with recent quasiclassical and centrifugal-sudden data using the same PESs.

  5. Marine oil spill contingency planning.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bing; Chu, Jia-cheng; Zhao, Ping; Yu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation(PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  6. Analysis of Contingency Tables Involving Multiple-Response Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, James E.; Spray, Judith A.

    This paper discussed methods currently under study for use with multiple-response data. Besides using Bonferroni inequality methods to control type one error rate over a set of inferences involving multiple response data, a recently proposed methodology of plotting the p-values resulting from multiple significance tests was explored. Proficiency…

  7. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  8. Adsorption site and structure determination of c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have determined the atomic spatial structure of c(2x2) N2Ni(100) with Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the nitrogen 1s core level using monochromatized x-rays from beamline 6.1 at SSRL and beamline 9.3.2 at the ALS. The chemically shifted N 1s peak intensities were summed together to obtain ARPEFS curves for both nitrogen atoms in the molecule. They used a new, highly-optimized program based on the Rehr-Albers scattering matrix formalism to find the adsorption site and to quantitatively determine the bond-lengths. The nitrogen molecule stands upright at an atop site, with a N-Ni bond length of 2.25(1) {angstrom}, a N-N bond length of 1.10(7) {angstrom}, and a first layer Ni-Ni spacing of 1.76(4) {angstrom}. The shake-up peak shows an identical ARPEFS diffraction pattern, confirming its intrinsic nature and supporting a previous use of this feature to decompose the peak into contributions from the chemically inequivalent nitrogen atoms. Comparison to a previously published theoretical treatment of N-N-Ni and experimental structures of analogous adsorbate systems demonstrates the importance of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in weakly chemisorbed systems.

  9. The Nicotinic α6 Subunit Gene Determines Variability in Chronic Pain Sensitivity via Cross-inhibition of P2X2/3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Mathur, Jayanti; Limapichat, Walrati; Post, Michael R.; Al-Qazzaz, Mona; Sorge, Robert E.; Martin, Loren J.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Smith, Shad B.; Freitas, Kelen; Austin, Jean-Sebastien; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Jie; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Tuttle, Alexander H.; Slepian, Peter M.; Clarke, Sarah; Drenan, Ryan M.; Janes, Jeff; Sharari, Shakir Al; Segall, Samantha K.; Aasvang, Eske K.; Lai, Weike; Bittner, Reinhard; Richards, Christopher I.; Slade, Gary D.; Kehlet, Henrik; Walker, John; Maskos, Uwe; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Devor, Marshall; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Belfer, Inna; Dougherty, Dennis A.; Su, Andrew I.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lester, Henry A.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and poorly managed human health problem. We used microarray-based expression genomics in 25 inbred mouse strains to identify dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-expressed genetic contributors to mechanical allodynia, a prominent symptom of chronic pain. We identified expression levels of Chrna6, which encodes the α6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), as highly associated with allodynia. We confirmed the importance of α6* (i.e., α6-containing) nAChRs by analyzing both gain- and loss-of-function mutants. We find that mechanical allodynia associated with neuropathic and inflammatory injuries is significantly altered in α6* mutants, and that α6* but not α4* nicotinic receptors are absolutely required for peripheral and/or spinal nicotine analgesia. Furthermore, we show that Chrna6’s role in analgesia is at least partially due to direct interaction and cross-inhibition of α6* nAChRs with P2X2/3 receptors in DRG nociceptors. Finally, we establish relevance of our results to humans by the observation of genetic association in patients suffering from chronic postsurgical pain and temporomandibular pain. PMID:25972004

  10. Contingency Planning for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David; Washington, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. But this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the power required, the data storage necessary, along with its position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  11. Locally Contingent Categorization in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigates creation and interpretation of nonlexicalized categories within discourse, as indicated by the use of general extenders. Shows that such categories are locally contingent, depend on contextually salient features for identifying similarity among members, can be created through contrast or contiguity, and clearly depend on assumptions…

  12. The Contingency Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Develops a conceptual framework for determining the appropriateness of various methodologies. Concludes that educators should stop switching from one to another and recognize that the best methodology is contingent upon the circumstances. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 5DL, UK) (JOW)

  13. Contingent Faculty across the Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobe, Monica F.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a 1999 survey conducted by the Coalition on the Academic Workforce (CAW), a group of higher education and disciplinary associations concerned about the dramatic rise in contingent faculty, to examine the staffing practices across eleven humanities and social science disciplines. The comprehensive report showed…

  14. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  15. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a... Mining Plan. The Contingency Plan shall comply with the requirements of § 282.28(e) of this part. (b)...

  16. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  17. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  18. Self-assembly of ligands designed for the building of a new type of [2 x 2] metallic grid. anion encapsulation and diffusion NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Blanca R; Jalón, Félix A; Ortiz, Isabel M; Soriano, M Laura; Torre, Felipe Gómez de la; Elguero, José; Maestro, Miguel A; Mereiter, Kurt; Claridge, Tim D W

    2008-01-21

    The ligands 4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine (bpzpm), 4,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine (bpz(*)pm), 4,6-bis(4-methylpyrazol-1-yl)pyrimidine (Mebpzpm), and 3,6-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)pyridazine (ppdMe) were synthesized and were made to react with Cu(I) centers in the presence of different counteranions. Different [2 x 2] metallic grids were obtained. With ligands bpzpm, bpz*pm, and Mebpzpm, a new type of grid was obtained where the facing ligands were divergent and two counteranions (BF(4-) or PF(6-)) were hosted in the resulting cavities and exhibit C-H...F and anion...pi interactions in the solid state. The presence of methyl groups on the pyrazolyl rings induced several distortions in the structure. In complexes with the ligand ppdMe, there were found two groups of parallel ligands in the grid, and the cavities generated were smaller. The counteranions were situated outside the grid, and the facing ligands exhibited aromatic pi-pi stacking interactions. Anion-pi interactions involving the pyridazine ring were found. The behavior in solution of the new derivatives with a special emphasis on the cation-anion interactions was studied by UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Diffusion NMR experiments performed for some complexes allowed us to conclude that weak cation-anion interactions exist in solution, with the counteranions undergoing fast exchange on the diffusion time scale between the free and ion-paired states.

  19. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  20. Detecting contingencies: an infomax approach.

    PubMed

    Butko, Nicholas J; Movellan, Javier R

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect social contingencies plays an important role in the social and emotional development of infants. Analyzing this problem from a computational perspective may provide important clues for understanding social development, as well as for the synthesis of social behavior in robots. In this paper, we show that the turn-taking behaviors observed in infants during contingency detection situations are tuned to optimally gather information as to whether a person is responsive to them. We show that simple reinforcement learning mechanisms can explain how infants acquire these efficient contingency detection schemas. The key is to use the reduction of uncertainty (information gain) as a reward signal. The result is an interesting form of learning in which the learner rewards itself for conducting actions that help reduce its own sense of uncertainty. This paper illustrates the possibilities of an emerging area of computer science and engineering that focuses on the computational understanding of human behavior and on its synthesis in robots. We believe that the theory of stochastic optimal control will play a key role providing a formal mathematical foundation for this newly emerging discipline.

  1. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  2. Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Kobayashi, Maori; Hidaka, Souta; Sugita, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the high-low-frequency sequence during the adaptation phase, a test tone sequence was more frequently perceived as a high-low-pitch sequence when the leftward apparent visual motion was presented and vice versa. Furthermore, the effect was specific for the exposed visual field and did not transfer to the other side, thus ruling out an explanation in terms of simple response bias. These results suggest that new audiovisual associations can be established within a short time, and visual information processing and auditory processing can mutually influence each other. PMID:23727883

  3. The crystal chemistry of Ca(10-y)(SiO4)3(SO4)3Cl(2-x-2y)F(x) ellestadite.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanan; Ritter, Clemens; White, Tim

    2011-12-19

    Fluor-chlorellestadite solid solutions Ca(10)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x)F(x), serving as prototype crystalline matrices for the fixation of hazardous fly ash, were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction (PXRD and PND), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The lattice parameters of the ellestadites vary linearly with composition and show the expected shrinkage of unit cell volume as fluorine (IR = 1.33 Å) displaces chlorine (IR = 1.81 Å). FTIR spectra indicate little or no OH(-) in the solid solutions. All compositions conform to P6(3)/m symmetry where F(-) is located at the 2a (0, 0, (1)/(4)) position, while Cl(-) is displaced out of the 6h Ca(2) triangle plane and occupies 4e (0, 0, z) split positions with z ranging from 0.336(3) to 0.4315(3). Si/S randomly occupy the 6h tetrahedral site. Ellestadites rich in Cl (x ≤ 1.2) show an overall deficiency in halogens (<2 atom per formula unit), particularly Cl as a result of CaCl(2) volatilization, with charge balance achieved by the creation of Ca vacancies (Ca(2+) + 2Cl(-) →□(Ca) + 2□(Cl)) leading to the formula Ca(10-y)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x-2y)F(x). For F-rich compositions the vacancies are found at Ca(2), while for Cl-rich ellestadites, vacancies are at Ca(1). It is likely the loss of CaCl(2) which leads tunnel anion vacancies promotes intertunnel positional disorder, preventing the formation of a P2(1)/b monoclinic dimorph, analogous to that reported for Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)Cl(2). Trends in structure with composition were analyzed using crystal-chemical parameters, whose systematic variations served to validate the quality of the Rietveld refinements. PMID:22111559

  4. The crystal chemistry of Ca(10-y)(SiO4)3(SO4)3Cl(2-x-2y)F(x) ellestadite.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanan; Ritter, Clemens; White, Tim

    2011-12-19

    Fluor-chlorellestadite solid solutions Ca(10)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x)F(x), serving as prototype crystalline matrices for the fixation of hazardous fly ash, were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction (PXRD and PND), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The lattice parameters of the ellestadites vary linearly with composition and show the expected shrinkage of unit cell volume as fluorine (IR = 1.33 Å) displaces chlorine (IR = 1.81 Å). FTIR spectra indicate little or no OH(-) in the solid solutions. All compositions conform to P6(3)/m symmetry where F(-) is located at the 2a (0, 0, (1)/(4)) position, while Cl(-) is displaced out of the 6h Ca(2) triangle plane and occupies 4e (0, 0, z) split positions with z ranging from 0.336(3) to 0.4315(3). Si/S randomly occupy the 6h tetrahedral site. Ellestadites rich in Cl (x ≤ 1.2) show an overall deficiency in halogens (<2 atom per formula unit), particularly Cl as a result of CaCl(2) volatilization, with charge balance achieved by the creation of Ca vacancies (Ca(2+) + 2Cl(-) →□(Ca) + 2□(Cl)) leading to the formula Ca(10-y)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x-2y)F(x). For F-rich compositions the vacancies are found at Ca(2), while for Cl-rich ellestadites, vacancies are at Ca(1). It is likely the loss of CaCl(2) which leads tunnel anion vacancies promotes intertunnel positional disorder, preventing the formation of a P2(1)/b monoclinic dimorph, analogous to that reported for Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)Cl(2). Trends in structure with composition were analyzed using crystal-chemical parameters, whose systematic variations served to validate the quality of the Rietveld refinements.

  5. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  6. Cyber Contingency Analysis version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-02

    Contingency analysis based approach for quantifying and examining the resiliency of a cyber system in respect to confidentiality, integrity and availability. A graph representing an organization's cyber system and related resources is used for the availability contingency analysis. The mission critical paths associated with an organization are used to determine the consequences of a potential contingency. A node (or combination of nodes) are removed from the graph to analyze a particular contingency. The value of all mission critical paths that are disrupted by that contingency are used to quantify its severity. A total severity score can be calculated based on the complete list of all these contingencies. A simple n1 analysis can be done in which only one node is removed at a time for the analysis. We can also compute nk analysis, where k is the number of nodes to simultaneously remove for analysis. A contingency risk score can also be computed, which takes the probability of the contingencies into account. In addition to availability, we can also quantify confidentiality and integrity scores for the system. These treat user accounts as potential contingencies. The amount (and type) of files that an account can read to is used to compute the confidentiality score. The amount (and type) of files that an account can write to is used to compute the integrity score. As with availability analysis, we can use this information to compute total severity scores in regards to confidentiality and integrity. We can also take probability into account to compute associated risk scores.

  7. Evolutionary contingency and SETI revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2014-07-01

    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing "astrobiological revolution". Simpson's argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson's argument have occasionally mispresented its core content. Proponents often oversimplify it as just another consequence of biological contingency, thus leaving their position open to general arguments limiting the scope of contingency in evolution (such as the recent argument of Geerat Vermeij based on selection effects in the fossil record). They also tend to neglect that the argument has been presented as essentially atemporal, while referring to entities and processes that are likely to change over time; this has become even less justifiable as our astrobiological knowledge increased in recent years. Opponents have failed to see that the weaknesses in Simpson's position could be removed by restructuring of the argument; I suggest one way of such restructuring, envisioned long ago in the fictional context by Stanislaw Lem. While no firm consensus has emerged on the validity of Simpson's argument so far, I suggest that, contrary to the original motivation, today it is less an anti-SETI argument, and more an astrobiological research programme. In this research programme, SETI could be generalized into a platform for testing some of the deepest assumptions about evolutionary continuity and the relative role of contingency versus convergence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.

  8. A Table! (At the Table).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    A review of French dining habits and table manners outlines: elements of the place setting, courtesies used at the table, serving conventions, restaurant tipping, the size and content of the different meals of the day, subtle differences in common foods, restaurant types, menu types, general wine and cheese choices, waiter-client communication,…

  9. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  10. A Primer on Improving Contingent Faculty Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Heidi; Untener, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Challenges associated with the increasing use of contingent faculty appointments in American higher education are mounting. The AAUP and other professional groups have identified several major problems: (1) unacceptable conditions and compensation for contingent faculty members; (2) poor learning outcomes for students; and (3) the potential…

  11. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study. PMID:17364854

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-7 - Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingencies. 31.205-7 Section 31.205-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING... contingencies are generally unallowable for historical costing purposes because such costing deals with...

  13. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures § 1542.301... responsibilities and that all information contained in the plan is current. (b) TSA may approve alternative implementation measures, reviews, and exercises to the contingency plan which will provide an overall level...

  14. Procedures for Establishing a Contingency Managed Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Albuquerque, NM. Behavior Systems Div.

    This manual for classroom teachers is designed to teach the application of contingency contracting procedures in the typical instructional setting. A "contingency contract" is an agreement between teacher and student whereby the student, upon demonstration of specific task achievement, receives a reward: permission to participate in a "reinforcing…

  15. 9 CFR 2.134 - Contingency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contingency planning. 2.134 Section 2.134 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.134 Contingency planning. (a) Dealers,...

  16. The Role of Contingency in Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Bitterman, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiments suggesting that classical conditioning depends on the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) are reconsidered along with later evidence that shows conditioning of the CS and its context in random training. CS-US contingency is neither necessary nor sufficient for conditioning. (SLD)

  17. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  18. Judging Response-Outcome Relations: The Role of Response-Outcome Contingency, Outcome Probability, and Method of Information Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Shaklee, Harriet

    Four experiments investigated college students' judgments of inter-event contingency. Subjects were asked to judge the effect of a discrete response (tapping a wire) on the occurrence of a brief outcome (a radio's buzzing). Pairings of the possible event-state combinations were presented in a summary table, an unbroken time line, or a broken time…

  19. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  20. Contingency contrast effects in discrimination conditioning.

    PubMed

    Grings, W W; Givens, M C; Carey, C A

    1979-09-01

    Three experiments observed differential electrodermal responding to signal stimuli (CSs) by contrasting positive, random, and negative contingencies between the signals and strong stimuli (UCSs). Experimentation began as a test of the proposition that electrodermal response to a random signal (or CSR) would lie between the response to a reinforced or excitatory stimulus (CS+) and that to a nonreinforced or inhibitory stimulus (CS- or CSI). A clear intermediate position for CSR did not result. Instead it appeared that CSR was operating as a mildly excitatory signal. This led to a second experiment where response to pairs of stimuli with different contingent relations could be compared in independent samples. The pairs were CS+ and CS-, CS+ and CSR, and CSR and CS-. Differential responding was observed in all pairs and response to CSR was significantly larger in the group receiving CSR with CS- than it was in the group receiving CSR with CS+. A contingency contrast effect was suggested. A third experiment explored the implications of a contingency contrast effect by varying overall UCS density, the duration of "safety intervals," and the presence or absence of instructions about contingencies. The UCS density and instruction variables influenced the differential performance to CSR and CS-, a result that was interpreted as further evidence for a perceptual contingency-contrast effect. Some theoretical implications of such a contrast phenomenon are examined, as they apply to autonomic learning. The CS is interpreted as a signal supplying contingency information that is dependent upon a complex of factors in the stimulation environment.

  1. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  2. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  3. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  4. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  5. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  6. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contingent assets and... ACT General Instructions § 367.15 Contingent assets and liabilities. Contingent assets represent a possible source of value to the service company contingent upon the fulfillment of conditions regarded...

  7. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  8. A case study in evolutionary contingency.

    PubMed

    Blount, Zachary D

    2016-08-01

    Biological evolution is a fundamentally historical phenomenon in which intertwined stochastic and deterministic processes shape lineages with long, continuous histories that exist in a changing world that has a history of its own. The degree to which these characteristics render evolution historically contingent, and evolutionary outcomes thereby unpredictably sensitive to history has been the subject of considerable debate in recent decades. Microbial evolution experiments have proven among the most fruitful means of empirically investigating the issue of historical contingency in evolution. One such experiment is the Escherichia coli Long-Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE), in which twelve populations founded from the same clone of E. coli have evolved in parallel under identical conditions. Aerobic growth on citrate (Cit(+)), a novel trait for E. coli, evolved in one of these populations after more than 30,000 generations. Experimental replays of this population's evolution from various points in its history showed that the Cit(+) trait was historically contingent upon earlier mutations that potentiated the trait by rendering it mutationally accessible. Here I review this case of evolutionary contingency and discuss what it implies about the importance of historical contingency arising from the core processes of evolution. PMID:26787098

  9. A case study in evolutionary contingency.

    PubMed

    Blount, Zachary D

    2016-08-01

    Biological evolution is a fundamentally historical phenomenon in which intertwined stochastic and deterministic processes shape lineages with long, continuous histories that exist in a changing world that has a history of its own. The degree to which these characteristics render evolution historically contingent, and evolutionary outcomes thereby unpredictably sensitive to history has been the subject of considerable debate in recent decades. Microbial evolution experiments have proven among the most fruitful means of empirically investigating the issue of historical contingency in evolution. One such experiment is the Escherichia coli Long-Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE), in which twelve populations founded from the same clone of E. coli have evolved in parallel under identical conditions. Aerobic growth on citrate (Cit(+)), a novel trait for E. coli, evolved in one of these populations after more than 30,000 generations. Experimental replays of this population's evolution from various points in its history showed that the Cit(+) trait was historically contingent upon earlier mutations that potentiated the trait by rendering it mutationally accessible. Here I review this case of evolutionary contingency and discuss what it implies about the importance of historical contingency arising from the core processes of evolution.

  10. Primacy effects in clinical judgments of contingency.

    PubMed

    Curley, S P; Young, M J; Kingry, M J; Yates, J F

    1988-01-01

    In contingency judgment a primacy effect exists when a conclusion about the relationship between clinical variables is inordinately influenced by cases seen earlier rather than later in a presentation sequence. In this study, medical and nursing trainees evidenced this behavior in a hypothetical clinical judgment situation. The behavior was tied to an attention decrement explanation, by which inattention to the later-presented cases leads to inaccurate recall of the relative frequencies of observed cases, which in turn induces a misjudgment of a disease-finding contingency. An explicit intervention based on this hypothesis, forcing attention to later cases by warning that recall of the case frequencies would be required, was effective in reducing primacy effects among medical students. A related, but less explicit, intervention was also tried. This intervention did not significantly reduce primacy effects among nursing students, but was somewhat effective among general undergraduate students performing a non-clinical contingency judgment task.

  11. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  12. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  13. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color. PMID:26856050

  14. Agreement among 2 x 2 Agreement Indices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Anthony J.; Ward, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen measures of reliability for two-category nominal scales are compared. Upon correcting for chance agreement, there are only five distinct indices: Fleiss's modification of A-sub-1, the phi coefficient, Cohen's kappa, and two intraclass coefficients. Recommendations for choosing an agreement index are made based on definitions, magnitude,…

  15. Mesa = Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two mesas on the northern plains of Mars. 'Mesa' is the Spanish word for 'table,' and that is a very good description of the two elliptical features captured in this MOC image. In both cases, the mesa tops and the material beneath them, down to the level of the surrounding, rugged plain, are remnants of a once more extensive layer (or layers) of material that has been largely eroded away. The circular feature near the center of the larger mesa is the site of a filled and buried impact crater.

    Location near: 53.5oN, 153.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of new 12H hexagonal perovskite-related oxides Ba 6M2Na 2X2O 17 ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb; X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarez, Eric; Abraham, Francis; Mentré, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    The new Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, Mn) compounds have been prepared by electrosynthesis in molten NaOH and their crystal structures have been refined from single crystals X-ray diffraction, space group P6 3/ mmc, Z=2, for X=V: a =5.8506(1) Å, c =29.6241(4) Å, R1=4.76%, for X=Mn : a =5.8323(1) Å, c =29.5299(3) Å, R1=3.48%. The crystal structure is a 12H-type perovskite with a ( c' cchcc) 2 stacking sequence of [BaO 3] c, [BaO 3] h and [BaO 2] c' layers. The tridimensional edifice is formed by blocks of Ru 2O 9 dimers that share corners with NaO 6 octahedra. These blocks sandwich double sheets of X5+O 4 tetrahedra. Several isotypic Ba 6M5+2Na 2X5+2O 17 materials ( X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As) and ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb) have been prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by Rietveld analysis. The magnetic and electric properties have been investigated and show besides the Ru 5+2O 9 typical intradimer antiferromagnetic couplings, discrepancies of both χ and ρ versus T at 50 and 100 K for Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, As). In this work, a review of the identified Ru-hexagonal perovskite materials is also reported in order to overview the wide variety of possibilities in the field of new compounds synthesis.

  17. Influences of the substituents on the M-M bonding in Cp4Al4 and Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, Ga; Cp = C5H5, X = halogen).

    PubMed

    Lu, Feifei; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Zeng, Yanli; Meng, Lingpeng

    2015-08-21

    Although the geometries of CpAl4 (Cp* = C5Me5) and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5) are similar, CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4. CpAl2I2 is the first complex involving an Al(ii)-Al(ii) bond to be supported by Cp-type ligands. In this work, the stability of CpAl4 and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5), the nature of M-M bonding in Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, and Ga), and the influences of the X atom on the M-M bonds have been analyzed and compared within the framework of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, electron localization function (ELF), energy decomposition analysis (EDA), and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The calculated results show that CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4 because of HH interactions between the methyl groups on the same and different Cp rings and not because of the Al-Al bonds. In Cp2M2X2, the B-B bond is stronger than the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds. The B-B bond is most consistent with covalent bonding, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds are more consistent with metallic bonding. The strengths of the B-B bond increase in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds decrease in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I. The different change tendencies arise from the different M-M bonds and the orbital interactions between atoms X and M.

  18. Region VIII area contingency plan, Denver, CO

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this Area Contingency Plan (ACP) is to provide an action plan to respond to a release and to promote timely and effective coordination among the entire spill community, including federal, state, tribal, local, and private entities in response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge.

  19. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  20. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Goncalves, Fabio Leyser; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative…

  1. Triggers of Contingency in Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Tim; Thwaites, Anne; Jared, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Our research in the last decade has been into classroom situations that we perceive to make demands on mathematics teachers' disciplinary knowledge of content and pedagogy. Amongst the most visible of such situations are those that we describe as "contingent", in which a teacher is faced with some unexpected event, and challenged to…

  2. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  3. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  4. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  5. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  6. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  7. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  8. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  9. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  10. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  11. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  12. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  13. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  14. Area contingency plan: Cleveland. (COTP Cleveland)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Cleveland Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Cleveland Coastal Zone.

  15. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  16. If -Then Contingencies in Children's Sibling Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Michal; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Two-step (if -then) behavioral contingencies in the naturally occurring conflicts of 2- and 4-year-old siblings were identified and described. Children's crying, compliance, ignoring, opposition, power, and reasoning strategies were examined to determine how they were used immediately following opposition, power, and reasoning from siblings and…

  17. The Contingent Valuation Method in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to present a new model measuring the economic value of public libraries, combining the dissonance minimizing (DM) and information bias minimizing (IBM) format in the contingent valuation (CV) surveys. The possible biases which are tied to the conventional CV surveys are reviewed. An empirical study is presented to compare the model…

  18. 30 CFR 582.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 582.26 Section 582.26 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... necessary to reflect any new information concerning the nature, magnitude, and significance of...

  19. An Exploratory Contingency Model for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorton, David M.

    In an application of contingency theory, data from 45 Arizona schools were analyzed to determine the relationships between three sets of independent variables (organizational structure, leadership style, and environmental characteristics) and the dependent variable (organizational effectiveness as perceived by principals and teachers). Contingency…

  20. 48 CFR 31.205-7 - Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contingency factor may be recognized when it is applicable to a past period to give recognition to minor unsettled factors in the interest of expediting settlement. (c) In connection with estimates of future costs..., the effects of which are foreseeable within reasonable limits of accuracy; e.g., anticipated costs...

  1. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  2. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for contingency measures... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... contingency measures to be undertaken if the area fails to make reasonable further progress, or fails...

  3. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  7. The Effects of Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramill, James L.; Kleinhammer, P. Jeannie

    Typical learned helplessness research has involved the presentation of non-contingent, aversive events followed by measures of performance on subsequent tasks; recent investigations have focused on the effect of non-contingent rewards. To examine the effects of non-contingent rewards on children, two studies were conducted, in which children were…

  8. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of...

  9. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 1218.152 Section..., Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund, any holder of a lease issued or maintained under the Outer Continental...

  10. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 265.53 Section 265.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A...

  11. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 1218.152 Section... Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund, any holder of a lease issued or maintained under the Outer Continental...

  12. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items, prior period adjustments, and contingent liabilities may...

  13. 7 CFR 1488.18 - Covenant against contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covenant against contingent fees. 1488.18 Section... Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.18 Covenant against contingent fees..., or contingent fee, except bona fide employees or bona fide established commercial or selling...

  14. Les Tables de salon (Coffee Tables)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondina, Marisa; Gilbert, Rodrigue

    1977-01-01

    Terms for such things as furniture in English reflect function and are specific, not generic in nature. French equivalents are based on linguistic criteria. "Tables basses" or "tables de salon" are equivalents of "coffee tables"; they illustrate the tendency toward the generic of the French language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  15. Investigating Group Contingencies to Promote Brief Abstinence from Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In contingency management (CM), monetary incentives are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, incentives (e.g., “vouchers” exchangeable for goods or services) are contingent on individual performance. We programmed vouchers contingent on group performance to investigate whether these contingencies would promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Thirty-two participants were divided into small teams (n = 3 per team). During three 5-day within-subject experimental conditions, participants submitted video recordings of breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures twice daily via Mōtiv8 Systems™, an Internet-based remote monitoring application. During the interdependent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they and their teammates submitted breath CO samples indicative of abstinence (i.e., negative samples). During the independent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they submitted negative samples, regardless of their teammates' performance. During the no vouchers condition, no monetary incentives were contingent on abstinence. In addition, half of the participants (n = 16) could communicate with their teammates through an online peer support forum. Although forum access did not appear to promote smoking abstinence, monetary incentives did promote brief abstinence. Significantly more negative samples were submitted when vouchers were contingent on individual performance (56%) or team performance (53%) relative to when no vouchers were available (35%; F = 6.9, p = 0.002). The results show that interdependent contingencies can promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Moreover, the results suggest that these contingencies may help lower treatment costs and promote social support. PMID:23421358

  16. Better Off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals’ careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals’ transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a contingent job, rather than having no job, leads Japanese men to have lower occupational status after they transition back to standard employment. I argue that in a highly segmented labor market like Japan’s, the strict separation of labor pools for standard and contingent jobs makes being labeled as a contingent worker particularly detrimental. Meanwhile, the legacy of Japan’s welfare corporatism alleviates the stigma of unemployment, making individuals better off jobless than having a contingent job. This research thus demonstrates the importance of labor-market contexts in shaping the scarring effects of contingent work arrangements. PMID:22859864

  17. Failure detection and recovery in the assembly/contingency subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS) is the primary communications link on board the Space Station. Any failure in a component of this system or in the external devices through which it communicates with ground-based systems will isolate the Station. The ACS software design includes a failure management capability (ACFM) that provides protocols for failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR). The the ACFM design requirements as outlined in the current ACS software requirements specification document are reviewed. The activities carried out in this review include: (1) an informal, but thorough, end-to-end failure mode and effects analysis of the proposed software architecture for the ACFM; and (2) a prototype of the ACFM software, implemented as a C program under the UNIX operating system. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the FDIR protocols specified in the ACS design and the specifications themselves in light of their use in implementing the ACFM. The basis of failure detection in the ACFM is the loss of signal between the ground and the Station, which (under the appropriate circumstances) will initiate recovery to restore communications. This recovery involves the reconfiguration of the ACS to either a backup set of components or to a degraded communications mode. The initiation of recovery depends largely on the criticality of the failure mode, which is defined by tables in the ACFM and can be modified to provide a measure of flexibility in recovery procedures.

  18. [Contingency management in opioid substitution treatment].

    PubMed

    Specka, M; Böning, A; Scherbaum, N

    2011-07-01

    The majority of opiate-dependent patients in substitution treatment show additional substance-related disorders. Concomitant use of heroin, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cocaine compromises treatment success. Concomitant drug use may be treated by using contingency management (CM) which is based on learning theory. In CM, abstinence from drugs, as verified by drug screenings, is reinforced directly and contingently. Reinforcers used in CM studies with substituted patients were, amongst others, vouchers and take-home privileges. Studies in the USA show a medium average effect of CM on drug consumption rates and abstinence. The effects decrease markedly after the end of the intervention. We discuss whether CM is applicable within the German substitution treatment system and how it can be combined with other interventions such as selective detoxification treatments or cognitive-behavioural programmes.

  19. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  20. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: Charge transfer reaction of N2+(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C. Y.

    2012-09-01

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N2+(v+, N+) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N2+(X 2Σg+, v+ = 0-2, N+ = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N2+ PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔElab = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (Ecm's) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v+ = 0-2, N+ = 0-9) for the N2+(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2, N+ = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the Ecm range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and Ecm-dependencies of σ(v+ = 0-2, N+ = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at Ecm = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar+ from N2+(X; v+ = 0, N+) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v+ = 0), confirming the narrow ΔEcm spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v+ = 0-2; N+) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions calculated based on the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg formulism are found to be in fair

  1. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion), one of the signals (color) becomes a driver for the other signal (motion). This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities. PMID:21569617

  2. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  3. New insights into the comprehension of the magnetic properties of dinuclear Mn(III) compounds with the general formula [{MnL(NN)}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2.

    PubMed

    Escriche-Tur, Luis; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Albela, Belén; Corbella, Montserrat

    2016-07-19

    Five new dinuclear Mn(iii) compounds with benzoato derivative bridges [{Mn(bpy)L}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2 (n-R = 3-MeO, 4-MeO and 4-tBu, X = NO3(-) and ClO4(-)) were synthesised and characterised. According to X-ray diffraction, the X anions tend to be coordinated to the Mn ions and may occupy the place of the monodentate ligand L. Two structural isomers that only differ in one of their monodentate ligands have been obtained with the 3-MeOC6H4COO(-) bridges. For all compounds, the Mn(iii) ions display elongated octahedra with a pronounced rhombic distortion. To quantify these distortions separately, the elongation and rhombicity parameters Δ and ρ have been defined. The magnetic study shows a good relationship between the distortion of the coordination polyhedra and the zero field splitting parameters (DMn and EMn). From the magnetic data of a powder sample, it is possible to determine the sign and magnitude of DMn for ferromagnetic systems or weak antiferromagnetic systems with DMn < 0. For this kind of dinuclear compound, the R group at the meta position, the rhombic distortion of the octahedra, and large torsion angles between the Jahn-Teller axes lead to ferromagnetic interactions.

  4. New insights into the comprehension of the magnetic properties of dinuclear Mn(III) compounds with the general formula [{MnL(NN)}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2.

    PubMed

    Escriche-Tur, Luis; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Albela, Belén; Corbella, Montserrat

    2016-07-19

    Five new dinuclear Mn(iii) compounds with benzoato derivative bridges [{Mn(bpy)L}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2 (n-R = 3-MeO, 4-MeO and 4-tBu, X = NO3(-) and ClO4(-)) were synthesised and characterised. According to X-ray diffraction, the X anions tend to be coordinated to the Mn ions and may occupy the place of the monodentate ligand L. Two structural isomers that only differ in one of their monodentate ligands have been obtained with the 3-MeOC6H4COO(-) bridges. For all compounds, the Mn(iii) ions display elongated octahedra with a pronounced rhombic distortion. To quantify these distortions separately, the elongation and rhombicity parameters Δ and ρ have been defined. The magnetic study shows a good relationship between the distortion of the coordination polyhedra and the zero field splitting parameters (DMn and EMn). From the magnetic data of a powder sample, it is possible to determine the sign and magnitude of DMn for ferromagnetic systems or weak antiferromagnetic systems with DMn < 0. For this kind of dinuclear compound, the R group at the meta position, the rhombic distortion of the octahedra, and large torsion angles between the Jahn-Teller axes lead to ferromagnetic interactions. PMID:27295557

  5. Origin of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system of Harttia punctata (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) inferred from chromosome painting and FISH with ribosomal DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Traldi, Josiane Baccarin; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2014-04-01

    Harttia is a genus in the subfamily Loricariinae that accommodates fishes popularly known as armored catfishes. They show extensive karyotypic diversity regarding interspecific numerical/structural variation of the karyotypes, with the presence of the XX/XY1Y2 multiple sex chromosome system, as found in H. carvalhoi. In this context, this study aimed to characterize Harttia punctata chromosomally, for the first time, and to infer the rearrangements that originated the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosome system present in this species. The data obtained in this study, with classical (Giemsa, C-banding and AgNORs) and molecular methodologies (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and chromosome microdissection, indicated that a translocation between distinct acrocentric chromosomes bearing rRNA genes, accompanied by deletions in both chromosomes, might have originated the neo-Y chromosome in this species. The data also suggest that the multiple sex chromosome systems present in H. carvalhoi and H. punctata had an independent origin, evidencing the recurrence of chromosome alterations in species from this genus.

  6. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-01-01

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system. PMID:24782001

  7. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data.

  8. Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit-opiate use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent vs. non-contingent delivery of a methadone dose supplement on relapse to illicit opiate use in the context of a methadone outpatient detoxification program. Following a 3-week methadone stabilization period on 30 mg, patients (N = 39) were randomly assigned to a contingent, a non-contingent, or a control treatment group. All patients received identical gradual reductions in their assigned methadone dose. During the dose reduction period (weeks 4-11), members of the contingent (N = 13) and non-contingent groups (N = 13) could obtain daily methadone-dose supplements up to 20 mg, but contingent group members could obtain supplements only if their most recent urinalysis results were opiate negative. Control subjects (N = 13) did not have dose increases available. The contingent group presented significantly lower opiate-positive urines during weeks 8-11 (14% positive) of the detox than the non-contingent (38% positive) or control (50% positive) groups. Additionally, the availability of extra methadone improved treatment retention and increased clinic attendance above levels observed in the control group. The potential for further use of methadone's reinforcing properties in the treatment of opiate dependence is discussed.

  9. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  10. Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit-opiate use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent vs. non-contingent delivery of a methadone dose supplement on relapse to illicit opiate use in the context of a methadone outpatient detoxification program. Following a 3-week methadone stabilization period on 30 mg, patients (N = 39) were randomly assigned to a contingent, a non-contingent, or a control treatment group. All patients received identical gradual reductions in their assigned methadone dose. During the dose reduction period (weeks 4-11), members of the contingent (N = 13) and non-contingent groups (N = 13) could obtain daily methadone-dose supplements up to 20 mg, but contingent group members could obtain supplements only if their most recent urinalysis results were opiate negative. Control subjects (N = 13) did not have dose increases available. The contingent group presented significantly lower opiate-positive urines during weeks 8-11 (14% positive) of the detox than the non-contingent (38% positive) or control (50% positive) groups. Additionally, the availability of extra methadone improved treatment retention and increased clinic attendance above levels observed in the control group. The potential for further use of methadone's reinforcing properties in the treatment of opiate dependence is discussed. PMID:3757767

  11. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  12. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  13. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting." PMID:22287807

  14. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  15. Contingency power concepts for helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Davis, R. H.; Goldstein, D. N.; Haynes, J. F.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by power requirement of safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 minute Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, cooling flow modulation, throttle push and an auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military life cycle cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter direct operating cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine/rubber aircraft scenario.

  16. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  17. Hedging contingent claims on defaultable assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beumee, Johan G. B.

    2001-02-01

    Following the JLT model (Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull), this paper represents a defaultable asset as a continuous stochastic process plus a Poisson jump modelling the bankruptcy event. It is shown that if the recovery condition is known beforehand, a contingent claim can be hedged by a position in the defaultable asset and a risk-free instrument. In addition, the claim must satisfy a jump-diffusion equation and a risk-neutral representation is obtained using this equation. Examples include the price of a risky zero-coupon bond with a fixed recovery value and the prices of risky Call/Put options on corporate instruments (instrument terminates upon default).

  18. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  19. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  20. Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Nadine; Rhodes, Gillian; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2015-01-01

    Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect. PMID:26648890

  1. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  2. The measurement of contingent valuation for health economics.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2004-01-01

    In health economics, contingent valuation is a method that elicits an individual's monetary valuations of health programmes or health states. This article reviews the theory and conduct of contingent valuation studies, with suggestions for improving the future measurement of contingent valuation for health economics applications. Contingent valuation questions can be targeted to any of the following groups: the general population, to value health insurance premiums for programmes; users of a health programme, to value the associated programme costs; or individuals with a disease, to evaluate health states. The questions can be framed to ask individuals how much they would pay to obtain positive changes in health status or avoid negative changes in health status ('willingness to pay'; WTP) or how much they would need to be paid to compensate for a decrease in health status or for foregoing an improvement in heath status ('willingness to accept'; WTA). In general WTP questions yield more accurate and precise valuations than WTA questions. Payment card techniques, with follow-up bidding using direct interviews with visual aids, are well suited for small contingent valuation studies. Several biases may be operative when assessing contingent valuation, including biases in the way participants are selected, the way in which the questions are posed, the way in which individuals interpret probabilities and value gains relative to losses, and the way in which missing or extreme responses are interpreted. An important aspect of all contingent valuation studies is an assessment of respondents' understanding of the evaluation method and the valuation task. Contingent valuation studies should measure the potential influence of biases, the validity of contingent valuation tests as measures of QOL, and the reliability and responsiveness of responses. Future research should address equity concerns associated with using contingent valuation and explore contingent valuation as a

  3. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Araujo Silva, Maria; Leyser Gonçalves, Fábio; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative stimuli, responses, and consequences. This paper is aimed at highlighting exemplar instances in the development of this issue. It has long been known that the electrical stimulation of certain cerebral areas can have a reinforcing function. Extraordinary technological advances in recent years show that neural activity can be selected by consequences. For example, the activity of in vitro isolated neurons that receive dopamine as a reinforcer functions as a cellular analogue of operant conditioning. The in vivo activity of populations of neurons of rats and monkeys can be recorded on an instant-to-instant basis and can then be used to move mechanical arms or track a target as a function of consequences. Neural stimulation acts as a discriminative stimulus for operant responses that are in turn maintained by neural consequences. Together with investigations on the molecular basis of classical conditioning, those studies are examples of possibilities that are being created for the study of behavior–environment interactions within the organism. More important, they show that, as an element in the three-term contingency, neural activity follows the same laws as other events. PMID:22478485

  4. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution.

    PubMed

    Bochkarev, V; Solovyev, V; Wichmann, S

    2014-12-01

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution.

  5. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  6. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporate hazardous waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this.... EPA recommends that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency...

  7. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part. The owner... that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency plan, the changes...

  8. Contingency and Freedom: Important Concepts for an Educated Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mark E.

    Individuals in general and educators in particular should be knowledgeable about and understand the social implications of contingency and freedom. Contingency--a possible or unforeseen occurrence--is interpreted in light of the unpredictability of nature which insures that people cannot be prepared for every possibility. Freedom is interpreted as…

  9. Infant Contingency/Extinction Performance after Observing Partial Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Catherine; Toland, Cynthia; King, Rose Ann; Martin, Lisa Maas

    2005-01-01

    Social information gathering by infants 6 and 12 months old was examined as a foundation for later social learning that may be uniquely human. Infant performance on a contingency/extinction task was studied following a caregiver demonstration of the contingency on varied reinforcement schedules. Infants who observed caregivers receive any…

  10. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishermen's contingency fund. 296.3 Section 296.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3...

  11. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  12. Using an Academic Peer Interaction Contingency with Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Robert C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An academic peer interaction contingency was introduced into an ongoing token economy program in a class of five emotionally disturbed children with minimal interpersonal skills. Seven behavioral categories of academically relevant and irrelevant behaviors were recorded during multiple baseline, contingency, and follow-up observation periods.…

  13. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how feedback contingency affects category learning, and current theories assign little or no importance to this variable. Two experiments examined the effects of contingency degradation on rule-based and information-integration category learning. In rule-based tasks, optimal accuracy is possible with a simple explicit rule, whereas optimal accuracy in information-integration tasks requires integrating information from two or more incommensurable perceptual dimensions. In both experiments, participants each learned rule-based or information-integration categories under either high or low levels of feedback contingency. The exact same stimuli were used in all four conditions and optimal accuracy was identical in every condition. Learning was good in both high-contingency conditions, but most participants showed little or no evidence of learning in either low-contingency condition. Possible causes of these effects are discussed, as well as their theoretical implications. PMID:27149393

  14. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  15. Contingent Fees in Medical Malpractice Litigation—A Qualitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ottensmeyer, David J.; Smith, Howard L.; Porter, James

    1983-01-01

    The medical profession has experienced high liability insurance premiums accompanied by widespread use of contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation. It is worthwhile, therefore, to assess qualitatively the merits of contingent fees, the evidence suggesting that they are associated with unjustified litigation and their implications for the medical and legal professions. PMID:6636743

  16. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... liquids in the impoundment suddenly drops and the drop is not known to be caused by changes in the...

  17. CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects across the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Howard P.; Iwaszuk, Wendy M.; Kamps, Debra; Shumate, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a group-contingency intervention on student behavior across academic instructional periods. Research suggests group contingencies are evidence-based practices, yet calls for investigation to determine the best conditions and groups suited for this type of intervention. CW-FIT (Class-Wide Function-related…

  18. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contingent payment debt instruments. 1.1275-4....1275-4 Contingent payment debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, this section applies to any debt instrument that provides for one or...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Contingent payment debt instruments. 1.1275-4... Contingent payment debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, this section applies to any debt instrument that provides for one or more...

  20. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  1. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems: Technical Level Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Patterson-Hines, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management is essential to the robust operation of complex systems such as spacecraft and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Automatic contingency handling allows a faster response to unsafe scenarios with reduced human intervention on low-cost and extended missions. Results, applied to the Autonomous Rotorcraft Project and Mars Science Lab, pave the way to more resilient autonomous systems.

  2. A Test Based on the Contingency Model of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchio, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The contingency model of leadership was extended to investigate subordinate satisfaction. It was hypothesized that subordinate satisfaction with a leader would yield evidence of an interaction between leadership style and situational parameters. Results indicated moderate support for an extension of the contingency model formulation. (RC)

  3. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  4. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 51.1012 Section 51.1012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... contingency measures to be undertaken if the area fails to make reasonable further progress, or fails...

  5. At the Crossroads: Attention, Contingency Awareness, and Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Halbeisen, Georg; Weil, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (US). One of the most debated topics in EC research is whether or not EC is dependent on contingency awareness. In this study, we go beyond this debate by examining whether contingency awareness…

  6. Contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation - a qualitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Ottensmeyer, D J; Smith, H L; Porter, J

    1983-08-01

    The medical profession has experienced high liability insurance premiums accompanied by widespread use of contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation. It is worthwhile, therefore, to assess qualitatively the merits of contingent fees, the evidence suggesting that they are associated with unjustified litigation and their implications for the medical and legal professions. PMID:6636743

  7. Correlated ab initio investigations on the intermolecular and intramolecular potential energy surfaces in the ground electronic state of the O2-(X2Πg)-HF(X1Σ+) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawzy, Wafaa M.; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Zhang, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the first highly correlated ab initio study of the intermolecular and intramolecular potential energy surfaces in the ground electronic state of the O_2^ - (X{}^2Π _g) - HF(X{}^1Σ^+) complex. Accurate electronic structure calculations were performed using the coupled cluster method including single and double excitations with addition of the perturbative triples correction [CCSD(T)] with the Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVnZ, n = 2-5. Also, the explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12a level of theory was employed with the AVnZ basis as well as the Peterson and co-workers VnZ-F12 basis sets with n = 2 and 3. Results of all levels of calculations predicted two equivalent minimum energy structures of planar geometry and Cs symmetry along the A″ surface of the complex, whereas the A' surface is repulsive. Values of the geometrical parameters and the counterpoise corrected dissociation energies (Cp-De) that were calculated using the CCSD(T)-F12a/VnZ-F12 level of theory are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z calculations. The minimum energy structure is characterized by a very short hydrogen bond of length of 1.328 Å, with elongation of the HF bond distance in the complex by 0.133 Å, and De value of 32.313 Kcal/mol. Mulliken atomic charges showed that 65% of the negative charge is localized on the hydrogen bonded end of the superoxide radical and the HF unit becomes considerably polarized in the complex. These results suggest that the hydrogen bond is an incipient ionic bond. Exploration of the potential energy surface confirmed the identified minimum and provided support for vibrationally induced intramolecular proton transfer within the complex. The T-shaped geometry that possesses C2v symmetry presents a saddle point on the top of the barrier to the in-plane bending of the hydrogen above and below the axis that connects centers of masses of the monomers. The height of this barrier is 7

  8. Mother-Infant Contingent Vocalizations in Eleven Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Mother-infant vocal interactions serve multiple functions in child development, but the community-common or community-specific nature of key features of their vocal interactions remains unclear. Here we examined rates, interrelations, and contingencies of vocal interactions in 684 mothers and their 5-month-old infants in diverse communities in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, and United States). Rates of mothers’ and infants’ vocalizations varied widely across communities and were uncorrelated. However, collapsing across communities mothers vocalized to infants contingent on the offset of their infants’ nondistress vocalizing, infants vocalized contingent on the offset of their mothers’ vocalizing, and maternal and infant contingencies were significantly correlated, pointing to the beginnings of dyadic conversational turn taking. Despite broad differences in the overall talkativeness of mothers and infants, maternal and infant contingent vocal responsiveness is common across communities, supporting essential functions of turn-taking in early child socialization. PMID:26133571

  9. A new contingency selection approach to cyclic security analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Le Kim, H.; Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new approach for contingency selection in cyclic security analysis. A fast selection algorithm based on information available in the contingency analysis results from previous cycles and on the local network solution concept applied to two levels of contingency selection is developed. In order to reduce both the number of calculations required for security analysis and the time spent for jacobian refactorization, a fast pre-screening process without load flow solution is designed at first. The PRESAF module (PRE-Selection Assistee par Filtre) proposed in this phase allows large sets of candidate contingencies to be processed very quickly. Then, a fast screening phase with the SAF module (Selection Assistee par Filtre) processes a small list of selected potentially severe contingencies. Tests on a 206 bus-299 branch 400 kV French model show that the proposed approach is fast and reliable for cyclic security analysis.

  10. Contingency spaces and measures in classical and instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, J; Berryman, R; Thompson, R L

    1974-05-01

    The contingency between conditional and unconditional stimuli in classical conditioning paradigms, and between responses and consequences in instrumental conditioning paradigms, is analyzed. The results are represented in two- and three-dimensional spaces in which points correspond to procedures, or procedures and outcomes. Traditional statistical and psychological measures of association are applied to data in classical conditioning. Root mean square contingency, Ø, is proposed as a measure of contingency characterizing classical conditioning effects at asymptote. In instrumental training procedures, traditional measures of association are inappropriate, since one degree of freedom-response probability-is yielded to the subject. Further analysis of instrumental contingencies yields a surprising result. The well established "Matching Law" in free-operant concurrent schedules subsumes the "Probability Matching" finding of mathematical learning theory, and both are equivalent to zero contingency between responses and consequences.

  11. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  12. Hot cell examination table

    SciTech Connect

    Gaal, P.S.; Ebjer, L.P.; Kareis, J.H.; Schlegel, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  13. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  14. The Effects of Contingent versus Non-Contingent Running on the Out-of-Seat Behavior of an Autistic Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    For a seven-year-old autistic boy, contingent jogging caused a significant decline in frequency of out-of-seat behavior that was maintained for 12 months. Unlike many other behavior suppression techniques, contingent exercise is safe and does not humiliate the client. (Author/LHW)

  15. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations. PMID:21541136

  16. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  17. Maine and New Hampshire area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-29

    The Area Contingency Plan (ACP) describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State and local response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, New York. This plan addresses response to an average most probable discharge, a maximum most probable discharge, and a worst case discharge including discharges from fire or explosion. Planning for these three scenarios covers the expected range of spills likely to occur in this area. For purposes of this plan, the spill scenarios are based on the best historical data available.

  18. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment. PMID:24366673

  19. An analysis of behavioral contingencies in clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, R S; Heins, P J; Holbrook, W; Low, S B; Kramer, M

    1979-10-01

    Principles of a contingency management were applied in analyzing student reports on clinical instruction. In behavioral science, a contingency is a relationship between a behavior and its effect. The analysis identifies contingencies arranged by clinical instructors that unintentionally interfere with learning. The faculty responded to the findings by planing changes to overcome the problems identified. Prior to the study, many of the problems uncovered were not recognized by the faculty. Students are usually not open about such sensitives areas of feedback. If dental faculty members of other institutions do not feel that similar findings apply to their schools, the authors recommend that they conduct an analogous study. PMID:289681

  20. Contingent valuation of supplemental health care in Israel.

    PubMed

    Golan, E H; Shechter, M

    1993-01-01

    The use of the contingent-valuation method for determining willingness to pay for non-market or currently available health care services continues to be experimental. In this study, the contingent-valuation method was used to calculate willingness-to-pay estimates for a proposed change in the Israeli health care system. It was found that the willingness-to-pay estimates calculated in the Israel study were reasonable and that the methodology is able to adapt to the special nature of the health care commodity while adhering to the conditions for reliability and validity in a contingent-valuation study. PMID:8246702

  1. Contingency Management Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Contingency Management (CM) Functional Requirements document. This document applies to HALE ROA operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) limited at this time to enroute operations above 43,000 feet (defined as Step 1 of the Access 5 project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A contingency is an unforeseen event requiring a response. The unforeseen event may be an emergency, an incident, a deviation, or an observation. Contingency Management (CM) is the process of evaluating the event, deciding on the proper course of action (a plan), and successfully executing the plan.

  2. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  3. Environmental regulatory update table

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.; Langston, M.E.; Tucker, C.S.; Reed, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  4. 1997 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, K.

    1997-05-01

    This year`s MWD Comparison Tables include a Quick Reference Guide listing MWD sensors by collar size for each manufacturer. Following the Quick Reference Guide are the comparison tables, which list general, directional, gamma ray, resistivity, density and neutron data for each tool. The MWD Tables should only be used as a reference source. System specifications frequently change as tools are refined and developed. Consult MWD marketing representatives prior to making final tool selections. A contact key for all the companies listed in the tables appears on the last page.

  5. Testing Patterned Hypotheses in Multi-Way Contingency Tables Using Weighted Kappa and Weighted Chi Square

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Donald C.

    1977-01-01

    The kappa coefficient and the chi square statistic are used as indices of agreement between two judges' ratings of a set of stimuli on a nominal scale. In this article, the logic of these indices is extended to weighted multi-way cases. (Author/JKS)

  6. Multiple Contingency Table Analyses of the Deviance Syndrome: How Much Overlap Is There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwyn, Robert Flynn; Benda, Brent B.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys adolescents (N=1,621) attending southern, metropolitan secondary schools to determine how much overlap there is in individuals who smoke, get drunk, use marijuana, and have sexual intercourse; and determine if overlap is according to age, gender, race, and family structure. Reports there are relationships between activities, although most…

  7. Isolated Students in Secondary Schools: Cooperative Group Contingencies and Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Marvin; Mesch, Debra

    Group contingencies is a technology for using peers to influence behavioral change through contingencies; the use of contingent interdependent group rewards for specific group behaviors has been of interest to behavioral researchers. To sort out the effects on quiz scores and peer social interaction (PSI) of group contingencies based on academic…

  8. Contingency Experiences of 3-Month-Old Children and Their Relation to Later Developmental Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Keller, Heidi; Lissmann, Ilka; Ball, Juliane; Borke, Joern; Lamm, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relation between early social contingency experiences and infants' competencies to detect nonsocial contingencies. In this study of 87 three-month-old infants, the authors operationalized early social contingencies as prompt, contingent maternal responses and coded microanalytically on the basis of…

  9. Order effects in contingency learning: the role of task complexity.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jessecae K; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2006-04-01

    Dennis and Ahn (2001) found that during contingency learning, initial evidence influences causal judgments more than does later evidence (a primacy effect), whereas López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) found the opposite (a recency effect). We propose that in contingency learning, people use initial evidence to develop an anchoring hypothesis that tends to be underadjusted by later evidence, resulting in a primacy effect. Thus, factors interfering with initial hypothesis development, such as simultaneously learning too many contingencies, as in López et al., would reduce the primacy effect. Experiment 1 showed a primacy effect with learning contingencies involving only one outcome but no primacy effect with two outcomes. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the magnitude of the primacy effect correlated with participants' verbal working memory capacity. It is concluded that a critical moderator for exhibition of the primacy effect is task complexity, presumably because it interferes with initial hypothesis development.

  10. Integrated Demonstration of Instrument Placement , Robust Execution and Contingent Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Bualat, M.; Lees, D.; Smith, D. E.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor); Washington, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated demonstration of ground-based contingent planning, robust execution and autonomous instrument placement for the efficient exploration of a site by a prototype Mars rover.

  11. Arousal, working memory, and conscious awareness in contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Cosand, Louise D; Cavanagh, Thomas M; Brown, Ashley A; Courtney, Christopher G; Rissling, Anthony J; Schell, Anne M; Dawson, Michael E

    2008-12-01

    There are wide individual differences in the ability to detect a stimulus contingency embedded in a complex paradigm. The present study used a cognitive masking paradigm to better understand individual differences related to contingency learning. Participants were assessed on measures of electrodermal arousal and on working memory capacity before engaging in the contingency learning task. Contingency awareness was assessed both by trial-by-trial verbal reports obtained during the task and by a short post-task recognition questionnaire. Participants who became aware had fewer non-specific skin conductance responses and tended to score higher on a digit span assessment. Skin conductance level was not significantly lower in the aware group than in the unaware group. These findings are consistent with studies showing that lower arousal and greater cognitive processing capacity facilitate conscious perception of a greater breadth of information within a scene or a task. PMID:18573667

  12. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  13. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  14. 48 CFR 552.270-32 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... real estate agents or brokers), maintained by a Contractor for the purpose of securing business, that... this clause, means any commission, percentage, brokerage, or other fee that is contingent upon...

  15. 48 CFR 552.270-32 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... real estate agents or brokers), maintained by a Contractor for the purpose of securing business, that... this clause, means any commission, percentage, brokerage, or other fee that is contingent upon...

  16. 48 CFR 552.270-32 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... real estate agents or brokers), maintained by a Contractor for the purpose of securing business, that... this clause, means any commission, percentage, brokerage, or other fee that is contingent upon...

  17. 48 CFR 552.270-32 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... real estate agents or brokers), maintained by a Contractor for the purpose of securing business, that... this clause, means any commission, percentage, brokerage, or other fee that is contingent upon...

  18. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  19. Is contingency-fee consulting an endangered species?

    PubMed

    Russo, J J

    1997-10-01

    Consulting firms that assist hospitals in optimizing Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement sometimes charge contingency fees for their services. These fees are based on a percentage of the increased revenue they can help a hospital capture. Although contingency-fee arrangements are not considered unethical, they can result in illegal billing practices because consulting firms may be tempted to up-code to increase their fees. The 1994 investigation of Metzinger Associates, Voorhees, New Jersey, a consulting firm providing services to 200 hospitals in 17 states, found evidence of illegal billing practices and resulted in a complaint filed by the United States Attorney's Office. Several hospitals were named as defendants. A Fraud Alert issued by the HHS's Office of the Inspector General earlier this year indicates the government intends to target consulting firms that charge contingency fees. Before engaging consulting firms that charge contingency fees, hospitals should carefully evaluate each firms to determine whether its recommended billing submissions will be accurate, credible, and defensible.

  20. Natural history's hypothetical moments: narratives of contingency in Victorian culture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tina Young

    2009-01-01

    This essay focuses on the ways in which works by Robert Chambers, Charles Darwin, and George Eliot encouraged readers to imagine the future as contingent. But where Chambers alludes to Charles Babbage's computational engine and the period's life insurance industry to hint at the role of contingency in natural history, Darwin insists on the importance of contingently determined outcomes to speciation. The "Origin" consistently exercises the reader's speculative energies by generating conditional statements, causal hypotheses, adn diverging alternatives. "Adam Bede" constitutes its characters' interior lives around the proliferation of such contingent narratives. To reflect on the future or on the past, these works suggest, demands a temporal, moral, and narrative complexity in one's thinking.

  1. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  2. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY... agencies, to ensure an effective and immediate removal of a discharge, and to ensure mitigation...

  3. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY... agencies, to ensure an effective and immediate removal of a discharge, and to ensure mitigation...

  4. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY... agencies, to ensure an effective and immediate removal of a discharge, and to ensure mitigation...

  5. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws?

  6. Contingent negative variation in childhood migraine.

    PubMed

    Besken, E; Pothmann, R; Sartory, G

    1993-02-01

    Adult migraineurs without aura have an increased amplitude of the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) between attacks. Given the potential diagnostic importance of this finding and the difficulties associated with diagnosing migraine in childhood it seemed important to assess CNV in children suffering from this disorder. Ninety-seven children aged between 8 and 14 years were recruited. Forty-two suffered from migraine, 34 from tension-type headache. Twenty-one healthy controls were also studied. CNV was recorded from Fz, Cz and Pz referenced to linked earlobes during 20 trials consisting of two tones of moderate intensity with an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 4 sec and an intertrial interval (ITI) of 10 to 14 sec. The second tone of each trial required a button press. EOG was recorded from the left eye. The 10 CNV responses with the least EOG artefact were selected and averaged. Children with migraine had a highly significantly more negative mean CNV amplitude at all three electrode sites than children with tension-type headache and also a more pronounced Post-Imperative-Negative-Variation (PINV). Migrainous children differed from controls only at Cz (ISI). There was also a highly significant increase of mean CNV amplitude and PINV at all three electrode sites in the control group compared to the tension headache group.

  7. A Dynamical Systems Account of Sensorimotor Contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor approach, perception is a form of embodied know-how, constituted by lawful regularities in the sensorimotor flow or in sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs) in an active and situated agent. Despite the attention that this approach has attracted, there have been few attempts to define its core concepts formally. In this paper, we examine the idea of SMCs and argue that its use involves notions that need to be distinguished. We introduce four distinct kinds of SMCs, which we define operationally. These are the notions of sensorimotor environment (open-loop motor-induced sensory variations), sensorimotor habitat (closed-loop sensorimotor trajectories), sensorimotor coordination (reliable sensorimotor patterns playing a functional role), and sensorimotor strategy (normative organization of sensorimotor coordinations). We make use of a minimal dynamical model of visually guided categorization to test the explanatory value of the different kinds of SMCs. Finally, we discuss the impact of our definitions on the conceptual development and empirical as well as model-based testing of the claims of the sensorimotor approach. PMID:23750143

  8. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  9. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws? PMID:26762897

  10. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Mark E.; Schepers, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of “contingency management” treatments, in which unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. Two experiments with rats therefore examined the effects of adding a negative “abstinence” contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. Experiment 2 found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute. Results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the “context” of infrequent reinforcement—a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment. PMID:24366673

  11. Steady potential correlates of positive reinforcement: reward contingent positive variation.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, T J; York, J L; Hackett, J T

    1969-01-17

    A positive reinforcement with food produced high-voltage bursts of alpha activity over the posterior marginal gyrus in a cat deprived of food and water. This synchronization was always associated with a large (180 to 300 microvolt), positive steady potential shift comparable to that occurring during the onset of sleep. Since this shift was contingent upon the relative appropriateness and desirability of food reward, it was termed reward contingent positive variation.

  12. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini- ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  13. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Petty, Brian; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only approximately 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini-ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  14. Contingency management in the people's republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The behavioral contingencies that have been implemented in the attempt by the People's Republic of China to achieve two of its national goals are described. The goals are the modernization and increased productivity of industry and a significant decrease in the birth rate. Changes from past practices in the industrial sphere involving a shift from noncontingent to contingent consequences are outlined. The use of a variety of consequences as a means of reducing the birth rate is described. PMID:22478605

  15. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  16. 1996 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    Gastineau, J.

    1996-05-01

    Petroleum Engineer International`s ninth annual Measurement While Drilling Tables compare the different operating capabilities of survey and logging tools from 13 MWD vendors. This year`s MWD Comparison Tables include a Quick Reference Guide listing MWD sensors by collar size for each manufacturer. Following the Quick Reference Guide are the comparison tables, listing general, directional, gamma ray, resistivity, density and neutron data for each tool. The MWD Tables should serve only as a reference source. System specifications can change rapidly as tools are refined and developed. Consultation with MWD marketing representatives before making a final tool selection is recommended. A contact key for all of the companies listed in the tables is provided.

  17. 1994 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Twenty-eight measurement while drilling tools are listed in this year's MWD Comparison Tables. Updated data on tools listed last year and data on five new tools provide a convenient guide for choosing MWD systems. Future MWD technologies include sonic tools and tools that make measurements ahead of the bit. For the seventh year, Petroleum Engineer International presents the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Tables comparing a variety of available tools from many different vendors. The 1994 Tables include two additional companies and five new MWD tools not found in last year's Tables. However, the tables should serve only as a reference source. System specifications can change rapidly as tools are refined and new technologies develop. Operators and contractors should consult designated MWD marketing representatives before making a final tool selection.

  18. [Contingencies of self-worth in Japanese culture: validation of the Japanese contingencies of self-worth scale].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yukiko

    2008-08-01

    The author developed a Japanese version of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) that was originally developed in the United States (Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003). The Japanese version of the scale measures seven contingencies of self-esteem: Defeating others in competition, appearance, relationship harmony, other's approval, academic competence, virtue, and support of family and friends. Scores on the scale had systematic relationships with related variables, and the scale therefore exhibited satisfactory levels of construct validity: Relationship harmony, other's approval, and support of family and friends were positively correlated with sympathy and interdependence, whereas competitiveness was negatively correlated with sympathy. Moreover, competitiveness and academic achievement contingencies predicted competitive motivation, whereas the support of family and friends contingency predicted self-sufficient motivation. The scale has adequate test-retest reliability and a seven-factor structural model was confirmed. The implications for self-esteem and interpersonal relationships in Japanese culture are discussed.

  19. United States Life Tables, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    The life tables in this report are current life tables for the United States based on age-specific death rates in 1997. Beginning with the 1997 tables, U.S. life tables have been constructed with a new methodology that is similar to that used in the decennial life tables. Life expectancy and other tables are shown for the first time for ages 85 to…

  20. Reactions of the bis(dialkylphosphino)methane complexes Pd2X2(μ-R2PCH2PR2)2 (X = halogen, R = Me or Et) with H2S, S8, COS, and CS2; detection of reaction intermediates.

    PubMed

    Pamplin, Craig B; Rettig, Steven J; Patrick, Brian O; James, Brian R

    2011-09-01

    The Pd(2)X(2)(dmpm)(2) complexes [X = Cl (1a), Br (1b), I (1c); dmpm = bis(dimethylphosphino)methane. In all the dipalladium complexes mentioned in this paper, the dmpm, depm, and dppm ligands (unless stated otherwise) are bridging, but for convenience the μ-symbol is omitted.] react with H(2)S to yield H(2) and the bridged-sulfido complexes Pd(2)X(2)(μ-S)(dmpm)(2) (2a-c), of which 2a and 2b are structurally characterized. With 1a, two rapid reversible equilibria are observed by NMR spectroscopy below -30 °C, and two reaction intermediates are detected; both are likely hydrido(mercapto) species. Reaction of 1a with 1 equiv of elemental sulfur also yields 2a. The reaction of 1a with COS results in the initial formation of Pd(2)Cl(2)(μ-COS)(dmpm)(2) (3) that undergoes decarbonylation to yield 2a and Pd(2)Cl(2)(μ-CO)(dmpm)(2) (4), which is also formed via reversible insertion of the CO into the Pd-Pd bond of 1a. The solid-state molecular structure of the previously reported complex Pd(2)Cl(2)(μ-CS(2))(dmpm)(2) (5), together with solution NMR data for 3 and 5, reveal that the bridging heterocumulene ligands coordinate in an η(2)-C,S fashion. Analogous findings were made for the corresponding Pd(2)X(2)(depm)(2) complexes [X = Cl (1a'), Br (1b'), I (1c'); depm = bis(diethylphosphino)methane], although no μ-COS species was detected. The Pd(2)X(2)(μ-S)(depm)(2) complex was structurally characterized. Differences in the chemistry of the previously studied, corresponding dppm systems (dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) are discussed.

  1. The contingent valuation method in health care.

    PubMed

    Klose, T

    1999-05-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a survey-based, hypothetical and direct method to determine monetary valuations of effects of health technologies. This comprehensive review of CVM in the health care literature points at methodological as well as conceptual issues of CVM and on willingness to pay as a measure of benefits compared with other measures used in medical technology assessment. Studies published before 1998 were found by searching computerised databases and former review literature. Studies were included, when performing CVM using original data and meeting qualitative criteria. Theoretical validity of CVM was sufficiently shown and there were several indications of convergent validity. No results on criterion validity and only a few on reliability were found. There was widespread use of different elicitation formats, which make comparisons of studies problematic. Direct questions were seen problematic. First bids used in bidding games influenced the monetary valuation significantly (starting point bias). There were indications that the range of bids of payment cards also affected the valuation (range bias). However, no strategic bias was found. The influence of different states of valuation (ex-ante, ex-post) and of payment methods, as well as the possible aggregation of the results of decomposed scenarios rather than more complex holistic scenarios, were rarely investigated. Further methodological analysis and testing seems to be necessary before CVM may be used in health care decision making. Important research topics are the connection of assessment of different elicitation methods and criterion validity as well as tests on reliability according to methodological issues. Concerning conceptual issues, the analysis of the influence of different states of evaluation and of the status of the respondents as diseased or non-diseased, as well as the aggregation of results of decomposed scenarios, proved to be topics of further research. PMID:10538292

  2. Historical Contingencies in Microbial Responses to Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, C.; Waring, B.; Rocca, J.; Kivlin, S.; Giauque, H.; Averill, C.

    2014-12-01

    Although water is a primary controller of microbial function and we expect climate change to alter water availability in the future, our understanding of how microbial communities respond to a change in moisture and what that means for soil carbon cycling remain poorly understood. In part, this uncertainty arises from a lack of understanding of microbial response mechanisms and how those lead to aggregate soil function. Environmental tracking would be facilitated if microbial communities respond to new climatic conditions via rapid physiological acclimatization, shifts in community composition, or adaptation. In contrast, historical contingencies could be created by dispersal limitation or local adaptation to previous conditions. To address environmental tracking vs. legacies, we examined how soil microbial communities were affected by precipitation at multiple scales and asked whether rainfall was a primary driver of the observed responses. We leveraged a local steep rainfall gradient with field surveys, lab incubations, reciprocal transplants, and rainfall manipulations to approach this problem. Across a steep rainfall gradient, we found that soil microbial communities were strongly associated with historical rainfall, with two-thirds of the variation in community composition explained by mean annual precipitation. In 12-month experimental lab manipulations of soil moisture, soil functional responses were constrained by historical rainfall, with greater activity in soils subjected to their original moisture condition. The constraints of historical rainfall held even after 18 months in reciprocal transplant common gardens along the rainfall gradient and with manipulated dispersal of regional microbial communities. Yet, when water was manipulated at a single site over 4 years, legacies did not develop. Overall, these findings are consistent with long-term rainfall acting as a strong habitat filter and resulting in a legacy of both microbial community composition

  3. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; McCall, Philip J.; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Lloyd, Linda S.; Hakim, Lokman; Bowman, Leigh R.; Horstick, Olaf; Coelho, Giovanini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks. Methodology/Principal findings Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed. Conclusions/Significance Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak

  4. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  5. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  6. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  7. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  8. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  9. Acquisition of automatic imitation is sensitive to sensorimotor contingency.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Press, Clare; Dickinson, Anthony; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The associative sequence learning model proposes that the development of the mirror system depends on the same mechanisms of associative learning that mediate Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. To test this model, two experiments used the reduction of automatic imitation through incompatible sensorimotor training to assess whether mirror system plasticity is sensitive to contingency (i.e., the extent to which activation of one representation predicts activation of another). In Experiment 1, residual automatic imitation was measured following incompatible training in which the action stimulus was a perfect predictor of the response (contingent) or not at all predictive of the response (noncontingent). A contingency effect was observed: There was less automatic imitation indicative of more learning in the contingent group. Experiment 2 replicated this contingency effect and showed that, as predicted by associative learning theory, it can be abolished by signaling trials in which the response occurs in the absence of an action stimulus. These findings support the view that mirror system development depends on associative learning and indicate that this learning is not purely Hebbian. If this is correct, associative learning theory could be used to explain, predict, and intervene in mirror system development.

  10. The Effectiveness of Gaze-Contingent Control in Computer Games.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Paul A; Apraksin, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology and gaze-contingent control in human-computer interaction have become an objective reality. This article reports on a series of eye-tracking experiments, in which we concentrated on one aspect of gaze-contingent interaction: Its effectiveness compared with mouse-based control in a computer strategy game. We propose a measure for evaluating the effectiveness of interaction based on "the time of recognition" the game unit. In this article, we use this measure to compare gaze- and mouse-contingent systems, and we present the analysis of the differences as a function of the number of game units. Our results indicate that performance of gaze-contingent interaction is typically higher than mouse manipulation in a visual searching task. When tested on 60 subjects, the results showed that the effectiveness of gaze-contingent systems over 1.5 times higher. In addition, we obtained that eye behavior stays quite stabile with or without mouse interaction.

  11. Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-01

    Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles will cover pressurized tree removal, well capping operations, techniques for killing wells after capping, snubbing operations, handling H{sub 2}S, shallow gas hazards, and project management. Because it is impossible to eliminate the potential for a blowout, the only logical and responsible position is to make plans to react before an accident occurs. Such a blowout contingency plan for operations should include information about the following: Immediate reaction plan (evacuations, internal and public notifications, and data collection); Blowout contingency plan (general logistic plans or site-specific plans with relief well details); Engineering modeling; Mobilization of resources to control the blowout (first wave of equipment and personnel); and Means for taking and verifying appropriate responses. The paper discusses immediate response plans, blowout contingency plans, regional and site specific plans, and recommends the absolute minimum requirements for a plan that should be created.

  12. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style.

  13. Mother-Infant Contingent Vocalizations in 11 Countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Cote, Linda R; Haynes, O Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2015-08-01

    Mother-infant vocal interactions serve multiple functions in child development, but it remains unclear whether key features of these interactions are community-common or community-specific. We examined rates, interrelations, and contingencies of vocal interactions in 684 mothers and their 5½-month-old infants in diverse communities in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, and the United States). Rates of mothers' and infants' vocalizations varied widely across communities and were uncorrelated. However, collapsing the data across communities, we found that mothers' vocalizations to infants were contingent on the offset of the infants' nondistress vocalizing, infants' vocalizations were contingent on the offset of their mothers' vocalizing, and maternal and infant contingencies were significantly correlated. These findings point to the beginnings of dyadic conversational turn taking. Despite broad differences in the overall talkativeness of mothers and infants, maternal and infant contingent vocal responsiveness is found across communities, supporting essential functions of turn taking in early-childhood socialization.

  14. Mother-Infant Contingent Vocalizations in 11 Countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Cote, Linda R; Haynes, O Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2015-08-01

    Mother-infant vocal interactions serve multiple functions in child development, but it remains unclear whether key features of these interactions are community-common or community-specific. We examined rates, interrelations, and contingencies of vocal interactions in 684 mothers and their 5½-month-old infants in diverse communities in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, and the United States). Rates of mothers' and infants' vocalizations varied widely across communities and were uncorrelated. However, collapsing the data across communities, we found that mothers' vocalizations to infants were contingent on the offset of the infants' nondistress vocalizing, infants' vocalizations were contingent on the offset of their mothers' vocalizing, and maternal and infant contingencies were significantly correlated. These findings point to the beginnings of dyadic conversational turn taking. Despite broad differences in the overall talkativeness of mothers and infants, maternal and infant contingent vocal responsiveness is found across communities, supporting essential functions of turn taking in early-childhood socialization. PMID:26133571

  15. A frequency-domain transient stability criterion for normal contingencies

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, R.J.; Rizzi, J.C.; Mailhot, R.

    1995-08-01

    In a previous paper, a simple frequency-domain stability criterion was proposed for networks near the stability limit subjected to a 3-phase fault with no loss of line. The criterion can be summarized as follows: if a system is stable, the phase angle of the Fourier transform of a network`s transient voltage response exhibits a clockwise polar plot behavior at all buses (i.e. for increasing frequency); if the system is unstable, it exhibits a counterclockwise behavior in at least one location. Though these results are of interest, the criterion would be of greater practical use in mechanizing dynamic security analysis if it could be extended to the types of contingencies actually used in security analysis, namely normal contingencies. Normal contingencies are commonly defined as the loss of any element in a power system, either spontaneously or preceded by a fault, and such changes in topology impact post-contingency steady-state voltages in addition to their transient behavior. The present paper shows how such cases can be treated, thereby extending the applicable range of the criterion to normal contingencies.

  16. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style. PMID:10247889

  17. Volcanic Eruption: Students Develop a Contingency Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2013-04-01

    , causing a blockage and afflux of the Rhine, which, due to the given conditions of a very narrow valley, would lead to excessive flooding affecting even the greater Rhine-Main-region. Not to mention the consequences of a pyroclastic flow, dropping volcanic bombs and further hazardous/disastrous consequences. In comparison to other "potentially active" or "active volcanoes", e.g. the Vesuvius, the Laacher See is scarcely monitored and according to recent publications poorly analyzed in terms of contingency and evacuation plans. This offers space for critical analysis and creative solutions to an existing problem. Short: We need geographers and their knowledge to provide help. Given these facts, the Laacher See could be the layout for a very interesting geography project bringing together previously gained knowledge and understanding of volcanic activities, their destructive powers, consequences and risks in case of an eruption in combination with their topographical characteristics. Your students thereby act the role of a geoscientist developing contingency plans and evacuation zones for the greater Laacher See area. This involves a detailed analysis of the topographical characteristics based on (classic) topographic maps or online via the use of a GIS (e.g. Google maps). In a second step students enlist the possible consequences they already know according to their range and copy them onto a transparency layer on the topographic map. Using such a layer technique students add population density, important topographic features and maybe even anticipated wind directions to their map. The information density and the specific layout of this map are thereby only determined by the student's previous knowledge, their personal abilities and skills and the amount of time provided. This offers the opportunities to even differentiate the task within your group and provide support adjusted to the individual students level. On the basis of their own thematic map your students should be

  18. Comparisons of synthesized and individual reinforcement contingencies during functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Romani, Patrick W; Zangrillo, Amanda N; Owen, Todd M

    2016-09-01

    Researchers typically modify individual functional analysis (FA) conditions after results are inconclusive (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) introduced a marked departure from this practice, using an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). In the test condition, they delivered multiple contingencies simultaneously (e.g., attention and escape) after each occurrence of problem behavior; in the control condition, they delivered those same reinforcers noncontingently and continuously. In the current investigation, we compared the results of the IISCA with a more traditional FA in which we evaluated each putative reinforcer individually. Four of 5 participants displayed destructive behavior that was sensitive to the individual contingencies evaluated in the traditional FA. By contrast, none of the participants showed a response pattern consistent with the assumption of the IISCA. We discuss the implications of these findings on the development of accurate and efficient functional analyses. PMID:27174563

  19. Contingency Horizon: on Private Events and the Analysis of Behavior.

    PubMed

    Leigland, Sam

    2014-05-01

    Skinner's radical behaviorism incorporates private events as biologically based phenomena that may play a functional role with respect to other (overt) behavioral phenomena. Skinner proposed four types of contingencies, here collectively termed the contingency horizon, which enable certain functional relations between private events and verbal behavior. The adequacy and necessity of this position has met renewed challenges from Rachlin's teleological behaviorism and Baum's molar behaviorism, both of which argue that all "mental" phenomena and terminology may be explained by overt behavior and environment-behavior contingencies extended in time. A number of lines of evidence are presented in making a case for the functional characteristics of private events, including published research from behavior analysis and general experimental psychology, as well as verbal behavior from a participant in the debate. An integrated perspective is offered that involves a multiscaled analysis of interacting public behaviors and private events. PMID:27274956

  20. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  1. Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.

  2. Contingency Operations of Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea

    2010-01-01

    America has begun the development of a new space vehicle system which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. The system is called Constellation: it has 2 earth-launch vehicles, Ares I and Ares V; a crew module, Orion; and a lander, Altair with descent and ascent stages. Ares V will launch an Earth Departure Stage (EDS) and Altair into low earth orbit. Ares I will launch the Orion crew module into low earth orbit where it will rendezvous and dock with the Altair and EDS "stack". After rendezvous, the stack will contain four complete rocket systems, each capable of independent operations. Of course this multiplicity of vehicles provides a multiplicity of opportunities for off-nominal behavior and multiple mitigation options for each. Contingency operations are complicated by the issues of crew safety and the possibility of debris from the very large components impacting the ground. This paper examines contingency operations of the EDS in low earth orbit, during the boost to translunar orbit, and after the translunar boost. Contingency operations under these conditions have not been a consideration since the Apollo era and analysis of the possible contingencies and mitigations will take some time to evolve. Since the vehicle has not been designed, much less built, it is not possible to evaluate contingencies from a root-cause basis or from a probability basis; rather they are discussed at an effects level (such as the reaction control system is consuming propellant at a high rate). Mitigations for the contingencies are based on the severity of the off-nominal condition, the time of occurrence, recovery options, options for alternate missions, crew safety, evaluation of the condition (forensics) and future prevention. Some proposed mitigations reflect innovation in thinking and make use of the multiplicity of on-orbit resources including the crew; example: Orion could do a "fly around" to allow the crew to determine the condition

  3. CODATA thermodynamic tables

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, D.; Parker, V.B.; White, H.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Recommended values are presented for chemical thermodynamic properties of selected compounds of calcium and their mixtures. These have been prepared in accord with a previously developed plan and as a test of it. All values in the present table are mutually consistent and are consistent with the CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics. The values are recommended for general use. This work has been an activity of the CODATA Task Group on Chemical Thermodynamic Tables. The evaluated data are for common compounds of calcium (element, oxide, hydroxide, peroxide, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate and carbonate, their hydrates and their ions in aqueous solution) and for three systems: Ca-Mg, CaCl/sub 2/-KCl and CaCl/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O. Forty one tables of thermal functions (heat capacity, entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs energy functions) are given for those compounds of magnesium, calcium and potassium for which the properties have been evaluated in this work. Twenty four tables of thermal functions are given for auxiliary substances. Each table spans the temperature range 0 to 4000 K, to the extent that data are available. Formation properties at 298.15 K (enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation) are given for 68 compounds of calcium, magnesium and potassium plus the relevant values for 54 auxiliary substances.

  4. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  5. 78 FR 65210 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of...

  6. 78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through...

  7. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This...

  8. 76 FR 58404 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the remaining portions of...

  9. 77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 ] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through...

  10. 78 FR 44512 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of...

  11. 75 FR 27255 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Louisiana, through the...

  12. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through...

  13. Space station wardroom table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Kaplicky, Jan (Inventor); Nixon, David A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A table top for use in constricted areas has a plurality of support arms abutting at one end to form a hub. The support arms are arranged in equidistant, spaced-apart relation to each other at the ends distal to the hub. A plurality of work surface leaf sections mounted between the support arms are individually pivotable through 360 degrees about their longitudinal axes. The table top additionally has a plurality of distal leaves, each distal leaf being attached to the distal end of one of the arms. The distal leaves are pivotable between an upright position level with the support arms and a stored position below the support arms.

  14. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contingent assets and liabilities. 367.15 Section 367.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... assets and liabilities (including cumulative dividends on preference stock) in its annual report and...

  15. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contingent assets and liabilities. 367.15 Section 367.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... assets and liabilities (including cumulative dividends on preference stock) in its annual report and...

  16. Contingent Employment in Academic Careers: Relative Deprivation among Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Turnley, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article utilizes relative deprivation theory to examine the careers of non-tenure-track instructors and research associates. Demographic status, motivations for accepting contingent employment, and standards of comparison used to assess the quality of the job were all related to the degree of relative deprivation experienced by adjunct…

  17. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plan procedures in accordance with appendix C to 10 CFR part 73 for effecting the actions and decisions contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan. The licensee shall..., and Responsibility Matrix, the first four categories of information relating to nuclear...

  18. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plan procedures in accordance with appendix C to 10 CFR part 73 for effecting the actions and decisions contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan. The licensee shall..., and Responsibility Matrix, the first four categories of information relating to nuclear...

  19. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plan procedures in accordance with appendix C to 10 CFR part 73 for effecting the actions and decisions contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan. The licensee shall..., and Responsibility Matrix, the first four categories of information relating to nuclear...

  20. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plan procedures in accordance with appendix C to 10 CFR part 73 for effecting the actions and decisions contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan. The licensee shall..., and Responsibility Matrix, the first four categories of information relating to nuclear...

  1. Relation between Maternal Contingent Responsiveness and Infant Social Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcquaid, Nancy E.; Bibok, Maximilian B.; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between maternal contingent responsiveness and 4- and 5-month-old infants' (N = 64) social expectation behavior in a still-face procedure. Mothers were asked to interact with their infants for 2 min (interactive phase), remain still-faced for 1 min (still-face phase), and resume interaction for 2 min. Mother…

  2. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Robert Augdahl, Bill Nickels, Cassandra Zellers

    2008-04-16

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  3. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3 Fishermen's... purposes of title IV of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978, as amended. (b) Payments... Continental Shelf Lands Act, in effect on or after June 30, 1982, shall pay assessments to the Fund....

  4. How to Use Contingency Contracting in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homme, Lloyd; And Others

    Designed primarily for elementary and secondary school teachers, the book presents one approach to the systematic and effective use of positive reinforcement to motivate better learning in normal or disturbed children. In Part 1, describing how contingency contracting works, each chapter contains a self-diagnostic pretest, narrative summary and…

  5. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  6. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  7. Evaluating the Role of Contingency in Differentially Reinforced Tic Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bunaciu, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of tokens delivered on differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior (DRO) schedules or noncontingently on tic suppression in 4 children with tics. Tic frequency was lower in 3 of 4 children when tokens were delivered contingent on the absence of tics than when tokens were delivered noncontingently.…

  8. Transgressive vs Conformative: Immigrant Women Learning at Contingent Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Srabani; Shan, Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The paper seeks to explore workers' learning in relation to the racialized and gendered organization of contingent work. Design/methodology/approach--This paper is informed by Marxist theorization of labour power and learning. It draws on the interview data of 24 highly educated immigrant women from the research project "Skilled In…

  9. Contingencies of Reinforcement in a Five-Person Prisoner's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Rachlin, Howard

    2004-01-01

    As in studies of self-control, a tit-for-tat contingency in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game creates a conflict between maximization of local and global reinforcement. The present experiments examine this conflict in a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game. Versus tit for tat, cooperation corresponds to self-control; defection, always immediately…

  10. Scenes: Social Context in an Age of Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Daniel; Clark, Terry Nichols; Yanez, Clemente Jesus Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on an important but underdeveloped social science concept--the "scene" as a cluster of urban amenities--to contribute to social science theory and subspecialties such as urban and rural, class, race and gender studies. Scenes grow more important in less industrial, more expressively-oriented and contingent societies where…

  11. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other property in an amount equal to the approximate value of such stock or debt. For debt instruments... benchmark rate, the comparable yield is the sum of the value of the benchmark rate on the issue date and the...), the amount of the projected payment is the expected value of the contingent payment as of the...

  12. Contingency, Imitation, and Affect Sharing: Foundations of Infants' Social Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during…

  13. Classroom-Based Interdependent Group Contingencies Increase Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Sarah; Rudrud, Eric H.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Schulze, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 2 interdependent group contingencies (individual vs. cumulative classroom goal setting) on the number of pedometer-recorded steps taken per day. Thirty third-grade students in 2 classrooms participated. An ABACX design was conducted in which the X phase referred to a replication of the most successful phase…

  14. Flaws in the Design of the Income Contingent Repayment Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the income-contingent repayment mechanism of the federal direct lending program suggests that it will be considerably more expensive than other repayment options in total interest costs for many; lead to hefty tax liabilities for some; be administratively cumbersome, vulnerable to fraud and abuse, and costly to taxpayers; and invite…

  15. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to donn her helmet before being submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), communication carrier assembly (CCA) but no helmet.

  16. The Old Normal: Casualization and Contingency in Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2015-01-01

    American higher education is in the midst of a staffing crisis. More than three quarters of faculty members work off the tenure track, often with no job security, low wages, and few prospects for advancement. While the contingent labor force is diversified--including highly qualified but part-time laborers piecing together positions at multiple…

  17. New York and New Jersey area contingency plan. Change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-24

    Change 4 updates the Area Contingency Plan, which describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and local response to a discharge of oil or a release of hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, New York.

  18. Area contingency plan Western Lake Erie. (COTP Toledo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-31

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Erie Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Toledo Coastal Zone.

  19. Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

  20. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  1. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  2. Area contingency plan Sault Ste. Marie. (COTP Sault Ste. Marie)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by Sault Ste. Marie Area Committee, which is chaired by the U.S. Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the CTOP Sault Ste. Marie Coastal Zone.

  3. Contingency Analysis: Toward a Unified Theory for Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Draws from the empirical foundations of operant psychology to propose a unified theory, known as contingency analysis, for social work practice. Discusses the four propositions on which the theory is based that account for human behavior at all levels of social work practice. Shows that this approach has great utility for the profession.…

  4. Single- and Dual-Process Models of Biased Contingency Detection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Decades of research in causal and contingency learning show that people’s estimations of the degree of contingency between two events are easily biased by the relative probabilities of those two events. If two events co-occur frequently, then people tend to overestimate the strength of the contingency between them. Traditionally, these biases have been explained in terms of relatively simple single-process models of learning and reasoning. However, more recently some authors have found that these biases do not appear in all dependent variables and have proposed dual-process models to explain these dissociations between variables. In the present paper we review the evidence for dissociations supporting dual-process models and we point out important shortcomings of this literature. Some dissociations seem to be difficult to replicate or poorly generalizable and others can be attributed to methodological artifacts. Overall, we conclude that support for dual-process models of biased contingency detection is scarce and inconclusive. PMID:27025532

  5. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plan procedures in accordance with appendix C to 10 CFR part 73 for effecting the actions and decisions contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan. The licensee shall..., and Responsibility Matrix, the first four categories of information relating to nuclear...

  6. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  7. 7 CFR 1770.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1770.25 Unusual items and contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items... recorded in the company's books of account. The materiality of corrections of errors in prior periods shall be measured in relation to the summary account level used for reporting purposes for Class...

  8. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  9. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... disasters. Therefore, on October 23, 2008, we published in the Federal Register (73 FR 63085-63090, Docket... ending on December 22, 2008. On December 19, 2008, we published a notice in the Federal Register (73 FR... regulated entity's contingency plan. Several commenters stated that euthanasia should be considered a...

  10. Test of a Contingency Model of Teacher Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavis, Charles A.; Derlega, Valerian J.

    The basic theory that the teacher style required for effective learning in the classroom is contingent on the favorableness of the group situation was tested in a controlled experiment. Eight groups of eighth-grade boys were assigned to two teachers, four groups for each. Two hypotheses were under examination: (1) A task-oriented teacher will be…

  11. School Management and Contingency Theory: An Emerging Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    An understanding of the "situational" characteristics of the organizational forces that influence the relationships between environmental, management, and performance variables is now coming to be seen as a key to understanding the management process itself. This paper is a synthesis of the contingency theory literature drawn from the public,…

  12. Management Styles Associated with Organizational, Task, Personal, and Interpersonal Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes data from lengthy profile questionnaires completed by 78 managers and 407 of their subordinates and examines how five different management styles are related to various aspects of the contingent situation. (Available from Subscription Section, American Psychological Association, 1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.; $30.00…

  13. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated 2 arrangements, 1 in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (full group), and 1 in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (mixed group). Mo̅tiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the full group ($33) relative to the mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support.

  14. Contingent feedback for training children to propel their wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Grove, D N; Dalke, B A

    1976-07-01

    Three multiply handicapped children were taught self-movement of their wheelchairs. This behavior was established through the use of contingent reinforcement within 30-minute therapy sessions. When a high number of self-movement responses were obtained, the reinforcement was systematically withdrawn to allow the responses to come under the control of the natural environmental consequences.

  15. Parental Educational Involvement Conceived as the Arrangement of Contingency Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Robert C.; Moutavelis, Adrianos G.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the utility of a conception of parental educational involvement as the arrangement of contingency operations that normatively change: the frequency of children's school-related behaviour, the reinforcing potency of stimuli produced by studying, and children's tendencies to request parental intervention. A child-report measure…

  16. Children's Behavioral Characteristics and Their Ability to Detect Social Contingency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normandeau, Sylvie; Cantin, Stephane

    Studies have suggested that the presence of individual differences in children's ability to detect social contingencies may be related to their behavioral characteristics, as a result of cumulative transactions with their physical and social environments. This study sought to identify behavioral characteristics associated with children's ability…

  17. Quantitative Assessments of Sensitivity to Reinforcement Contingencies in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…

  18. 12 CFR 741.12 - Liquidity and contingency funding plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... resolutions to obtain credit from a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to 12 CFR part 201. (d) Contingency Funding.../liability policy, a funds management policy, or a business continuity policy. The CFP must address, at a...; (3) Policies to manage a range of stress environments, identification of some possible stress...

  19. The origin of ascophoran bryozoans was historically contingent but likely.

    PubMed

    Dick, Matthew H; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2009-09-01

    The degree to which evolutionary outcomes are historically contingent remains unresolved, with studies at different levels of the biological hierarchy reaching different conclusions. Here we examine historical contingency in the origin of two evolutionary novelties in bryozoans, a phylum of colonial animals whose fossil record is as complete as that of any major group. In cheilostomes, the dominant living bryozoans, key innovations were the costal shield and ascus, which first appeared in the Cretaceous 85-95 Myr ago. We establish the parallel origin of these structures less than 12 Myr ago in an extant bryozoan genus, Cauloramphus, with transitional stages remarkably similar to those inferred for a Cretaceous clade. By one measure, long lag times in the first origins of costal shield and ascus suggest a high degree of historical contingency. This, however, does not equate with dependence on a narrow set of initial conditions or a low probability of evolution. More than one set of initial conditions may lead to an evolutionary outcome, and alternative sets are not entirely independent. We argue that, although historically contingent, the origin of ascus and costal shield was highly likely with sufficient possibilities afforded by time.

  20. Contingent Capability of a Conceived Child: Civil Law Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Elena A.; Suslikov, Vladimir N.; Blinkova, Elena V.; Blinkov, Oleg E.; Staroseltseva, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers on contingent legal capability of a conceived child. To protect the capability of conceived children and legal rights, including property, emerging on that basis, it is imperative to strictly identify the moment of emergence and termination of legal capability. The objective of this research is to analyze the provisions on civil…

  1. A Web-Based Contingency Management Program with Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Dallery, Jesse; Shroff, Palak; Patak, Michele; Leraas, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated a new 30-day Web-based contingency management program for smoking abstinence with 4 daily-smoking adolescents. Participants made 3 daily video recordings of themselves giving breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples at home that were sent electronically to study personnel. Using a reversal design, participants could earn…

  2. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  3. Effectiveness of a Group-Managed Interdependent Contingency System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Lamb, Elizabeth Allen

    1986-01-01

    An interdependent group-managed response-cost system mediated by free tokens was employed to decrease inappropriate verbalizations of two groups of elementary-level learning disabled children (N=9). Results indicated that this contingency system was a viable and effective method of decreasing inappropriate behavior. Peer pressure was credited for…

  4. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  5. Principals' Leadership Behaviour: Values-Based, Contingent or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Concepts of values-based leadership posit that school principals' professional practice must be informed by values to ensure coherently purposeful activities. Contingency models stress the contextual dependency of professional practice and the need to match activities to local opportunities and constraints. The purpose of this paper is to…

  6. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirement for contingency measures. 51.1012 Section 51.1012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient...

  7. Contingency in the Mathematics Classroom: Opportunities Taken and Opportunities Missed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Tim; Zazkis, Rina

    2013-01-01

    We describe and analyze three episodes from mathematics classrooms. In each case, the teacher was confronted by a "contingent" situation that they had not anticipated or planned for yet that offered interesting and fruitful learning possibilities if pursued. In two cases, we analyze the teacher's response; in the third, we speculate how they might…

  8. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  9. Skype Me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live…

  10. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans. 264.227 Section 264.227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., the repaired liner system must be certified by a qualified engineer as meeting the...

  11. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans. 264.227 Section 264.227 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID..., the repaired liner system must be certified by a qualified engineer as meeting the...

  12. Effects of Individual and Group Contingency Interventions on Attendance in Adolescent Part-Time Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovits, Shira Melody; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary contingencies on the attendance of adolescent part-time employees. Attendance increased in both individual and group contingency phases; however staff questionnaire responses indicated a preference for the individual contingencies. Future research should consider staff acceptability…

  13. 78 FR 33276 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The... is the Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated...

  14. Two Loops That Need Closing: Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Gray; Danley-Scott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on non-tenure-track (NTT) faculty focuses largely on whether relying on contingent faculty is harmful to students. However, studies rarely survey contingent faculty or explore how to increase NTT faculty participation in outcomes assessment, even though contingent faculty teach most general education courses. Our survey of…

  15. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction. PMID:10257766

  16. Effects of leader contingent and noncontingent reward and punishment behaviors on subordinate performance and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, P M; Todor, W D; Skov, R

    1982-12-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.

  17. The Effects of Individual and Group Contingencies on Reading Performance of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, T. F.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of individual and group contingencies on reading performance of special education students were examined in a counterbalanced multiple-baseline design with experimental manipulations introduced at random. Students evidenced more accuracy and preferred the group contingency phase. Ease of implementation of group contingencies within a…

  18. Northwest Area Contingency Plan, 1998 (also serving as the Region Ten regional contingency plan). Change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Northwest Area Contingency Plan (NWACP) continues to function as the Washington Statewide Master Plan as the primary planning and response document for oil spill and hazardous release response. For Oregon the NWACP was approved by the Oregon Emergency Response System Council in June 1996 as the state`s oil and hazardous materials emergency response plan. For Idaho, state law requires additional steps to be taken before the plan can be legally accepted. In the interim, this plan will be used wherever possible and acts as primary guidance for responders in those states for oil spill and hazardous release incidents. All federal, state, and local organizations signatory to the Northwest Area Committee should use this plan for responses to oil and hazardous materials spills and for drills and exercises. It is the summation of policies and procedures for two Coast Guard Captain of the Port Zones, EPA Inland Region Ten, and for the States of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. It provides federal, state, and local responders in the Pacific Northwest a single comprehensive planning and response document.

  19. Guide to the Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a table that provides a snapshot of how employment is expected to change in 289 occupations. For each occupation, it shows estimated employment in 2008, the projected numeric change in employment (that is, how many jobs are expected to be gained or lost) over the 2008-18 decade, and the projected percent change in employment…

  20. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  1. The Dynamic Force Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…

  2. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  3. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  4. Use of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring during a Contingency Management Procedure to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on contingency management to treat excessive alcohol use is limited due to feasibility issues with monitoring adherence. This study examined the effectiveness of using transdermal alcohol monitoring as a continuous measure of alcohol use to implement financial contingencies to reduce heavy drinking. Methods Twenty-six male and female drinkers (from 21–39 years old) were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. Sequence 1 received 4 weeks of no financial contingency (i.e., $0) drinking followed by 4 weeks each of $25 and then $50 contingency management; Sequence 2 received 4 weeks of $25 contingency management followed by 4 weeks each of no contingency (i.e., $0) and then $50 contingency management. During the $25 and $50 contingency management conditions, participants were paid each week when the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM-II™) identified no heavy drinking days. Results Participants in both contingency management conditions had fewer drinking episodes and reduced frequencies of heavy drinking compared to the $0 condition. Participants randomized to Sequence 2 (receiving $25 contingency before the $0 condition) exhibited less frequent drinking and less heavy drinking in the $0 condition compared to participants from Sequence 1. Conclusions Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to implement contingency management programs to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:25064019

  5. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  6. Procedural variations in group contingencies: effects on children's academic and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Speltz, M L; Shimamura, J W; McReynolds, W T

    1982-01-01

    There has been little research on the effects of the many procedural variables in applied group contingencies. In the present study, an individualized contingency and three group contingencies with different "responder" criteria (e.g., reward based on the group average, reward based on the work of a designated, low-achieving student, or reward based on the work of a randomly selected student) were applied to the academic work of primary grade children in a learning disabilities classroom. Group social interaction during each contingency was measured systematically. Although there were large individual differences in students' academic and social responses to the different contingencies, some consistent effects were observed. Two of the four low-achieving target students did their best academic work during the group contingency which focused on their performance as a designated responder. This type of contingency also produced high levels of positive social interaction in three of four groups of children observed. PMID:7153190

  7. Procedural variations in group contingencies: effects on children's academic and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Speltz, M L; Shimamura, J W; McReynolds, W T

    1982-01-01

    There has been little research on the effects of the many procedural variables in applied group contingencies. In the present study, an individualized contingency and three group contingencies with different "responder" criteria (e.g., reward based on the group average, reward based on the work of a designated, low-achieving student, or reward based on the work of a randomly selected student) were applied to the academic work of primary grade children in a learning disabilities classroom. Group social interaction during each contingency was measured systematically. Although there were large individual differences in students' academic and social responses to the different contingencies, some consistent effects were observed. Two of the four low-achieving target students did their best academic work during the group contingency which focused on their performance as a designated responder. This type of contingency also produced high levels of positive social interaction in three of four groups of children observed.

  8. 1995 MWD comparison tables

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The past year has been an exciting one for MWD technology. A 4 3/4-in. MWD logging tool was developed for slimhole applications, providing multiple depth of investigation resistivity data for 6 1/2-in. and 5 7/8-in. boreholes. An MWD sonic tool was introduced, combining real-time sonic porosity and lithology information with resistivity and nuclear measurements to help drillers identify lithology changes and anticipate overpressured zones. And resistivity imaging at the bit is available as part of an MWD measurement. All specifications in the MWD Tables are supplied to PEI by the appropriate vendors. However, the tables should serve only as a reference source. System specifications can change rapidly as tools are refined and new technologies are developed. Operators and contractors should consult designated MWD marketing representatives before making a final tool selection. Special thanks to the International MWD Society (IMS) for their contributions.

  9. 45 CFR 264.72 - What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements are imposed on a State if it... Contingency Fund? § 264.72 What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds? (a)(1) A.... (2) A State must exceed the Contingency Fund MOE level to keep any of the contingency funds that...

  10. 45 CFR 264.72 - What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What requirements are imposed on a State if it... Contingency Fund? § 264.72 What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds? (a)(1) A.... (2) A State must exceed the Contingency Fund MOE level to keep any of the contingency funds that...

  11. Beamlike photon pairs entangled by a 2x2 fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Hsin-Pin; Yabushita, Atsushi; Luo, Chih-Wei; Chen, Pochung; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2011-08-15

    Polarization-entangled photon pairs have been widely used as a light source of quantum communication. The polarization-entangled photon pairs are generally obtained at the crossing points of the light cones that are generated from a type-II nonlinear crystal. However, it is hard to pick up the photon pairs coming out from the crossing points because of their invisible wavelength and low intensity. In our previous work, we succeeded in generating polarization-entangled photon pairs by overlapping two light paths for the photon-pair generation. The photon pairs could be entangled in all of the generated photon pairs without clipping the crossing points, even with some difficulty in its alignment to overlap the two light paths. In this paper, we have developed an optical system which generates polarization-entangled photon pairs using a beamlike photon pair, without the difficulty in alignment. The measured results show that the photon pairs generated in the system are entangled in their polarizations.

  12. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

  13. Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seokhwa; Faraj, Samer; Sims, Henry P

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated leadership and effectiveness of teams operating in a high-velocity environment, specifically trauma resuscitation teams. On the basis of the literature and their own ethnographic work, the authors proposed and tested a contingency model in which the influence of leadership on team effectiveness during trauma resuscitation differs according to the situation. Results indicated that empowering leadership was more effective when trauma severity was low and when team experience was high. Directive leadership was more effective when trauma severity was high or when the team was inexperienced. Findings also suggested that an empowering leader provided more learning opportunities than did a directive leader. The major contribution of this article is the linkage of leadership to team effectiveness, as moderated by relatively specific situational contingencies.

  14. Contingency, imitation, and affect sharing: Foundations of infants' social awareness.

    PubMed

    Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during the natural than during the imitative and yoked conditions, whereas they increased negative vocalizations during the yoked conditions. In contrast, infants of less attuned mothers did not differentiate between the conditions, except at 13 weeks when these infants increased their gazes during the imitative condition. Whereas contingency and imitation draw infant attention to conspecifics, affective communication appears to lay the foundation for infants' social awareness.

  15. Clinical behavioral pharmacology: methods for evaluating medications and contingency management.

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, L D; Page, T J; Capriotti, R M

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated methods for comparing the effects of dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and contingency management in the control of severe behavior problems. A reversal design was used in which medications were systematically titrated and assessed in unstructured as well as structured settings with three clients. Subsequently, behavioral procedures including timeout, differential reinforcement of other behavior, and visual screening, were used in a multiple-baseline design across settings. The assessment and design methods were useful in comparing the interventions. Dextroamphetamine decreased inappropriate behaviors and improved academic behaviors in one client, but no reliable effects were observed in the other two clients. Thioridazine was variable across clients, settings, behaviors, and dosages. Contingency management produced consistent decreases in inappropriate behaviors and small improvements in academic performance. PMID:3997697

  16. A contingent speech technique in eye movement research on reading.

    PubMed

    Inhoff, Albrecht W; Connine, Cynthia; Radach, Ralph

    2002-11-01

    A novel eye-movement-contingent method is presented. It builds on and extends established eye-movement-contingent visual display change methods in that it uses movements of the eyes to control the presentation of acoustic information during sentence reading. In one implementation, an irrelevant spoken word is presented when the eyes cross a predetermined spatial boundary before they move on to a selected visual target word. The relationship between the spoken word and the visual target is manipulated, and the pattern of interference, caused by the presentation of the spoken word, is used to determine the nature and time course of activated representations. Results from three recently completed experiments in which the technique was used show that a word's phonological code remains active after it has been read and that the activated code has speech-like properties.

  17. Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Eyal M; Loschky, Lester C; McConkie, George W; Stampe, David M

    2003-01-01

    Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays (GCMRDs) center high-resolution information on the user's gaze position, matching the user's area of interest (AOI). Image resolution and details outside the AOI are reduced, lowering the requirements for processing resources and transmission bandwidth in demanding display and imaging applications. This review provides a general framework within which GCMRD research can be integrated, evaluated, and guided. GCMRDs (or "moving windows") are analyzed in terms of (a) the nature of their images (i.e., "multiresolution," "variable resolution," "space variant," or "level of detail"), and (b) the movement of the AOI (i.e., "gaze contingent," "foveated," or "eye slaved"). We also synthesize the known human factors research on GCMRDs and point out important questions for future research and development. Actual or potential applications of this research include flight, medical, and driving simulators; virtual reality; remote piloting and teleoperation; infrared and indirect vision; image transmission and retrieval; telemedicine; video teleconferencing; and artificial vision systems. PMID:14529201

  18. Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg < (theta)adv approx. 90deg, be adaptable for both male and female use, collect and retain up to a liter of urine, minimize splash-back, and allow continuous drain of the wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

  19. Interactive Conversion of Web Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Raghav Krishna; Jandhyala, Ramana Chakradhar; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Nagy, George; Seth, Sharad; Silversmith, William

    Two hundred web tables from ten sites were imported into Excel. The tables were edited as needed, then converted into layout independent Wang Notation using the Table Abstraction Tool (TAT). The output generated by TAT consists of XML files to be used for constructing narrow-domain ontologies. On an average each table required 104 seconds for editing. Augmentations like aggregates, footnotes, table titles, captions, units and notes were also extracted in an average time of 93 seconds. Every user intervention was logged and audited. The logged interactions were analyzed to determine the relative influence of factors like table size, number of categories and various types of augmentations on the processing time. The analysis suggests which aspects of interactive table processing can be automated in the near term, and how much time such automation would save. The correlation coefficient between predicted and actual processing time was 0.66.

  20. Comments on implementation: Contingency options for chemical weapons demilitarization

    SciTech Connect

    Aroesty, J.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the need to formulate contingency options for complying with U.S./U.S.S.R. chemical weapon (C.W.) demilitarization timetables that start in 1992. These timetables could be overly optimistic in the face of emerging environmental concerns and potential political, technical, and operational difficulties. A similar approach may also be relevant to the situation in Iraq, where several years are likely to pass before a suitable C.W. destruction system is available for use.

  1. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  2. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. PMID:8881353

  3. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency.

  4. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    ScienceCinema

    Zhenyu (Henry) Huang

    2016-07-12

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  5. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management.

  6. Historical contingency and behavioural divergence in territorial Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Ord, T J

    2012-10-01

    The extent that evolution - including adaptation - is historically contingent (dependent on past events) has often been hotly debated, but is still poorly understood. In particular, there are little data on the degree that behaviour, an aspect of the phenotype that is strongly linked to contemporary environments (social or physical), retains the imprint of evolutionary history. In this study, I examined whether differences in the design of the territorial displays among species of Caribbean Anolis lizards reflect island-specific selection regimes, or historically contingent predispositions associated with different clade histories. Adult males advertise territory ownership using a series of headbobs and dewlap extensions, bouts of which vary in duration among species. When display durations were mapped onto the Anolis phylogeny, prominent differences between species belonging to the Western and Eastern Caribbean radiations were apparent. Statistical analyses confirmed that species differences in the duration of headbob displays, and to some extent the duration of dewlap extensions, were historically contingent. The unique evolutionary histories of each clade have seemingly had a profound effect on the subsequent direction of display evolution among descendent taxa. These results combined with those from previous studies on these lizards show that past history can have an important impact on the type of behaviour exhibited by species today, to the point that adaptive evolution can proceed quite differently in lineages originating from different evolutionary starting points. PMID:22862423

  7. Implicit learning of a speed-contingent target feature.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byung-Woo; Kim, Min-Shik

    2016-06-01

    Previous human implicit learning studies have mostly investigated implicit associations between two consecutive stimuli or between a stimulus and the subsequent response (e.g., Cleeremans, Destrebecqz, & Boyer, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2(10), 406-416, 1998). In the present study, participants' response speed was used as a cue to predict an upcoming target feature. We called this new type of cueing, "cueing-by-response" (CBR). We investigated whether CBR could be learned implicitly. Participants performed two tasks: participants quickly responded to a target in the simple detection task and determined the orientation of a new target in the consecutive visual search task. We applied a contingency that the target location in the visual search task was determined by the participant's response speed in the preceding simple detection task. The results demonstrated that participants learned the contingency without conscious awareness; they searched for the target more efficiently in the visual search task as the experiment progressed. But when the target appeared in a random location, this efficiency disappeared. Moreover, the experimental group exhibited faster response speeds to the target in the visual search task compared with the control groups, which had no contingency. These results suggest that individuals may use the relative speed of their own response as a predictive cue to guide spatial attention toward upcoming target locations, and CBR can be implicitly learned.

  8. Complete Home Smoking Bans and Antitobacco Contingencies: A Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The California antitobacco culture may have influenced home smoking bans in Mexico. Based on the Behavioral Ecological Model, exposure to socially reinforcing contingencies or criticism may explain adoption of home smoking bans in Tijuana, Mexico, approximating rates relative to San Diego, California, and higher than those in Guadalajara, Mexico. Methods: A representative cross-sectional population survey of Latinos (N = 1,901) was conducted in San Diego, Tijuana, and Guadalajara between June 2003 and September 2004. Cities were selected to represent high-, medium-, and low-level exposure to antitobacco social contingencies of reinforcement in a quasiexperimental analysis of possible cultural influences across borders. Results: Complete home smoking ban prevalence was 91% in San Diego, 66% in Tijuana, and 38% in Guadalajara (p < .001). Sample cluster-adjusted logistic regression showed significantly lower odds of complete home smoking bans in Guadalajara (odds ratio [OR] = .048) and in Tijuana (OR = .138) compared to San Diego after control for demographics. Odds of complete home smoking bans in both Guadalajara and Tijuana in comparison with San Diego were weakened when mediators for bans were controlled in predictive models. Direction of association was consistent with theory. When theoretical mediators were explored as possible moderators, weak and nonsignificant associations were obtained for all interaction terms. Bootstrap analyses demonstrated that our multivariable logistic regression results were reliable. Conclusions: Results suggest that California antismoking social contingencies mediate complete home smoking bans in all 3 cities and may account for the greater effects in Tijuana contrasted with Guadalajara. PMID:23999652

  9. Resilience vs. historical contingency in microbial responses to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Christine V; Keitt, Timothy H

    2015-07-01

    How soil processes such as carbon cycling will respond to future climate change depends on the responses of complex microbial communities, but most ecosystem models assume that microbial functional responses are resilient and can be predicted from simple parameters such as biomass and temperature. Here, we consider how historical contingencies might alter those responses because function depends on prior conditions or biota. Functional resilience can be driven by physiological, community or adaptive shifts; historical contingencies can result from the influence of historical environments or a combination of priority effects and biotic resistance. By modelling microbial population responses to environmental change, we demonstrate that historical environments can constrain soil function with the degree of constraint depending on the magnitude of change in the context of the prior environment. For example microbial assemblages from more constant environments were more sensitive to change leading to poorer functional acclimatisation compared to microbial assemblages from more fluctuating environments. Such historical contingencies can lead to deviations from expected functional responses to climate change as well as local variability in those responses. Our results form a set of interrelated hypotheses regarding soil microbial responses to climate change that warrant future empirical attention. PMID:25950733

  10. Do children prefer contingencies? An evaluation of the efficacy of and preference for contingent versus noncontingent social reinforcement during play.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedules with typically developing children. Results showed that 7 of the 8 children preferred the DRA schedule; 1 child was indifferent. We also demonstrated a high degree of procedural fidelity, which suggested that preference is influenced by the presence of a contingency under which reinforcement can be obtained. These findings are discussed in terms of (a) the selection of reinforcement schedules in practice, (b) variables that influence children's preferences for contexts, and (c) the selection of experimental control procedures when evaluating the effects of reinforcement.

  11. The noneffects of contingent reinforcement for attending behavior on work accomplished.

    PubMed

    Ferritor, D E; Buckholdt, D; Hamblin, R L; Smith, L

    1972-01-01

    Past studies have shown that disruptive behavior can be eliminated and attending behavior accelerated in an academic setting. The relationship between these behaviors and academic performance is not well understood. The effects of behavioral and performance contingencies on classroom behavior and on academic performance were investigated. The subjects, third-grade students from an inner city elementary school, were exposed to a series of conditions including baseline, behavior contingencies, performance contingencies, and a mix of behavior and performance contingencies using a reversal design. The students worked 100 randomly selected mathematics problems for 20 minutes each day during each period. Behavioral contingencies improved attending and decreased disruptions but did not improve performance. Performance contingencies increased per cent correct problems but attending declined and disruptions increased. The combined contingencies increased both performance and attending. The experiment was replicated with another class of children varying the sequence of conditions and the amount of token reinforcement that could be earned. The findings emphasized the importance of designing specific contingencies for specific target behaviors. Behavioral contingencies did not have the positive effect on performance often implied, nor were performance contingencies alone able to maintain acceptable classroom behavior. PMID:16795322

  12. The noneffects of contingent reinforcement for attending behavior on work accomplished1

    PubMed Central

    Ferritor, D. E.; Buckholdt, D.; Hamblin, R. L.; Smith, L.

    1972-01-01

    Past studies have shown that disruptive behavior can be eliminated and attending behavior accelerated in an academic setting. The relationship between these behaviors and academic performance is not well understood. The effects of behavioral and performance contingencies on classroom behavior and on academic performance were investigated. The subjects, third-grade students from an inner city elementary school, were exposed to a series of conditions including baseline, behavior contingencies, performance contingencies, and a mix of behavior and performance contingencies using a reversal design. The students worked 100 randomly selected mathematics problems for 20 minutes each day during each period. Behavioral contingencies improved attending and decreased disruptions but did not improve performance. Performance contingencies increased per cent correct problems but attending declined and disruptions increased. The combined contingencies increased both performance and attending. The experiment was replicated with another class of children varying the sequence of conditions and the amount of token reinforcement that could be earned. The findings emphasized the importance of designing specific contingencies for specific target behaviors. Behavioral contingencies did not have the positive effect on performance often implied, nor were performance contingencies alone able to maintain acceptable classroom behavior. PMID:16795322

  13. Synthesis and X-ray structural characterization of a series of dimeric [Hg2(SePh)2X2(PR2R‧)2] compounds (R = tert-butyl; R‧ = 4-N,N-dimethylaniline and X = Cl, Br, I, SCN, SePh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieler, Rafael; Faoro, Eliandro; Cechin, Camila Nunes; Floriano, Luana; Lang, Ernesto Schulz

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the syntheses and characterization of five new compounds with the general formula [Hg2(SePh)2X2(PR2R‧)2] (R = tert-butyl; R‧ = 4-N,N-dimethylaniline), where X = Cl (1a), Br (1b), I (1c), SCN (2), SePh (3). The compounds crystallized as dimeric {HgSe} units, although most of these chalcogenolate compounds appeared to be polymeric adamantanoid or fused adamantanoid species. The ligand structures of these compounds limited the growth of the molecular structures and promoted the formation of the dimeric form alone. The mercury centers were connected to one another through one μ-Cl and one μ-SePh bridge in 1a, and through two μ-SePh bridges in 1b, 1c, 2, and 3. The compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry, TGA, elemental analysis, and infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Adaptive Non-Interventional Heuristics for Covariation Detection in Causal Induction: Model Comparison and Rational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Masasi; Oaksford, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, 41 models of covariation detection from 2 x 2 contingency tables were evaluated against past data in the literature and against data from new experiments. A new model was also included based on a limiting case of the normative phi-coefficient under an extreme rarity assumption, which has been shown to be an important factor in…

  15. Effects of task difficulty and type of contingency on students' allocation of responding to math worksheets.

    PubMed Central

    Lannie, Amanda L; Martens, Brian K

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students' allocation of responding as a function of task difficulty and type of reinforcement contingency (i.e., accuracy based or time based). Four regular education fourth-grade students were presented with two identical stacks of easy and then difficult math worksheets using a reversal design. Regardless of condition, completing problems from each stack of worksheets was reinforced according to a different contingency; one required correct completion of math problems (accuracy based) and one required on-task behavior (time based). Results suggested that 3 of the 4 students preferred the accuracy-based contingency when given easy material and the time-based contingency when given difficult material. One student allocated more responding to the accuracy-based contingency when given easy problems but did not show a clear preference for either contingency with difficult problems. The implications of these findings for designing reinforcement-based programs for tasks of varying difficulty are discussed. PMID:15154215

  16. Sandia Unstructured Triangle Table Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-16

    The software generates data tables for thermodynamic and transport properties of materials as described by a set of input models. For each input model parameterization, an associated table is created on an unstructured triangular grid. These grids all conform to the same topology. A statistical accuracy guarantee is provided for the tabular representation of the model. Details of the model and table specification are given in a XML input deck.

  17. Deployable video conference table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Lissol, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A deployable table is presented. The table is stowed in and deployed from a storage compartment based upon a non-self rigidizing, 4-hinge, arch support structure that folds upon itself to stow and that expands to deploy. The work surfaces bypass each other above and below to allow the deployment mechanism to operate. This assembly includes the following: first and second primary pivot hinges placed at the opposite ends of the storage compartment; first and second lateral frame members with proximal ends connected to the first and second pivot hinges; a medial frame member offset from and pivotally connected to distal ends of the first and second members through third and fourth medial pivot hinges; and left-side, right-side, and middle trays connected respectively to the first, second, and third frame members and being foldable into and out of the storage compartment by articulation of the first, second, third, and fourth joints. At least one of the third and fourth joints are locked to set the first, second, and third frame members in a desired angular orientation with respect to each other.

  18. The effects of modeling contingencies in the treatment of food selectivity in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sherrene B; Penrod, Becky; Fernand, Jonathan K; Whelan, Colleen M; Griffith, Kristin; Medved, Shannon

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of stating and modeling contingencies in increasing food consumption for two children with food selectivity. Results suggested that stating and modeling a differential reinforcement (DR) contingency for food consumption was effective in increasing consumption of two target foods for one child, and stating and modeling a DR plus nonremoval of the spoon contingency was effective in increasing consumption of the remaining food for the first child and all target foods for the second child. PMID:26134303

  19. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  20. TableSeer: Automatic Table Extraction, Search, and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Tables are ubiquitous with a history that pre-dates that of sentential text. Authors often report a summary of their most important findings using tabular structure in documents. For example, scientists widely use tables to present the latest experimental results or statistical data in a condensed fashion. Along with the explosive development of…

  1. Internet-based group contingency management to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Background In contingency management (CM) interventions, monetary consequences are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, these consequences are contingent on individual performance. Consequences contingent on group performance may promote social support (e.g., praise). Methods Thus, to combine social support with the monetary incentives of CM, we integrated independent and interdependent group contingencies of reinforcement into an Internet-based intervention to promote smoking abstinence. Breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures were compared between treatment conditions and a baseline control condition. Thirteen participants were divided into 5 groups or “teams” (n = 2–3 per team). Each participant submitted video recordings of CO measurement twice daily via the Internet. Teammates could monitor each other’s progress and communicate with one another through an online peer support forum. During a 4-day tapering condition, vouchers exchangeable for goods were contingent on gradual reductions in breath CO. During a 10-day abstinence induction condition, vouchers were contingent on abstinence (CO ≤4 ppm). In both treatment conditions, concurrent independent and interdependent group contingencies were arranged (i.e., a mixed contingency arrangement). Results Less than 1% of CO samples submitted during baseline were ≤4 ppm, compared to 57% submitted during abstinence induction. Sixty-five percent of participants’ comments on the online peer support forum were rated as positive by independent observers. Participants rated the intervention favorably on a treatment acceptability questionnaire. Conclusion The results suggest that the intervention is feasible and acceptable for promoting abstinence from cigarette smoking. PMID:21414733

  2. Academic response rate as a function of teacher- and self-imposed contingencies1

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Thomas C.; Curtiss, Karen A.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the contingency manager (teacher or pupil) on a pupil's academic response rate. The results of two such experiments disclosed that higher academic rates occurred when the pupil arranged the contingency requirements than when the teacher specified them. A third study manipulated only reinforcement magnitude to ascertain whether amount of reinforcement had interacted with pupil-specified contingencies to produce the increase in academic response rate. The latter findings revealed that the contingency manager, not reinforcement magnitude, accounted for this subject's gain in performance. PMID:16795202

  3. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  4. A reinforcement learning approach to instrumental contingency degradation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dutech, Alain; Coutureau, Etienne; Marchand, Alain R

    2011-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves a representation of action consequences. Adapting to changes in action-outcome contingency requires the prefrontal region. Indeed, rats with lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex do not adapt their free operant response when food delivery becomes unrelated to lever-pressing. The present study explores the bases of this deficit through a combined behavioural and computational approach. We show that lesioned rats retain some behavioural flexibility and stop pressing if this action prevents food delivery. We attempt to model this phenomenon in a reinforcement learning framework. The model assumes that distinct action values are learned in an incremental manner in distinct states. The model represents states as n-uplets of events, emphasizing sequences rather than the continuous passage of time. Probabilities of lever-pressing and visits to the food magazine observed in the behavioural experiments are first analyzed as a function of these states, to identify sequences of events that influence action choice. Observed action probabilities appear to be essentially function of the last event that occurred, with reward delivery and waiting significantly facilitating magazine visits and lever-pressing respectively. Behavioural sequences of normal and lesioned rats are then fed into the model, action values are updated at each event transition according to the SARSA algorithm, and predicted action probabilities are derived through a softmax policy. The model captures the time course of learning, as well as the differential adaptation of normal and prefrontal lesioned rats to contingency degradation with the same parameters for both groups. The results suggest that simple temporal difference algorithms with low learning rates can largely account for instrumental learning and performance. Prefrontal lesioned rats appear to mainly differ from control rats in their low rates of visits to the magazine after a lever press, and their inability to

  5. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  6. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations. PMID:25762429

  7. Advances in Research on Contingency Management for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Lansing, Amy Hughes; Budney, Alan J

    2016-10-01

    Multiple interventions for treating adolescents with substance use disorders have demonstrated efficacy, but a majority of teens do not show an enduring positive response to these treatments. Contingency management (CM)-based strategies provide a promising alternative, and clinical research focused on the development and testing of innovative CM models continues to grow. This article provides an updated review on the progress made in this area. It is important to continue to search for more effective models, focus on post-treatment maintenance (reduce relapse), and strive for high levels of integrity and fidelity during dissemination efforts to optimize outcomes. PMID:27613343

  8. New York and New Jersey area contingency plan, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This Area Contingency Plan (ACP) is designed to provide a mechanism to adequately remove a worst case discharge of oil into navigable waters and hazardous substance releases into the environment within the US Coast Guard, Federal On Scene Coordinator's (FOSC) zone. This plan details the FOSC's zone, including areas of special economic or environmental importance the responsibilities of an owner or operator and of federal, state, and local agencies in mitigation and prevention; and lists equipment and personnel available, to ensure an effective and immediate removal of actual or potential discharges or releases.

  9. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.

  10. Passive, Collapsible Contingency Urinal for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Fluid transport systems for spacecraft face acute challenges because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-gravity environment. IRPI, LLC, has developed a contingency wastewater collection and processing device that provides passive liquid collation, containment, bubble separation, and droplet coalescence functions. The lightweight, low-volume, low-cost, and potentially disposable device may be used for subsequent sampling, metering, storage, disposal, and/or reuse. The approach includes a fractal wetting design that incorporates smart capillary fluidics. This work could have a broad impact on capillary-based fluid management on spacecraft and on Earth.

  11. The contingent valuation method--appraising the appraisers.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, M

    1993-12-01

    Morrison & Gyldmark (MG) in a recent issue of health economics reviewed the use of the contingent valuation (CV) method of measuring willingness to pay in the health area. Although it is useful to examine the appropriate role of the CV method in the health care field, the appraisal by MG has a number of limitations which are pointed out in this paper. These relate to some inaccuracies in the review of the literature, the limited nature of the criteria proposed by MG to evaluate CV studies, and finally I argue that the comparison between CV, QALYs, and HYEs is premature and confuses rather than clarifies the debate. PMID:8142997

  12. Standard atmosphere - tables and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1926-01-01

    Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.

  13. Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesman, Alexander G.

    1966-01-01

    Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…

  14. Making flight motion tables invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMore, Louis A.; Hollinger, Paul; Hirsh, Gary

    2009-05-01

    Flight tables can add unwanted dynamics with increased phase lag and gain attenuation to the Hardware-In-The-Loop (HWIL) simulation. By making flight tables "invisible" we reduce the effects of these unwanted dynamics on the simulation giving the simulation engineer a much clearer picture of the test unit's capabilities. Past methods[1] relied on clever servo techniques to reduce these effects. In this paper we look at the mechanical aspects of the flight table; in particular, we study the effects of using composite materials in the fabrication of the flight table gimbals. The study shows that the use of composite gimbals significantly increases the invisibility of the flight table with the potential added benefit of reduced cost.

  15. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Hendricks

    2003-03-03

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO{sub 2}, making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables.

  16. Autonomy and dignity: a discussion on contingency and dominance.

    PubMed

    Van Brussel, Leen

    2014-06-01

    With dying increasingly becoming a medicalised experience in old age, we are witnessing a shift from concern over death itself to an interest in dying 'well'. Fierce discussions about end-of-life decision making and the permissibility of medical intervention in dying, discursively structured around the notion of a 'good' death, are evidence of this shift. This article focuses on 'autonomy' and 'dignity' as key signifiers in these discussions. Rather than being fully fixed and stable, both signifiers are contingent and carry a variety of meanings within different discursive projects. The article aims to distinguish the varieties of these signifiers by elaborating existing theoretical perspectives on autonomy and dignity, and also, starting from a perspective on mass media as sites of meaning production and contestation, to study the contingency of autonomy and dignity in Belgian newspaper coverage of four prominent euthanasia cases. By means of a discourse-theoretical textual analysis, this study exposes a dominant--yet contested--articulation of rational-personal autonomy and of dignity in external terms as something that can be obtained, retained or lost, rather than in terms of intrinsic human integrity. These logics of representation reflect a more general late modern dominance of liberal autonomy and of dignity as being closely connected to self-identity, but at the same time result in limited visibility of alternative ways of experiencing an autonomous and dignified death. PMID:22760175

  17. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  18. Robustness via Run-Time Adaptation of Contingent Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our approach to making the behavior of planetary rovers more robust for the purpose of increased productivity. Due to the inherent uncertainty in rover exploration, the traditional approach to rover control is conservative, limiting the autonomous operation of the rover and sacrificing performance for safety. Our objective is to increase the science productivity possible within a single uplink by allowing the rover's behavior to be specified with flexible, contingent plans and by employing dynamic plan adaptation during execution. We have deployed a system exhibiting flexible, contingent execution; this paper concentrates on our ongoing efforts on plan adaptation, Plans can be revised in two ways: plan steps may be deleted, with execution continuing with the plan suffix; and the current plan may be merged with an "alternate plan" from an on-board library. The plan revision action is chosen to maximize the expected utility of the plan. Plan merging and action deletion constitute a more conservative general-purpose planning system; in return, our approach is more efficient and more easily verified, two important criteria for deployed rovers.

  19. Contingency, convergence and hyper-astronomical numbers in biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Louis, Ard A

    2016-08-01

    Counterfactual questions such as "what would happen if you re-run the tape of life?" turn on the nature of the landscape of biological possibilities. Since the number of potential sequences that store genetic information grows exponentially with length, genetic possibility spaces can be so unimaginably vast that commentators frequently reach of hyper-astronomical metaphors that compare their size to that of the universe. Re-run the tape of life and the likelihood of encountering the same sequences in such hyper-astronomically large spaces is infinitesimally small, suggesting that evolutionary outcomes are highly contingent. On the other hand, the wide-spread occurrence of evolutionary convergence implies that similar phenotypes can be found again with relative ease. How can this be? Part of the solution to this conundrum must lie in the manner that genotypes map to phenotypes. By studying simple genotype-phenotype maps, where the counterfactual space of all possible phenotypes can be enumerated, it is shown that strong bias in the arrival of variation may explain why certain phenotypes are (repeatedly) observed in nature, while others never appear. This biased variation provides a non-selective cause for certain types of convergence. It illustrates how the role of randomness and contingency may differ significantly between genetic and phenotype spaces.

  20. The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Lydia

    2010-10-01

    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (John Wheeler’s “law without law”); laws are the preconditions of scientific experience (Kant); laws are theoretical abstractions which only apply in very limited circumstances (Nancy Cartwright). Whereas Cartwright’s approach is in tension with modern scientific methodology, the first three strategies count as illuminating, though partial answers. It is important for the empirical method of modern physics that these three strategies, even when taken together, do not provide a complete explanation of the order of nature. Thus the question of why laws are valid is still relevant. In the concluding section, I argue that the traditional answer, based on voluntary creation, provides the right balance of contingency and coherence which is in harmony with modern scientific method.

  1. Let Us Make the Table Periodic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1989-01-01

    An approach to teaching the properties of the elements and their arrangement in the periodic table is suggested. Discussed are symbols for the elements, format of the table, and coding the properties of the elements on the table. (CW)

  2. Use of a lag differential reinforcement contingency to increase varied selections of classroom activities.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Hanley, Gregory P

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  3. The Effects of Payment Contingency and Situational Norms for Payment on Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.

    Cognitive evaluation theory predicts that contingent rewards should be viewed as more controlling than noncontingent rewards and should be more detrimental to intrinsic motivation. An experiment to investigate the differential effect of performance-contingent and noncontingent rewards on intrinsic motivation yielded results consistent with…

  4. The Influence of Social Contingencies on Teacher Education Students Undertaking a Rural Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell; Kerr, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Hughes (1999) categorised non-work demands such as domestic responsibilities and health of family members (including self) as social contingencies. A literature review on social contingencies, examined from a medical, nursing, and allied health standpoint, revealed that certain factors, especially related to financial matters, impact directly on…

  5. An Evaluation and Comparison of Time-Out Procedures with and without Release Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    A common recommendation for implementing time-out procedures is to include a release contingency such that the individual is not allowed to leave time-out until no problem behavior has occurred for a specific amount of time (e.g, 30 s). We compared a fixed duration time-out procedure to a release contingency time-out procedure with 4 young…

  6. 76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan... this Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 300 Environmental protection, Air...

  7. 77 FR 21919 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Illinois, through the...

  8. 78 FR 60809 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the New York...

  9. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  10. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Rosenwasser, Beth J.; Gardner, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine…

  11. 14 CFR 431.39 - Mission rules, procedures, contingency plans, and checklists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mission rules, procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans, if any, that ensure..., procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans must be contained in a safety directive... plans, and checklists. 431.39 Section 431.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  12. 14 CFR 431.39 - Mission rules, procedures, contingency plans, and checklists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mission rules, procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans, if any, that ensure..., procedures, checklists, emergency plans, and contingency abort plans must be contained in a safety directive... plans, and checklists. 431.39 Section 431.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE...

  13. 75 FR 27986 - Electronic Filing System-Web (EFS-Web) Contingency Option

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... for Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web), 74 FR 55200, 55204 (October 27, 2009) (notice), and... United States Patent and Trademark Office Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web) Contingency Option..., Electronic Filing System--Web (EFS-Web) by providing a new contingency option when the primary portal to...

  14. Say-Do Correspondence in Brand Choice: Interaction Effects of Past and Current Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Rafael Barreiros; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    Not much is known about the interaction effects between current and past contingencies. At the brand level, consumers may or may not buy exactly what they bought or intended to buy on their last shopping trip, and this could be due to differences in the behavioral contingencies. The main purpose of this article was to examine possible relations…

  15. Voucher-Based Contingent Reinforcement of Smoking Abstinence among Methadone-Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n = 10) or noncontingent (n = 10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine…

  16. A Contingency View of Problem Solving in Schools: A Case Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark; Brown, Michael E.

    Patterns of problem-solving activity in one middle-class urban high school are examined and a problem solving model rooted in a conceptual framework of contingency theory is presented. Contingency theory stresses that as political, economic, and social conditions in an organization's environment become problematic, the internal structures of the…

  17. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  18. 78 FR 63099 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New York,...

  19. 76 FR 51316 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, through the...

  20. 77 FR 67783 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply. Dated... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA...

  1. 75 FR 44932 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New York, through the New York State...

  2. 75 FR 48895 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Arkansas,...

  3. 75 FR 53268 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Georgia, through the...

  4. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through...

  5. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Utah, through the Utah Department...

  6. 76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Florida, through the Florida...

  7. 76 FR 50164 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of New York, through the Department...

  8. 76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  9. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  10. 77 FR 43567 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the NJ...

  11. 77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: December... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)....

  12. 78 FR 56611 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: July 3... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., is an appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)....

  13. 77 FR 31215 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: May 8... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  14. 76 FR 18136 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ..., Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601-9657; E.O. 12777... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, through the...

  15. 77 FR 58321 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ..., Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: August 27, 2012. Gwendolyn Keyes Fleming, Regional... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the...

  16. 76 FR 70105 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)....

  17. 76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the New...

  18. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma, through the...

  19. 48 CFR 1203.405 - Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INTEREST Contingent Fees 1203.405 Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees. (a) and (b)(4) The same procedures contained in (TAR) 48 CFR 1203.203 shall also be followed for... the Department of Justice, if deemed appropriate....

  20. 48 CFR 3003.405 - Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contingent Fees 3003.405 Misrepresentations or violations of the Covenant Against Contingent Fees. (a) The procedures at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3003.203 shall be... at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3003.203 shall be followed for misrepresentation or violations of the...