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Sample records for 2x2 contingency tables

  1. Bayesian Procedures for Prediction Analysis of Implication Hypotheses in 2 X 2 Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecoutre, Bruno; Charron, Camilo

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates procedures for prediction analysis in 2 X 2 contingency tables through the analyses of solutions of six types of problems associated with the acquisition of fractions. Reviews and extends confidence interval procedures previously proposed for an index of predictive efficiency of implication hypotheses. Compares frequentist coverage…

  2. [How I explore the various statistical facets of 2 x 2 tables in medicine].

    PubMed

    Albert, A

    2013-09-01

    In the medical scientific literature, 2 x 2 contingency tables are widely used to display the distribution of binary data. They are associated with the definition of basic concepts in medicine and epidemiology that are universally utilized. They are usually taught in any basic course in biostatistics early in the medical curriculum; their interpretation however is not always straightforward. We have discerned at least eight different facets of such fourfold tables: homogeneity test, independence test, McNemar test, Cohen kappa coefficient, incidence relative risk, prevalence relative risk, odds ratio, diagnostic value of a clinical test. Each facet is illustrated by a clinical problem used as an example. This article should help the reader to understand which table he/she is actually dealing with.

  3. Elucidating the foundations of statistical inference with 2 x 2 tables.

    PubMed

    Choi, Leena; Blume, Jeffrey D; Dupont, William D

    2015-01-01

    To many, the foundations of statistical inference are cryptic and irrelevant to routine statistical practice. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables, omnipresent in the scientific literature, is a case in point. Fisher's exact test is routinely used even though it has been fraught with controversy for over 70 years. The problem, not widely acknowledged, is that several different p-values can be associated with a single table, making scientific inference inconsistent. The root cause of this controversy lies in the table's origins and the manner in which nuisance parameters are eliminated. However, fundamental statistical principles (e.g., sufficiency, ancillarity, conditionality, and likelihood) can shed light on the controversy and guide our approach in using this test. In this paper, we use these fundamental principles to show how much information is lost when the tables origins are ignored and when various approaches are used to eliminate unknown nuisance parameters. We present novel likelihood contours to aid in the visualization of information loss and show that the information loss is often virtually non-existent. We find that problems arising from the discreteness of the sample space are exacerbated by p-value-based inference. Accordingly, methods that are less sensitive to this discreteness - likelihood ratios, posterior probabilities and mid-p-values - lead to more consistent inferences.

  4. Elucidating the Foundations of Statistical Inference with 2 x 2 Tables

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Leena; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Dupont, William D.

    2015-01-01

    To many, the foundations of statistical inference are cryptic and irrelevant to routine statistical practice. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables, omnipresent in the scientific literature, is a case in point. Fisher's exact test is routinely used even though it has been fraught with controversy for over 70 years. The problem, not widely acknowledged, is that several different p-values can be associated with a single table, making scientific inference inconsistent. The root cause of this controversy lies in the table's origins and the manner in which nuisance parameters are eliminated. However, fundamental statistical principles (e.g., sufficiency, ancillarity, conditionality, and likelihood) can shed light on the controversy and guide our approach in using this test. In this paper, we use these fundamental principles to show how much information is lost when the tables origins are ignored and when various approaches are used to eliminate unknown nuisance parameters. We present novel likelihood contours to aid in the visualization of information loss and show that the information loss is often virtually non-existent. We find that problems arising from the discreteness of the sample space are exacerbated by p-value-based inference. Accordingly, methods that are less sensitive to this discreteness - likelihood ratios, posterior probabilities and mid-p-values - lead to more consistent inferences. PMID:25849515

  5. Sequential Tests for 2x2 Contingency Tables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-31

    a simple alternative under certain conditions ( Wald and Wolfowitz , 1948). Such hypotheses are stated, using the binomial parameter p for an... values . This is usually done with respect to some additional criterion concerning the cost of sampling. Although the Wald procedure provides optimal...are quite difficult to determine exactly. However, the approximate values A = (l-6)/a, B= 6/(l-a) (3.13) given by Wald (1947) are used. Here a is

  6. On Association Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Properties that Do Not Depend on the Marginal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss properties that association coefficients may have in general, e.g., zero value under statistical independence, and we examine coefficients for 2x2 tables with respect to these properties. Furthermore, we study a family of coefficients that are linear transformations of the observed proportion of agreement given the marginal…

  7. A Simulation Study of Rater Agreement Measures with 2x2 Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ato, Manuel; Lopez, Juan Jose; Benavente, Ana

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between six rater agreement measures obtained using three different approaches was achieved by means of a simulation study. Rater coefficients suggested by Bennet's [sigma] (1954), Scott's [pi] (1955), Cohen's [kappa] (1960) and Gwet's [gamma] (2008) were selected to represent the classical, descriptive approach, [alpha] agreement…

  8. Combining contingency tables with missing dimensions.

    PubMed

    Dominici, F

    2000-06-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the cell probabilities in a multiway contingency table by combining partial information from a number of studies when not all of the variables are recorded in all studies. We jointly model the full set of categorical variables recorded in at least one of the studies, and we treat the variables that are not reported as missing dimensions of the study-specific contingency table. For example, we might be interested in combining several cohort studies in which the incidence in the exposed and nonexposed groups is not reported for all risk factors in all studies while the overall numbers of cases and cohort size is always available. To account for study-to-study variability, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical model. At the first stage of the model, the observation stage, data are modeled by a multinomial distribution with fixed total number of observations. At the second stage, we use the logistic normal (LN) distribution to model variability in the study-specific cells' probabilities. Using this model and data augmentation techniques, we reconstruct the contingency table for each study regardless of which dimensions are missing, and we estimate population parameters of interest. Our hierarchical procedure borrows strength from all the studies and accounts for correlations among the cells' probabilities. The main difficulty in combining studies recording different variables is in maintaining a consistent interpretation of parameters across studies. The approach proposed here overcomes this difficulty and at the same time addresses the uncertainty arising from the missing dimensions. We apply our modeling strategy to analyze data on air pollution and mortality from 1987 to 1994 for six U.S. cities by combining six cross-classifications of low, medium, and high levels of mortality counts, particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide with the complication that four of the six cities do not report all the air pollution variables. Our

  9. Contingency Table Browser − prediction of early stage protein structure

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table − this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them − analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity. PMID:26664034

  10. Confidence interval for rate ratio in a 2 x 2 table with structural zero: an application in assessing false-negative rate ratio when combining two diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Lai; Tang, Nian-Sheng; Carey, Vincent J

    2004-06-01

    In this article, we consider problems with correlated data that can be summarized in a 2 x 2 table with structural zero in one of the off-diagonal cells. Data of this kind sometimes appear in infectious disease studies and two-step procedure studies. Lui (1998, Biometrics54, 706-711) considered confidence interval estimation of rate ratio based on Fieller-type, Wald-type, and logarithmic transformation statistics. We reexamine the same problem under the context of confidence interval construction on false-negative rate ratio in diagnostic performance when combining two diagnostic tests. We propose a score statistic for testing the null hypothesis of nonunity false-negative rate ratio. Score test-based confidence interval construction for false-negative rate ratio will also be discussed. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the performance of the new derived score test statistic and existing statistics for small to moderate sample sizes. In terms of confidence interval construction, our asymptotic score test-based confidence interval estimator possesses significantly shorter expected width with coverage probability being close to the anticipated confidence level. In terms of hypothesis testing, our asymptotic score test procedure has actual type I error rate close to the pre-assigned nominal level. We illustrate our methodologies with real examples from a clinical laboratory study and a cancer study.

  11. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    1986-01-01

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a r x s contingency table and for drawing marginal inferences about all parameters (e.g., interaction effects) in the model. The main approach is relevant whenever rs minus r minus s plus 1 is greater than or equal to 5. Military aptitude test data is used as illustration. (Author/LMO)

  12. Taxicab Correspondence Analysis of Contingency Tables with One Heavyweight Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choulakian, V.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the analysis of contingency tables with one heavyweight column or one heavyweight entry by taxicab correspondence analysis (TCA). Given that the mathematics of TCA is simpler than the mathematics of correspondence analysis (CA), the influence of one heavyweight column on the outputs of TCA is studied explicitly…

  13. Analysis of Contingency Tables by Ideal Point Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takane, Yoshio

    1987-01-01

    Ideal point discriminant analysis (IPDA) is proposed for the analysis of contingency tables of cross-classified data. Several data sets illustrate IPDA, which combines log-linear and dual scaling models to provide a spatial representation of row and column categories and allow statistical evaluation of various structural hypotheses about…

  14. Markov bases and toric ideals for some contingency tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, N. F.; Rakhimov, I. S.; Shitan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this work is to study Markov bases and toric ideals for p/(v -1 )(p -v ) 2 v ×v ×p/v - contingency tables that has fixed two-dimensional marginal when p is a multiple of v and greater than or equal to 2v. Moreover, the connected bipartite graph is also constructed by using elements of Markov basis. This work is an extension on results, that has been found by Hadi and Salman in 2014.

  15. Bayesian modeling of temporal dependence in large sparse contingency tables

    PubMed Central

    Kunihama, Tsuyoshi; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, it is of interest to study trends over time in relationships among categorical variables, such as age group, ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party and preference for particular policies. At each time point, a sample of individuals provide responses to a set of questions, with different individuals sampled at each time. In such settings, there tends to be abundant missing data and the variables being measured may change over time. At each time point, one obtains a large sparse contingency table, with the number of cells often much larger than the number of individuals being surveyed. To borrow information across time in modeling large sparse contingency tables, we propose a Bayesian autoregressive tensor factorization approach. The proposed model relies on a probabilistic Parafac factorization of the joint pmf characterizing the categorical data distribution at each time point, with autocorrelation included across times. Efficient computational methods are developed relying on MCMC. The methods are evaluated through simulation examples and applied to social survey data. PMID:24482548

  16. Primary School Children's Strategies in Solving Contingency Table Problems: The Role of Intuition and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obersteiner, Andreas; Bernhard, Matthias; Reiss, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding contingency table analysis is a facet of mathematical competence in the domain of data and probability. Previous studies have shown that even young children are able to solve specific contingency table problems, but apply a variety of strategies that are actually invalid. The purpose of this paper is to describe primary school…

  17. Bayesian methods for the analysis of inequality constrained contingency tables.

    PubMed

    Laudy, Olav; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2007-04-01

    A Bayesian methodology for the analysis of inequality constrained models for contingency tables is presented. The problem of interest lies in obtaining the estimates of functions of cell probabilities subject to inequality constraints, testing hypotheses and selection of the best model. Constraints on conditional cell probabilities and on local, global, continuation and cumulative odds ratios are discussed. A Gibbs sampler to obtain a discrete representation of the posterior distribution of the inequality constrained parameters is used. Using this discrete representation, the credibility regions of functions of cell probabilities can be constructed. Posterior model probabilities are used for model selection and hypotheses are tested using posterior predictive checks. The Bayesian methodology proposed is illustrated in two examples.

  18. Decomposition and model selection for large contingency tables.

    PubMed

    Dahinden, Corinne; Kalisch, Markus; Bühlmann, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Large contingency tables summarizing categorical variables arise in many areas. One example is in biology, where large numbers of biomarkers are cross-tabulated according to their discrete expression level. Interactions of the variables are of great interest and are generally studied with log-linear models. The structure of a log-linear model can be visually represented by a graph from which the conditional independence structure can then be easily read off. However, since the number of parameters in a saturated model grows exponentially in the number of variables, this generally comes with a heavy computational burden. Even if we restrict ourselves to models of lower-order interactions or other sparse structures, we are faced with the problem of a large number of cells which play the role of sample size. This is in sharp contrast to high-dimensional regression or classification procedures because, in addition to a high-dimensional parameter, we also have to deal with the analogue of a huge sample size. Furthermore, high-dimensional tables naturally feature a large number of sampling zeros which often leads to the nonexistence of the maximum likelihood estimate. We therefore present a decomposition approach, where we first divide the problem into several lower-dimensional problems and then combine these to form a global solution. Our methodology is computationally feasible for log-linear interaction models with many categorical variables each or some of them having many levels. We demonstrate the proposed method on simulated data and apply it to a bio-medical problem in cancer research.

  19. Bayesian Evaluation of Inequality and Equality Constrained Hypotheses for Contingency Tables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugkist, Irene; Laudy, Olav; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian model selection approach is introduced that can select the best of a set of inequality and equality constrained hypotheses for contingency tables. The hypotheses are presented in terms of cell probabilities allowing researchers to test (in)equality constrained hypotheses in a format that is directly related to the data.…

  20. Analysing 2 × 2 contingency tables: which test is best?

    PubMed

    Ludbrook, John

    2013-03-01

    A survey of five journals of physiology or pharmacology for 2011 showed that Fisher's exact test was used three times as frequently as Pearson's Chi-squared test. I shall argue that neither test is appropriate for analysing 2 × 2 tables of frequency in biomedical research. Pearson's test requires that random samples are taken from defined populations. The resultant 2 × 2 table is described as unconditional because neither the row nor column marginal totals are fixed in advance. Fisher's test requires the rare condition that both row and column marginal totals are fixed in advance. The resultant 2 × 2 table is described as doubly conditioned. However, the most common design of biomedical studies is that a sample of convenience is taken and divided randomly into two groups of predetermined size. The groups are then exposed to different sets of conditions. The binomial outcome is not fixed in advance, but depends on the result of the study. Thus, only the column (group) marginal totals are fixed in advance and the table is described as singly conditioned. Singly conditioned 2 × 2 tables are best analysed by tests of null hypotheses on the odds ratio (OR = 1) or by tests on proportions (p), such as the relative risk (RR = p(2)/p(1) = 1) or the difference between proportions (p(2) - p(1) = 0). One enormous advantage of these procedures is that they test specific hypotheses. They should be executed in an exact fashion by permutation.

  1. Extended contingency table: Performance metrics for satellite observations and climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Mehran, A.

    2013-10-01

    Validation of gridded satellite observations and climate model simulations are fundamental to future improvements in retrieval algorithms and model developments. Among the metrics, the contingency table, which includes a number of categorical indices, is extensively used in evaluation studies. While the categorical indices offer invaluable information, they do not provide any insight into the volume of the variable detected correctly/incorrectly. In this study, the contingency table categorical metrics are extended to volumetric indices for evaluation of gridded data. The suggested indices include (a) Volumetric Hit Index (VHI): volume of correctly detected simulations relative to the volume of the correctly detected simulations and missed observations; (b) Volumetric False Alarm Ratio (VFAR): volume of false simulations relative to the sum of simulations; (c) Volumetric Miss Index (VMI): volume of missed observations relative to the sum of missed observations and correctly detected simulations; and (d) the Volumetric Critical Success Index (VCSI). The latter provides an overall measure of volumetric performance including volumetric hits, false alarms, and misses. First, using two synthetic time series, the volumetric indices are evaluated against the contingency table categorical metrics. Then, the volumetric indices are used to evaluate a gridded data set at the continental scale. The results show that the volumetric indices provide additional information beyond the commonly used categorical metrics that can be useful in evaluating gridded data sets.

  2. Testing for independence in J×K contingency tables with complex sample survey data.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Stuart R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Sinha, Debajyoti; Hevelone, Nathanael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Jim C

    2015-09-01

    The test of independence of row and column variables in a (J×K) contingency table is a widely used statistical test in many areas of application. For complex survey samples, use of the standard Pearson chi-squared test is inappropriate due to correlation among units within the same cluster. Rao and Scott (1981, Journal of the American Statistical Association 76, 221-230) proposed an approach in which the standard Pearson chi-squared statistic is multiplied by a design effect to adjust for the complex survey design. Unfortunately, this test fails to exist when one of the observed cell counts equals zero. Even with the large samples typical of many complex surveys, zero cell counts can occur for rare events, small domains, or contingency tables with a large number of cells. Here, we propose Wald and score test statistics for independence based on weighted least squares estimating equations. In contrast to the Rao-Scott test statistic, the proposed Wald and score test statistics always exist. In simulations, the score test is found to perform best with respect to type I error. The proposed method is motivated by, and applied to, post surgical complications data from the United States' Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) complex survey of hospitals in 2008.

  3. Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Frank; Jayaram, Balasubramaniam; Crull, Katja; Kukita, Akiko; Pessler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Contingency tables are a very common basis for the investigation of effects of different treatments or influences on a disease or the health state of patients. Many journals put a strong emphasis on p-values to support the validity of results. Therefore, even small contingency tables are analysed by techniques like t-test or ANOVA. Both these concepts are based on normality assumptions for the underlying data. For larger data sets, this assumption is not so critical, since the underlying statistics are based on sums of (independent) random variables which can be assumed to follow approximately a normal distribution, at least for a larger number of summands. But for smaller data sets, the normality assumption can often not be justified. Robust methods like the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test do not lead to statistically significant p-values for small samples. Median polish is a robust alternative to analyse contingency tables providing much more insight than just a p-value. Median polish is a technique that provides more information than just a p-value. It explains the contingency table in terms of an overall effect, row and columns effects and residuals. The underlying model for median polish is an additive model which is sometimes too restrictive. In this paper, we propose two related approach to generalise median polish. A power transformation can be applied to the values in the table, so that better results for median polish can be achieved. We propose a graphical method how to find a suitable power transformation. If the original data should be preserved, one can apply other transformations - based on so-called additive generators - that have an inverse transformation. In this way, median polish can be applied to the original data, but based on a non-additive model. The non-linearity of such a model can also be visualised to better understand the joint effects of rows and columns in a contingency table.

  4. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  5. The price of privately releasing contingency tables, and the spectra of random matrices with correlated rows

    SciTech Connect

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Rudelson, Mark; Smith, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Contingency tables are the method of choice of government agencies for releasing statistical summaries of categorical data. In this paper, we consider lower bounds on how much distortion (noise) is necessary in these tables to provide privacy guarantees when the data being summarized is sensitive. We extend a line of recent work on lower bounds on noise for private data analysis [10, 13. 14, 15] to a natural and important class of functionalities. Our investigation also leads to new results on the spectra of random matrices with correlated rows. Consider a database D consisting of n rows (one per individual), each row comprising d binary attributes. For any subset of T attributes of size |T| = k, the marginal table for T has 2{sup k} entries; each entry counts how many times in the database a particular setting of these attributes occurs. Imagine an agency that wishes to release all (d/k) contingency tables for a given database. For constant k, previous work showed that distortion {tilde {Omicron}}(min{l_brace}n, (n{sup 2}d){sup 1/3}, {radical}d{sup k}{r_brace}) is sufficient for satisfying differential privacy, a rigorous definition of privacy that has received extensive recent study. Our main contributions are: (1) For {epsilon}- and ({epsilon}, {delta})-differential privacy (with {epsilon} constant and {delta} = 1/poly(n)), we give a lower bound of {tilde {Omega}}(min{l_brace}{radical}n, {radical}d{sup k}{r_brace}), which is tight for n = {tilde {Omega}}(d{sup k}). Moreover, for a natural and popular class of mechanisms based on additive noise, our bound can be strengthened to {Omega}({radical}d{sup k}), which is tight for all n. Our bounds extend even to non-constant k, losing roughly a factor of {radical}2{sup k} compared to the best known upper bounds for large n. (2) We give efficient polynomial time attacks which allow an adversary to reconstruct sensitive infonnation given insufficiently perturbed contingency table releases. For constant k, we obtain a

  6. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  7. Analysis of residuals in contingency tables: another nail in the coffin of conditional approaches to significance testing.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2015-03-01

    Omnibus tests of significance in contingency tables use statistics of the chi-square type. When the null is rejected, residual analyses are conducted to identify cells in which observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies. Residual analyses are thus conditioned on a significant omnibus test. Conditional approaches have been shown to substantially alter type I error rates in cases involving t tests conditional on the results of a test of equality of variances, or tests of regression coefficients conditional on the results of tests of heteroscedasticity. We show that residual analyses conditional on a significant omnibus test are also affected by this problem, yielding type I error rates that can be up to 6 times larger than nominal rates, depending on the size of the table and the form of the marginal distributions. We explored several unconditional approaches in search for a method that maintains the nominal type I error rate and found out that a bootstrap correction for multiple testing achieved this goal. The validity of this approach is documented for two-way contingency tables in the contexts of tests of independence, tests of homogeneity, and fitting psychometric functions. Computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these analyses is provided as Supplementary Material.

  8. Fixed-distance latent class models for the analysis of sets of two-way contingency tables.

    PubMed

    Formann, A K

    1993-06-01

    This paper develops and describes the application of modified latent class models for analyzing sets of two-way contingency tables. The proposed fixed-distance models differ from traditional latent class models in that the assumption of local stochastic independence is superseded by allowing interactions of the manifest variables within each class, which can be represented by a single association parameter. As an example, two data sets on eye color by hair color [collected in Caithness (N1 = 5,387) and Aberdeen (N2 = 22,361)] and fixed-distance models with up to six classes (three classes per data set) are considered, finally leading to satisfactory fit and rather simple interpretation.

  9. A new framework of statistical inferences based on the valid joint sampling distribution of the observed counts in an incomplete contingency table.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Li, Hui-Qiong

    2015-06-05

    Some existing confidence interval methods and hypothesis testing methods in the analysis of a contingency table with incomplete observations in both margins entirely depend on an underlying assumption that the sampling distribution of the observed counts is a product of independent multinomial/binomial distributions for complete and incomplete counts. However, it can be shown that this independency assumption is incorrect and can result in unreliable conclusions because of the under-estimation of the uncertainty. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to derive the valid joint sampling distribution of the observed counts in a contingency table with incomplete observations in both margins. The second objective is to provide a new framework for analyzing incomplete contingency tables based on the derived joint sampling distribution of the observed counts by developing a Fisher scoring algorithm to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of interest, the bootstrap confidence interval methods, and the bootstrap testing hypothesis methods. We compare the differences between the valid sampling distribution and the sampling distribution under the independency assumption. Simulation studies showed that average/expected confidence-interval widths of parameters based on the sampling distribution under the independency assumption are shorter than those based on the new sampling distribution, yielding unrealistic results. A real data set is analyzed to illustrate the application of the new sampling distribution for incomplete contingency tables and the analysis results again confirm the conclusions obtained from the simulation studies.

  10. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2'" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-'" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. View shows small autoclave demonstrated by JPL staff member Milton Clay (JPL negative no. JPL-10286AC, 27 January 1989). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2%" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-%" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the propellant cutter as it was originally installed (JPL negative no. 381-2274A, 29 June 1962) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Computer programs for sun and moon illuminance with contingent tables and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiczek, P. M.; De Young, J. A.

    1987-02-01

    There is an ever increasing need for quantitative information concerning everyday astronomical events as they affect the range of private, civil and military activities. The information most needed is usually one or a combination of the following: (1) rise and set times of the Sun and Moon, (2) beginning and ending times of twilight, (3) total number of daylight hours, (4) maximum height of the Sun or Moon above the horizon with corresponding time of occurrence, (5) at specific instants, the angular distance of the Sun or Moon from the horizon and from a cardinal direction, (6) the amount of natural light at a designated time of day or night. Despite the calculational complexities implied, it is possible not only to satisfy the needs for all such data in a straightforward way, but also to place appropriate tools for producing the data directly in the hands of those who need it. This publication is intended for a large number of people who have requirements for the type of data listed, but whose education has placed no special emphasis on astronomy. In what follows there are the means for calculating the needed information either by one of the self-contained computer routines provided, or by use of tables, diagrams (also included) and simple arithmetic.

  13. Computer programs for sun and moon illuminance : with contingent tables and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiczek, P. M.; De Young, James A.

    There is an ever increasing need for quantitative information concerning everyday astronomical events as they affect the range of private, civil and military activities. The information most needed is usually one or a combination of the following: (1) rise and set times of the Sun and Moon, (2) beginning and ending times of twilight, (3) total number of daylight hours, (4) maximum height of the Sun or Moon above the horizon with corresponding time of occurrence, (5) at specific instants, the angular distance of the Sun or Moon from the horizon and from a cardinal direction, (6) the amount of natural light at a designated time of day or night. Despite the calculational complexities implied, it is possible not only to satisfy the needs for all such data in a straightforward way, but also to place appropriate tools for producing the data directly in the hands of those who need it. This publication is intended for a large number of people who have requirements for the type of data listed, but whose education has placed no special emphasis on astronomy. In what follows there are the means for calculating the needed information either by one of the self-contained computer routines provided, or by use of tables, diagrams (also included) and simple arithmetic.

  14. Ising models on the 2 x 2 x {infinity} lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yurishchev, M. A.

    2007-03-15

    Exact analytic solutions are presented for two 2 x 2 x {infinity} Ising etageres. The first model has a simple cubic lattice with fully anisotropic interactions. The second model consists of two different types of linear chains and includes noncrossing diagonal bonds on the side faces of the 2 x 2 x {infinity} parallelepiped. In both cases, the solutions are expressed through square radicals and obtained by using the obvious symmetry of the Hamiltonians, Z{sub 2} x C{sub 2v}, and the hidden algebraic {lambda}{lambda} symmetry of the transfer matrix secular equations. The solution found for the second model is used to analyze the behavior of specific heat in a frustrated many-chain system.

  15. Transforming Contingency Tables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    zero for all elements of a finite set I. The Kullback- Leibler information number (or directed divergence) specifies a distance, I(pl q) - 1 E p(i) in...We next develop an appropriate family, E , of p.m.f.’s. A convex set, E of p.m.f.’s is called linear if when p and q are in E and t - a • p + (1-a) q (ca...cR) is a p.m.f., then t is also in E . A p.m.f. which satisfies I(qffr) - min I (pjlr) peE is called the I-projection of r on E and will be denoted by

  16. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, X.; Lindsey, D.A.; Lai, Z.; Liu, Xiuying

    2010-01-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2. Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ?. 0.15. Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology. ?? 2009.

  17. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xiaodong; Lindsey, David A.; Lai, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2010-03-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2 Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ≤ 0.15 Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology.

  18. On Similarity Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Correction for Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance in coefficients that are linear functions of the observed proportion of agreement. The paper unifies and extends various results on correction for chance in the literature. A specific class of coefficients is used to illustrate the results derived in this paper. Coefficients in this class, e.g. the simple…

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of human P2X(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Lynch, K J; Touma, E; Niforatos, W; Kage, K L; Burgard, E C; van Biesen, T; Kowaluk, E A; Jarvis, M F

    1999-12-01

    P2X receptors are a family of ATP-gated ion channels. Four cDNAs with a high degree of homology to the rat P2X(2) receptor were isolated from human pituitary and pancreas RNA. Genomic sequence indicated that these cDNAs represent alternatively spliced messages. Northern analysis revealed high levels of human P2X(2) (hP2X(2)) message in the pancreas, and splice variants could be detected in a variety of tissues. Two cDNAs encoded functional ion channels when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, a receptor structurally homologous to the prototype rat P2X(2) receptor (called hP2X(2a)) and a variant containing a deletion within its cytoplasmic C terminus (called hP2X(2b)). Pharmacologically, these functional human P2X(2) receptors were virtually indistinguishable, with the P2X receptor agonists ATP, 2-methylthio-ATP, 2' and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP, and ATP5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) being approximately equipotent (EC(50) = 1 microM) in eliciting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The P2 receptor agonists alpha,beta-methylene ATP, adenosine, adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), and UTP were inactive at concentrations up to 100 microM. Both hP2X(2a) and hP2X(2b) receptors were sensitive to the P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (IC(50) = 3 microM). In contrast to the analogous rat P2X(2) and P2X(2b) receptors, the desensitization rates of the hP2X(2a) and hP2X(2b) receptors were equivalent. Both functional forms of the human P2X(2) receptors formed heteromeric channels with the human P2X(3) receptor. These data demonstrate that the gene structure and mRNA heterogeneity of the P2X(2) receptor subtype are evolutionarily conserved between rat and human, but also suggest that alternative splicing serves a function other than regulating the desensitization rate of the human receptor.

  20. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits.

  1. Contingent workers.

    PubMed

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses.

  2. Potent and long-lasting inhibition of human P2X2 receptors by copper

    PubMed Central

    Punthambaker, Sukanya; Hume, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    P2X receptors are ion channels gated by ATP. In rodents these channels are modulated by zinc and copper. Zinc is co-released with neurotransmitter at some synapses and can modulate neuronal activity, but the role of copper in the brain is unclear. Rat P2X2 receptors show potentiation by 2–100 µM zinc or copper in the presence of a submaximal concentration of ATP but are inhibited by zinc or copper at concentrations above 100 µM. In contrast, human P2X2 (hP2X2) receptors show no potentiation and are strongly inhibited by zinc over the range of 2–100 µM. The effect of copper on hP2X2 is of interest because there are human brain disorders in which copper concentration is altered. We found that hP2X2 receptors are potently inhibited by copper (IC50 = 40 nM). ATP responsiveness recovered extremely slowly after copper washout, with full recovery requiring over 1 h. ATP binding facilitated copper binding but not unbinding from this inhibitory site. A mutant receptor in which the first six extracellular cysteines were deleted, C(1–6)S, showed normal copper inhibition, however reducing agents dramatically accelerated recovery from copper inhibition in wild type hP2X2 and the C(1–6)S mutant, indicating that the final two disulfide bonds are required to maintain the high affinity copper binding site. Three histidine residues required for normal zinc inhibition were also required for normal copper inhibition. Humans with untreated Wilson’s disease have excess amounts of copper in the brain. The high copper sensitivity of hP2X2 receptors suggests that they are non-functional in these patients. PMID:24067922

  3. Collegiate contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.; Rakos, Richard F.; Greenspoon, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We discuss contemporary trends and developments that affect colleges and universities and describe several central contingencies that have given rise to, maintain, and operate in response to these trends and developments. We identify the differential impacts of these contingencies on faculty, students, and administrators in various types of higher education institutions. These contingencies are sources of conflict between and among these three groups within the academy that, we argue, cause significant instability in contemporary academe. We discuss prominent domains of this dis-equilibrium and propose several general interventions to address the sources of the instability. PMID:22478348

  4. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  5. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  6. Window types: (from left to right) Pair of 2x2 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window types: (from left to right) Pair of 2x2 multipaned steel casements; triplet of 1x4 multipaned steel casements (center panel fixed); 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Building 20, facing southwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  8. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  9. The 2 x 2 Model of Perfectionism: A Comparison across Asian Canadians and European Canadians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franche, Veronique; Gaudreau, Patrick; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The 2 x 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of…

  10. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  11. Entanglement monogamy inequality in a 2 x 2 x 4 system

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Xijun; Jiang Wei

    2010-02-15

    In this report, we show explicitly that the tangles of an arbitrary pure state in a 2 x 2 x 4 system satisfy the monogamy relation. This relation is also generalized to mixed states. As the tangle is always larger than the square of the concurrence, our result implies that the monogamy relation holds for concurrence too. It also supports the idea that the tangle could qualify as an elementary bipartite entanglement measure.

  12. 2 x 2 TeV mu(superscript +) mu (superscript) collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The scenarios for high-luminosity 2 x 2 TeV and 250 x 250 GeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders are presented. Having a high physics potential, such a machine has specific physics and technical advantages and disadvantages when compared with an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Parameters for the candidate designs and the basic components - proton source, pion production and decay channel, cooling, acceleration and collider storage ring - are considered. Attention is paid to the areas mostly affecting the collider performance: targetry, energy spread, superconducting magnet survival, detector backgrounds, polarization, environmental issues. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. New coplanar waveguide feed network for 2 x 2 linearly tapered slot antenna subarray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Perl, Thomas D.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-01-01

    A novel feed method is presently demonstrated for a 2 x 2 linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) on the basis of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-to-slotline transition and a coax-to-CPW in-phase, four-way power divider. The LTSA subarray exhibits excellent radiation patterns and return-loss characteristics at 18 GHz, and has symmetric beamwidth; its compactness renders it applicable as either a feed for a reflector antenna or as a building-block for large arrays.

  14. Supramolecular Co(II)-[2 x 2] grids: metamagnetic behavior in a single molecule.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Oliver; Ruben, Mario; Ziener, Ulrich; Müller, Paul; Lehn, Jean M

    2006-08-07

    The magnetic anisotropy of the supramolecular [2 x 2] grid [Co(II)4L4]8+, with a bis(bipyridyl)-pyrimidine-based ligand L, was investigated by single-crystal magnetization measurements at low temperatures. The magnetization curves exhibit metamagnetic-like behavior and are explained by the weak-exchange limit of a minimal spin Hamiltonian including Heisenberg exchange, easy-axis ligand fields, and the Zeeman term. It is also shown that the magnetic coupling strength can be varied by the substituent R1 in the two-position on the central pyrimidine group of the ligand L.

  15. Operating manual holographic interferometry system for 2 x 2 foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic interferometer system was installed in a 2X2 foot transonic wind tunnel. The system incorporates a modern, 10 pps, Nd:YAG pulsed laser which provides reliable operation and is easy to align. The spatial filtering requirements of the unstable resonator beam are described as well as the integration of the system into the existing Schieren system. A two plate holographic interferometer is used to reconstruct flow field data. For static wind tunnel models the single exposure holograms are recorded in the usual manner; however, for dynamic models such as oscillating airfoils, synchronous laser hologram recording is used.

  16. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  17. Entanglement and dissipation in a 2x2 quantum-dot cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debora Contreras, Lesbia; Rojas, Fernando

    2005-03-01

    Quantum dot arrays or quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as elements capable to encode, process and transmit logical information based on quantum effects in terms of charge distributions in specific geometries. and the basis for the charge qubits. Quantum Entanglement is a resource to encode information in a completely new way making possible quantum teleportation, quantum error correction, quantum dense coding. In this work, we explore the dynamical formation of entangled states including dissipative effects, of two parallel double dots (four dots, 2x2 cell), with one extra electron each, coupled by the Coulomb interaction and controlled by a time dependent potential difference applied to one of the double dots, causing the electron to switch. We include dissipative effects via electron-phonon interaction in the Markovian approximation for the reduced density matrix. Dynamical properties of the cell such as charge polarization, measure the entanglement (Wootters concurrence) and the probabilities for each Bell state, are discussed as a function of relevant parameters (tunneling, potential difference, temperature). We find that it is possible to obtain entangled states in the cell based on the electronic charge distribution and produce a specific Bell state from an initially non entangled state through the control of the time dependent potential. The work is supported by DGAPA project IN114403 and CONACyT project 43673-F

  18. Robust optimization of 2x2 multimode interference couplers with fabrication uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Samee ur; Langelaar, Matthijs; Van Keulen, Fred

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel design-for-manufacture strategy for integrated photonics which specifically addresses the commonly encountered scenario in which probability distributions of the manufacturing variations are not available, however their bounds are known. The best design point for the device, in the presence of these uncertainties, can be found by applying robust optimization. This is performed by minimizing the maximum realizable value of the objective with respect to the uncertainty set so that an optimum is found whose performance is relatively immune to fabrication variations. Instead of applying robust optimization directly on a computationally expensive simulation model of the integrated photonic device, we construct a cheap surrogate model by uniformly sampling the simulated device at different values of the design variables and interpolating the resulting objective using a Kriging metamodel. By applying robust optimization on the constructed surrogate, the global robust optimum can be found at low computational cost. As an illustration of the method's general applicability, we apply the robust optimization approach on a 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler. We robustly minimize the imbalance in the presence of uncertainties arising from variations in the fabricated design geometry. For this example device, we also study the influence of the number of sample points on the quality of the metamodel and on the robust optimization process.

  19. Epitaxial growth and properties of MoOx(2<x <2.75) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhosle, V.; Tiwari, A.; Narayan, J.

    2005-04-01

    We report the growth of epitaxial molybdenum oxide (MoOx,2<x<2.75) films on c plane of sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition in oxygen environment. The structure was characterized using x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrical resistivity and optical properties were investigated using four-point-probe resistivity measurements and spectroscopy techniques, respectively. It was found that the film had a monoclinic structure based on MoO2 phase and showed an unusual combination of high conductivity and high transmittance in the visible region after annealing. The unusual combination of these properties was realized by systematically controlling the relative fraction of different oxidation states of molybdenum, namely Mo4+, Mo5+, and Mo6+ in the monoclinic phase. For a film 60nm thick and annealed at 250°C for 1h, the ratio of Mo6+/(Mo4++Mo5+) was determined to be ˜2.9/1 using XPS, and a typical value of transmittance was ˜65% and resistivity close to 1×10-3Ωcm. These results demonstrate growth of epitaxial MoOx films with tunable electrical and optical properties. Further optimization of these properties is expected to result in applications related to display panels, solar cells, chromogenic (photochromic, electrochromic, gasochromic) devices, and transparent conducting oxides. Our ability to grow epitaxial MoOx films can further aid their integration with optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  20. Development of a 2x2 optical switch for plastic optical fiber using liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Carmen; Sanchez-Pena, J. M.; Contreras, Pedro; Pontes, M. A. J.

    2005-07-01

    A 2x2 optical switch for plastic optical fibre (POF) has been developed, able to work for both 660 and 850nm simultaneous and independently of the input light's polarization, improving previous developments. The device has four bidirectional optical ports, and is able to switch from each port to any other. In this way, there are three operation modes: straight (each input connected to the corresponding output), crossed (inputs and outputs crosses) and closed (inputs connected on the one part, and output connected on the other part). As the device is bidirectional, inputs and outputs are interchangeable. The switching process is carried out by a set of Polarized Beam Splitters, Liquid Crystal cells, λ/4 plates, lens and mirrors. An electronic circuitry has been developed to control the state of the optical switch, which is shown in a Liquid Crystal Display. The system has been tested for both 660nm and 850nm, and the optical switch exhibits miliseconds switching times, an optical interchannel crosstalk better than -25 dB, and low power consumption. Applications of the switch include systems where a redundant path is needed to guarantee communication, such as safety systems in automobiles, LANs, telemedicine, heavy machinery in the industry along with coarse WDM GI (graded index) POF networks. Device size reduction is under development.

  1. Subunit-specific coupling between gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and P2X2 receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Toulmé, Estelle; Emerit, Michel B; Garret, Maurice

    2004-12-10

    ATP and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two fast neurotransmitters co-released at central synapses, where they co-activate excitatory P2X and inhibitory GABAA (GABA type A) receptors. We report here that co-activation of P2X2 and various GABAA receptors, co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, leads to a functional cross-inhibition dependent on GABAA subunit composition. Sequential applications of GABA and ATP revealed that alphabeta- or alphabetagamma-containing GABAA receptors inhibited P2X2 channels, whereas P2X2 channels failed to inhibit gamma-containing GABAA receptors. This functional cross-talk is independent of membrane potential, changes in current direction, and calcium. Non-additive responses observed between cation-selective GABAA and P2X2 receptors further indicate the chloride independence of this process. Overexpression of minigenes encoding either the C-terminal fragment of P2X2 or the intracellular loop of the beta3 subunit disrupted the functional cross-inhibition. We previously demonstrated functional and physical cross-talk between rho1 and P2X2 receptors, which induced a retargeting of rho1 channels to surface clusters when co-expressed in hippocampal neurons (Boue-Grabot, E., Emerit, M. B., Toulme, E., Seguela, P., and Garret, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6967-6975). Co-expression of P2X2 and chimeric rho1 receptors with the C-terminal sequences of alpha2, beta3, or gamma2 subunits indicated that only rho1-beta3 and P2X2 channels exhibit both functional cross-inhibition in Xenopus oocytes and co-clustering/retargeting in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, the C-terminal domain of P2X2 and the intracellular loop of beta GABAA subunits are required for the functional interaction between ATP- and GABA-gated channels. This gamma subunit-dependent cross-talk may contribute to the regulation of synaptic activity.

  2. Effects of protein deprivation and re-feeding on P2X2 receptors in enteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Rúbia; Girotti, Priscila Azevedo; Mizuno, Márcia Sanae; Liberti, Edson Aparecido; Furness, John Barton; Castelucci, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of malnutrition and re-feeding on the P2X2 receptor, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calretinin, calbindin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in neurons of the rat ileum. METHODS: We analyzed the co-localization, numbers and sizes of P2X2-expressing neurons in relation to NOS-immunoreactive (IR), calbindin-IR, ChAT-IR, and calretinin-IR neurons of the myenteric and submucosal plexus. The experimental groups consisted of: (1) rats maintained on normal feed throughout pregnancy until 42 d post-parturition (N); (2) rats deprived of protein throughout pregnancy and 42 d post-parturition (D); and (3) rats undernourished for 21 d post-parturition and then given a protein diet from days 22 to 42 (DR). The myenteric and submucosal plexuses were evaluated by double labeling by immunohistochemical methods for P2X2 receptor, NOS, ChAT, calbindin and calretinin. RESULTS: We found similar P2X2 receptor immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm and surface membranes of myenteric and submucosal neurons from the N, D and DR groups. Double labeling of the myenteric plexus demonstrated that approximately 100% of NOS-IR, calbindin-IR, calretinin-IR and ChAT-IR neurons in all groups also expressed the P2X2 receptor. In the submucosal plexus, the calretinin-IR, ChAT-IR and calbindin-IR neurons were nearly all immunoreactive for the P2X2 receptor. In the myenteric plexus, there was a 19% increase in numbers per cm2 for P2X2 receptor-IR neurons, 64% for NOS-IR, 84% for calretinin-IR and 26% for ChAT-IR neurons in the D group. The spatial density of calbindin-IR neurons, however, did not differ among the three groups. The submucosal neuronal density increased for calbindin-IR, calretinin-IR and ChAT-IR neurons. The average size of neurons in the myenteric plexus neurons in the D group was less than that in the controls and, in the re-fed rats; there was a 34% reduction in size only for the calretinin-IR neurons. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates that expression of

  3. Unbalanced 2 x 2 factorial designs and the interaction effect: a troublesome combination.

    PubMed

    Landsheer, Johannes A; van den Wittenboer, Godfried

    2015-01-01

    In this power study, ANOVAs of unbalanced and balanced 2 x 2 datasets are compared (N = 120). Datasets are created under the assumption that H1 of the effects is true. The effects are constructed in two ways, assuming: 1. contributions to the effects solely in the treatment groups; 2. contrasting contributions in treatment and control groups. The main question is whether the two ANOVA correction methods for imbalance (applying Sums of Squares Type II or III; SS II or SS III) offer satisfactory power in the presence of an interaction. Overall, SS II showed higher power, but results varied strongly. When compared to a balanced dataset, for some unbalanced datasets the rejection rate of H0 of main effects was undesirably higher. SS III showed consistently somewhat lower power. When the effects were constructed with equal contributions from control and treatment groups, the interaction could be re-estimated satisfactorily. When an interaction was present, SS III led consistently to somewhat lower rejection rates of H0 of main effects, compared to the rejection rates found in equivalent balanced datasets, while SS II produced strongly varying results. In data constructed with only effects in the treatment groups and no effects in the control groups, the H0 of moderate and strong interaction effects was often not rejected and SS II seemed applicable. Even then, SS III provided slightly better results when a true interaction was present. ANOVA allowed not always for a satisfactory re-estimation of the unique interaction effect. Yet, SS II worked better only when an interaction effect could be excluded, whereas SS III results were just marginally worse in that case. Overall, SS III provided consistently 1 to 5% lower rejection rates of H0 in comparison with analyses of balanced datasets, while results of SS II varied too widely for general application.

  4. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  5. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials.

  6. Modulation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 Receptors by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatko, Anatoly; Foletti, Davide; Poulsen, Kris; Strop, Pavel; Zhu, Guoyun; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Melton Witt, Jody; Loo, Carole; Krimm, Stellanie; Pios, Ariel; Yu, Jessica; Brown, Colleen; Lee, John K; Stroud, Robert; Rajpal, Arvind; Shelton, David

    2016-06-03

    Purinergic homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels activated by ATP. Both receptors are predominantly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and an increase in extracellular ATP concentration under pathological conditions, such as tissue damage or visceral distension, induces channel opening, membrane depolarization, and initiation of pain signaling. Hence, these receptors are considered important therapeutic targets for pain management, and development of selective antagonists is currently progressing. To advance the search for novel analgesics, we have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against human P2X3 (hP2X3). We have found that these antibodies produce distinct functional effects, depending on the homomeric or heteromeric composition of the target, its kinetic state, and the duration of antibody exposure. The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nm on hP2X3 after short term exposure (up to 18 min), binding to the inactivated state of the channel to inhibit activity. By contrast, with the same short term application, 12D4 potentiated the slow inactivating current mediated by the heteromeric hP2X2/3 channel. Extending the duration of exposure to ∼20 h resulted in a profound inhibition of both homomeric hP2X3 and heteromeric hP2X2/3 receptors, an effect mediated by efficient antibody-induced internalization of the channel from the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of mAb12D4 was assessed in the formalin, complete Freund's adjuvant, and visceral pain models. The efficacy of 12D4 in the visceral hypersensitivity model indicates that antibodies against P2X3 may have therapeutic potential in visceral pain indications.

  7. Marine Corps Contingency Contracting MCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    unfamiliar, such as, foreign business practices, cultures, and language barriers . The importance of having a trained contingency contracting officer...practices, cultures, and language barriers . D. WHO PERFORMS CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING The individuals who perform contingency contracting within the

  8. Aeromedical Evacuation Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-19

    S~ -(Unclassified Paper) . S~DTIC_ EECTE lmU~ JUL2 819921 i•I NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. 3JUL AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CONTINGENCY PLANNING by...ACCESSION INO. I𔃻. TITLE (kKInd Security ClOSSificAtICIA AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CONTINGENCY PLANNING ( ) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Schwartz, Rudolh Carl, Jr...8217 are obsolete U.G eawnP൓ ofW 118401 0102-LF-014-6602 Abstract of AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CONTINGENCY PLANNING Aeromedical evacuation is an element of

  9. 60-GHz optical/wireless MIMO system integrated with optical subcarrier multiplexing and 2x2 wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Chiang, Shou-Chih; Chang, Hsi-Yu

    2015-05-04

    This paper proposes a 2x2 MIMO OFDM Radio-over-Fiber scheme based on optical subcarrier multiplexing and 60-GHz MIMO wireless transmission. We also schematically investigated the principle of optical subcarrier multiplexing, which is based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). In our simulation result, combining two MIMO OFDM signals to drive DP-MZM gives rise to the PAPR augmentation of less than 0.4 dB, which mitigates nonlinear distortion. Moreover, we applied a Levin-Campello bit-loading algorithm to compensate for the uneven frequency responses in the V-band. The resulting system achieves OFDM signal rates of 61.5-Gbits/s with BER of 10(-3) over 25-km SMF transmission followed by 3-m wireless transmission.

  10. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  11. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-05-03

    Health geography has emerged from under the "shadow of the medical" to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  12. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  13. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  14. Maltodextrin and fat preference deficits in "taste-blind" P2X2/P2X3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine triphosphate is a critical neurotransmitter in the gustatory response to the 5 primary tastes in mice. Genetic deletion of the purinergic P2X2/P2X3 receptor greatly reduces the neural and behavioral response to prototypical primary taste stimuli. In this study, we examined the behavioral response of P2X double knockout mice to maltodextrin and fat stimuli, which appear to activate additional taste channels. P2X double knockout and wild-type mice were given 24-h choice tests (vs. water) with ascending concentrations of Polycose and Intralipid. In Experiment 1, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.5-4%) Polycose solutions but preferred concentrated (8-32%) Polycose to water. In a retest, the Polycose-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, preferred all Polycose concentrations. In Experiment 2, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.313-2.5%) Intralipid emulsions but preferred concentrated (5-20%) Intralipid to water. In a retest, the fat-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, strongly preferred 0.313-5% Intralipid to water. These results indicate that the inherent preferences of mice for maltodextrin and fat are dependent upon adenosine triphosphate taste cell signaling. With experience, however, P2X double knockout mice develop strong preferences for the nontaste flavor qualities of maltodextrin and fat conditioned by the postoral actions of these nutrients.

  15. Residual Chemosensory Capabilities in Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Null Mice: Intraoral or Postingestive Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Hallock, Robert M.; Tatangelo, Marco; Barrows, Jennell

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking the purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3 (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−), exhibit essentially no tastant-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves and substantial loss of tastant-evoked behavior as measured in long-term intake experiments. To assess whether the residual chemically driven behaviors in these P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice were attributable to postingestive detection or oropharyngeal detection of the compounds, we used brief access lickometer tests to assess the behavioral capabilities of the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− animals. The P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice showed avoidance to high levels (10 mM quinine and 10–30 mM denatonium benzoate) of classical “bitter”-tasting stimuli in 24-h, 2-bottle preference tests but minimal avoidance of these substances in the lickometer tests, suggesting that the strong avoidance in the intake tests was largely mediated by post-oral chemosensors. Similarly, increases in consumption of 1 M sucrose by P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice in long-term intake tests were not mirrored by increases in consumption of sucrose in lickometer tests, suggesting that sucrose detection in these mice is mediated by postingestive consequences. In contrast, in brief access tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice avoided citric acid and hydrochloric acid at the same concentrations as their wild-type counterparts, indicating that these weak acids activate oropharyngeal chemoreceptors. PMID:19833662

  16. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  17. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-06-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  18. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-10-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  19. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  20. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  1. National Missile Defense Contingency Deployment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Defense Organization PMCS IDEA PAPER TITLE: National Missile Defense, Contingency Deployment Planning PMCS CLASS: 95C AUTHOR: Clifford E. Reeves... NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION The author feels it is vital to start strategic planning for the development of operational...PROFESSIONAL MILITARY COMPTROLLER SCHOOL IDEA PAPER TITLE NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT AUTHOR CLIFFORD E. REEVES GS-15, OSD

  2. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  3. Model for Contingency Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Dept. of Human Development.

    The Department of Human Development at Prince George's Community College has developed a contingency contracting model for the department's counseling and student services which presents planning and evaluation as interrelated parts of the same process of self-imposed accountability. The implementation of the model consisted of: (1) planning…

  4. A scaled quantum mechanical force field for the sulfuryl halides. I. The symmetric halides SO2X2 (X=F, Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Fernández, L E; Verón, M G; Varetti, E L

    2004-01-01

    Force fields and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated for the molecules SO2X2 (X=F, Cl, Br) using DFT techniques. The previously available experimental data and assignments for SO2F2 and SO2Cl2 were compared with the theoretical results and revised, and new low temperature infrared and Raman data were obtained for SO2Cl2. These data were subsequently used in the definition of scaled quantum mechanics force fields for such molecules. Adjusted wavenumbers were also predicted for the still unknown SO2Br2. A comparison is made with results published for the VO2X2- anions.

  5. A scaled quantum mechanical force field for the sulfuryl halides. I. The symmetric halides SO 2X 2 (X=F, Cl, Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, L. E.; Verón, M. G.; Varetti, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Force fields and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated for the molecules SO 2X 2 (X=F, Cl, Br) using DFT techniques. The previously available experimental data and assignments for SO 2F 2 and SO 2Cl 2 were compared with the theoretical results and revised, and new low temperature infrared and Raman data were obtained for SO 2Cl 2. These data were subsequently used in the definition of scaled quantum mechanics force fields for such molecules. Adjusted wavenumbers were also predicted for the still unknown SO 2Br 2. A comparison is made with results published for the VO 2X 2- anions.

  6. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes. PMID:26273225

  7. TRPV1, ASICs and P2X2/3 expressed in bone cells simultaneously regulate bone metabolic markers in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, K.; Iba, K.; Dohke, T.; Okazaki, S.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nociceptors are expressed at peripheral terminals of neurons. Recent studies have shown that TRPV1, a nociceptor, is expressed in bone tissue and regulates bone metabolism. We have demonstrated that a TRPV1 antagonist improved pain-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether nociceptors, including TRPV1, acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) and P2X2/3 are expressed in bone cells, and to examine the effects of nociceptor antagonists on bone metabolism. Methods: The expression of nociceptors in femoral bone tissue and cultured bone marrow cells in OVX and sham-operated mice were examined. The effects of nociceptor antagonists on the up-regulated expression of bone metabolic markers, Runx2, Osterix, osteocalcin and RANKL, were also examined. Results: TRPV1, ASIC 2 and 3, and P2X2 and 3, were expressed in bone tissue and bone marrow cells, and the expression levels of ASIC1 and 2, and P2X2 were significantly increased in OVX mice in comparison with those in sham mice. Treatment with nociceptor antagonists significantly inhibited the expression of bone metabolic markers in OVX mice. Conclusion: An array of nociceptors, TRPV1, ASICs and P2X2/3, could simultaneously regulate not only increases in skeletal pain but also bone turnover in OVX mice. PMID:27282458

  8. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identify the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.

  9. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed.

  10. Pre-Cast Concrete Panels for Contingency Rigid Airfield Pavement Damage Repairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Figure 16. Swift-Lift Installation into Precast Concrete Panel ..................................................... 14 Figure 17. Wall -Saw Cutting... Wall -saw and walk-behind concrete saw). Table 6 is a precast concrete panel fabrication timeline and Table 7 is precast panel placement timeline...AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2010-0095 PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS FOR CONTINGENCY RIGID AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DAMAGE REPAIRS Reza S. Ashtiani, Christopher J

  11. Oil, biological communities and contingency planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Frink, Lynne; Ball-Weir, Katherine; Smith, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates the inclusion of a fish and wildlife response plan in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the creation of Area Committees that must develop an Area Contingency Plan (ACP). Area Contingency Plans must include a detailed annex containing a Fish and Wildlife and Sensitive Environments Plan. Tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities must have response plans consistent with the requirements of the NCP and the ACP. New regulations to supersede the Type A and B procedures of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment Regulations are being developed for oil spills. Currently, four assessment methods have been proposed: (1) Type A, (2) comprehensive (Type B), (3) intermediate (between types A and B), and (4) compensation tables. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund is approaching its ceiling of $1 billion, but only $50 million has been appropriated. Effective biological contingency planning requires extensive knowledge of (1) the environmental fate of petroleum, (2) the effects of petroleum on organisms, (3) the existing biological resources, and (4) the establishment of a system of biological priorities. The characteristics and fate of petroleum and the biological effects of petroleum are reviewed. Assessment of biological resources includes plant and animal distributions, important habitat, endangered or threatened species, and economic considerations. The establishment by Area Committees of priorities for environmental protection, injury assessment, and restoration will promote efficient spill response. Three special issues are discussed: (1) improving our ability to restore natural resources, (2) the potential role of biological diversity in spill response planning, and (3) planning for animal rehabilitation.

  12. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  13. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  14. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, P; Paczuski, M

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpiles and biological evolution. Insights are gained not only from numerical simulations but also from rigorous mathematical analysis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607561

  15. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  16. Cooperative Learning Contingencies: Unrelated versus Related Individual and Group Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Erin; Williams, Robert L.; Hautau, Briana

    2006-01-01

    College students operating under related cooperative contingencies (students had to earn individual credit before being considered for group credit) showed more consistent individual and group improvement on exam performance than students operating under unrelated contingencies (individual credit and group credit were independently determined). A…

  17. Sport ability beliefs, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation: the moderating role of perceived competence in sport and exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J

    2009-06-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.

  18. Minodronic acid induces morphological changes in osteoclasts at bone resorption sites and reaches a level required for antagonism of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Hosoya, Akihiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Kayasuga, Ryoji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Hidehiro

    2017-02-27

    Minodronic acid is an aminobisphosphonate that is an antagonist of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors involved in pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and distribution of minodronic acid and the potential for P2X2/3 receptor antagonism based on the estimated concentration of minodronic acid. Microlocalization of radiolabeled minodronic acid was examined in the femur of neonatal rats. The bone-binding characteristics of minodronic acid and morphological changes in osteoclasts were analyzed in vitro. The minodronic acid concentration around bone resorption lacunae was predicted based on bone binding and the shape of lacunae. In microautoradiography, radioactive silver grains were abundant in bone-attached osteoclasts and were detected in calcified and ossification zones and in the cytoplasm of osteoclasts but not in the hypertrophic cartilage zone. In an osteoclast culture with 1 µM minodronic acid, 65% of minodronic acid was bound to bone, and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide release was inhibited by 96%. Cultured osteoclasts without minodronic acid treatment formed ruffled borders and bone resorption lacunae and had rich cytoplasm, whereas those treated with 1 µM minodronic acid were not multinucleated, stained densely with toluidine blue, and were detached from the bone surface. In the 1 µM culture, the estimated minodronic acid concentration in resorption lacunae was 880 µM, which is higher than the IC50 for minodronic acid antagonism of P2X2/3 receptors. Thus, inhibition of P2X2/3 receptors around osteoclasts may contribute to the analgesic effect of minodronic acid.

  19. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  20. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts.

  1. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS�E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  2. Contingency Management and Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Clara

    Some educators are turning to the process of contingency management within a classroom as a short term, immediate motivator which can work for virtually every student, regardless of his/her final grade in the course. Contingency management consists of providing a set of alternatives from which those chosen by the student reward the students in…

  3. The Ethics of Group Contingencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    Group contingencies structure situations which link individual behavior with group outcomes, attempting to change behavior through peer pressure. As such, group contingencies raise numerous methodological and ethical problems, and illuminate the relationship between what data is collected and what subsequent decisions can be made. Over 100…

  4. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion.

  5. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  6. Modulation of bladder afferent signals in normal and spinal cord-injured rats by purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Alvaro; Somogyi, George T.; Boone, Timothy B.; Ford, Anthony P.; Smith, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE • To evaluate the role of bladder sensory purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors on modulating the activity of lumbosacral neurones and urinary bladder contractions in vivo in normal or spinal cord-injured (SCI) rats with neurogenic bladder overactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS • SCI was induced in female rats by complete transection at T8 – T9 and experiments were performed 4 weeks later, when bladder overactivity developed. Non-transected rats were used as controls (normal rats). • Neural activity was recorded in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and field potentials were acquired in response to intravesical pressure steps via a suprapubic catheter. Field potentials were recorded under control conditions, after stimulation of bladder mucosal purinergic receptors with intravesical ATP (1 mm), and after intravenous injection of the P2X3/P2X2/3 antagonist AF-353 (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). • Cystometry was performed in urethaneanaesthetised rats intravesically infused with saline. AF-353 (10 mg/kg) was systemically applied after baseline recordings; the rats also received a second dose of AF-353 (20 mg/kg). Changes in the frequency of voiding (VC) and non-voiding (NVC) contractions were evaluated. RESULTS • SCI rats had significantly higher frequencies for field potentials and NVC than NL rats. Intravesical ATP increased field potential frequency in control but not SCI rats, while systemic AF-353 significantly reduced this parameter in both groups. • AF-353 also reduced the inter-contractile interval in control but not in SCI rats; however, the frequency of NVC in SCI rats was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION • The P2X3/P2X2/3 receptors on bladder afferent nerves positively regulate sensory activity and NVCs in overactive bladders. PMID:22540742

  7. Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001): thermal stability and inhibition of dissociation by H2O-O bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-08-01

    The effect of preadsorbed oxygen on the subsequent adsorption and reactions of water on Ru(0001) has been studied using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and DFT calculations. Experiments were carried out for O coverages close to 0.25 ML. It was found that no dissociation of water takes place up to the desorption temperature of {approx}180-230 K. DFT calculations show that intact water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) is {approx} 0.49 eV more stable than the dissociation products, H and OH, at their preferred fcc and top adsorption sites.

  8. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  9. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1544.301 Section 1544.301... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.301 Contingency plan. Each aircraft operator must adopt a contingency plan and must: (a) Implement its contingency plan when directed by TSA. (b)...

  11. National Contingency Plan Subpart J

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Subpart J of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) directs EPA to prepare a schedule of dispersants, other chemicals, and oil spill mitigating devices and substances that may be used to remove or control oil discharges.

  12. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  13. Contingency Base Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    CB-EMS is the latest implementation of DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance), which was previously patented by PNNL. CB-EMS WAS specifically designed for contingency bases for the US Army. It is a software package that is designed to monitor energy consumption at an Army contingency base to alert the camp manager when the systems are wasting energy. It's main feature that separates it from DSOM is it's ability to add systems using a plug and play menu system.

  14. Computer-aided design of AD 2 X 2 intermetallics with a ThCr2Si2-type of crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselyova, N. N.; Sen'ko, O. V.; Kropotov, D. A.; Dokukin, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    Several hundred new AD 2 X 2 ( A and D are various elements; X = B, Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As, Sn, Sb) compounds are computer designed, and the types of their crystal structures under normal conditions are predicted. A special software package is used for the calculations; it includes a set of databases on the properties of inorganic substances and materials and a system for an analysis of these data, which is based on precedent pattern recognition methods. Only data on the properties of the elements entering into the compound compositions are used to predict unknown compounds. The parameters of elements in positions A and D (i.e., the Mendeleev-Pettifor numbers, the pseudopotential radii, and their algebraic functions) are found to mainly determine the possibility of formation of AD 2 X 2 compounds and the type of their crystal structures. New compounds of AD 2B2, AD 2Ga2, and AD 2Sn2 compositions are predicted for the first time.

  15. Reinventing the Contingency Wheel: Scalable Visual Analytics of Large Categorical Data.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, B; Aigner, W; Miksch, S; Groller, M E

    2012-12-01

    Contingency tables summarize the relations between categorical variables and arise in both scientific and business domains. Asymmetrically large two-way contingency tables pose a problem for common visualization methods. The Contingency Wheel has been recently proposed as an interactive visual method to explore and analyze such tables. However, the scalability and readability of this method are limited when dealing with large and dense tables. In this paper we present Contingency Wheel++, new visual analytics methods that overcome these major shortcomings: (1) regarding automated methods, a measure of association based on Pearson's residuals alleviates the bias of the raw residuals originally used, (2) regarding visualization methods, a frequency-based abstraction of the visual elements eliminates overlapping and makes analyzing both positive and negative associations possible, and (3) regarding the interactive exploration environment, a multi-level overview+detail interface enables exploring individual data items that are aggregated in the visualization or in the table using coordinated views. We illustrate the applicability of these new methods with a use case and show how they enable discovering and analyzing nontrivial patterns and associations in large categorical data.

  16. Examining a Terrorist Network Using Contingency Table Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    basic assumptions have been satisfied, we are able to look at our first logistic regression model . Figure 1 contains the partial output from R for the...variable to see if we can improve our results. Logistic Regression Model lrm(formula = binlocal ~ binTruth + Event, data = fullset, na.action... Regression Model lrm(formula = binlocal ~ binTruth, data = fullset, na.action = na.pass) Frequencies of Responses 0 1 159 367

  17. High performace silicon 2x2 optical switch based on a thermo-optically tunable multimode interference coupler and efficient electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Álvaro; Gutiérrez, Ana; Brimont, Antoine; Griol, Amadeu; Sanchis, Pablo

    2016-01-11

    Optical switches based on tunable multimode interference (MMI) couplers can simultaneously reduce the footprint and increase the tolerance against fabrication deviations. Here, a compact 2x2 silicon switch based on a thermo-optically tunable MMI structure with a footprint of only 0.005 mm(2) is proposed and demonstrated. The MMI structure has been optimized using a silica trench acting as a thermal isolator without introducing any substantial loss penalty or crosstalk degradation. Furthermore, the electrodes performance have significantly been improved via engineering the heater geometry and using two metallization steps. Thereby, a drastic power consumption reduction of around 90% has been demonstrated yielding to values as low as 24.9 mW. Furthermore, very fast switching times of only 1.19 µs have also been achieved.

  18. Chemical pressure effects on magnetism in the quantum spin liquid candidates Yb2X2O7 (X =Sn, Ti, Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Z. L.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Hallas, A. M.; Wiebe, C. R.; Gardner, J. S.; Arrighi, E.; Freitas, R. S.; Arevalo-Lopez, A. M.; Attfield, J. P.; Zhou, H. D.; Cheng, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    The linear and nonlinear ac susceptibility measurements of Yb-pyrochlores, Yb2X2O7 (X =Sn, Ti, and Ge), show transitions with a ferromagnetic nature at 0.13 and 0.25 K for Yb2Sn2O7 and Yb2Ti2O7, respectively, and an antiferromagnetic ordering at 0.62 K for Yb2Ge2O7. These systematical results (i) provided information about the nature of the unconventional magnetic ground state in Yb2Ti2O7; (ii) realized a distinct antiferromagnetic ordering state in Yb2Ge2O7; and (iii) demonstrated that the application of chemical pressure through the series of Yb-pyrochlores can efficiently perturb the fragile quantum spin fluctuations of the Yb3+ ions and lead to very different magnetic ground states.

  19. Driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic library of molecular helices toward the selective generation of [2 x 2] gridlike arrays under the pressure of metal ion coordination.

    PubMed

    Giuseppone, Nicolas; Schmitt, Jean-Louis; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2006-12-27

    Constitutional dynamics, self-assembly, and helical-folding control are brought together in the efficient Sc(OTf)3/microwave-catalyzed transimination of helical oligohydrazone strands, yielding highly diverse dynamic libraries of interconverting constituents through assembly, dissociation, and exchange of components. The transimination-type mechanism of the ScIII-promoted exchange, as well as its regioselectivity, occurring only at the extremities of the helical strands, allow one to perform directional terminal polymerization/depolymerization processes when starting with dissymmetric strands. A particular library is subsequently brought to express quantitatively [2 x 2] gridlike metallosupramolecular arrays in the presence of ZnII ions by component recombination generating the correct ligand from the dynamic set of interconverting strands. This behavior represents a process of driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic chemical system under the pressure (coordination interaction) of an external effector (metal ions).

  20. Results of the AFRSI rewaterproofing systems screening test in the NASA/Ames Research Center (ARC) 2 x 2-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Kingsland, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 2x2-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate two AFRSI rewaterproofing systems and to investigate films as a means of reducing blanket joint distortion. The wind tunnel wall slot configuration influenced on the flow field over the test panel was investigated; primarily using oil flow data, and resulted in a closed slot configuration to provide a satisfactory screening environment flow field for the test. Sixteen AFRSI test panels, configured to represent the test system or film, were subjected to this screening environment (a flow field of separated and reattached flow at a freestream Mach numnber of 0.65 and q = 650 or 900 psf). Each condition was held until damage to the test article was observed or 55 minutes if no damage was incurred. All objectives related to AFRSI rewaterproofing and to the use of films to stiffen the blanket fibers were achieved.

  1. Vascular Endothelial Cells Mediate Mechanical Stimulation-Induced Enhancement of Endothelin Hyperalgesia via Activation of P2X2/3 Receptors on Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Green, Paul G.; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique amongst a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ETA and ETB, attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ETA receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia, but had no effect on SIEH suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Since vascular endothelial cells are both stretch-sensitive and express ETA and ETB receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X2/3 receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hind limb vibration) and in model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X2/3 receptor. PMID:23407944

  2. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2 / (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices from first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, San-Dong

    2016-05-01

    To identify thermoelectric materials containing abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, we have studied the electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices with state-of-the-art first-principles calculations using a modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. Our results show that (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 are semi-metals using mBJ plus spin-orbit coupling (mBJ + SOC), while (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 is predicted to be a direct-gap semiconductor with a mBJ gap value of 0.46 eV and mBJ + SOC gap value of 0.44 eV. Thermoelectric properties are predicted by through solving the Boltzmann transport equations within the constant scattering time approximation. It is found that (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 has a larger Seebeck coefficient and power factor than (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 for both p-type and n-type doping. The detrimental influence of SOC on the power factor of p-type (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) is analyzed as a function of the carrier concentration, but there is a negligible SOC effect for n-type. These results can be explained by the influence of SOC on their valence and conduction bands near the Fermi level.

  3. The Psychophysics of Contingency Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Lorraine G.; Hannah, Samuel D.; Crump, Matthew J. C.; Siegel, Shepard

    2008-01-01

    The authors previously described a procedure that permits rapid, multiple within-participant evaluations of contingency assessment (the "streamed-trial" procedure, M. J. C. Crump, S. D. Hannah, L. G. Allan, & L. K. Hord, 2007). In the present experiments, they used the streamed-trial procedure, combined with the method of constant stimuli and a…

  4. Contingency Planning for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David; Washington, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. But this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the power required, the data storage necessary, along with its position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  5. Contingent Faculty and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2008-01-01

    While it may provide greater economic efficiency, the increased use of part-time faculty in colleges and universities has been strongly criticized. The criticisms of increased employment of contingent faculty are based on research that supports the idea that faculty-student interaction leads to positive outcomes, including increased cognitive and…

  6. Test and Measure on Difference of Asymmetry Between Several Square Tables and Application to Medical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahata, Kouji; Yamamoto, Kouji; Miyamoto, Nobuko; Tomizawa, Sadao

    2013-01-01

    For the analysis of square contingency tables with ordered categories, Tahata, Yamamoto, Nagatani and Tomizawa (2009) considered an average symmetry model and a measure of degree of departure from the model. The present paper proposes (1) the statistic to test the equality of degree of asymmetry and (2) the measure to represent the difference of degree of asymmetry between several square contingency tables. They are applied to unaided distance vision data in Britain and in Japan, and to decayed teeth data in Japan.

  7. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  8. Crystal structure, phase transition and conductivity study of two new organic - inorganic hybrids: [(CH2)7(NH3)2]X2, X = Cl/Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Mohga Farid; El-khiyami, Shimaa Said; Abd-Elal, Seham Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Two hybrids 1,7-heptanediammonium di-halide, [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br crystallize in monoclinic P21/c, Z = 4. [(C7H20N2]Cl2: a = 4.7838 (2) Å, b = 16.9879 (8) Å, c = 13.9476 (8) Å, β = 97.773 (2)°, V = 1203.58(10) Å3, D = 1.137 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.052 for 1055 reflections with I > 2σ(I), T = 298(2) K. [(C7H20N2]Br2: a = 4.7952 (10) Å, b = 16.9740 (5) Å, c = 13.9281 (5) Å, β = 97.793 (2)°, V = 1203.83(6) Å3, D = 1.612 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.03 for 1959 reflections with I > 2σ(I) T = 298(2) K. Asymmetric unit cell of [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br, each consist of one heptane-1,7-diammonium cation and two halide anions. The organic hydrocarbon layers pack in a stacked herring-bone manner, hydrogen bonded to the halide ions. Lattice potential energy is 1568.59 kJ/mol and 1560.78 kJ/mol, and cation molar volumes are 0.295 nm3 and 0.300 nm3 for chloride and bromide respectively. DTA confirmed chain melting transitions for both hybrids below T ∼ 340 K. Dielectric and ac conductivity measurements (290 < T K < 410; 0.080 < f kHz<100) indicated higher conductivity and activation energy of bromide for T > 340 K. Cross over from Jonscher's universal dielectric response at low temperatures T < 340 K to super-linear power law for T > 340 K is observed. At high temperatures halide ion hopping in accordance with the jump relaxation model prevails.

  9. Helium tables.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, Clinton H

    1928-01-01

    These tables are intended to provide a standard method and to facilitate the calculation of the quantity of "Standard Helium" in high pressure containers. The research data and the formulas used in the preparation of the tables were furnished by the Research Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  10. Cluster perturbation theory in Hubbard model exactly taking into account the short-range magnetic order in 2 x 2 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S. V. Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2010-10-15

    The cluster perturbation theory is presented in the 2D Hubbard model constructed using X operators in the Hubbard-I approximation. The short-range magnetic order is taken into account by dividing the entire lattice into individual 2 x 2 clusters and solving the eigenvalue problem in an individual cluster using exact diagonalization taking into account all excited levels. The case of half-filling taking into account jumps between nearest neighbors is considered. As a result of numerical solution, a shadow zone is discovered in the quasiparticle spectrum. It is also found that a gap in the density of states in the quasiparticle spectrum at zero temperature exists for indefinitely small values of Coulomb repulsion parameter U and increases with this parameter. It is found that the presence of this gap in the spectrum is due to the formation of a short-range antiferromagnetic order. An analysis of the temperature evolution of the density of states shows that the metal-insulator transition occurs continuously. The existence of two characteristic energy scales at finite temperatures is demonstrated, the larger scale is associated with the formation of a pseudogap in the vicinity of the Fermi level, and the smaller scale is associated with the metal-insulator transition temperature. A peak in the density of states at the Fermi level, which is predicted in the dynamic mean field theory in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition, is not observed.

  11. Chemical pressure induced change in multiferroicity of Bi1+2xGd2x/2Fe1-2xO3 bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. K.; Sahu, D. R.; Rout, P. P.; Das, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K.; Srinivasu, V. V.; Roul, B. K.

    2017-04-01

    We have optimized Gd ion substitution in BiFeO3 (BFO) and observed prominently change in structural, electrical and magnetic behavior of Bi1+2xGd2x/2Fe1-2xO3 ceramics synthesized through slow step sintering schedule. It is observed that with the increase in concentration of Gd (x=0.1), original structure of BFO is transformed from rhombohedral R3c space group to orthorhombic Pn21a space group. Surprisingly, unit cell volume is drastically contracted (35% for x=0.2) and the sintered specimen showed enhanced room temperature ferromagnetic behavior although the original BFO is normally G-type antiferromagnetic in nature at 643 K. It is expected that intrinsic chemical pressure within the bulk body built by the substitution of Gd in presence of excess bismuth greatly supported through unidirectional movement of electrical dipole moment with in each individual domain as a result of which suppression of leakage current with enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric hysteresis is observed.

  12. The Nicotinic α6 Subunit Gene Determines Variability in Chronic Pain Sensitivity via Cross-inhibition of P2X2/3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Mathur, Jayanti; Limapichat, Walrati; Post, Michael R.; Al-Qazzaz, Mona; Sorge, Robert E.; Martin, Loren J.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Smith, Shad B.; Freitas, Kelen; Austin, Jean-Sebastien; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Jie; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Tuttle, Alexander H.; Slepian, Peter M.; Clarke, Sarah; Drenan, Ryan M.; Janes, Jeff; Sharari, Shakir Al; Segall, Samantha K.; Aasvang, Eske K.; Lai, Weike; Bittner, Reinhard; Richards, Christopher I.; Slade, Gary D.; Kehlet, Henrik; Walker, John; Maskos, Uwe; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Devor, Marshall; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Belfer, Inna; Dougherty, Dennis A.; Su, Andrew I.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lester, Henry A.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and poorly managed human health problem. We used microarray-based expression genomics in 25 inbred mouse strains to identify dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-expressed genetic contributors to mechanical allodynia, a prominent symptom of chronic pain. We identified expression levels of Chrna6, which encodes the α6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), as highly associated with allodynia. We confirmed the importance of α6* (i.e., α6-containing) nAChRs by analyzing both gain- and loss-of-function mutants. We find that mechanical allodynia associated with neuropathic and inflammatory injuries is significantly altered in α6* mutants, and that α6* but not α4* nicotinic receptors are absolutely required for peripheral and/or spinal nicotine analgesia. Furthermore, we show that Chrna6’s role in analgesia is at least partially due to direct interaction and cross-inhibition of α6* nAChRs with P2X2/3 receptors in DRG nociceptors. Finally, we establish relevance of our results to humans by the observation of genetic association in patients suffering from chronic postsurgical pain and temporomandibular pain. PMID:25972004

  13. Anomalous local magnetism in the 4 f-localized ferromagnets CeRu2X2B (X = Al, Ga) revealed by using ZF-μSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjun; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Yoon, Sungwon; Suh, Byoung Jin; Jang, Zeehoon; Biswas, P. K.; Baumbach, Ryan E.; Bauer, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    We report zero-field muon spin relaxation/rotation (ZF-μSR) measurements on the 4f-localized ferromagnets CeRu2X2B (X = Al, Ga) with Ising-type anisotropy. Our ZF-μSR spectra of CeRu2Ga2B with a Curie temperature at T C = 16.3 K show a well-defined muon procession at temperatures below T C . The extracted critical exponent of β = 0.533 is close to the mean-field value of β = 0.5. On the other hand, the isomorphic CeRu2Al2B exhibits an intriguing evolution of the ZF-μSR spectrum through a spin density wave/ferromagnetic transition at T C = 12.8 K with a subsequent magnetic anomaly at T* = 6 K. Strikingly, the muon frequency decreases upon cooling to temperatures below T C and can be no longer resolved at temperatures below T*. At the same time, the muon relaxation rate increases continuously at temperatures below T C . These give an indication of the development of an inhomogeneous and dynamic ferromagnetic state. The contrasting ferromagnetism between CeRu2Ga2B and CeRu2Al2B evidences that a certain type of intrinsic/extrinsic perturbation, for example, exchange frustration and defects/impurities, can exert a drastic impact on the local magnetic properties in a family of 4 f-localized magnetic materials with frustration.

  14. Adsorption site and structure determination of c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have determined the atomic spatial structure of c(2x2) N2Ni(100) with Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the nitrogen 1s core level using monochromatized x-rays from beamline 6.1 at SSRL and beamline 9.3.2 at the ALS. The chemically shifted N 1s peak intensities were summed together to obtain ARPEFS curves for both nitrogen atoms in the molecule. They used a new, highly-optimized program based on the Rehr-Albers scattering matrix formalism to find the adsorption site and to quantitatively determine the bond-lengths. The nitrogen molecule stands upright at an atop site, with a N-Ni bond length of 2.25(1) {angstrom}, a N-N bond length of 1.10(7) {angstrom}, and a first layer Ni-Ni spacing of 1.76(4) {angstrom}. The shake-up peak shows an identical ARPEFS diffraction pattern, confirming its intrinsic nature and supporting a previous use of this feature to decompose the peak into contributions from the chemically inequivalent nitrogen atoms. Comparison to a previously published theoretical treatment of N-N-Ni and experimental structures of analogous adsorbate systems demonstrates the importance of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in weakly chemisorbed systems.

  15. Crystal Structure of Pseudorhombohedral InFe 1- xTi xO 3+ x/2 ( x=2/3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michiue, Yuichi; Onoda, Mitsuko; Watanabe, Akiteru; Watanabe, Mamoru; Brown, Francisco; Kimizuka, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    The structure of pseudorhombohedral-type InFe1-xTixO3-x/2 (x=2/3) was refined by Rietveld profile fitting. The crystal is a commensurate member of a series in a solution range on InFeO3-In2Ti2O7 including incommensurate structures. The structure with the unit cell of a=5.9188(1), b=10.1112(2), and c=6.3896(1) Å, β=108.018(2)°, and a space group P21/a is the alternate stacking of an edge-shared InO6 octahedral layer and an Fe/Ti-O plane along c*. Metal sites on the Fe/Ti-O plane are surrounded by four oxygen atoms on the Fe/Ti-O plane and two axial ones. Electric conductivities of the order 10-4 S/cm were observed for the samples at 1000 K, while the oxide ion transport number is almost zero as no electromotive force was detected by an oxygen concentration cell.

  16. A Table! (At the Table).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    A review of French dining habits and table manners outlines: elements of the place setting, courtesies used at the table, serving conventions, restaurant tipping, the size and content of the different meals of the day, subtle differences in common foods, restaurant types, menu types, general wine and cheese choices, waiter-client communication,…

  17. Human factors in contingency operations.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Simon J; Khan, M A; Scott, T; Matthews, J J; Henning, Dcw; Stapley, S

    2016-06-10

    The UK Defence Medical Services are currently supporting contingency operations following a period of intensive activity in relatively mature trauma systems in Iraq and Afghanistan. Among the key lessons identified, human factors or non-technical skills played an important role in the improvement of patient care. This article describes the importance of human factors on Role 2 Afloat, one of the Royal Navy's maritime contingency capabilities, and illustrates how they are vital to ensuring that correct decisions are made for patient care in a timely manner. Teamwork and communication are particularly important to ensure that limited resources such as blood products and other consumables are best used and that patients are evacuated promptly, allowing the facility to accept further casualties and therefore maintain operational capability. These ideas may be transferred to any small specialist team given a particular role to perform.

  18. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  19. Systems Engineering for Contingency Basing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-30

    Experiment Software Engineering Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of... Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 UNCLASSIFIED Contract Number: H98230-08-D-0171 TO 0010, RT 033 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-033...and verification (V&V) of Contingency Basing concepts and early formulation will be difficult because in its current form it is an applied practice

  20. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  1. Percolating hierarchical defect structures drive phase transformation in Ce1-x Gd x O2-x/2: a total scattering study.

    PubMed

    Scavini, Marco; Coduri, Mauro; Allieta, Mattia; Masala, Paolo; Cappelli, Serena; Oliva, Cesare; Brunelli, Michela; Orsini, Francesco; Ferrero, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    A new hierarchical approach is presented for elucidating the structural disorder in Ce1-x Gd x O2-x/2 solid solutions on different scale lengths. The primary goal of this investigation is to shed light on the relations between the short-range and the average structure of these materials via an analysis of disorder on the mesocopic scale. Real-space (pair distribution function) and reciprocal-space (Rietveld refinement and microstructure probing) analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data and electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations were carried out following this approach. On the local scale, Gd- and Ce-rich droplets (i.e. small regions a few ångströms wide) form, exhibiting either a distorted fluorite (CeO2) or a C-type (Gd2O3) structure in the whole compositional range. These droplets can then form C-type nanodomains which, for Gd concentrations x Gd ≤ 0.25, are embedded in the fluorite matrix. At the site percolation threshold p C for a cubic lattice (x Gd = p C ≃ 0.311), C-type nanodomains percolate inside each crystallite and a structural phase transformation is observed. When this occurs, the peak-to-peak ESR line width ΔH pp shows a step-like behaviour, which can be associated with the increase in Gd-Gd dipolar interactions. A general crystallographic rationale is presented to explain the fluorite-to-C-type phase transformation. The approach shown here could be adopted more generally in the analysis of disorder in other highly doped materials.

  2. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  3. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  4. The crystal chemistry of Ca(10-y)(SiO4)3(SO4)3Cl(2-x-2y)F(x) ellestadite.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanan; Ritter, Clemens; White, Tim

    2011-12-19

    Fluor-chlorellestadite solid solutions Ca(10)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x)F(x), serving as prototype crystalline matrices for the fixation of hazardous fly ash, were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction (PXRD and PND), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The lattice parameters of the ellestadites vary linearly with composition and show the expected shrinkage of unit cell volume as fluorine (IR = 1.33 Å) displaces chlorine (IR = 1.81 Å). FTIR spectra indicate little or no OH(-) in the solid solutions. All compositions conform to P6(3)/m symmetry where F(-) is located at the 2a (0, 0, (1)/(4)) position, while Cl(-) is displaced out of the 6h Ca(2) triangle plane and occupies 4e (0, 0, z) split positions with z ranging from 0.336(3) to 0.4315(3). Si/S randomly occupy the 6h tetrahedral site. Ellestadites rich in Cl (x ≤ 1.2) show an overall deficiency in halogens (<2 atom per formula unit), particularly Cl as a result of CaCl(2) volatilization, with charge balance achieved by the creation of Ca vacancies (Ca(2+) + 2Cl(-) →□(Ca) + 2□(Cl)) leading to the formula Ca(10-y)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x-2y)F(x). For F-rich compositions the vacancies are found at Ca(2), while for Cl-rich ellestadites, vacancies are at Ca(1). It is likely the loss of CaCl(2) which leads tunnel anion vacancies promotes intertunnel positional disorder, preventing the formation of a P2(1)/b monoclinic dimorph, analogous to that reported for Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)Cl(2). Trends in structure with composition were analyzed using crystal-chemical parameters, whose systematic variations served to validate the quality of the Rietveld refinements.

  5. Cyber Contingency Analysis version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-02

    Contingency analysis based approach for quantifying and examining the resiliency of a cyber system in respect to confidentiality, integrity and availability. A graph representing an organization's cyber system and related resources is used for the availability contingency analysis. The mission critical paths associated with an organization are used to determine the consequences of a potential contingency. A node (or combination of nodes) are removed from the graph to analyze a particular contingency. The value of all mission critical paths that are disrupted by that contingency are used to quantify its severity. A total severity score can be calculated based on the complete list of all these contingencies. A simple n1 analysis can be done in which only one node is removed at a time for the analysis. We can also compute nk analysis, where k is the number of nodes to simultaneously remove for analysis. A contingency risk score can also be computed, which takes the probability of the contingencies into account. In addition to availability, we can also quantify confidentiality and integrity scores for the system. These treat user accounts as potential contingencies. The amount (and type) of files that an account can read to is used to compute the confidentiality score. The amount (and type) of files that an account can write to is used to compute the integrity score. As with availability analysis, we can use this information to compute total severity scores in regards to confidentiality and integrity. We can also take probability into account to compute associated risk scores.

  6. Evolutionary contingency and SETI revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2014-07-01

    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing "astrobiological revolution". Simpson's argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson's argument have occasionally mispresented its core content. Proponents often oversimplify it as just another consequence of biological contingency, thus leaving their position open to general arguments limiting the scope of contingency in evolution (such as the recent argument of Geerat Vermeij based on selection effects in the fossil record). They also tend to neglect that the argument has been presented as essentially atemporal, while referring to entities and processes that are likely to change over time; this has become even less justifiable as our astrobiological knowledge increased in recent years. Opponents have failed to see that the weaknesses in Simpson's position could be removed by restructuring of the argument; I suggest one way of such restructuring, envisioned long ago in the fictional context by Stanislaw Lem. While no firm consensus has emerged on the validity of Simpson's argument so far, I suggest that, contrary to the original motivation, today it is less an anti-SETI argument, and more an astrobiological research programme. In this research programme, SETI could be generalized into a platform for testing some of the deepest assumptions about evolutionary continuity and the relative role of contingency versus convergence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.

  7. On privacy, causes, and contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Radical behaviorism may be distinguished from other varieties of behaviorism, notably methodological behaviorism, by the way it accommodates private events in causal explanations of behavior. That is, in an operational sense, radical behaviorism accommodates private phenomena in the context of the three term contingency of reinforcement with regard to their discriminative function, their nature as responses, or their reinforcing function. In any case, any contribution of a private phenomenon is presumably linked at some point to a prior public event that has endowed the private phenomenon with its functional significance. PMID:22478592

  8. Sperm gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) and its interaction with purinergic P2X2 receptors in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenming; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yan; Liang, Xiao Tong; Yu, Mei Kuen; Yue, Huanxun; Tierney, M Louise

    2017-02-13

    The mechanism underlying the non-genomic action of progesterone in sperm functions and related Ca2+ mobilisation remains elusive. Herein we report the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) in human and rodent sperm and its involvement in mediating the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. GABRD was localised in the sperm head/neck region. A δ(392-422)-specific inhibitory peptide against GABRD blocked the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and the associated increase in intracellular Ca2+. Similarly, an inhibitory effect against both progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx and the acrosome reaction was observed with a P2X2 receptor antagonist. The lack of synergism between the GABRD and P2X2 inhibitors suggests that these two receptors are playing a role in the same pathway. Furthermore, a co-immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated that GABRD could undergo protein-protein interactions with the Ca2+-conducting P2X2 receptor. This interaction between the receptors could be reduced following progesterone (10μM) inducement. Significantly reduced GABRD expression was observed in spermatozoa from infertile patients with reduced acrosome reaction capacity, suggesting that normal expression of GABRD is critical for the sperm acrosome reaction and thus male fertility. The results of the present study indicate that GABRD represents a novel progesterone receptor or modulator in spermatozoa that is responsible for the progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx required for the acrosome reaction through its interaction with the P2X2 receptor.

  9. Enrollment Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University System of Georgia, Atlanta.

    A set of tables is provided summarizing fall enrollment from 1979 through 1988 in the university system of Georgia. The following types of data are provided: headcount enrollment; joint enrollment; developmental studies, freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors, graduate students, professional enrollment, transients, others, EFT enrollment, entering…

  10. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  11. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  12. A Primer on Improving Contingent Faculty Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Heidi; Untener, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Challenges associated with the increasing use of contingent faculty appointments in American higher education are mounting. The AAUP and other professional groups have identified several major problems: (1) unacceptable conditions and compensation for contingent faculty members; (2) poor learning outcomes for students; and (3) the potential…

  13. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  14. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  15. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  16. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  18. Energy Shortage Contingency Plan. (California Energy Commission)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The California Energy Commission's 1993 Energy Shortage Contingency Plan is prepared in response to state legislative requirements. The statute directs the California Energy Commission to prepare and submit to the Governor and Legislature contingency plans to deal with possible shortages of electrical energy or fuel supplies to protect public health, safety and welfare.

  19. 9 CFR 2.134 - Contingency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contingency planning. 2.134 Section 2.134 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.134 Contingency planning. (a) Dealers,...

  20. Mothers' Contingent Imitation Increases Infant Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez-Nogueras, Martha; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    This study compared the reinforcement effects of imitation to the elicitation effects of noncontingent maternal vocal stimulation. Subjects were 17 three- to six-month-old infants and their mothers. Infants received three successive experimental conditions: contingent imitation B1, noncontingent elicitations, and contingent imitation B2. Under the…

  1. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  2. Dissociating contingency awareness and conditioned attitudes: evidence of contingency-unaware evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hütter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not occur without contingency awareness. In a simulation, we demonstrate, however, that these innovations are strongly biased toward the conclusion that evaluative conditioning requires contingency awareness, confounding the measurement of contingency memory with conditioned attitudes. We adopt a process-dissociation procedure to separate the memory and attitude components. In 4 studies, the attitude parameter is validated using existing attitudes and applied to probe for contingency-unaware evaluative conditioning. A fifth experiment incorporates a time-delay manipulation confirming the dissociability of the attitude and memory components. The results indicate that evaluative conditioning can produce attitudes without conscious awareness of the contingencies. Implications for theories of evaluative conditioning and associative learning are discussed.

  3. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan must... waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part. The...

  4. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT General Instructions § 367.15 Contingent assets and liabilities. Contingent assets represent a... uncertain. Contingent liabilities include items that, under certain conditions, may become obligations of... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contingent assets...

  5. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  6. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  7. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  8. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  9. Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model.

  10. Mesa = Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two mesas on the northern plains of Mars. 'Mesa' is the Spanish word for 'table,' and that is a very good description of the two elliptical features captured in this MOC image. In both cases, the mesa tops and the material beneath them, down to the level of the surrounding, rugged plain, are remnants of a once more extensive layer (or layers) of material that has been largely eroded away. The circular feature near the center of the larger mesa is the site of a filled and buried impact crater.

    Location near: 53.5oN, 153.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  11. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A.

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  12. Massive Contingency Analysis with High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2009-07-26

    Contingency analysis is a key function in the Energy Management System (EMS) to assess the impact of various combinations of power system component failures based on state estimates. Contingency analysis is also extensively used in power market operation for feasibility test of market solutions. Faster analysis of more cases is required to safely and reliably operate today’s power grids with less marginal and more intermittent renewable energy sources. Enabled by the latest development in the computer industry, high performance computing holds the promise of meet the need in the power industry. This paper investigates the potential of high performance computing for massive contingency analysis. The framework of "N-x" contingency analysis is established and computational load balancing schemes are studied and implemented with high performance computers. Case studies of massive 300,000-contingency-case analysis using the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model are presented to illustrate the application of high performance computing and demonstrate the performance of the framework and computational load balancing schemes.

  13. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning.

  14. Northwest area contingency plan for region X

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Northwest Area Contingency Plan (ACP) supersedes the working draft released in March 1993 which officially replaced the Local Contingency Plans for MSO Puget Sound and MSO Portland; it functions as the Inland Area Contingency Plan for the Environmental Protection Agency; and it replaces Washington and Oregon Statewide Master Plans as the primary response and planning document for oil spill response. This volume represents the basic plan. It is the summation of policies and procedures for two Coast Guard Captain of the Port Zones, the Statewide Master Plans for the States of Oregon and Washington, and EPA Inland Region Ten. It provides Federal, state, and local responders in the Pacific Northwest with a single comprehensive response and planning document.

  15. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  16. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  17. Revisiting the relation between contingency awareness and attention: evaluative conditioning relies on a contingency focus.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Although evaluative conditioning has occasionally been demonstrated in the absence of contingency awareness, many recent studies imply that its acquisition depends on the availability of attentional resources during conditioning. In previous experiments attention has typically been manipulated in a general way rather than looking at the particular focus of attention. The present study investigated the role of a focus on the CS-US contingency. Two separate distraction tasks were designed that either diverted attention from the stimuli or directed it to the stimuli while drawing attention away from the contingency between the stimuli. Both types of distraction were shown to eliminate evaluative conditioning. Significant evaluative conditioning was observed in a third group of participants who were required to attend the contingencies. A mediation analysis showed that the observed discrepancy in evaluative conditioning effects between groups was mediated by contingency awareness. The results imply that attention in terms of a stimulus focus is not sufficient for evaluative conditioning to occur. Rather, attention to the contingencies between stimuli appears to be crucial in evaluative conditioning, because it is supposed to foster the acquisition of contingency awareness.

  18. Aging and the detection of contingency in causal learning.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Sharon A; Williams, Thomas W

    2004-03-01

    Young and older participants' ability to detect negative, random, and positive response-outcome contingencies was evaluated using both contingency estimation and response rate adaptation tasks. Age differences in contingency estimation were consistently greater for negative than positive contingencies, and these differences, though still present, were smaller when response rate adaptation was used as the measure of contingency learning. Detecting causal contingency apparently becomes more difficult with age, especially when an oven numerical estimate of contingency must be provided and when the relationship between a causal event and an outcome is negative. A model that incorporates features of both associative and rule-based approaches to contingency learning (e.g., P. C. Price & J. F. Yates, 1995; D. R. Shanks, 1995) provides the best explanation for this pattern of findings.

  19. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The... incorporate hazardous waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of...

  20. The Outsourced/Contingent Workforce: Abuse, Threat, or Blessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jette, Karen D.; Dixon, Clay-Edward

    1998-01-01

    Examines reasons for hiring contingent employees or outsourcing vendor services in libraries, as well as disadvantages of contingent employees. Considers the issue of exploitation. Explores the extent to which contingent employees are a part of the organizational structure, and discusses effective management for positive outcomes and ways to…

  1. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 1218.152 Section... Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund, any holder of a lease issued or maintained under the Outer Continental...

  2. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how…

  3. 7 CFR 1488.18 - Covenant against contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.18 Covenant against contingent fees... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covenant against contingent fees. 1488.18 Section..., or contingent fee, except bona fide employees or bona fide established commercial or selling...

  4. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Third-Party Software List - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.

  5. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  6. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  7. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  8. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  9. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  10. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  11. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  12. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  13. The Contingent Valuation Method in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to present a new model measuring the economic value of public libraries, combining the dissonance minimizing (DM) and information bias minimizing (IBM) format in the contingent valuation (CV) surveys. The possible biases which are tied to the conventional CV surveys are reviewed. An empirical study is presented to compare the model…

  14. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  15. Side Effects of Contingent Shock Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oorsouw, W. M. W. J.; Israel, M. L.; von Heyn, R. E.; Duker, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the side effects of contingent shock (CS) treatment were addressed with a group of nine individuals, who showed severe forms of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggressive behavior. Side effects were assigned to one of the following four behavior categories; (a) positive verbal and nonverbal utterances, (b) negative verbal and…

  16. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  17. Area contingency plan: Cleveland. (COTP Cleveland)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Cleveland Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Cleveland Coastal Zone.

  18. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  19. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Goncalves, Fabio Leyser; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative…

  20. 30 CFR 582.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 582.26 Section 582.26 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... necessary to reflect any new information concerning the nature, magnitude, and significance of...

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-7 - Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incurred and recorded on the contractor's books. However, in some cases, as for example, terminations, a..., the effects of which are foreseeable within reasonable limits of accuracy; e.g., anticipated costs of... results to the contractor and to the Government; e.g., results of pending litigation. Contingencies...

  2. "Contingency" or "Career" Schedules for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Jessie

    1978-01-01

    The notion of contingency scheduling for women is presented in this discussion of how women schedule their futures--marriage, child-bearing, professional training, and career development--and how colleges and universities can be more responsive to their needs. (Author/AF)

  3. Triggers of Contingency in Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Tim; Thwaites, Anne; Jared, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Our research in the last decade has been into classroom situations that we perceive to make demands on mathematics teachers' disciplinary knowledge of content and pedagogy. Amongst the most visible of such situations are those that we describe as "contingent", in which a teacher is faced with some unexpected event, and challenged to…

  4. Manganese(II)-azido/thiocyanato complexes of naphthylazoimidazoles: X-ray structures of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(X) 2 (β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Chand, B. G.; Wu, J. S.; Lu, T.-H.; Sinha, C.

    2007-10-01

    Manganese(II)-naphthylazoimidazole complexes using N3- and NCS - as counter ions are characterized as Mn(β-NaiR) 2(X) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-alkyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -). The ligands are unsymmetric N(imidazole), N(azo) chelating agents. The microanalytical, spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis), magnetic (bulk moment and EPR) and electrochemical data establish the structure and composition of the complexes. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(N 3) 2 and Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(NCS) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole) have confirmed the three dimensional structure of the complexes. Cyclic voltammetry exhibits high potential Mn(III)/Mn(II) couple along with azo reductions. The EPR spectra show usual pattern.

  5. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ket for plastic recycling ; as a result, the site had accumulated a large quan- tity of plastic bottles that could not be properly disposed of. Finally...compound ...................................................................... 11 6 Recycling bins at New Kabul Compound...4. Table 3-2, p. 3-14: This table presents planning factors for components of solid waste assuming none is being reused or recycled . Table 2 lists

  6. Distribution of P2Y2 receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system and its coexistence with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide synthase and calretinin.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    The distribution of P2Y2 receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and coexistence of P2Y2 with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated with immunostaining methods. The results showed that P2Y2-ir neurons and fibers were distributed widely in myenteric and submucous plexuses of the guinea pig stomach corpus, jejunum, ileum and colon. The typical morphology of P2Y2-ir neurons was a long process with strong positive staining on the same side of the cell body. The P2Y2-ir neurons could be Dogiel type 1. About 40-60% P2X3-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2Y2 in the myenteric plexus and all the P2X3-ir neurons expressed the P2Y2 receptor in the submucosal plexus; almost all the NPY-ir neurons and the majority of CR-ir neurons were also immunoreactive for P2Y2, especially in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine; no P2Y2-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2X2 receptors, CB and NOS. It is shown for the first time that S type/Dogiel type 1 neurons with fast P2X and slow P2Y receptor-mediated depolarizations could be those neurons expressing both P2Y2-ir and P2X3-ir and that they are widely distributed in myenteric and submucosal plexuses of guinea pig gut.

  7. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae).

    PubMed

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation. Both species possess male heterogamety with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system; however, the Y and one of the X chromosomes are not small chromosomes as previously reported in L. burtonis, but the largest macrochromosomal pair in the karyotype. The Y chromosomes in both species have large heterochromatic blocks with extensive accumulations of GATA and AC microsatellite motifs. FISH with telomeric probe revealed an exclusively terminal position of telomeric sequences in L. jicari (2n = 42 chromosomes in females), but extensive interstitial signals, potentially remnants of chromosomal fusions, in L.burtonis (2n = 34 in females). Our study shows that even largely differentiated and heteromorphic sex chromosomes might be misidentified by conventional cytogenetic analyses and that the application of more sensitive cytogenetic techniques for the identification of sex chromosomes is beneficial even in the classical examples of multiple sex chromosomes.

  8. Influences of the substituents on the M-M bonding in Cp4Al4 and Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, Ga; Cp = C5H5, X = halogen).

    PubMed

    Lu, Feifei; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Zeng, Yanli; Meng, Lingpeng

    2015-08-21

    Although the geometries of CpAl4 (Cp* = C5Me5) and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5) are similar, CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4. CpAl2I2 is the first complex involving an Al(ii)-Al(ii) bond to be supported by Cp-type ligands. In this work, the stability of CpAl4 and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5), the nature of M-M bonding in Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, and Ga), and the influences of the X atom on the M-M bonds have been analyzed and compared within the framework of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, electron localization function (ELF), energy decomposition analysis (EDA), and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The calculated results show that CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4 because of HH interactions between the methyl groups on the same and different Cp rings and not because of the Al-Al bonds. In Cp2M2X2, the B-B bond is stronger than the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds. The B-B bond is most consistent with covalent bonding, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds are more consistent with metallic bonding. The strengths of the B-B bond increase in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds decrease in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I. The different change tendencies arise from the different M-M bonds and the orbital interactions between atoms X and M.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of new 12H hexagonal perovskite-related oxides Ba 6M2Na 2X2O 17 ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb; X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarez, Eric; Abraham, Francis; Mentré, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    The new Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, Mn) compounds have been prepared by electrosynthesis in molten NaOH and their crystal structures have been refined from single crystals X-ray diffraction, space group P6 3/ mmc, Z=2, for X=V: a =5.8506(1) Å, c =29.6241(4) Å, R1=4.76%, for X=Mn : a =5.8323(1) Å, c =29.5299(3) Å, R1=3.48%. The crystal structure is a 12H-type perovskite with a ( c' cchcc) 2 stacking sequence of [BaO 3] c, [BaO 3] h and [BaO 2] c' layers. The tridimensional edifice is formed by blocks of Ru 2O 9 dimers that share corners with NaO 6 octahedra. These blocks sandwich double sheets of X5+O 4 tetrahedra. Several isotypic Ba 6M5+2Na 2X5+2O 17 materials ( X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As) and ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb) have been prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by Rietveld analysis. The magnetic and electric properties have been investigated and show besides the Ru 5+2O 9 typical intradimer antiferromagnetic couplings, discrepancies of both χ and ρ versus T at 50 and 100 K for Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, As). In this work, a review of the identified Ru-hexagonal perovskite materials is also reported in order to overview the wide variety of possibilities in the field of new compounds synthesis.

  10. Failure detection and recovery in the assembly/contingency subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantenbein, Rex E.

    1993-01-01

    The Assembly/Contingency Subsystem (ACS) is the primary communications link on board the Space Station. Any failure in a component of this system or in the external devices through which it communicates with ground-based systems will isolate the Station. The ACS software design includes a failure management capability (ACFM) that provides protocols for failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR). The the ACFM design requirements as outlined in the current ACS software requirements specification document are reviewed. The activities carried out in this review include: (1) an informal, but thorough, end-to-end failure mode and effects analysis of the proposed software architecture for the ACFM; and (2) a prototype of the ACFM software, implemented as a C program under the UNIX operating system. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the FDIR protocols specified in the ACS design and the specifications themselves in light of their use in implementing the ACFM. The basis of failure detection in the ACFM is the loss of signal between the ground and the Station, which (under the appropriate circumstances) will initiate recovery to restore communications. This recovery involves the reconfiguration of the ACS to either a backup set of components or to a degraded communications mode. The initiation of recovery depends largely on the criticality of the failure mode, which is defined by tables in the ACFM and can be modified to provide a measure of flexibility in recovery procedures.

  11. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  12. Use of Renewable Energy in Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    U.S. forces in Iraq. Use of renewable energy system is one way to help decrease dependency on fossil fuels and offer Warfighters alternative sources of... energy systems in Contingency Operations and make recommendations to overcome those barriers in order to enhance use of renewable energy thereby becoming less dependent of foreign oil....energy to accomplish their mission. This paper will explore the institutional impediments that prevent the Army from increasing its use of renewable

  13. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  14. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  15. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  16. Region V regional contingency plan and area contingency plan: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesto, Ohio, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This Region 5 Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (RCP) and Area Contingency Plan (ACP) is intended for use by Local, Tribal, State, and Federal emergency response personnel as a tool for procuring resources to respond to an oil or hazardous materials incident. It outlines the response mechanisms that would be activated among the various levels of the response community in the event of an emergency siuation. This RCP/ACP outlines the types of assistance available to Federal OSCs from Regional Response Team (RRT) member agencies during response actions and the cooperative response that should be carried out by OSCs during response actions. The plan also includes resource information from governmental, commercial, and other sources that may be utilized during a response. This plan has been organized to follow the structure of the Incident Command System (ICS), as outlined in the Integrated Contingency Plan guidance developed by the National Response Team (NRT).

  17. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  18. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data.

  19. Sensitivity to Changing Contingencies in an Impulsivity Task

    PubMed Central

    Young, Michael E.; Webb, Tara L.; Rung, Jillian M.; Jacobs, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a video-game-based escalating interest task, participants repeatedly encountered a reward that gradually increased in value over a 10-second interval. Responding early in the interval netted less immediate reward than responding later in the interval. Each participant experienced four different reward contingencies for waiting. These contingencies were changed three times as the experiment proceeded. Behavior tracked these changing contingencies, but wait times reflected long-term carryover from the previously assigned contingencies. Both the tendency to respond slowly and the optimality of behavior were affected by the order of contingencies experienced. Demographic variables only weakly predicted behavior, and delay discounting rate in a hypothetical money choice task predicted choice only when the contingencies in the game were weaker. PMID:23658118

  20. Mortality table construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  1. Military Contingency Operations: The Lessons of Political-Military Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    of political-rntlitary coordination* case I studies of contingency force interventions, and comparative analysis of the interventions, fact~ors...srvey of the lIt erature of political-military coordination, case studies of contingency force Interventions, and comparative analysis of’ the...intervontions, factors fundamental to successful contln- gency operations are developed. The study finds that many contingency force opera- tions have

  2. Strategy, Policy and Contingency Planning. The US Defense Planning Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-23

    planning process has difficulty in trans- ’ lating national -level policy guidance into viable defense contingency plans * which, if implemented, produce...translating national -level policy guidance into viable defense contingency plans which, if implemented, produce winning outcomes. Some of the concerns...8217D-R148 851 STRATEGY POLICY AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING THE US DEFENSE i/i PLANNING PROCESS(U) ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA J R CARLSON ET AL. 23

  3. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-04-03

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.

  4. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 or P2X2/3 is involved in the pain-like behavior under a high bone turnover state in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Kumiko; Iba, Kousuke; Abe, Yasuhisa; Dohke, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Matsumura, Tadaki; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pathological changes leading to increased bone resorption by osteoclast activation are related to the induction of pain-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In addition, bisphosphonate and the antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), an acid-sensing nociceptor, improved the threshold value of pain-like behaviors accompanying an improvement in the acidic environment in the bone tissue based on osteoclast inactivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (i) an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+) -ATPase, known as an proton pump, (ii) an antagonist of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 3, as another acid-sensing nociceptor, and (iii) the P2X2/3 receptor, as an ATP-ligand nociceptor, on pain-like behavior in OVX mice. This inhibitor and antagonists were found to improve the threshold value of pain-like behavior in OVX mice. These results indicated that the skeletal pain accompanying osteoporosis is possibly associated with the acidic microenvironment and increased ATP level caused by osteoclast activation under a high bone turnover state.

  5. Yttrium complexes incorporating the chelating diamides [ArN(CH2)xNAr]2- (Ar = C6H3-2,6-iPr2, x= 2, 3) and their unusual reaction with phenylsilane.

    PubMed

    Avent, Anthony G; Cloke, F Geoffrey N; Elvidge, Benjamin R; Hitchcock, Peter B

    2004-04-07

    Novel yttrium chelating diamide complexes [(Y[ArN(CH(2))(x)NAr](Z)(THF)(n))(y)] (Z = I, CH(SiMe(3))(2), CH(2)Ph, H, N(SiMe(3))(2), OC(6)H(3)-2,6-(t)Bu(2)-4-Me; x = 2, 3; n = 1 or 2; y = 1 or 2) were made via salt metathesis of the potassium diamides (x = 3 (3), x = 2 (4)) and yttrium triiodide in THF (5,10), followed by salt metathesis with the appropriate potassium salt (6-9, 11-13, 15) and further reaction with molecular hydrogen (14). 6 and 11(Z = CH(SiMe(3))(2), x = 2, 3) underwent unprecedented exchange of yttrium for silicon on reaction with phenylsilane to yield (Si[ArN(CH(2))(x)NAr]PhH) (x = 2 (16), 3) and (Si[CH(SiMe(3))(2)]PhH(2)).

  6. New insights into the comprehension of the magnetic properties of dinuclear Mn(III) compounds with the general formula [{MnL(NN)}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2.

    PubMed

    Escriche-Tur, Luis; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Albela, Belén; Corbella, Montserrat

    2016-07-19

    Five new dinuclear Mn(iii) compounds with benzoato derivative bridges [{Mn(bpy)L}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2 (n-R = 3-MeO, 4-MeO and 4-tBu, X = NO3(-) and ClO4(-)) were synthesised and characterised. According to X-ray diffraction, the X anions tend to be coordinated to the Mn ions and may occupy the place of the monodentate ligand L. Two structural isomers that only differ in one of their monodentate ligands have been obtained with the 3-MeOC6H4COO(-) bridges. For all compounds, the Mn(iii) ions display elongated octahedra with a pronounced rhombic distortion. To quantify these distortions separately, the elongation and rhombicity parameters Δ and ρ have been defined. The magnetic study shows a good relationship between the distortion of the coordination polyhedra and the zero field splitting parameters (DMn and EMn). From the magnetic data of a powder sample, it is possible to determine the sign and magnitude of DMn for ferromagnetic systems or weak antiferromagnetic systems with DMn < 0. For this kind of dinuclear compound, the R group at the meta position, the rhombic distortion of the octahedra, and large torsion angles between the Jahn-Teller axes lead to ferromagnetic interactions.

  7. 10 CFR 72.184 - Safeguards contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and Responsibility Matrix, the first four categories of information relating to nuclear facilities... contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the licensee's safeguards contingency plan. The licensee...

  8. Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

    2013-02-01

    Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.

  9. Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit-opiate use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent vs. non-contingent delivery of a methadone dose supplement on relapse to illicit opiate use in the context of a methadone outpatient detoxification program. Following a 3-week methadone stabilization period on 30 mg, patients (N = 39) were randomly assigned to a contingent, a non-contingent, or a control treatment group. All patients received identical gradual reductions in their assigned methadone dose. During the dose reduction period (weeks 4-11), members of the contingent (N = 13) and non-contingent groups (N = 13) could obtain daily methadone-dose supplements up to 20 mg, but contingent group members could obtain supplements only if their most recent urinalysis results were opiate negative. Control subjects (N = 13) did not have dose increases available. The contingent group presented significantly lower opiate-positive urines during weeks 8-11 (14% positive) of the detox than the non-contingent (38% positive) or control (50% positive) groups. Additionally, the availability of extra methadone improved treatment retention and increased clinic attendance above levels observed in the control group. The potential for further use of methadone's reinforcing properties in the treatment of opiate dependence is discussed.

  10. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  11. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  12. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  13. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  14. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Database Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Durfee, Justin David; Bandlow, Alisa; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool – Prototype (CCOT-P) database is used to store input and output data for the linear program model described in [1]. The database allows queries to retrieve this data and updating and inserting new input data.

  15. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  16. Augmentation in contingency learning under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Matute, Helena

    2010-08-01

    Recent research suggests that cue competition effects in human contingency learning, such as blocking, are due to higher-order cognitive processes. Moreover, some experimental reports suggest that the effect opposite to blocking, augmentation, could occur in experimental preparations that preclude the intervention of reasoning mechanisms. In the present research, we tested this hypothesis by investigating cue interaction effects in an experimental task in which participants had to enter their responses under time pressure. The results show that under these conditions, augmentation, instead of blocking, is observed.

  17. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  18. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  19. Contingency power concepts for helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Davis, R. H.; Goldstein, D. N.; Haynes, J. F.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by power requirement of safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 minute Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, cooling flow modulation, throttle push and an auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military life cycle cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter direct operating cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine/rubber aircraft scenario.

  20. Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Nadine; Rhodes, Gillian; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2015-01-01

    Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect. PMID:26648890

  1. The measurement of contingent valuation for health economics.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2004-01-01

    In health economics, contingent valuation is a method that elicits an individual's monetary valuations of health programmes or health states. This article reviews the theory and conduct of contingent valuation studies, with suggestions for improving the future measurement of contingent valuation for health economics applications. Contingent valuation questions can be targeted to any of the following groups: the general population, to value health insurance premiums for programmes; users of a health programme, to value the associated programme costs; or individuals with a disease, to evaluate health states. The questions can be framed to ask individuals how much they would pay to obtain positive changes in health status or avoid negative changes in health status ('willingness to pay'; WTP) or how much they would need to be paid to compensate for a decrease in health status or for foregoing an improvement in heath status ('willingness to accept'; WTA). In general WTP questions yield more accurate and precise valuations than WTA questions. Payment card techniques, with follow-up bidding using direct interviews with visual aids, are well suited for small contingent valuation studies. Several biases may be operative when assessing contingent valuation, including biases in the way participants are selected, the way in which the questions are posed, the way in which individuals interpret probabilities and value gains relative to losses, and the way in which missing or extreme responses are interpreted. An important aspect of all contingent valuation studies is an assessment of respondents' understanding of the evaluation method and the valuation task. Contingent valuation studies should measure the potential influence of biases, the validity of contingent valuation tests as measures of QOL, and the reliability and responsiveness of responses. Future research should address equity concerns associated with using contingent valuation and explore contingent valuation as a

  2. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  3. 48 CFR 2132.770 - Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and special contingency reserve. 2132.770 Section 2132.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... and special contingency reserve. Insurance premium payments and a special contingency reserve are...

  4. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution.

    PubMed

    Bochkarev, V; Solovyev, V; Wichmann, S

    2014-12-06

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution.

  5. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bochkarev, V.; Solovyev, V.; Wichmann, S.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution. PMID:25274040

  6. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Araujo Silva, Maria; Leyser Gonçalves, Fábio; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative stimuli, responses, and consequences. This paper is aimed at highlighting exemplar instances in the development of this issue. It has long been known that the electrical stimulation of certain cerebral areas can have a reinforcing function. Extraordinary technological advances in recent years show that neural activity can be selected by consequences. For example, the activity of in vitro isolated neurons that receive dopamine as a reinforcer functions as a cellular analogue of operant conditioning. The in vivo activity of populations of neurons of rats and monkeys can be recorded on an instant-to-instant basis and can then be used to move mechanical arms or track a target as a function of consequences. Neural stimulation acts as a discriminative stimulus for operant responses that are in turn maintained by neural consequences. Together with investigations on the molecular basis of classical conditioning, those studies are examples of possibilities that are being created for the study of behavior–environment interactions within the organism. More important, they show that, as an element in the three-term contingency, neural activity follows the same laws as other events. PMID:22478485

  7. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: charge transfer reaction of N2(+)(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C Y

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N(2)(+)(v(+), N(+)) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+), v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N(2)(+) PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔE(lab) = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E(cm)'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) for the N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+); v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E(cm) range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E(cm)-dependencies of σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E(cm) = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar(+) from N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 0, N(+)) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v(+) = 0), confirming the narrow ΔE(cm) spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions

  8. A new multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 in Siluriformes: cytogenetic characterization of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Aspredinidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Milena; Garcia, Caroline; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; de Jesus, Isac Silva; Feldberg, Eliana

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed one Bunocephalus coracoideus population from the Negro River basin using cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a diploid number of 42 chromosomes in both sexes, with the karyotypic formula 4m + 14sm + 24a and fundamental number (FN) = 60 for females and the formula 5m + 14sm + 23a and FN = 61 for males, constituting an X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 multiple sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes, of which the X1, X2, and Y1 chromosomes were euchromatic and the Y2 chromosome was partially heterochromatic. 18S rDNA mapping confirmed the presence of nucleolar organizer regions on the short arms of the fifth chromosomal pair for both sexes. The 5S rDNA is present in the terminal regions of the short arms on the 2nd, 10th, and 12th pairs and on the X2 chromosome of both sexes; however, we observed variations in the presence of these ribosomal cistrons on the Y1 chromosome, on which the cistrons are pericentromeric, and on the Y2 chromosome, on which these cistrons are present in the terminal portions of the short and long arms. Telomeric sequences are located in the terminal regions of all of the chromosomes, particularly conspicuous blocks on the 10th and 12th pairs and internal telomeric sequences in the centromeric regions of the 1st, 6th, and 9th pairs for both sexes. This work describes an new sex chromosomes system for the Siluriformes and increases our genetic knowledge of the Aspredinidae family.

  9. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  10. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  11. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  12. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 51.1012 Section 51.1012 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... contingency measures to be undertaken if the area fails to make reasonable further progress, or fails...

  13. Infant Contingency/Extinction Performance after Observing Partial Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Catherine; Toland, Cynthia; King, Rose Ann; Martin, Lisa Maas

    2005-01-01

    Social information gathering by infants 6 and 12 months old was examined as a foundation for later social learning that may be uniquely human. Infant performance on a contingency/extinction task was studied following a caregiver demonstration of the contingency on varied reinforcement schedules. Infants who observed caregivers receive any…

  14. 78 FR 13765 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation (FAR) to revise the definition of ``contingency operation'' to address the statutory change to the definition made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012. DATES: Effective February...

  15. 78 FR 46781 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Definition of Contingency Operation AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD... the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to revise the definition of ``contingency operation'' to address the statutory change to the definition made by the National Defense Authorization Act for...

  16. CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects across the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Howard P.; Iwaszuk, Wendy M.; Kamps, Debra; Shumate, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a group-contingency intervention on student behavior across academic instructional periods. Research suggests group contingencies are evidence-based practices, yet calls for investigation to determine the best conditions and groups suited for this type of intervention. CW-FIT (Class-Wide Function-related…

  17. The Role of Relational Information in Contingent Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stefanie I.; Folk, Charles L.; Remington, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    On the contingent capture account, top-down attentional control settings restrict involuntary attentional capture to items that match the features of the search target. Attention capture is involuntary, but contingent on goals and intentions. The observation that only target-similar items can capture attention has usually been taken to show that…

  18. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... issued for money or publicly traded property and paragraph (c) of this section applies to a contingent....1273-2 (e.g., a contingent payment debt instrument that is issued for money or publicly traded property... any, of the price of 10,000 shares of publicly traded stock in an unrelated corporation on...

  19. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  20. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporate hazardous waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this.... EPA recommends that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency...

  1. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part. The owner... that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency plan, the changes...

  2. At the Crossroads: Attention, Contingency Awareness, and Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Halbeisen, Georg; Weil, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in the evaluation of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (US). One of the most debated topics in EC research is whether or not EC is dependent on contingency awareness. In this study, we go beyond this debate by examining whether contingency awareness…

  3. Safe Schools: Unified Emergency Contingency Plan for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Police, Springfield.

    This contingency plan is intended to stimulate emergency planning and provide an organizational tool for Illinois schools to use in the development of individual emergency plans. It may accommodate and complement a school's current contingency plan and will allow for the inclusion of additional material concerning school safety. It is intended as…

  4. Implications and Constraints of Fiscal Laws in Contingency Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Acquisition Regulation System DPAP Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy EDAR* Department of Education Acquisition Regulation System EPA ...to support essential missions in response to a crisis , contingency, or declaration of war” (Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy [DPAP], 2012...support necessities such as water , food, billeting, ammunition, communication devices, and transportation. When working in a contingency environment

  5. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how feedback contingency affects category learning, and current theories assign little or no importance to this variable. Two experiments examined the effects of contingency degradation on rule-based and information-integration category learning. In rule-based tasks, optimal accuracy is possible with a simple explicit rule, whereas optimal accuracy in information-integration tasks requires integrating information from two or more incommensurable perceptual dimensions. In both experiments, participants each learned rule-based or information-integration categories under either high or low levels of feedback contingency. The exact same stimuli were used in all four conditions and optimal accuracy was identical in every condition. Learning was good in both high-contingency conditions, but most participants showed little or no evidence of learning in either low-contingency condition. Possible causes of these effects are discussed, as well as their theoretical implications. PMID:27149393

  6. The role of feedback contingency in perceptual category learning.

    PubMed

    Ashby, F Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E

    2016-11-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how feedback contingency affects category learning, and current theories assign little or no importance to this variable. Two experiments examined the effects of contingency degradation on rule-based and information-integration category learning. In rule-based tasks, optimal accuracy is possible with a simple explicit rule, whereas optimal accuracy in information-integration tasks requires integrating information from 2 or more incommensurable perceptual dimensions. In both experiments, participants each learned rule-based or information-integration categories under either high or low levels of feedback contingency. The exact same stimuli were used in all 4 conditions, and optimal accuracy was identical in every condition. Learning was good in both high-contingency conditions, but most participants showed little or no evidence of learning in either low-contingency condition. Possible causes of these effects, as well as their theoretical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    SciTech Connect

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved.

  8. 48 CFR 52.203-5 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Contingent Fees. 52.203-5 Section 52.203-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.203-5 Covenant Against Contingent Fees. As prescribed in 3.404, insert the following...

  9. Flexible Workstyles: A Look at Contingent Labor. Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at a conference on contingent labor sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor. The first two sections are introductory: (1) "Introduction to the Role of Contingent Labor" (Kathleen Christensen, Mary Murphree); and (2) "Between Now and the Year 2000: A Glimpse of the Workplace" (Jill Houghton…

  10. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    PubMed Central

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  11. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  12. 1992 tubing tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper is helpful to those designing oil well completions or purchasing tubing with proprietary or premium connections. Tables contain specifications and application data for over 100 different tubing joints, including those used with fiberglass pipe. The tables this year contain dimensional and performance data for coiled tubing.

  13. Breaking the Myth of Flexible Work: Contingent Work in Toronto. A Study Conducted by the Contingent Workers Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolff, Alice

    A survey of 205 people, 4 group interviews with approximately 30 people, and 6 design and analysis meetings involving approximately 40 people were conducted in a 1999 participatory study of contingent workers in Toronto. (Contingent work was defined to be lower-waged forms of non-permanent work arrangements that include contracting, employment…

  14. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Requirements Document Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Jones, Katherine A.; Gearhart, Jared Lee

    2016-05-01

    This requirements document serves as an addendum to the Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 2, Requirements Document [1] and Phase 3 Requirements Document [2]. The Phase 2 Requirements document focused on the high-level requirements for the tool. The Phase 3 Requirements document provided more detailed requirements to which the engineering prototype was built in Phase 3. This document will provide detailed requirements for features and enhancements being added to the production pilot in the Phase 3 Sustainment.

  15. Maine and New Hampshire area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-29

    The Area Contingency Plan (ACP) describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State and local response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, New York. This plan addresses response to an average most probable discharge, a maximum most probable discharge, and a worst case discharge including discharges from fire or explosion. Planning for these three scenarios covers the expected range of spills likely to occur in this area. For purposes of this plan, the spill scenarios are based on the best historical data available.

  16. Plymouth to Salisbury, MA area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan (ACP) describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State and local response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Boston. This plan addresses response to an average most probable discharge, a maximum most probable discharge, and a worst case discharge including discharges from fire or explosion. Planning for these three scenarios covers the expected range of spills likely to occur in this area. For purposes of this plan, the spill scenarios are based on the best historical data available.

  17. Long Island sound area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-03

    The Area Contingency Plan (ACP) describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and local response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, Long Island Sound. This plan addresses response on an average most probable discharge, a maximum most probable discharge, and a worst case discharge including discharges from fire or explosion. Planning for these three scenarios covers the expected range of spills likely to occur in this area. For purpose of this plan, the spill scenarios are based on the best historical data available.

  18. Appraising the use of contingent valuation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, G C; Gyldmark, M

    1992-12-01

    The valuation of treatments and health states has been pursued in a number of ways. Most predominant are contingent valuation (CV), QALYs, and HYEs. CV--that is, willingness to pay and willingness to accept--is the only one of these methods that can be consistent with welfare economic theory, but, as discussed by Gafni (1990), in order to do so three criteria must be met. This article argues that the fulfilment of these criteria is not sufficient to obtain useful results, and some additional criteria are suggested. Several CV studies carried out in the area of health are reviewed, and their compliance or non-compliance, with both sets of criteria, is discussed. Finally, it is argued that, although CV is the more theoretically correct method, it is not a superior tool to QALYs and HYEs, and that the decision as to which is the appropriate valuation method depends on the policy issue at hand.

  19. Contingent stimuli signal subsequent reinforcer ratios.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nathalie; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

    2011-07-01

    Conditioned reinforcer effects may be due to the stimulus' discriminative rather than its strengthening properties. While this was demonstrated in a frequently-changing choice procedure, a single attempt to replicate in a relatively static choice environment failed. We contend that this was because the information provided by the stimuli was nonredundant in the frequently-changing preparation, and redundant in the steady-state arrangement. In the present experiments, 6 pigeons worked in a steady-state concurrent schedule procedure with nonredundant informative stimuli (red keylight illuminations). When a response-contingent red keylight signaled that the next food delivery was more likely on one of the two alternatives, postkeylight choice responding was reliably for that alternative. This effect was enhanced after a history of extended informative red keylight presentation (Experiment 2). These results lend support to recent characterizations of conditioned reinforcer effects as reflective of a discriminative, rather than a reinforcing, property of the stimulus.

  20. REINFORCEMENT OF VOCALIZATIONS THROUGH CONTINGENT VOCAL IMITATION

    PubMed Central

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations. PMID:21541136

  1. Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation.

    PubMed

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations using a reversal probe BAB design. Eleven 3- to 8-month-old infants at high risk for developmental delays experienced contingent maternal vocal imitation during reinforcement conditions. Differential reinforcement of other behavior served as the control condition. The behavior of 10 infants showed evidence of a reinforcement effect. Results indicated that vocal imitations can serve to reinforce early infant vocalizations.

  2. Using Information on Ordering for Loglinear Model Analysis of Multidimensional Contingency Tables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    analysis) and has been developed by Benzecri and his associates ( BENZECRI , 1973). Nothing in the description of this section requires that the pre...application of isotonicregression, Wiley, New York, 1972. BENZECRI . J.-P., L’analyse des correspondances (Volume 2 of L’analyse des donnees), Dunod, Paris

  3. Computer Programs for Sun and Moon Illuminance with Contingent Tables and Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-19

    Horseshoe Bend 111 43 Irwin 115 43 Jerome 116 46 Kami ah 116 48 Kellogg 114 44 Ketchue 111 45 Lake 117 49 Las*) Creek 113 45 Leadore 117 46 L«Mis:on...8217 /// 32 1806 257 000 /// 31 1835 243 /// /// 14 36 1729 316 141 /// 35 1750 305 113 /// 34 1814 253 000 /// 33 1843 239 /// /// 32 1917 221...85 39 Rising Sun 86 41 Rochester 87 38 Rockport 87 40 Rockville 85 40 Rushville 86 39 Seymour 86 40 Shelbyville 86 42 South Bend 87 39

  4. Contingency Management of Health Care Organizations: It Depends.

    PubMed

    Olden, Peter C

    Managers in health care organizations (HCOs) must perform many processes and activities, such as planning goals, designing organization structure, leading people, motivating employees, making decisions, and resolving conflict. How they do all this strongly affects the performance and outcomes of their organizations and themselves. Some managers develop a usual way of performing their jobs and achieve some success with a preferred method of leading or a favorite approach to motivating. However, their success will be limited if they always rely on a standard "1-size-fits-all" approach. This is because contingency factors influence the effectiveness of a given approach to managing. The "best" approach depends on contingency factors, including the situation and the people involved. Managers should choose an approach to fit with the changing contingency factors. This article explains why and how managers should develop a contingency approach to managing HCOs. The development of contingency theory is briefly described. Practical application of contingency management is explained for leading, motivating, decision making, and resolving conflict. By using a contingency approach, managers can be more effective when managing their HCOs.

  5. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment.

  6. Contingency Management Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Contingency Management (CM) Functional Requirements document. This document applies to HALE ROA operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) limited at this time to enroute operations above 43,000 feet (defined as Step 1 of the Access 5 project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A contingency is an unforeseen event requiring a response. The unforeseen event may be an emergency, an incident, a deviation, or an observation. Contingency Management (CM) is the process of evaluating the event, deciding on the proper course of action (a plan), and successfully executing the plan.

  7. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  8. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  9. Tilt Table Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and you're monitored closely. Most people regain consciousness almost immediately. In some cases, if blood pressure ... horizontal position, and you may not actually lose consciousness. When your tilt table test is complete, you ...

  10. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  11. Contingency Experiences of 3-Month-Old Children and Their Relation to Later Developmental Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohaus, Arnold; Keller, Heidi; Lissmann, Ilka; Ball, Juliane; Borke, Joern; Lamm, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relation between early social contingency experiences and infants' competencies to detect nonsocial contingencies. In this study of 87 three-month-old infants, the authors operationalized early social contingencies as prompt, contingent maternal responses and coded microanalytically on the basis of…

  12. Building a Contingency Menu: Using Capabilities-Based Planning for Homeland Defense and Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    contingencies . Strategic documents at DOD (e.g. Strategic Planning Guidance, Contingency Planning Guidance, and National Military Strategy) have started... planning against known navies of hostile nation -states, US Navy planners are now faced with planning against asymmetric threats. Existing contingency ...equivalent function of contingency planning under the concept of “preparedness.” The National Response Plan recognizes the vital nature of

  13. Contingency Planning Guide for Information Technology Systems: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    NIST Special Publication 800-34 Contingency Planning Guide for Information Technology Systems Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards...H-1 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Contingency Planning as an Element of... Contingency Planning Considerations, describes contingency planning concerns specific to the IT systems listed in Section 1.3, Scope. The section

  14. Comparison Between Several Square Tables Data Using Models of Symmetry and Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kouji; Tahata, Kouji; Miyamoto, Nobuko; Tomizawa, Sadao

    2008-03-01

    For the analysis of square contingency tables, various models of symmetry and asymmetry are proposed by many statisticians. This paper (1) reviews various models and (2) using models, compares four kinds of data on unaided distance vision of (i) men in Britain, (ii) women in Britain, (iii) students in a university of Japan, and (iv) pupils in elementary schools in Tokyo, Japan. This paper also (3) proposes the use of ratio parameter in the conditional symmetry model for comparing the degree of asymmetry in several tables.

  15. Single- and Dual-Process Models of Biased Contingency Detection.

    PubMed

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Blanco, Fernando; Yarritu, Ion; Matute, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research in causal and contingency learning show that people's estimations of the degree of contingency between two events are easily biased by the relative probabilities of those two events. If two events co-occur frequently, then people tend to overestimate the strength of the contingency between them. Traditionally, these biases have been explained in terms of relatively simple single-process models of learning and reasoning. However, more recently some authors have found that these biases do not appear in all dependent variables and have proposed dual-process models to explain these dissociations between variables. In the present paper we review the evidence for dissociations supporting dual-process models and we point out important shortcomings of this literature. Some dissociations seem to be difficult to replicate or poorly generalizable and others can be attributed to methodological artifacts. Overall, we conclude that support for dual-process models of biased contingency detection is scarce and inconclusive.

  16. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  17. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  18. Application of Contingency Theories to the Supervision of Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Julia D.

    1985-01-01

    This article examines selected approaches to student teacher supervision within the context of contingency theory. These include authentic supervision, developmental supervision, and supervision based on the student's level of maturity. (MT)

  19. National Contingency Plan (NCP) Subpart J Product Schedule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This section of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan stipulates the criteria for listing and managing the use of dispersants and other chemical and biological agents used to mitigate oil spills.

  20. Natural history's hypothetical moments: narratives of contingency in Victorian culture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tina Young

    2009-01-01

    This essay focuses on the ways in which works by Robert Chambers, Charles Darwin, and George Eliot encouraged readers to imagine the future as contingent. But where Chambers alludes to Charles Babbage's computational engine and the period's life insurance industry to hint at the role of contingency in natural history, Darwin insists on the importance of contingently determined outcomes to speciation. The "Origin" consistently exercises the reader's speculative energies by generating conditional statements, causal hypotheses, adn diverging alternatives. "Adam Bede" constitutes its characters' interior lives around the proliferation of such contingent narratives. To reflect on the future or on the past, these works suggest, demands a temporal, moral, and narrative complexity in one's thinking.

  1. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESOURCES REVENUE COLLECTION OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, BONUSES, AND OTHER MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of...

  2. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESOURCES REVENUE COLLECTION OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, BONUSES, AND OTHER MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of...

  3. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESOURCES REVENUE COLLECTION OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, BONUSES, AND OTHER MONIES DUE THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of...

  4. Integrated Demonstration of Instrument Placement , Robust Execution and Contingent Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Bualat, M.; Lees, D.; Smith, D. E.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor); Washington, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated demonstration of ground-based contingent planning, robust execution and autonomous instrument placement for the efficient exploration of a site by a prototype Mars rover.

  5. Contingency Planning for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarch, Michael A.; Rohrbaugh, David; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) utilized a phasing loop/lunar encounter strategy to achieve a small amplitude Lissajous orbit about the Sun-Earth/Moon L2 libration point. The use of phasing loops was key in minimizing MAP's overall deltaV needs while also providing ample opportunities for contingency resolution. This paper will discuss the different contingencies and responses studied for MAP. These contingencies included accommodating excessive launch vehicle errors (beyond 3 sigma), splitting perigee maneuvers to achieve ground station coverage through the Deep Space Network (DSN), delaying the start of a perigee maneuver, aborting a perigee maneuver in the middle of execution, missing a perigee maneuver altogether, and missing the lunar encounter (crucial to achieving the final Lissajous orbit). It is determined that using a phasing loop approach permits many opportunities to correct for a majority of these contingencies.

  6. Preparing for the Unexpected, Contracting in Contingency Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    The Congressional Record ; the Defense Logistics Studies Iniormation E\\change (DISIE); The Naval Postgraduate Library; and a review of current...An example of an unplanned mission is the evacuation of American Nationals from Liberia and Somalia . Even though these contingencies are of an...regulations duning contingency situations. Through advance preparation, some of the preconceptions and prejudices of fonrci’n ,-ontr:ctors by

  7. FY2009 Spring Supplemental Appropriations for Overseas Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-15

    critical needs related to emerging influenza viruses . April 9, 2009, Supplemental Request for Overseas Contingencies and Other Purposes1 On April 9...Additional and Contingent Appropriations Request and Other Authorities to Enhance the Nation’s Capability to Respond to Emerging Flu Viruses ; and an...President determines that additional resources are required to address critical needs related to emerging influenza viruses .” In addition to $2.0

  8. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Petty, Brian; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only approximately 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini-ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  9. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini- ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  10. Disruptive effects of contingent food on high-probability behavior.

    PubMed

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A; Borrero, John C; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B; DeLeon, Iser G

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the contingent provision of the food, which may have functioned as a discriminative stimulus that occasioned competing responses.

  11. Reaction-contingency based bipartite Boolean modelling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intracellular signalling systems are highly complex, rendering mathematical modelling of large signalling networks infeasible or impractical. Boolean modelling provides one feasible approach to whole-network modelling, but at the cost of dequantification and decontextualisation of activation. That is, these models cannot distinguish between different downstream roles played by the same component activated in different contexts. Results Here, we address this with a bipartite Boolean modelling approach. Briefly, we use a state oriented approach with separate update rules based on reactions and contingencies. This approach retains contextual activation information and distinguishes distinct signals passing through a single component. Furthermore, we integrate this approach in the rxncon framework to support automatic model generation and iterative model definition and validation. We benchmark this method with the previously mapped MAP kinase network in yeast, showing that minor adjustments suffice to produce a functional network description. Conclusions Taken together, we (i) present a bipartite Boolean modelling approach that retains contextual activation information, (ii) provide software support for automatic model generation, visualisation and simulation, and (iii) demonstrate its use for iterative model generation and validation. PMID:23835289

  12. A Dynamical Systems Account of Sensorimotor Contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor approach, perception is a form of embodied know-how, constituted by lawful regularities in the sensorimotor flow or in sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs) in an active and situated agent. Despite the attention that this approach has attracted, there have been few attempts to define its core concepts formally. In this paper, we examine the idea of SMCs and argue that its use involves notions that need to be distinguished. We introduce four distinct kinds of SMCs, which we define operationally. These are the notions of sensorimotor environment (open-loop motor-induced sensory variations), sensorimotor habitat (closed-loop sensorimotor trajectories), sensorimotor coordination (reliable sensorimotor patterns playing a functional role), and sensorimotor strategy (normative organization of sensorimotor coordinations). We make use of a minimal dynamical model of visually guided categorization to test the explanatory value of the different kinds of SMCs. Finally, we discuss the impact of our definitions on the conceptual development and empirical as well as model-based testing of the claims of the sensorimotor approach. PMID:23750143

  13. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws?

  14. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  15. A dynamical systems account of sensorimotor contingencies.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor approach, perception is a form of embodied know-how, constituted by lawful regularities in the sensorimotor flow or in sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs) in an active and situated agent. Despite the attention that this approach has attracted, there have been few attempts to define its core concepts formally. In this paper, we examine the idea of SMCs and argue that its use involves notions that need to be distinguished. We introduce four distinct kinds of SMCs, which we define operationally. These are the notions of sensorimotor environment (open-loop motor-induced sensory variations), sensorimotor habitat (closed-loop sensorimotor trajectories), sensorimotor coordination (reliable sensorimotor patterns playing a functional role), and sensorimotor strategy (normative organization of sensorimotor coordinations). We make use of a minimal dynamical model of visually guided categorization to test the explanatory value of the different kinds of SMCs. Finally, we discuss the impact of our definitions on the conceptual development and empirical as well as model-based testing of the claims of the sensorimotor approach.

  16. Contingency blindness: location-identity binding mismatches obscure awareness of spatial contingencies and produce profound interference in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Milliken, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the role of location-identity binding mismatches in obscuring explicit awareness of a strong contingency. In a spatial-priming procedure, we introduced a high likelihood of location-repeat trials. Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b demonstrated that participants' explicit awareness of this contingency was heavily influenced by the local match in location-identity bindings. In Experiment 3, we sought to determine why location-identity binding mismatches produce such low levels of contingency awareness. Our results suggest that binding mismatches can interfere substantially with visual-memory performance. We attribute the low levels of contingency awareness to participants' inability to remember the critical location-identity binding in the prime on a trial-to-trial basis. These results imply a close interplay between object files and visual working memory.

  17. Historical Contingencies in Microbial Responses to Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, C.; Waring, B.; Rocca, J.; Kivlin, S.; Giauque, H.; Averill, C.

    2014-12-01

    Although water is a primary controller of microbial function and we expect climate change to alter water availability in the future, our understanding of how microbial communities respond to a change in moisture and what that means for soil carbon cycling remain poorly understood. In part, this uncertainty arises from a lack of understanding of microbial response mechanisms and how those lead to aggregate soil function. Environmental tracking would be facilitated if microbial communities respond to new climatic conditions via rapid physiological acclimatization, shifts in community composition, or adaptation. In contrast, historical contingencies could be created by dispersal limitation or local adaptation to previous conditions. To address environmental tracking vs. legacies, we examined how soil microbial communities were affected by precipitation at multiple scales and asked whether rainfall was a primary driver of the observed responses. We leveraged a local steep rainfall gradient with field surveys, lab incubations, reciprocal transplants, and rainfall manipulations to approach this problem. Across a steep rainfall gradient, we found that soil microbial communities were strongly associated with historical rainfall, with two-thirds of the variation in community composition explained by mean annual precipitation. In 12-month experimental lab manipulations of soil moisture, soil functional responses were constrained by historical rainfall, with greater activity in soils subjected to their original moisture condition. The constraints of historical rainfall held even after 18 months in reciprocal transplant common gardens along the rainfall gradient and with manipulated dispersal of regional microbial communities. Yet, when water was manipulated at a single site over 4 years, legacies did not develop. Overall, these findings are consistent with long-term rainfall acting as a strong habitat filter and resulting in a legacy of both microbial community composition

  18. Space station wardroom table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Kaplicky, Jan (Inventor); Nixon, David A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A table top for use in constricted areas has a plurality of support arms abutting at one end to form a hub. The support arms are arranged in equidistant, spaced-apart relation to each other at the ends distal to the hub. A plurality of work surface leaf sections mounted between the support arms are individually pivotable through 360 degrees about their longitudinal axes. The table top additionally has a plurality of distal leaves, each distal leaf being attached to the distal end of one of the arms. The distal leaves are pivotable between an upright position level with the support arms and a stored position below the support arms.

  19. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; McCall, Philip J.; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Lloyd, Linda S.; Hakim, Lokman; Bowman, Leigh R.; Horstick, Olaf; Coelho, Giovanini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks. Methodology/Principal findings Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed. Conclusions/Significance Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak

  20. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  1. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Platform Requirements - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is in Phase 3 Sustainment of development of a prototype tool, currently referred to as the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOTP), under the direction of OSD Program Support. CCOT-P is intended to help provide senior Department of Defense (DoD) leaders with comprehensive insight into the global availability, readiness and capabilities of the Total Force Mix. The CCOT-P will allow senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks and mitigating strategies for proposed changes to force/capabilities assignments, apportionments and allocations options, focusing specifically on contingency contractor planning. During Phase 2 of the program, conducted during fiscal year 2012, Sandia developed an electronic storyboard prototype of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool that can be used for communication with senior decision makers and other Operational Contract Support (OCS) stakeholders. Phase 3 used feedback from demonstrations of the electronic storyboard prototype to develop an engineering prototype for planners to evaluate. Sandia worked with the DoD and Joint Chiefs of Staff strategic planning community to get feedback and input to ensure that the engineering prototype was developed to closely align with future planning needs. The intended deployment environment was also a key consideration as this prototype was developed. Initial release of the engineering prototype was done on servers at Sandia in the middle of Phase 3. In 2013, the tool was installed on a production pilot server managed by the OUSD(AT&L) eBusiness Center. The purpose of this document is to specify the CCOT-P engineering prototype platform requirements as of May 2016. Sandia developed the CCOT-P engineering prototype using common technologies to minimize the likelihood of deployment issues. CCOT-P engineering prototype was architected and designed to be as independent as possible of the major deployment

  2. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  3. Guide to the Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a table that provides a snapshot of how employment is expected to change in 289 occupations. For each occupation, it shows estimated employment in 2008, the projected numeric change in employment (that is, how many jobs are expected to be gained or lost) over the 2008-18 decade, and the projected percent change in employment…

  4. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  5. NEW APPROACHES: Pool table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Malcolm

    1998-05-01

    This article explains a novel way of demonstrating the principle of conservation of energy. This can be difficult to demonstrate in the laboratory, but if students have been convinced of the conservation of momentum, two-dimensional collisions on a pool table may be used.

  6. The Dynamic Force Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, John B.; Black, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    We examine an experimental apparatus that is used to motivate the connections between the basic properties of vectors, potential functions, systems of nonlinear equations, and Newton's method for nonlinear systems of equations. The apparatus is an adaptation of a force table where we remove the center-pin and allow the center-ring to move freely.…

  7. The Effectiveness of Gaze-Contingent Control in Computer Games.

    PubMed

    Orlov, Paul A; Apraksin, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology and gaze-contingent control in human-computer interaction have become an objective reality. This article reports on a series of eye-tracking experiments, in which we concentrated on one aspect of gaze-contingent interaction: Its effectiveness compared with mouse-based control in a computer strategy game. We propose a measure for evaluating the effectiveness of interaction based on "the time of recognition" the game unit. In this article, we use this measure to compare gaze- and mouse-contingent systems, and we present the analysis of the differences as a function of the number of game units. Our results indicate that performance of gaze-contingent interaction is typically higher than mouse manipulation in a visual searching task. When tested on 60 subjects, the results showed that the effectiveness of gaze-contingent systems over 1.5 times higher. In addition, we obtained that eye behavior stays quite stabile with or without mouse interaction.

  8. Effects of sensitization on the detection of an instrumental contingency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gavin D; Vugler, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    While prior exposure to drugs of abuse permanently changes many behaviors, the underlying psychological mechanisms are relatively obscure. Here, the effects of sensitization on the detection of an action-outcome relationship were assessed, using a particularly stringent contingency degradation procedure. Rats were trained to leverpress until the probability of reinforcement for a response on one lever, or alternative reinforcement for a response on a second lever was reduced to 0.05 per second. Sensitization was then carried out (1mg/kg d-amphetamine/day for 7 days). Then, one reinforcer was also made available for a lack of response on either lever (p=0.05/s), maintaining its contiguity with the original response but eliminating its contingent relationship. Sensitized animals were more active, particularly early in the contingency degradation phase, but reduced responding directed at the degraded action-outcome contingency at a similar rate as controls. However, controls also reduced responding directed at the nondegraded contingency until very late in training, while sensitized animals maintained nondegraded responding at baseline levels. It was suggested that the relatively specific response shown by sensitized animals may reflect either improved action-outcome utilization or discrimination of relevant task features.

  9. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  10. Comparisons of synthesized and individual reinforcement contingencies during functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Romani, Patrick W; Zangrillo, Amanda N; Owen, Todd M

    2016-09-01

    Researchers typically modify individual functional analysis (FA) conditions after results are inconclusive (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Hanley, Jin, Vanselow, and Hanratty (2014) introduced a marked departure from this practice, using an interview-informed synthesized contingency analysis (IISCA). In the test condition, they delivered multiple contingencies simultaneously (e.g., attention and escape) after each occurrence of problem behavior; in the control condition, they delivered those same reinforcers noncontingently and continuously. In the current investigation, we compared the results of the IISCA with a more traditional FA in which we evaluated each putative reinforcer individually. Four of 5 participants displayed destructive behavior that was sensitive to the individual contingencies evaluated in the traditional FA. By contrast, none of the participants showed a response pattern consistent with the assumption of the IISCA. We discuss the implications of these findings on the development of accurate and efficient functional analyses.

  11. Redundancy matters: flexible learning of multiple contingencies in infants.

    PubMed

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M; Robinson, Christopher W

    2013-02-01

    Many objects and events can be categorized in different ways, and learning multiple categories in parallel often requires flexibly attending to different stimulus dimensions in different contexts. Although infants and young children often exhibit poor attentional control, several theoretical proposals argue that such flexibility can be achieved without selective attention. If this is the case, then even young infants should be able to learn multiple dimension-context contingencies in parallel. This possibility was tested in four experiments with 14- and 22-month-olds. Learning of contingencies succeeded as long as there were multiple correlations between the context and the to-be-learned dimension. These findings suggest that infants can learn multiple dimension-context contingencies in parallel, but only when there is sufficient redundancy in the input.

  12. Identifying possible contingencies during descriptive analyses of severe behavior disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, T R; Borrero, J C; Wright, C S; Van Camp, C; Lalli, J S

    2001-01-01

    Contingencies of reinforcement involve, in part, relations between behavior and subsequent environmental events. In this study we observed 11 individuals with developmental disabilities and severe behavior problems while they interacted with their primary care providers in simulated environments (hospital therapy rooms). We compared the probability of obtaining attention, escape from instructional demands, or access to materials following instances of problem behavior with the background probability of those events. However, the focus of our analysis was the evaluation of comparative probabilities ("contingency values") in the context of relevant establishing operations such as diverted attention, instructional demands, and restricted access to materials. Results showed that the method was useful in identifying relations between behavior and subsequent environmental events. Implications for linking descriptive and functional analyses are discussed, and difficulties in identifying naturally occurring contingencies are considered. PMID:11678524

  13. Volcanic Eruption: Students Develop a Contingency Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2013-04-01

    , causing a blockage and afflux of the Rhine, which, due to the given conditions of a very narrow valley, would lead to excessive flooding affecting even the greater Rhine-Main-region. Not to mention the consequences of a pyroclastic flow, dropping volcanic bombs and further hazardous/disastrous consequences. In comparison to other "potentially active" or "active volcanoes", e.g. the Vesuvius, the Laacher See is scarcely monitored and according to recent publications poorly analyzed in terms of contingency and evacuation plans. This offers space for critical analysis and creative solutions to an existing problem. Short: We need geographers and their knowledge to provide help. Given these facts, the Laacher See could be the layout for a very interesting geography project bringing together previously gained knowledge and understanding of volcanic activities, their destructive powers, consequences and risks in case of an eruption in combination with their topographical characteristics. Your students thereby act the role of a geoscientist developing contingency plans and evacuation zones for the greater Laacher See area. This involves a detailed analysis of the topographical characteristics based on (classic) topographic maps or online via the use of a GIS (e.g. Google maps). In a second step students enlist the possible consequences they already know according to their range and copy them onto a transparency layer on the topographic map. Using such a layer technique students add population density, important topographic features and maybe even anticipated wind directions to their map. The information density and the specific layout of this map are thereby only determined by the student's previous knowledge, their personal abilities and skills and the amount of time provided. This offers the opportunities to even differentiate the task within your group and provide support adjusted to the individual students level. On the basis of their own thematic map your students should be

  14. Contingency Operations of Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Richardson, Lea

    2010-01-01

    America has begun the development of a new space vehicle system which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. The system is called Constellation: it has 2 earth-launch vehicles, Ares I and Ares V; a crew module, Orion; and a lander, Altair with descent and ascent stages. Ares V will launch an Earth Departure Stage (EDS) and Altair into low earth orbit. Ares I will launch the Orion crew module into low earth orbit where it will rendezvous and dock with the Altair and EDS "stack". After rendezvous, the stack will contain four complete rocket systems, each capable of independent operations. Of course this multiplicity of vehicles provides a multiplicity of opportunities for off-nominal behavior and multiple mitigation options for each. Contingency operations are complicated by the issues of crew safety and the possibility of debris from the very large components impacting the ground. This paper examines contingency operations of the EDS in low earth orbit, during the boost to translunar orbit, and after the translunar boost. Contingency operations under these conditions have not been a consideration since the Apollo era and analysis of the possible contingencies and mitigations will take some time to evolve. Since the vehicle has not been designed, much less built, it is not possible to evaluate contingencies from a root-cause basis or from a probability basis; rather they are discussed at an effects level (such as the reaction control system is consuming propellant at a high rate). Mitigations for the contingencies are based on the severity of the off-nominal condition, the time of occurrence, recovery options, options for alternate missions, crew safety, evaluation of the condition (forensics) and future prevention. Some proposed mitigations reflect innovation in thinking and make use of the multiplicity of on-orbit resources including the crew; example: Orion could do a "fly around" to allow the crew to determine the condition

  15. Orientation dependence of the orientation-contingent face aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Watson, Tamara L; Clifford, Colin W G

    2006-10-01

    Prolonged exposure to upright and inverted female and male faces produces opposite effects on subsequent judgments of the sex of faces depending on their orientation. We show that the magnitude of this orientation-contingent gender aftereffect can be predicted from simple aftereffects induced separately at the same orientations. The contingent aftereffect can also be induced in faces tilted 90 degrees to the right and left, eliminating any difference in face-processing strategy that may be in operation with upright and inverted faces. This suggests that neurons employing a single face encoding strategy can be activated in an orientation-specific manner.

  16. Implications of Contingency Planning Support for Weather and Icing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A human-centered systems analysis was applied to the adverse aircraft weather encounter problem in order to identify desirable functions of weather and icing information. The importance of contingency planning was identified as emerging from a system safety design methodology as well as from results of other aviation decision-making studies. The relationship between contingency planning support and information on regions clear of adverse weather was investigated in a scenario- based analysis. A rapid prototype example of the key elements in the depiction of icing conditions was developed in a case study, and the implications for the components of the icing information system were articulated.

  17. ATC contingency operations in the en-route flight regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Air traffic control (ATC) operations were examined to learn what factors of controller performance should be given consideration in the design and development of future automation systems enhancing ATC. Contingencies were of two types: those constraining airspace usage or traffic flow (i.e., weather); and those related to system and equipment usage (i.e., radar/radio status). Examination of controller response to contingencies and workload pressures showed differing effects on controller allocations of effort among the three primary function of planning, monitoring, and informaton transfer. Automation advancements oriented towards aiding the controller in performing monitoring tasks may offer the most substantial safety benefit.

  18. 78 FR 45905 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through...

  19. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through...

  20. 75 FR 27255 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Louisiana, through the...

  1. 76 FR 58404 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains to the remaining portions of...

  2. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and ] Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This...

  3. 78 FR 69360 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and...

  4. 77 FR 64790 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, and Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 ] National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Michigan, through...

  5. 78 FR 48844 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)....

  6. 78 FR 66325 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of South...

  7. 78 FR 73449 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ..., Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: October 28, 2013. Karl Brooks, Regional... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This partial deletion pertains...

  8. 76 FR 32115 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of...

  9. 78 FR 45167 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances,...

  10. League tables for orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Stephen; Phillips, Ceri; Durning, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the complexities in constructing league tables purporting to measure orthodontic clinical outcomes. Eighteen orthodontists were invited to participate in a cost-effectiveness study. Each orthodontist was asked to provide information on 100 consecutively treated patients. The Index of Complexity, Outcome, and Need (ICON) was used to assess treatment need, complexity, and outcome prior to, and on completion of, orthodontic treatment. The 18 orthodontists were ranked based on achieving a successful orthodontic outcome (ICON score less than or equal to 30) and the uncertainty in both the success rates and rankings was also quantified using confidence intervals. Successful outcomes were achieved in 62 per cent of the sample (range 19–94 per cent); four of the 18 orthodontists failed to achieve more than a 50 per cent success rate. In developing league tables, it is imperative that factors such as case mix are identified and accounted for in producing rankings. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to achieve this and to quantify uncertainty in the rankings produced. When case mix was taken into account, the four with low success rates were clearly not as good as the top four performing orthodontists. League tables can be valuable for the individual orthodontist, groups of orthodontists, payment/insurance agencies, and the public to enable informed choice for orthodontic provision but must be correctly constructed so that users can have confidence in them. PMID:18687990

  11. Pyrolysis of table sugar.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Adnan; Karagöz, Selhan

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro- α -d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  12. Two Loops That Need Closing: Contingent Faculty Perceptions of Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Gray; Danley-Scott, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature on non-tenure-track (NTT) faculty focuses largely on whether relying on contingent faculty is harmful to students. However, studies rarely survey contingent faculty or explore how to increase NTT faculty participation in outcomes assessment, even though contingent faculty teach most general education courses. Our survey of…

  13. A Review of the Use of Group Contingencies in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these…

  14. Direct and Collateral Effects of Positive Reinforcement, Response Cost, and Mixed Contingencies for Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Sam F.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    1978-01-01

    The relative effects of positive reinforcement, response cost, and the two contingencies combined when used as contingencies for correct academic responses were compared on the dependent measures of accuracy of academic performance and level of on-task behavior. All three contingency systems increased academic performance and on-task behavior.…

  15. 29 CFR 4022.27 - Phase-in of guarantee of unpredictable contingent event benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phase-in of guarantee of unpredictable contingent event... Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.27 Phase-in of guarantee of unpredictable contingent event benefits. (a) Scope... event benefit (UCEB) and that is payable with respect to an unpredictable contingent event (UCE)...

  16. Extending Organizational Contingency Theory to Team Performance - An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINGENCY THEORY TO TEAM PERFORMANCE – AN INFORMATION PROCESSING AND KNOWLEDGE FLOWS PERSPECTIVE by Tara A. Leweling...Contingency Theory to Team Performance – An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective 6. AUTHOR(S): Tara A. Leweling 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...contingency framework, I suggest that the intersection of the information processing structures and the contigent influence of knowledge sharing is an

  17. 77 FR 64748 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final partial deletion is being published by EPA, with the... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to section 105 of...

  18. An Analysis of Group-Oriented Contingencies and Associated Side Effects in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Briggs, Adam M.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2017-01-01

    Group-oriented contingencies are arranged to target the behavior of a group of people simultaneously. Overall, group-oriented contingencies have been shown to be effective in both decreasing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. However, results are mixed regarding which type(s) of group-oriented contingency is most effective for…

  19. 76 FR 45432 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan... B of 40 CFR part 300 which is the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency...

  20. 75 FR 27464 - Special Reporting, Analysis and Contingent Resolution Plans at Certain Large Insured Depository...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 360 RIN 3064-AD59 Special Reporting, Analysis and Contingent Resolution Plans at... complex financial parent companies to submit to the FDIC analysis, information, and contingent resolution... steps that are or will be taken to eliminate or mitigate such impediments. The contingent...

  1. Contingent Capability of a Conceived Child: Civil Law Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirillova, Elena A.; Suslikov, Vladimir N.; Blinkova, Elena V.; Blinkov, Oleg E.; Staroseltseva, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers on contingent legal capability of a conceived child. To protect the capability of conceived children and legal rights, including property, emerging on that basis, it is imperative to strictly identify the moment of emergence and termination of legal capability. The objective of this research is to analyze the provisions on civil…

  2. School Management and Contingency Theory: An Emerging Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    An understanding of the "situational" characteristics of the organizational forces that influence the relationships between environmental, management, and performance variables is now coming to be seen as a key to understanding the management process itself. This paper is a synthesis of the contingency theory literature drawn from the…

  3. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  4. The Old Normal: Casualization and Contingency in Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2015-01-01

    American higher education is in the midst of a staffing crisis. More than three quarters of faculty members work off the tenure track, often with no job security, low wages, and few prospects for advancement. While the contingent labor force is diversified--including highly qualified but part-time laborers piecing together positions at multiple…

  5. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal contingency plans. 300.210 Section 300.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... their habitats and other important sensitive areas requiring protection from any direct or...

  6. Contingency, Imitation, and Affect Sharing: Foundations of Infants' Social Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during…

  7. Transgressive vs Conformative: Immigrant Women Learning at Contingent Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Srabani; Shan, Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The paper seeks to explore workers' learning in relation to the racialized and gendered organization of contingent work. Design/methodology/approach--This paper is informed by Marxist theorization of labour power and learning. It draws on the interview data of 24 highly educated immigrant women from the research project "Skilled In…

  8. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  9. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... statute; (B) A primary objective of the plan or arrangement is to enable the participants to pay for the costs of post-secondary education for themselves or their designated beneficiaries; and (C) Contingent... paragraph (b)(4)(i)(A) of this section) that is higher than the applicable Federal rate. The presumption...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statute; (B) A primary objective of the plan or arrangement is to enable the participants to pay for the costs of post-secondary education for themselves or their designated beneficiaries; and (C) Contingent... paragraph (b)(4)(i)(A) of this section) that is higher than the applicable Federal rate. The presumption...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... statute; (B) A primary objective of the plan or arrangement is to enable the participants to pay for the costs of post-secondary education for themselves or their designated beneficiaries; and (C) Contingent... paragraph (b)(4)(i)(A) of this section) that is higher than the applicable Federal rate. The presumption...

  12. Commitment Contingencies in the Behavioral Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Richard S.; Powers, Richard B.

    Commitment is a self-control technique to induce weight loss. Tow targets of commitment contingencies, completion of the study and behavior change, were examined among 42 female and 3 male subjects who made a monetary deposit to enroll in the 10-week program. The treatment consisted of self-monitoring of eating and exercise behavior. Subjects were…

  13. Disruptive Effects of Contingent Food on High-Probability Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Borrero, John C.; Nguyen, Linda; Leon-Enriquez, Yanerys; Carreau-Webster, Abbey B.; DeLeon, Iser G.

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of food contingent on 10 s of consecutive toy engagement resulted in a decrease in engagement and a corresponding increase in other responses that had been previously reinforced with food. Similar effects were not observed when tokens exchangeable for the same food were delivered, suggesting that engagement was disrupted by the…

  14. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  15. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Robert Augdahl, Bill Nickels, Cassandra Zellers

    2008-04-16

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  16. Skype Me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live…

  17. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items...

  18. 48 CFR 52.203-5 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Covenant Against Contingent Fees. 52.203-5 Section 52.203-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions...

  19. Children's Behavioral Characteristics and Their Ability to Detect Social Contingency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normandeau, Sylvie; Cantin, Stephane

    Studies have suggested that the presence of individual differences in children's ability to detect social contingencies may be related to their behavioral characteristics, as a result of cumulative transactions with their physical and social environments. This study sought to identify behavioral characteristics associated with children's ability…

  20. 48 CFR 552.270-32 - Covenant Against Contingent Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Contingent Fees. 552.270-32 Section 552.270-32 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552... agency, as used in this clause, means an established commercial or selling agency (including...

  1. Principals' Leadership Behaviour: Values-Based, Contingent or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Concepts of values-based leadership posit that school principals' professional practice must be informed by values to ensure coherently purposeful activities. Contingency models stress the contextual dependency of professional practice and the need to match activities to local opportunities and constraints. The purpose of this paper is to…

  2. Dimensions of Academic Contingencies among African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tiffany Monique; Chavous, Tabbye; Cogburn, Courtney; Branch, LaToya; Sellers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from existing literature, the authors conceptualized a two-dimensional framework of African American students' academic contingencies of self-worth. The results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with a sample of African American college freshmen (N = 330) supported this prediction. Self-Worth Dependent academic…

  3. An Alternative to Costly High Tech Contingency Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, John E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    At McGill University (Canada), rather than implement a costly, high-tech contingency and disaster recovery plan for information services, planners focused on risk assessment and avoidance for central and departmental information systems. Actions included better backups, less dependence on key individuals, and an institutional awareness campaign.…

  4. Quantitative Assessments of Sensitivity to Reinforcement Contingencies in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…

  5. Single- and Dual-Process Models of Biased Contingency Detection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Decades of research in causal and contingency learning show that people’s estimations of the degree of contingency between two events are easily biased by the relative probabilities of those two events. If two events co-occur frequently, then people tend to overestimate the strength of the contingency between them. Traditionally, these biases have been explained in terms of relatively simple single-process models of learning and reasoning. However, more recently some authors have found that these biases do not appear in all dependent variables and have proposed dual-process models to explain these dissociations between variables. In the present paper we review the evidence for dissociations supporting dual-process models and we point out important shortcomings of this literature. Some dissociations seem to be difficult to replicate or poorly generalizable and others can be attributed to methodological artifacts. Overall, we conclude that support for dual-process models of biased contingency detection is scarce and inconclusive. PMID:27025532

  6. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  7. A Web-Based Contingency Management Program with Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Dallery, Jesse; Shroff, Palak; Patak, Michele; Leraas, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated a new 30-day Web-based contingency management program for smoking abstinence with 4 daily-smoking adolescents. Participants made 3 daily video recordings of themselves giving breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples at home that were sent electronically to study personnel. Using a reversal design, participants could earn…

  8. Contingencies of Reinforcement in a Five-Person Prisoner's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Rachlin, Howard

    2004-01-01

    As in studies of self-control, a tit-for-tat contingency in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game creates a conflict between maximization of local and global reinforcement. The present experiments examine this conflict in a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game. Versus tit for tat, cooperation corresponds to self-control; defection, always immediately…

  9. Evaluating the Role of Contingency in Differentially Reinforced Tic Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himle, Michael B.; Woods, Douglas W.; Bunaciu, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of tokens delivered on differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior (DRO) schedules or noncontingently on tic suppression in 4 children with tics. Tic frequency was lower in 3 of 4 children when tokens were delivered contingent on the absence of tics than when tokens were delivered noncontingently.…

  10. Flaws in the Design of the Income Contingent Repayment Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the income-contingent repayment mechanism of the federal direct lending program suggests that it will be considerably more expensive than other repayment options in total interest costs for many; lead to hefty tax liabilities for some; be administratively cumbersome, vulnerable to fraud and abuse, and costly to taxpayers; and invite…

  11. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to donn her helmet before being submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), communication carrier assembly (CCA) but no helmet.

  12. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to be submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is standing on the platform in the full extravehicular mobility unit (EMU).

  13. Contingent negative variation as an indicator of sexual object preference.

    PubMed

    Costell, R M; Lunde, D T; Kopell, B S; Wittner, W K

    1972-08-25

    The contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded in the interval between paired visual exposures of male nudes, female nudes, and sexually "neutral" silhouettes. Groups of 12 male and 12 female subjects viewing 50 randomized presentations from each stinmulus category responded with averaged CNV amplitudes proportional to the predicted degree of sexual interest in the stimulus classes.

  14. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  15. Area contingency plan Western Lake Erie. (COTP Toledo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-31

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Erie Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Toledo Coastal Zone.

  16. Area contingency plan Sault Ste. Marie. (COTP Sault Ste. Marie)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by Sault Ste. Marie Area Committee, which is chaired by the U.S. Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the CTOP Sault Ste. Marie Coastal Zone.

  17. Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

  18. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  19. New York and New Jersey area contingency plan. Change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-24

    Change 4 updates the Area Contingency Plan, which describes the strategy for a coordinated Federal, State, and local response to a discharge of oil or a release of hazardous substance from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating within the boundaries of the area of responsibility for Captain of the Port, New York.

  20. Scenes: Social Context in an Age of Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Daniel; Clark, Terry Nichols; Yanez, Clemente Jesus Navarro

    2010-01-01

    This article builds on an important but underdeveloped social science concept--the "scene" as a cluster of urban amenities--to contribute to social science theory and subspecialties such as urban and rural, class, race and gender studies. Scenes grow more important in less industrial, more expressively-oriented and contingent societies where…

  1. Contingency Contracting with Drug Addicts in the Natural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudin, Henry M.; And Others

    Contingency contracting, as a viable treatment modality for the rehabilitation of drug abusers, has been investigated, and promising results have been attained. During the past two and one-half years drug abuse treatment and paraprofessional training models have been developed. Treatment for drug abuse has been facilitated within the natural…

  2. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  3. [Angiomyolipoma with epithelioid contingent mimicking renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Spie, Romain; Devevey, Jean-Marc; Ponnelle, Tibor; Michel, Frédéric

    2005-04-01

    The authors report the case of a patient followed for renal angiomyolipoma. On CT surveillance, this lesion developed features of a malignant tumour with loss of the fatty component and the patient was treated by nephrectomy. Histological examination demonstrated renal angiomyolipoma with an epithelioid contingent. The various aspects of this histological and radiological variant are discussed.

  4. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3 Fishermen's... purposes of title IV of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978, as amended. (b) Payments... Continental Shelf Lands Act, in effect on or after June 30, 1982, shall pay assessments to the Fund....

  5. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3 Fishermen's... purposes of title IV of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978, as amended. (b) Payments... Continental Shelf Lands Act, in effect on or after June 30, 1982, shall pay assessments to the Fund....

  6. Relation between Maternal Contingent Responsiveness and Infant Social Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcquaid, Nancy E.; Bibok, Maximilian B.; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between maternal contingent responsiveness and 4- and 5-month-old infants' (N = 64) social expectation behavior in a still-face procedure. Mothers were asked to interact with their infants for 2 min (interactive phase), remain still-faced for 1 min (still-face phase), and resume interaction for 2 min. Mother…

  7. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items...

  8. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items...

  9. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items...

  10. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.25 Unusual items...

  11. Confronting Contingency: Faculty Equity and the Goals of Academic Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Maria; Street, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about higher education's increasing reliance on contingent academic labor over the last few decades. The narrative, which includes differing accounts of what, or who, is most to blame, has been well rehearsed: the increase came in slow and steady waves tied to significant political and economic events, including postwar…

  12. What We Can't Say about Contingent Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Teresa; Jacoby, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The effects of reliance on part-time faculty in higher education have been much discussed of late. Most observers now agree that the increasing reliance on contingent academic labor has worrisome consequences for both students and faculty. The authors recently attempted to provide needed analysis of what drives the current reliance on part-time…

  13. Beyond the Token Economy: A Comparison of Two Contingency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, David J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    To determine whether the addition of milieu principles to a contingency program increases its effectiveness, the investigators compared two treatment programs in a mental hospital: (a) a social learning or token economy approach and (b) a combined social learning and milieu approach. (Author)

  14. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other property in an amount equal to the approximate value of such stock or debt. For debt instruments... benchmark rate, the comparable yield is the sum of the value of the benchmark rate on the issue date and the...), the amount of the projected payment is the expected value of the contingent payment as of the...

  15. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated two arrangements, one in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (Full Group), and one in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (Mixed Group). Mōtiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the two arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the Full Group ($33) relative to the Mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  16. How to Use Contingency Contracting in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homme, Lloyd; And Others

    Designed primarily for elementary and secondary school teachers, the book presents one approach to the systematic and effective use of positive reinforcement to motivate better learning in normal or disturbed children. In Part 1, describing how contingency contracting works, each chapter contains a self-diagnostic pretest, narrative summary and…

  17. Parental Educational Involvement Conceived as the Arrangement of Contingency Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellon, Robert C.; Moutavelis, Adrianos G.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the utility of a conception of parental educational involvement as the arrangement of contingency operations that normatively change: the frequency of children's school-related behaviour, the reinforcing potency of stimuli produced by studying, and children's tendencies to request parental intervention. A child-report measure…

  18. Contingency Response Groups: An Analysis of Maintenance Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    understanding through the multiple TDYs and the demands of the ASAM program. Thank you for your encouragement and motivation. vi...Advanced Study of Air Mobility ( ASAM )__________________ Status: [X ] Student [ ] Faculty [ ] Staff [ ] Other Optimal Media Outlet...www.heritageflightacademy.com/americanairman/apcourse.html>. Carrabba, Peter. "Contingency Response Group Topics for ASAM ." Expeditionary Center, McGuire AFB, NJ. May 2010

  19. Coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is considered beneficial to the evolution of contingent cooperation, in which cooperators channel their help preferentially towards others of similar phenotypes. However, it remains largely unclear how phenotypic variation arises in the first place and thus leads to the construction of phenotypic complexity. Here we propose a mathematical model to study the coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation. Unlike previous models, our model does not assume any prescribed level of phenotypic diversity, but rather lets it be an evolvable trait. Each individual expresses one phenotype at a time and only the phenotypes expressed are visible to others. Moreover, individuals can differ in their potential of phenotypic variation, which is characterized by the number of distinct phenotypes they can randomly switch to. Each individual incurs a cost proportional to the number of potentially expressible phenotypes so as to retain phenotypic variation and expression. Our results show that phenotypic diversity coevolves with contingent cooperation under a wide range of conditions and that there exists an optimal level of phenotypic diversity best promoting contingent cooperation. It pays for contingent cooperators to elevate their potential of phenotypic variation, thereby increasing their opportunities of establishing cooperation via novel phenotypes, as these new phenotypes serve as secret tags that are difficult for defector to discover and chase after. We also find that evolved high levels of phenotypic diversity can occasionally collapse due to the invasion of defector mutants, suggesting that cooperation and phenotypic diversity can mutually reinforce each other. Thus, our results provide new insights into better understanding the coevolution of cooperation and phenotypic diversity. PMID:28141806

  20. Coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te; Wang, Long; Fu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity is considered beneficial to the evolution of contingent cooperation, in which cooperators channel their help preferentially towards others of similar phenotypes. However, it remains largely unclear how phenotypic variation arises in the first place and thus leads to the construction of phenotypic complexity. Here we propose a mathematical model to study the coevolutionary dynamics of phenotypic diversity and contingent cooperation. Unlike previous models, our model does not assume any prescribed level of phenotypic diversity, but rather lets it be an evolvable trait. Each individual expresses one phenotype at a time and only the phenotypes expressed are visible to others. Moreover, individuals can differ in their potential of phenotypic variation, which is characterized by the number of distinct phenotypes they can randomly switch to. Each individual incurs a cost proportional to the number of potentially expressible phenotypes so as to retain phenotypic variation and expression. Our results show that phenotypic diversity coevolves with contingent cooperation under a wide range of conditions and that there exists an optimal level of phenotypic diversity best promoting contingent cooperation. It pays for contingent cooperators to elevate their potential of phenotypic variation, thereby increasing their opportunities of establishing cooperation via novel phenotypes, as these new phenotypes serve as secret tags that are difficult for defector to discover and chase after. We also find that evolved high levels of phenotypic diversity can occasionally collapse due to the invasion of defector mutants, suggesting that cooperation and phenotypic diversity can mutually reinforce each other. Thus, our results provide new insights into better understanding the coevolution of cooperation and phenotypic diversity.

  1. Northwest Area Contingency Plan, 1998 (also serving as the Region Ten regional contingency plan). Change 4

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Northwest Area Contingency Plan (NWACP) continues to function as the Washington Statewide Master Plan as the primary planning and response document for oil spill and hazardous release response. For Oregon the NWACP was approved by the Oregon Emergency Response System Council in June 1996 as the state`s oil and hazardous materials emergency response plan. For Idaho, state law requires additional steps to be taken before the plan can be legally accepted. In the interim, this plan will be used wherever possible and acts as primary guidance for responders in those states for oil spill and hazardous release incidents. All federal, state, and local organizations signatory to the Northwest Area Committee should use this plan for responses to oil and hazardous materials spills and for drills and exercises. It is the summation of policies and procedures for two Coast Guard Captain of the Port Zones, EPA Inland Region Ten, and for the States of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. It provides federal, state, and local responders in the Pacific Northwest a single comprehensive planning and response document.

  2. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  3. Deployable video conference table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor); Lissol, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A deployable table is presented. The table is stowed in and deployed from a storage compartment based upon a non-self rigidizing, 4-hinge, arch support structure that folds upon itself to stow and that expands to deploy. The work surfaces bypass each other above and below to allow the deployment mechanism to operate. This assembly includes the following: first and second primary pivot hinges placed at the opposite ends of the storage compartment; first and second lateral frame members with proximal ends connected to the first and second pivot hinges; a medial frame member offset from and pivotally connected to distal ends of the first and second members through third and fourth medial pivot hinges; and left-side, right-side, and middle trays connected respectively to the first, second, and third frame members and being foldable into and out of the storage compartment by articulation of the first, second, third, and fourth joints. At least one of the third and fourth joints are locked to set the first, second, and third frame members in a desired angular orientation with respect to each other.

  4. Deriving Extensional Spatial Composition Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Geresy, Baher; Abdelmoty, Alia I.; Ware, Andrew J.

    Spatial composition tables are fundamental tools for the realisation of qualitative spatial reasoning techniques. Studying the properties of these tables in relation to the spatial calculi they are based on is essential for understanding the applicability of these calculi and how they can be extended and generalised. An extensional interpretation of a spatial composition table is an important property that has been studied in the literature and is used to determine the validity of the table for the models it is proposed for. It provides means for consistency checking of ground sets of relations and for addressing spatial constraint satisfaction problems. Furthermore, two general conditions that can be used to test for extensionality of spatial composition tables are proposed and applied to the RCC8 composition table to verify the allowable models in this calculus.

  5. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  6. Procedural variations in group contingencies: effects on children's academic and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Speltz, M L; Shimamura, J W; McReynolds, W T

    1982-01-01

    There has been little research on the effects of the many procedural variables in applied group contingencies. In the present study, an individualized contingency and three group contingencies with different "responder" criteria (e.g., reward based on the group average, reward based on the work of a designated, low-achieving student, or reward based on the work of a randomly selected student) were applied to the academic work of primary grade children in a learning disabilities classroom. Group social interaction during each contingency was measured systematically. Although there were large individual differences in students' academic and social responses to the different contingencies, some consistent effects were observed. Two of the four low-achieving target students did their best academic work during the group contingency which focused on their performance as a designated responder. This type of contingency also produced high levels of positive social interaction in three of four groups of children observed.

  7. 45 CFR 264.72 - What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true What requirements are imposed on a State if it... Contingency Fund? § 264.72 What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds? (a)(1) A.... (2) A State must exceed the Contingency Fund MOE level to keep any of the contingency funds that...

  8. 45 CFR 264.72 - What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What requirements are imposed on a State if it... Contingency Fund? § 264.72 What requirements are imposed on a State if it receives contingency funds? (a)(1) A.... (2) A State must exceed the Contingency Fund MOE level to keep any of the contingency funds that...

  9. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  10. TableSeer: Automatic Table Extraction, Search, and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Tables are ubiquitous with a history that pre-dates that of sentential text. Authors often report a summary of their most important findings using tabular structure in documents. For example, scientists widely use tables to present the latest experimental results or statistical data in a condensed fashion. Along with the explosive development of…

  11. Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg < (theta)adv approx. 90deg, be adaptable for both male and female use, collect and retain up to a liter of urine, minimize splash-back, and allow continuous drain of the wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

  12. Abnormal contingent negative variation in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Linda L.; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Rothlind, Johannes C.; Flenniken, Derek L.; Lindgren, Joselyn A.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance. PMID:14600507

  13. Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seokhwa; Faraj, Samer; Sims, Henry P

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated leadership and effectiveness of teams operating in a high-velocity environment, specifically trauma resuscitation teams. On the basis of the literature and their own ethnographic work, the authors proposed and tested a contingency model in which the influence of leadership on team effectiveness during trauma resuscitation differs according to the situation. Results indicated that empowering leadership was more effective when trauma severity was low and when team experience was high. Directive leadership was more effective when trauma severity was high or when the team was inexperienced. Findings also suggested that an empowering leader provided more learning opportunities than did a directive leader. The major contribution of this article is the linkage of leadership to team effectiveness, as moderated by relatively specific situational contingencies.

  14. Saying and doing: A contingency-space analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Byron A.; Shimoff, Eliot; Catania, A. Charles

    1987-01-01

    Correspondences between verbal responding (saying) and nonverbal responding (doing) may be organized in terms of the classes of verbal/nonverbal relations into which particular instances of verbal/nonverbal response sequences can enter. Contingency spaces, which display relations among events in terms of the probability of one event given or not given another, have been useful in analyses of nonverbal behavior. We derive a taxonomy of verbal/nonverbal behavior relations from a contingency space that takes into account two conditional probabilities: the probability of a nonverbal response given a verbal response and that probability given the absence of the verbal response. For example, positive correspondence may be said to exist as a response class when the probability of doing is high given saying but is otherwise low. Criteria for other generalized classes, including negative correspondence, follow from this analysis. PMID:16795696

  15. Partial avoidance contingencies: Absolute omission and punishment probabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Flye, Barbaba L.; Gibbon, John

    1979-01-01

    Avoidance contingencies were defined by the absolute probability of the conjunction of responding or not responding with shock or no shock. The “omission” probability (ρ00) is the probability of no response and no shock. The “punishment” probability (ρ11) is the probability of both a response and a shock. The traditional avoidance contingency never omits shock on nonresponse trials (ρ00=0) and never presents shock on response trials (ρ11=0). Rats were trained on a discrete-trial paradigm with no intertrial interval. The first lever response changed an auditory stimulus for the remainder of the trial. Shocks were delivered only at the end of each trial cycle. After initial training under the traditional avoidance contingency, one group of rats experienced changes in omission probability (ρ00>0), holding punishment probability at zero. The second group of rats were studied under different punishment probability values (ρ11>0), holding omission probability at zero. Data from subjects in the omission group looked similar, showing graded decrements in responding with increasing probability of omission. These subjects approximately “matched” their nonresponse frequencies to the programmed probability of shock omission on nonresponse trials, producing a very low and approximately constant conditional probability of shock given no response. Subjects in the punishment group showed different sensitivity to increasing absolute punishment probability. Some subjects decreased responding to low values as punishment probability increased, while others continued to respond at substantial levels even when shock was inevitable on all trials (noncontingent shock schedule). These results confirm an asymmetry between two dimensions of partial avoidance contingencies. When the consequences of not responding included occasional omission of shock, all subjects showed graded sensitivity to changes in omission frequency. When the consequences of responding included

  16. A Behavioral Approach to Meeting Contingency Contracting Personnel Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    developed by Abraham Maslow . Major supporting theories will be the “Two-Factor Theory” of Frederick Herzberg, and Victor Vroom’s “Expectancy Theory...Gansler_Commission_Report_Final_071031.pdf, accessed November 2007. Herzberg, Frederick. The Motivation to Work, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1959. Maslow , Abraham . A Theory of Human...Civilian Contracting Cadre, DCCC, Virtual Contingency Contracting Cadre, VCCC, Gansler Report, recruitment, motivation, incentives, Maslow , Herzberg

  17. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency.

  18. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  19. Development of the Air Force Contingency Contracting Course Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    AUTHOR(S) 7.PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Air Force Institute of Technology , WPAFB OH 45433...Logistics and Acquisition Management of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air Education and Training Command I- 0 artial Fulfillment of the...officers that were deployed in support of the contingency, as well as other more recent Air Force Institute of Technology 1AFIT) theses, corroborated

  20. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    ScienceCinema

    Zhenyu (Henry) Huang

    2016-07-12

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  1. Contingency management: utility in the treatment of drug abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Vandrey, R

    2008-04-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a strategy that uses positive reinforcement to improve the clinical outcomes of substance abusers in treatment, especially sustained abstinence from drugs of abuse. Further, CM has been adopted to improve methodology and interpretation of outcomes in clinical trials testing new pharmacotherapies and to improve adherence to efficacious medications in substance abuse patients. Thus, CM has proven to be widely useful as a direct therapeutic intervention and as a tool in treatment development.

  2. Instructional Influence on Human Performance: Insensitivity to Contingencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    Virginia 22333 Office, Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel Department of the Army August 1980 Army Project Number Organizational Structure and Leadership...role- overned behavior, Skinner (1969) has used an analogy of a blacksmith and is apprentice, both of whom may operate a bellows to keep a fire hot...The behavior of the blacksmith is under control of the contingencies: his bellow-pumping is maintained by the effects it has on the fire, and, were

  3. Contingency Analysis of South Bandung Electric Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauziah, D.; Mulyadi, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Electric power transmission system must operate reliably and continuously, but in fact there are many disturbance that affect the reliability and stability of the power system. This study aims to determine the weak elements of power system when release of components occur. This study uses simulation with Newton Raphson power flow method for contingency analysis. The study is located in South Bandung electric power system with voltage of 150 kV. In this study, the object of contingency analysis is IBT-II 500/150 KV at peak periods load in 2013 to evaluate the system reliability when release of the Inter bus Transformer (IBT). Selection of the component is based that IBT is the most important component in the power supply that should be maintain continuously. The results of the study and analysis show that in the event of contingency almost all bus voltage has decreased below the limit allowable voltage and IBT-I get overloaded, then the maneuver is performed according to the procedures of specified load. The results of this study can be use as a reference for the electric power operating system which has conditions similar to the simulated cases.

  4. Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution.

    PubMed

    Harms, Michael J; Thornton, Joseph W

    2014-08-14

    Understanding how chance historical events shape evolutionary processes is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Direct insights into the extent and causes of evolutionary contingency have been limited to experimental systems, because it is difficult to know what happened in the deep past and to characterize other paths that evolution could have followed. Here we combine ancestral protein reconstruction, directed evolution and biophysical analysis to explore alternative 'might-have-been' trajectories during the ancient evolution of a novel protein function. We previously found that the evolution of cortisol specificity in the ancestral glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was contingent on permissive substitutions, which had no apparent effect on receptor function but were necessary for GR to tolerate the large-effect mutations that caused the shift in specificity. Here we show that alternative mutations that could have permitted the historical function-switching substitutions are extremely rare in the ensemble of genotypes accessible to the ancestral GR. In a library of thousands of variants of the ancestral protein, we recovered historical permissive substitutions but no alternative permissive genotypes. Using biophysical analysis, we found that permissive mutations must satisfy at least three physical requirements--they must stabilize specific local elements of the protein structure, maintain the correct energetic balance between functional conformations, and be compatible with the ancestral and derived structures--thus revealing why permissive mutations are rare. These findings demonstrate that GR evolution depended strongly on improbable, non-deterministic events, and this contingency arose from intrinsic biophysical properties of the protein.

  5. Contingencies of reinforcement in a five-person prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Richard; Rachlin, Howard

    2004-09-01

    As in studies of self-control, a tit-for-tat contingency in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game creates a conflict between maximization of local and global reinforcement. The present experiments examine this conflict in a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game. Versus tit for tat, cooperation corresponds to self-control; defection, always immediately reinforced, corresponds to impulsiveness. Three experiments examined sensitivity of behavior to the global reinforcement contingency imposed by tit for tat. Undergraduates played a five-player prisoner's dilemma game against four dummy players programmed to play tit for tat or randomly. With tit for tat, a player's cooperation (or defection) increased dummy players' cooperation (or defection) on subsequent trials-reinforcing cooperation and punishing defection in the long run. Participants cooperated at a higher rate when the dummy players played tit for tat than when the dummy players played randomly. These results are consistent with findings in corresponding studies of self-control. Some participants, caught in a trap of mutual defection with the tit-for-tat playing dummy players, came to cooperate when the tit-for-tat contingency was reset ("forgiving" participants' previous defections) during a pause in the game. This increase was a result of the combined effects of a pause and reset; neither pausing nor resetting independently resulted in an increase in cooperation.

  6. Object-based selection is contingent on attentional control settings.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Eric T; Rajsic, Jason; Pratt, Jay

    2016-05-01

    The visual system allocates attention in object-based and location-based modes. However, the question of when attention selects objects and when it selects locations remains poorly understood. In this article, we present variations on two classic paradigms from the object-based attention literature, in which object-based effects are observed only when the object feature matches the task goal of the observer. In Experiment 1, covert orienting was influenced by task-irrelevant rectangles, but only when the target color matched the rectangle color. In Experiment 2, the region of attentional focus was adjusted to the size of task-irrelevant objects, but only when the target color matched the object color. In Experiment 3, we ruled out the possibility that contingent object-based selection is caused by color-based intratrial priming. These demonstrations of contingent object-based attention suggest that object-based selection is neither mandatory nor default, and that object-based effects are contingent on simple, top-down attentional control settings.

  7. Complete Home Smoking Bans and Antitobacco Contingencies: A Natural Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The California antitobacco culture may have influenced home smoking bans in Mexico. Based on the Behavioral Ecological Model, exposure to socially reinforcing contingencies or criticism may explain adoption of home smoking bans in Tijuana, Mexico, approximating rates relative to San Diego, California, and higher than those in Guadalajara, Mexico. Methods: A representative cross-sectional population survey of Latinos (N = 1,901) was conducted in San Diego, Tijuana, and Guadalajara between June 2003 and September 2004. Cities were selected to represent high-, medium-, and low-level exposure to antitobacco social contingencies of reinforcement in a quasiexperimental analysis of possible cultural influences across borders. Results: Complete home smoking ban prevalence was 91% in San Diego, 66% in Tijuana, and 38% in Guadalajara (p < .001). Sample cluster-adjusted logistic regression showed significantly lower odds of complete home smoking bans in Guadalajara (odds ratio [OR] = .048) and in Tijuana (OR = .138) compared to San Diego after control for demographics. Odds of complete home smoking bans in both Guadalajara and Tijuana in comparison with San Diego were weakened when mediators for bans were controlled in predictive models. Direction of association was consistent with theory. When theoretical mediators were explored as possible moderators, weak and nonsignificant associations were obtained for all interaction terms. Bootstrap analyses demonstrated that our multivariable logistic regression results were reliable. Conclusions: Results suggest that California antismoking social contingencies mediate complete home smoking bans in all 3 cities and may account for the greater effects in Tijuana contrasted with Guadalajara. PMID:23999652

  8. Information tables with neighborhood semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yiyu

    2000-04-01

    Information tables provide a convenient and useful tool for representing a set of objects using a group of attributes. This notion is enriched by introducing neighborhood systems on attribute values. The neighborhood systems represent the semantics relationships between, and knowledge about, attribute values. With added semantics, neighborhood based information tables may provide a more general framework for knowledge discovery, data mining, and information retrieval.

  9. The noneffects of contingent reinforcement for attending behavior on work accomplished.

    PubMed

    Ferritor, D E; Buckholdt, D; Hamblin, R L; Smith, L

    1972-01-01

    Past studies have shown that disruptive behavior can be eliminated and attending behavior accelerated in an academic setting. The relationship between these behaviors and academic performance is not well understood. The effects of behavioral and performance contingencies on classroom behavior and on academic performance were investigated. The subjects, third-grade students from an inner city elementary school, were exposed to a series of conditions including baseline, behavior contingencies, performance contingencies, and a mix of behavior and performance contingencies using a reversal design. The students worked 100 randomly selected mathematics problems for 20 minutes each day during each period. Behavioral contingencies improved attending and decreased disruptions but did not improve performance. Performance contingencies increased per cent correct problems but attending declined and disruptions increased. The combined contingencies increased both performance and attending. The experiment was replicated with another class of children varying the sequence of conditions and the amount of token reinforcement that could be earned. The findings emphasized the importance of designing specific contingencies for specific target behaviors. Behavioral contingencies did not have the positive effect on performance often implied, nor were performance contingencies alone able to maintain acceptable classroom behavior.

  10. Does contingency in adults' responding influence 12-month-old infants' social referencing?

    PubMed

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2016-12-07

    In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants' reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant's looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants' social referencing behavior.

  11. Do children prefer contingencies? An evaluation of the efficacy of and preference for contingent versus noncontingent social reinforcement during play.

    PubMed

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) schedules with typically developing children. Results showed that 7 of the 8 children preferred the DRA schedule; 1 child was indifferent. We also demonstrated a high degree of procedural fidelity, which suggested that preference is influenced by the presence of a contingency under which reinforcement can be obtained. These findings are discussed in terms of (a) the selection of reinforcement schedules in practice, (b) variables that influence children's preferences for contexts, and (c) the selection of experimental control procedures when evaluating the effects of reinforcement.

  12. MCNPX Model/Table Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Hendricks

    2003-03-03

    MCNPX is a Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code extending the capabilities of MCNP4C. As with MCNP, MCNPX uses nuclear data tables to transport neutrons, photons, and electrons. Unlike MCNP, MCNPX also uses (1) nuclear data tables to transport protons; (2) physics models to transport 30 additional particle types (deuterons, tritons, alphas, pions, muons, etc.); and (3) physics models to transport neutrons and protons when no tabular data are available or when the data are above the energy range (20 to 150 MeV) where the data tables end. MCNPX can mix and match data tables and physics models throughout a problem. For example, MCNPX can model neutron transport in a bismuth germinate (BGO) particle detector by using data tables for bismuth and oxygen and using physics models for germanium. Also, MCNPX can model neutron transport in UO{sub 2}, making the best use of physics models and data tables: below 20 MeV, data tables are used; above 150 MeV, physics models are used; between 20 and 150 MeV, data tables are used for oxygen and models are used for uranium. The mix-and-match capability became available with MCNPX2.5.b (November 2002). For the first time, we present here comparisons that calculate radiation transport in materials with various combinations of data charts and model physics. The physics models are poor at low energies (<150 MeV); thus, data tables should be used when available. Our comparisons demonstrate the importance of the mix-and-match capability and indicate how well physics models work in the absence of data tables.

  13. SAS027 Analysis of Smaller Scale Contingencies: Measures of Merit for Defense Resource Planning of Small-Scale Contingencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-09

    Scale Contingencies Application of Sphere Standards During Analysis Initial assessment Response strategy development Monitoring and evaluation progress...protein 17% of energy provided from fat Health Information Monitoring and Evaluation Decreasing death rate aiming towards less than 1/10,000/day Under...of a complex project clearly and succinctly Defines a set of relationships among providers and users Includes a monitoring and evaluation system for

  14. CHANG'E-3 contingency scheme and trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Cao, Jian-feng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Song-jie; Tang, Ge-shi; Xie, Jian-feng

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses contingency trajectories of CHANG'E-3 in the case of a failure of the lunar brake, which is crucial to the CHANG'E-3 mission, i.e., the first Chinese lunar soft-landing and rover mission. Considering the flight-time and control-energy requirements placed on the contingency trajectories, the paper proposes a direct return method and a low-energy return method and develops the corresponding contingency trajectories based on the CHANG'E-3 cislunar transfer trajectory. The direct return method was studied on return style, flight time, control energy, and influence of maneuver time on energy. The low-energy return method was investigated using the method of invariant manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit, the method of direct libration-point orbit transfer and injection, and the control strategy used for a low-energy trajectory. The results demonstrate that the control energy for direct return trajectories can be reduced using a certain flight course. When a flight time of less than half of a month is desired, a trajectory from the north celestial pole should be selected as a lunar approach trajectory for CHANG'E-3. Otherwise, a trajectory from the south celestial pole should be selected. Furthermore, these two trajectories have approximately equal velocity increments if their flight-time difference is close to half of a month. In the case of the low-energy return method, methods using approximate manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit and the direct transfer and injection to a libration-point orbit are proposed and shown to be useful. CHANG'E-3 would return via the Sun-Earth L2 libration point and would require four maneuvers during its flight. The low-energy return method offers remarkable energy savings of up to 267 m/s compared to the direct return method. The methodology not only provides a contingency control technique for CHANG'E-3 and for future lunar missions, but it also serves as a beneficial supplement to the present studies

  15. Let Us Make the Table Periodic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1989-01-01

    An approach to teaching the properties of the elements and their arrangement in the periodic table is suggested. Discussed are symbols for the elements, format of the table, and coding the properties of the elements on the table. (CW)

  16. Temporal dynamics of contingency extraction from tonal and verbal auditory sequences.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-09-01

    Consecutive sound events are often to some degree predictive of each other. Here we investigated the brain's capacity to detect contingencies between consecutive sounds by means of electroencephalography (EEG) during passive listening. Contingencies were embedded either within tonal or verbal stimuli. Contingency extraction was measured indirectly via the elicitation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential (ERP) by contingency violations. MMN results indicate that structurally identical forms of predictability can be extracted from both tonal and verbal stimuli. We also found similar generators to underlie the processing of contingency violations across stimulus types, as well as similar performance in an active-listening follow-up test. However, the process of passive contingency extraction was considerably slower (twice as many rule exemplars were needed) for verbal than for tonal stimuli These results suggest caution in transferring findings on complex predictive regularity processing obtained with tonal stimuli directly to the speech domain.

  17. Adaptive Non-Interventional Heuristics for Covariation Detection in Causal Induction: Model Comparison and Rational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattori, Masasi; Oaksford, Mike

    2007-01-01

    In this article, 41 models of covariation detection from 2 x 2 contingency tables were evaluated against past data in the literature and against data from new experiments. A new model was also included based on a limiting case of the normative phi-coefficient under an extreme rarity assumption, which has been shown to be an important factor in…

  18. Critical Points for Certain Statistical Measures of Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerman, M.; Miller, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper further explores the analytic connections between three commonly used statistical measures of agreement for 2 x 2 contingency tables: sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa coefficient, which are often employed in evaluating diagnostic tests. In particular, for a given fixed kappa the corresponding locus of minimum values of…

  19. The effects of modeling contingencies in the treatment of food selectivity in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Fu, Sherrene B; Penrod, Becky; Fernand, Jonathan K; Whelan, Colleen M; Griffith, Kristin; Medved, Shannon

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of stating and modeling contingencies in increasing food consumption for two children with food selectivity. Results suggested that stating and modeling a differential reinforcement (DR) contingency for food consumption was effective in increasing consumption of two target foods for one child, and stating and modeling a DR plus nonremoval of the spoon contingency was effective in increasing consumption of the remaining food for the first child and all target foods for the second child.

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Template for Developing an Integrated Contingency Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    National Shipbuilding Research Program, Template for Developing an Integrated Contingency Plan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...applicable regional contingency plan under 40 C.F.R. part 1510) or the National Response Center (800-424-8802). The report must include: (i) Name...in the applicable regional contingency plan under 40 C.F.R. part 1510) or the National Response Center (800-424-8802). The report must include: (i

  1. Contingency Construction Planning in the U. S. Armed Services, Including the Extent of Modular Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-29

    iOF CONTINGENCY CONSTRUCTION PLANNING IN THE U. S. ARMED SERVICES, INCLUDING THE EXTENT OF MODULAR CONSTRUCTION (A Special Research Problem 00...GEORGIA 30332 • ,SI I I CONTINGENCY CONSTRUCTION PLANNING IN THE U. S. ARMED SERVICES, INCLUDING THE EXTENT OF MODULAR CONSTRUC ION A Special Research...INTRODUCTION I II. UNITED STATES NAVY 4 Overview of Navy Contingency Construction Naval Construction Forces Construction Plans and Designs Extent of

  2. Table of tables: A database design tool for SYBASE

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.C.; Coulter, K.; Glass, H.D.; Glosson, R.; Hanft, R.W.; Harding, D.J.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; Walbridge, D.G.C.; Wallis, D.B. ); Allen, M.E. )

    1991-01-04

    The Table of Tables' application system captures in a set of SYBASE tables the basic design specification for a database schema. Specification of tables, columns (including the related defaults and rules for the stored values) and keys is provided. The feature which makes this application specifically useful for SYBASE is the ability to automatically generate SYBASE triggers. A description field is provided for each database object. Based on the data stored, SQL scripts for creating complete schema including the tables, their defaults and rules, their indexes, and their SYBASE triggers, are written by TOT. Insert, update and delete triggers are generated from TOT to guarantee integrity of data relations when tables are connected by single column foreign keys. The application is written in SYBASE's APT-SQL and includes a forms based data entry system. Using the features of TOT we can create a complete database schema for which the data integrity specified by our design is guaranteed by the SYBASE triggers generated by TOT. 3 refs.

  3. Academic response rate as a function of teacher- and self-imposed contingencies1

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Thomas C.; Curtiss, Karen A.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the contingency manager (teacher or pupil) on a pupil's academic response rate. The results of two such experiments disclosed that higher academic rates occurred when the pupil arranged the contingency requirements than when the teacher specified them. A third study manipulated only reinforcement magnitude to ascertain whether amount of reinforcement had interacted with pupil-specified contingencies to produce the increase in academic response rate. The latter findings revealed that the contingency manager, not reinforcement magnitude, accounted for this subject's gain in performance. PMID:16795202

  4. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of smoking abstinence among methadone-maintained patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Sigmon, Stacey C; Thomas, Colleen S; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n=10) or noncontingent (n=10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine cotinine levels. Contingent participants received voucher-based incentives for biochemical evidence of smoking abstinence. Noncontingent participants earned vouchers independent of smoking status. Contingent participants achieved significantly more smoking abstinence and longer durations of continuous smoking abstinence than did noncontingent participants. These results support the potential efficacy of using voucher-based CM to promote smoking cessation among methadone-maintained patients.

  5. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  6. Some economic tables for airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    During the course of the Southern California Aviation Council study on lighter than air it was determined that some form of economic base must be developed for estimation of costs of the airship. The tables are presented.

  7. Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Michael J.; Thornton, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how chance historical events shape evolutionary processes is a central goal of evolutionary biology1–7. Direct insights into the extent and causes of evolutionary contingency have been limited to experimental systems,7–9 because it is difficult to know what happened in the deep past and to characterize other paths that evolution could have followed. Here we combine ancestral protein reconstruction, directed evolution, and biophysical analysis to explore alternate “might-have-been” trajectories during the ancient evolution of a novel protein function. We previously found that the evolution of cortisol specificity in the ancestral glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was contingent on permissive substitutions, which had no apparent effect on receptor function but were necessary for GR to tolerate the large-effect mutations that caused the shift in specificity.6 Here we show that alternative mutations that could have permitted the historical function-switching substitutions are extremely rare in the ensemble of genotypes accessible to the ancestral GR. In a library of thousands of variants of the ancestral protein, we recovered historical permissive substitutions, but no alternate permissive genotypes. Using biophysical analysis, we found that permissive mutations must satisfy at least three physical requirements—they must stabilize specific local elements of the protein structure, maintain the correct energetic balance between functional conformations, and be compatible with the ancestral and derived structures—thus revealing why permissive mutations are rare. These findings demonstrate that GR evolution depended strongly on improbable, nondeterministic events, and this contingency arose from intrinsic biophysical properties of the protein. PMID:24930765

  8. A reinforcement learning approach to instrumental contingency degradation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dutech, Alain; Coutureau, Etienne; Marchand, Alain R

    2011-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves a representation of action consequences. Adapting to changes in action-outcome contingency requires the prefrontal region. Indeed, rats with lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex do not adapt their free operant response when food delivery becomes unrelated to lever-pressing. The present study explores the bases of this deficit through a combined behavioural and computational approach. We show that lesioned rats retain some behavioural flexibility and stop pressing if this action prevents food delivery. We attempt to model this phenomenon in a reinforcement learning framework. The model assumes that distinct action values are learned in an incremental manner in distinct states. The model represents states as n-uplets of events, emphasizing sequences rather than the continuous passage of time. Probabilities of lever-pressing and visits to the food magazine observed in the behavioural experiments are first analyzed as a function of these states, to identify sequences of events that influence action choice. Observed action probabilities appear to be essentially function of the last event that occurred, with reward delivery and waiting significantly facilitating magazine visits and lever-pressing respectively. Behavioural sequences of normal and lesioned rats are then fed into the model, action values are updated at each event transition according to the SARSA algorithm, and predicted action probabilities are derived through a softmax policy. The model captures the time course of learning, as well as the differential adaptation of normal and prefrontal lesioned rats to contingency degradation with the same parameters for both groups. The results suggest that simple temporal difference algorithms with low learning rates can largely account for instrumental learning and performance. Prefrontal lesioned rats appear to mainly differ from control rats in their low rates of visits to the magazine after a lever press, and their inability to

  9. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  10. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Passive, Collapsible Contingency Urinal for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Fluid transport systems for spacecraft face acute challenges because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-gravity environment. IRPI, LLC, has developed a contingency wastewater collection and processing device that provides passive liquid collation, containment, bubble separation, and droplet coalescence functions. The lightweight, low-volume, low-cost, and potentially disposable device may be used for subsequent sampling, metering, storage, disposal, and/or reuse. The approach includes a fractal wetting design that incorporates smart capillary fluidics. This work could have a broad impact on capillary-based fluid management on spacecraft and on Earth.

  12. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.

  13. Contingency Contracting Officers: Can They Adequately Support the Force?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Conflicts Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, September 1988. 10. Radin, HAJ Sara R ., Contingency Contracting, A Force Multiplier...public release; distribution is unlimited. 4 Performing Organisation Report Number(s) 5 Monitoring organization Report Number(s) a Mass of Performing...7b Address v.t . and Z"co4e1Monery A 13943-50 Monterey CA 934-5000 Monterey CA 40_0 s Naume of Funding/Sponsoring Sb Office Symbol 9 Procurement

  14. New York and New Jersey area contingency plan, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This Area Contingency Plan (ACP) is designed to provide a mechanism to adequately remove a worst case discharge of oil into navigable waters and hazardous substance releases into the environment within the US Coast Guard, Federal On Scene Coordinator's (FOSC) zone. This plan details the FOSC's zone, including areas of special economic or environmental importance the responsibilities of an owner or operator and of federal, state, and local agencies in mitigation and prevention; and lists equipment and personnel available, to ensure an effective and immediate removal of actual or potential discharges or releases.

  15. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  16. STIL - Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    STIL is a set of Java class libraries which allow input, manipulation and output of tabular data and metadata. Among its key features are support for many tabular formats (including VOTable, FITS, CDF, text-based formats and SQL databases) and support for dealing with very large tables in limited memory. As well as an abstract and format-independent definition of what constitutes a table, and an extensible framework for "pull-model" table processing, it provides a number of format-specific handlers which know how to serialize/deserialize tables. The framework for interaction between the core table manipulation facilities and the format-specific handlers is open and pluggable, so that handlers for new formats can easily be added, programmatically or at run-time. The VOTable handling in particular is provided by classes which perform efficient XML parsing and can read and write VOTables in any of the defined formats (TABLEDATA, BINARY or FITS). It supports table-aware SAX- or DOM-mode processing and may be used on its own for VOTable I/O without much reference to the format-independent parts of the library.

  17. A Comparison of the Logistic Regression and Contingency Table Methods for Simultaneous Detection of Uniform and Nonuniform DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Nese; Penfield, Randall D.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the logistic regression (LR), Mantel-Haenszel (MH), and Breslow-Day (BD) procedures for the simultaneous detection of both uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF). A simulation study was used to assess and compare the Type I error rate and power of a combined decision rule (CDR), which assesses DIF…

  18. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index table. 250.1401 Section 250.1401 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of the sections in this subpart: § 250.1401Table...

  19. Contingency, convergence and hyper-astronomical numbers in biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Louis, Ard A

    2016-08-01

    Counterfactual questions such as "what would happen if you re-run the tape of life?" turn on the nature of the landscape of biological possibilities. Since the number of potential sequences that store genetic information grows exponentially with length, genetic possibility spaces can be so unimaginably vast that commentators frequently reach of hyper-astronomical metaphors that compare their size to that of the universe. Re-run the tape of life and the likelihood of encountering the same sequences in such hyper-astronomically large spaces is infinitesimally small, suggesting that evolutionary outcomes are highly contingent. On the other hand, the wide-spread occurrence of evolutionary convergence implies that similar phenotypes can be found again with relative ease. How can this be? Part of the solution to this conundrum must lie in the manner that genotypes map to phenotypes. By studying simple genotype-phenotype maps, where the counterfactual space of all possible phenotypes can be enumerated, it is shown that strong bias in the arrival of variation may explain why certain phenotypes are (repeatedly) observed in nature, while others never appear. This biased variation provides a non-selective cause for certain types of convergence. It illustrates how the role of randomness and contingency may differ significantly between genetic and phenotype spaces.

  20. The contingency medical force: chronic challenge, new solution.

    PubMed

    Moloff, A L; Denny, S

    2001-03-01

    To keep pace with the changing requirements of the U.S. Army's combat doctrine, the U.S. Army Medical Department continually modifies its combat health support doctrine and unit organizations. This includes creating more capable, deployable, and mobile units. Unfortunately, as units become more capable, they become less mobile and deployable. As a result, striking a proper balance between capability, mobility, and deployability poses a significant challenge. In 1998, the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital designed a rapidly deployable, air transportable medical module capable of supporting a brigade-sized contingency force (approximately 3,000 personnel) with level or echelon I to III medical care in an austere and ambiguous environment. This module, known as the contingency medical force (CMF), also provides command and control capabilities for this initial medical force and the transition to a more robust health care structure. Conducted over an 8-month period, the design process began with a staff exercise using the deliberate planning process model and culminated in a validation exercise monitored by external observers/controllers at the Combat Maneuver Training Center in Germany. This article describes the planning process, development, and initial deployment of the CMF. The CMF was then deployed on short notice to Albania in support of Task Force Hawk, the Army component of Joint Task Force Noble Anvil.

  1. The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Lydia

    2010-10-01

    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (John Wheeler’s “law without law”); laws are the preconditions of scientific experience (Kant); laws are theoretical abstractions which only apply in very limited circumstances (Nancy Cartwright). Whereas Cartwright’s approach is in tension with modern scientific methodology, the first three strategies count as illuminating, though partial answers. It is important for the empirical method of modern physics that these three strategies, even when taken together, do not provide a complete explanation of the order of nature. Thus the question of why laws are valid is still relevant. In the concluding section, I argue that the traditional answer, based on voluntary creation, provides the right balance of contingency and coherence which is in harmony with modern scientific method.

  2. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  3. Robustness via Run-Time Adaptation of Contingent Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our approach to making the behavior of planetary rovers more robust for the purpose of increased productivity. Due to the inherent uncertainty in rover exploration, the traditional approach to rover control is conservative, limiting the autonomous operation of the rover and sacrificing performance for safety. Our objective is to increase the science productivity possible within a single uplink by allowing the rover's behavior to be specified with flexible, contingent plans and by employing dynamic plan adaptation during execution. We have deployed a system exhibiting flexible, contingent execution; this paper concentrates on our ongoing efforts on plan adaptation, Plans can be revised in two ways: plan steps may be deleted, with execution continuing with the plan suffix; and the current plan may be merged with an "alternate plan" from an on-board library. The plan revision action is chosen to maximize the expected utility of the plan. Plan merging and action deletion constitute a more conservative general-purpose planning system; in return, our approach is more efficient and more easily verified, two important criteria for deployed rovers.

  4. 75 FR 64717 - Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... nuclear power plant. CIGNL stated its intent to work through these issues and difficulties with a view... Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation AGENCY: Office of the... ``Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage Contingent Cost Allocation.'' Section...

  5. Discourse of the Firetenders: Considering Contingent Faculty through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Sue; Barnes, Natalie; Bowen, David; Gilkey, David; Smoak, Ginger Guardiola; Ryan, Sarah; Sarell, Kirk; Thomas, Laura H.; Troup, Lucy J.; Palmquist, Mike

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the multiple roles that contingent faculty play in an evolving system of higher education. They consider the professional work of faculty in contingent positions at Colorado State University through the lens of activity theory, analyzing workplace discourse logs in an effort to understand the roles of…

  6. The Relative Contribution of Economic Valence to Contingency Management Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Howard, Joni T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a contingency management (CM) procedure that deducted money from a grand total available at the end of the study compared to a procedure in which money accumulated with continued abstinence from cigarette smoking. Results suggested that the procedure in which money increased contingent on abstinence resulted in…

  7. An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes autism as a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior. Contingencies of reinforcement in effect during the first to third year of a child's life may operate to establish and maintain those behaviors that later result in a diagnosis of autism. While neurobiological variables may, in some cases, predispose some children to…

  8. Use of a lag differential reinforcement contingency to increase varied selections of classroom activities.

    PubMed

    Cammilleri, Anthony P; Hanley, Gregory P

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of a lag differential reinforcement contingency on 2 students' activity selections using reversal designs. Results showed that the lag contingency was responsible for promoting increased novel selections, engagement in diverse activities, and greater progress with respect to programmed academic activities.

  9. 78 FR 47267 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Oklahoma, through the...

  10. 75 FR 53268 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Georgia, through the...

  11. 78 FR 63099 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New York,...

  12. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through...

  13. 76 FR 20605 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of...

  14. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Utah, through the Utah Department...

  15. 76 FR 51316 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, through the...

  16. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission...

  17. 76 FR 81904 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Florida, through the Florida...

  18. 77 FR 2911 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: December... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)....

  19. 75 FR 48895 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List: Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2); 42 U.S.C. 9601... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan National... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Arkansas,...

  20. 76 FR 50441 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of New Jersey, through the New...