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Sample records for 2x2 factorial arrangement

  1. A randomised 2 x 2 factorial design to evaluate different smoking cessation methods.

    PubMed

    Clavel-Chapelon, F; Paoletti, C; Benhamou, S

    1992-01-01

    A study with a 2 x 2 factorial design was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture, of nicotine gum and the effect of the association on smoking cessation. After a one-year follow-up period, the success rates were in the same order of magnitude for nicotine gum (active treatment: 10%, placebo: 8%) group and for acupuncture (active treatment: 8%, placebo: 10%) group.

  2. Unbalanced 2 x 2 factorial designs and the interaction effect: a troublesome combination.

    PubMed

    Landsheer, Johannes A; van den Wittenboer, Godfried

    2015-01-01

    In this power study, ANOVAs of unbalanced and balanced 2 x 2 datasets are compared (N = 120). Datasets are created under the assumption that H1 of the effects is true. The effects are constructed in two ways, assuming: 1. contributions to the effects solely in the treatment groups; 2. contrasting contributions in treatment and control groups. The main question is whether the two ANOVA correction methods for imbalance (applying Sums of Squares Type II or III; SS II or SS III) offer satisfactory power in the presence of an interaction. Overall, SS II showed higher power, but results varied strongly. When compared to a balanced dataset, for some unbalanced datasets the rejection rate of H0 of main effects was undesirably higher. SS III showed consistently somewhat lower power. When the effects were constructed with equal contributions from control and treatment groups, the interaction could be re-estimated satisfactorily. When an interaction was present, SS III led consistently to somewhat lower rejection rates of H0 of main effects, compared to the rejection rates found in equivalent balanced datasets, while SS II produced strongly varying results. In data constructed with only effects in the treatment groups and no effects in the control groups, the H0 of moderate and strong interaction effects was often not rejected and SS II seemed applicable. Even then, SS III provided slightly better results when a true interaction was present. ANOVA allowed not always for a satisfactory re-estimation of the unique interaction effect. Yet, SS II worked better only when an interaction effect could be excluded, whereas SS III results were just marginally worse in that case. Overall, SS III provided consistently 1 to 5% lower rejection rates of H0 in comparison with analyses of balanced datasets, while results of SS II varied too widely for general application.

  3. Web-based cognitive bias modification for problem drinkers: protocol of a randomised controlled trial with a 2x2x2 factorial design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The automatic tendency to attend to, positively evaluate and approach alcohol related stimuli has been found to play a causal role in problematic alcohol use and can be retrained by computerised Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). In spite of CBMs potential as an internet intervention, little is known about the efficacy of web-based CBM. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of web-based CBM in a double blind randomised controlled trial with a 2 (attention bias retraining: real versus placebo) x 2 (alcohol/no-go training: real versus placebo) x 2 (approach bias retraining: real versus placebo) factorial design. Methods/design The effectiveness of 12 sessions of CBM will be examined among problem drinkers aged 18–65 who are randomly assigned to one of the eight CBM conditions, after completing two modules of a validated cognitive behavioural intervention, DrinkingLess. The primary outcome measure is the change in alcohol use. It is expected that, for each of the CBM interventions, participants in the real CBM conditions will show a greater decrease in alcohol use than participants in the placebo conditions. Secondary outcome measures include the percentage of participants drinking within the limits for sensible drinking. Possible mediating (change in automatic biases) and moderating (working memory, inhibition) factors will be examined, as will the comparative cost-effectiveness of the various CBM strategies. Discussion This study will be the first to test the relative efficacy of various web-based CBM strategies in problem drinkers. If proven effective, CBM could be implemented as a low-cost, low-threshold adjuvant to CBT-based online interventions for problem drinkers. Trial registration Netherlands Trial register: NTR3875. PMID:23870532

  4. Web-based cognitive bias modification for problem drinkers: protocol of a randomised controlled trial with a 2x2x2 factorial design.

    PubMed

    van Deursen, Denise S; Salemink, Elske; Smit, Filip; Kramer, Jeannet; Wiers, Reinout W

    2013-07-20

    The automatic tendency to attend to, positively evaluate and approach alcohol related stimuli has been found to play a causal role in problematic alcohol use and can be retrained by computerised Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). In spite of CBMs potential as an internet intervention, little is known about the efficacy of web-based CBM. The study described in this protocol will test the effectiveness of web-based CBM in a double blind randomised controlled trial with a 2 (attention bias retraining: real versus placebo) x 2 (alcohol/no-go training: real versus placebo) x 2 (approach bias retraining: real versus placebo) factorial design. The effectiveness of 12 sessions of CBM will be examined among problem drinkers aged 18-65 who are randomly assigned to one of the eight CBM conditions, after completing two modules of a validated cognitive behavioural intervention, DrinkingLess. The primary outcome measure is the change in alcohol use. It is expected that, for each of the CBM interventions, participants in the real CBM conditions will show a greater decrease in alcohol use than participants in the placebo conditions. Secondary outcome measures include the percentage of participants drinking within the limits for sensible drinking. Possible mediating (change in automatic biases) and moderating (working memory, inhibition) factors will be examined, as will the comparative cost-effectiveness of the various CBM strategies. This study will be the first to test the relative efficacy of various web-based CBM strategies in problem drinkers. If proven effective, CBM could be implemented as a low-cost, low-threshold adjuvant to CBT-based online interventions for problem drinkers. Netherlands Trial register: NTR3875.

  5. The effect of oral iron with or without multiple micronutrients on hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin response among nonpregnant Cambodian women of reproductive age: a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled supplementation trial.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Barker, Mikaela K; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; Vercauteren, Suzanne M; Devlin, Angela M; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Houghton, Lisa A; Prak, Sophonneary; Hou, Kroeun; Chai, Tze Lin; Stormer, Ame; Ly, Sokhoing; Devenish, Robyn; Oberkanins, Christian; Pühringer, Helene; Harding, Kimberly B; De-Regil, Luz M; Kraemer, Klaus; Green, Tim J

    2017-07-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of anemia among nonpregnant Cambodian women, current reports suggest that iron deficiency (ID) prevalence is low. If true, iron supplementation will not be an effective anemia reduction strategy.Objective: We measured the effect of daily oral iron with or without multiple micronutrients (MMNs) on hemoglobin concentration in nonpregnant Cambodian women screened as anemic.Design: In this 2 × 2 factorial, double-blind, randomized trial, nonpregnant women (aged 18-45 y) with hemoglobin concentrations ≤117 g/L (capillary blood) were recruited from 26 villages in Kampong Chhnang province and randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of iron (60 mg; Fe group), MMNs (14 other micronutrients; MMN group), iron plus MMNs (Fe+MMN group), or placebo capsules. A 2 × 2 factorial intention-to-treat analysis with the use of a generalized mixed-effects model was used to assess the effects of iron and MMNs and the interaction between these factors. Results: In July 2015, 809 women were recruited and 760 (94%) completed the trial. Baseline anemia prevalence was 58% (venous blood). Mean (95% CI) hemoglobin concentrations at 12 wk in the Fe, MMN, Fe+MMN, and placebo groups were 121 (120, 121), 116 (116, 117), 123 (122, 123), and 116 (116, 117) g/L, with no iron × MMN interaction (P = 0.66). Mean (95% CI) increases in hemoglobin were 5.6 g/L (3.8, 7.4 g/L) (P < 0.001) among women who received iron (n = 407) and 1.2 g/L (-0.6, 3.0 g/L) (P = 0.18) among women who received MMNs (n = 407). The predicted proportions (95% CIs) of women with a hemoglobin response (≥10 g/L at 12 wk) were 19% (14%, 24%), 9% (5%, 12%), 30% (24%, 35%), and 5% (2%, 9%) in the Fe, MMN, Fe+MMN, and placebo groups, respectively.Conclusions: Daily iron supplementation for 12 wk increased hemoglobin in nonpregnant Cambodian women; however, MMNs did not confer additional significant benefit. Overall, ∼24% of women who received iron responded after 12 wk; even fewer would be likely

  6. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2'" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-'" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. View shows small autoclave demonstrated by JPL staff member Milton Clay (JPL negative no. JPL-10286AC, 27 January 1989). - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Credit WCT. Original 2'" x 2%" color negative is housed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Original 2-'" x 2-%" color negative is housed in the JPL Photography Laboratory, Pasadena, California. This view shows the propellant cutter as it was originally installed (JPL negative no. 381-2274A, 29 June 1962) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. Ising models on the 2 x 2 x {infinity} lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yurishchev, M. A.

    2007-03-15

    Exact analytic solutions are presented for two 2 x 2 x {infinity} Ising etageres. The first model has a simple cubic lattice with fully anisotropic interactions. The second model consists of two different types of linear chains and includes noncrossing diagonal bonds on the side faces of the 2 x 2 x {infinity} parallelepiped. In both cases, the solutions are expressed through square radicals and obtained by using the obvious symmetry of the Hamiltonians, Z{sub 2} x C{sub 2v}, and the hidden algebraic {lambda}{lambda} symmetry of the transfer matrix secular equations. The solution found for the second model is used to analyze the behavior of specific heat in a frustrated many-chain system.

  9. Signal transmission within the P2X2 trimeric receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    P2X2 receptor channel, a homotrimer activated by the binding of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to three intersubunit ATP-binding sites (each located ∼50 Å from the ion permeation pore), also shows voltage-dependent activation upon hyperpolarization. Here, we used tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) harboring critical mutations at the ATP-binding, linker, and pore regions to investigate how the ATP activation signal is transmitted within the trimer and how signals generated by ATP and hyperpolarization converge. Analysis of voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in these TTCs showed that: (a) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating of P2X2 requires binding of at least two ATP molecules. (b) D315A mutation in the β-14 strand of the linker region connecting the ATP-binding domains to the pore-forming helices induces two different gating modes; this requires the presence of the D315A mutation in at least two subunits. (c) The T339S mutation in the pore domains of all three subunits abolishes the voltage dependence of P2X2 gating in saturating [ATP], making P2X2 equally active at all membrane potentials. Increasing the number of T339S mutations in the TTC results in gradual changes in the voltage dependence of gating from that of the wild-type channel, suggesting equal and independent contributions of the subunits at the pore level. (d) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in TTCs differs depending on the location of one D315A relative to one K308A that blocks the ATP binding and downstream signal transmission. (e) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating does not depend on where one T339S is located relative to K308A (or D315A). Our results suggest that each intersubunit ATP-binding signal is directly transmitted on the same subunit to the level of D315 via the domain that contributes K308 to the β-14 strand. The signal subsequently spreads equally to all three subunits at the level of the pore, resulting in symmetric and independent contributions of the three

  10. Single Channel Properties of P2X2 Purinoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shinghua; Sachs, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    The single channel properties of cloned P2X2 purinoceptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and Xenopus oocytes were studied in outside-out patches. The mean single channel current–voltage relationship exhibited inward rectification in symmetric solutions with a chord conductance of ∼30 pS at −100 mV in 145 mM NaCl. The channel open state exhibited fast flickering with significant power beyond 10 kHz. Conformational changes, not ionic blockade, appeared responsible for the flickering. The equilibrium constant of Na+ binding in the pore was ∼150 mM at 0 mV and voltage dependent. The binding site appeared to be ∼0.2 of the electrical distance from the extracellular surface. The mean channel current and the excess noise had the selectivity: K+ > Rb+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+. ATP increased the probability of being open (Po) to a maximum of 0.6 with an EC50 of 11.2 μM and a Hill coefficient of 2.3. Lowering extracellular pH enhanced the apparent affinity of the channel for ATP with a pKa of ∼7.9, but did not cause a proton block of the open channel. High pH slowed the rise time to steps of ATP without affecting the fall time. The mean single channel amplitude was independent of pH, but the excess noise increased with decreasing pH. Kinetic analysis showed that ATP shortened the mean closed time but did not affect the mean open time. Maximum likelihood kinetic fitting of idealized single channel currents at different ATP concentrations produced a model with four sequential closed states (three binding steps) branching to two open states that converged on a final closed state. The ATP association rates increased with the sequential binding of ATP showing that the binding sites are not independent, but positively cooperative. Partially liganded channels do not appear to open. The predicted Po vs. ATP concentration closely matches the single channel current dose–response curve. PMID:10228183

  11. High Potency Zinc Modulation of Human P2X2 Receptors and Low Potency Zinc Modulation of Rat P2X2 Receptors Share a Common Molecular Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Punthambaker, Sukanya; Blum, Jacob A.; Hume, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    Human P2X2 receptors (hP2X2) are strongly inhibited by zinc over the range of 2–100 μm, whereas rat P2X2 receptors (rP2X2) are strongly potentiated over the same range, and then inhibited by zinc over 100 μm. However, the biological role of zinc modulation is unknown in either species. To identify candidate regions controlling zinc inhibition in hP2X2 a homology model based on the crystal structure of zebrafish P2X4.1 was made. In this model, His-204 and His-209 of one subunit were near His-330 of the adjacent subunit. Cross-linking studies confirmed that these residues are within 8 Å of each other. Simultaneous mutation of these three histidines to alanines decreased the zinc potency of hP2X2 nearly 100-fold. In rP2X2, one of these histidines is replaced by a lysine, and in a background in which zinc potentiation was eliminated, mutation of Lys-197 to histidine converted rP2X2 from low potency to high potency inhibition. We explored whether the zinc-binding site lies within the vestibules running down the central axis of the receptor. Elimination of all negatively charged residues from the upper vestibule had no effect on zinc inhibition. In contrast, mutation of several residues in the hP2X2 middle vestibule resulted in dramatic changes in the potency of zinc inhibition. In particular, the zinc potency of P206C could be reversibly shifted from extremely high (∼10 nm) to very low (>100 μm) by binding and unbinding MTSET. These results suggest that the cluster of histidines at the subunit interface controls access of zinc to its binding site. PMID:22556417

  12. Molecular and functional characterization of human P2X(2) receptors.

    PubMed

    Lynch, K J; Touma, E; Niforatos, W; Kage, K L; Burgard, E C; van Biesen, T; Kowaluk, E A; Jarvis, M F

    1999-12-01

    P2X receptors are a family of ATP-gated ion channels. Four cDNAs with a high degree of homology to the rat P2X(2) receptor were isolated from human pituitary and pancreas RNA. Genomic sequence indicated that these cDNAs represent alternatively spliced messages. Northern analysis revealed high levels of human P2X(2) (hP2X(2)) message in the pancreas, and splice variants could be detected in a variety of tissues. Two cDNAs encoded functional ion channels when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, a receptor structurally homologous to the prototype rat P2X(2) receptor (called hP2X(2a)) and a variant containing a deletion within its cytoplasmic C terminus (called hP2X(2b)). Pharmacologically, these functional human P2X(2) receptors were virtually indistinguishable, with the P2X receptor agonists ATP, 2-methylthio-ATP, 2' and 3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP, and ATP5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) being approximately equipotent (EC(50) = 1 microM) in eliciting extracellular Ca(2+) influx. The P2 receptor agonists alpha,beta-methylene ATP, adenosine, adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), and UTP were inactive at concentrations up to 100 microM. Both hP2X(2a) and hP2X(2b) receptors were sensitive to the P2 receptor antagonist pyridoxal-5-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2', 4'-disulfonic acid (IC(50) = 3 microM). In contrast to the analogous rat P2X(2) and P2X(2b) receptors, the desensitization rates of the hP2X(2a) and hP2X(2b) receptors were equivalent. Both functional forms of the human P2X(2) receptors formed heteromeric channels with the human P2X(3) receptor. These data demonstrate that the gene structure and mRNA heterogeneity of the P2X(2) receptor subtype are evolutionarily conserved between rat and human, but also suggest that alternative splicing serves a function other than regulating the desensitization rate of the human receptor.

  13. Gating properties of the P2X2a and P2X2b receptor channels: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Khadra, Anmar; Yan, Zonghe; Coddou, Claudio; Tomić, Melanija; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X2 receptors exhibit two opposite activation-dependent changes, pore dilation and pore closing (desensitization), through a process that is incompletely understood. To address this issue and to clarify the roles of calcium and the C-terminal domain in gating, we combined biophysical and mathematical approaches using two splice forms of receptors: the full-size form (P2X2aR) and the shorter form missing 69 residues in the C-terminal domain (P2X2bR). Both receptors developed conductivity for N-methyl-d-glucamine within 2–6 s of ATP application. However, pore dilation was accompanied with a decrease rather than an increase in the total conductance, which temporally coincided with rapid and partial desensitization. During sustained agonist application, receptors continued to desensitize in calcium-independent and calcium-dependent modes. Calcium-independent desensitization was more pronounced in P2X2bR, and calcium-dependent desensitization was more pronounced in P2X2aR. In whole cell recording, we also observed use-dependent facilitation of desensitization of both receptors. Such behavior was accounted for by a 16-state Markov kinetic model describing ATP binding/unbinding and activation/desensitization. The model assumes that naive receptors open when two to three ATP molecules bind and undergo calcium-independent desensitization, causing a decrease in the total conductance, or pore dilation, causing a shift in the reversal potential. In calcium-containing media, receptor desensitization is facilitated and the use-dependent desensitization can be modeled by a calcium-dependent toggle switch. The experiments and the model together provide a rationale for the lack of sustained current growth in dilating P2X2Rs and show that receptors in the dilated state can also desensitize in the presence of calcium. PMID:22547664

  14. Flexible subunit stoichiometry of functional human P2X2/3 heteromeric receptors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Maria; Hausmann, Ralf; Schmid, Julia; Dopychai, Anke; Stephan, Gabriele; Tang, Yong; Schmalzing, Günther; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify whether heterotrimeric P2X2/3 receptors have a fixed subunit stoichiometry consisting of one P2X2 and two P2X3 subunits as previously suggested, or a flexible stoichiometry containing also the inverse subunit composition. For this purpose we transfected HEK293 cells with P2X2 and P2X3 encoding cDNA at the ratios of 1:2 and 4:1, and analysed the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the generated receptors by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The concentration-response curves for the selective agonist α,β-meATP did not differ from each other under the two transfection ratios. However, co-expression of an inactive P2X2 mutant and the wild type P2X3 subunit and vice versa resulted in characteristic distortions of the α,β-meATP concentration-response relationships, depending on which subunit was expressed in excess, suggesting that HEK293 cells express mixtures of (P2X2)1/(P2X3)2 and (P2X2)2/(P2X3)1 receptors. Whereas the allosteric modulators H+ and Zn2+ failed to discriminate between the two possible heterotrimeric receptor variants, the α,β-meATP-induced responses were blocked more potently by the competitive antagonist A317491, when the P2X2 subunit was expressed in deficit of the P2X3 subunit. Furthermore, blue-native PAGE analysis of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits co-expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK293 cells revealed that plasma membrane-bound P2X2/3 receptors appeared in two clearly distinct heterotrimeric complexes: a (P2X2-GFP)2/(P2X3)1 complex and a (P2X2-GFP)1/(P2X3)2 complex. These data strongly indicate that the stoichiometry of the heteromeric P2X2/3 receptor is not fixed, but determined in a permutational manner by the relative availability of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits.

  15. Regulation of GABAA Receptor Dynamics by Interaction with Purinergic P2X2 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amulya Nidhi; Triller, Antoine; Sieghart, Werner; Sarto-Jackson, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) in the spinal cord are evolving as an important target for drug development against pain. Purinergic P2X2 receptors (P2X2Rs) are also expressed in spinal cord neurons and are known to cross-talk with GABAARs. Here, we investigated a possible “dynamic” interaction between GABAARs and P2X2Rs using co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells along with co-localization and single particle tracking studies in spinal cord neurons. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of P2X2Rs forms a transient complex with GABAARs inside the cell, thus stabilizing these receptors and using them for co-trafficking to the cell surface, where P2X2Rs and GABAARs are primarily located extra-synaptically. Furthermore, agonist-induced activation of P2X2Rs results in a Ca2+-dependent as well as an apparently Ca2+-independent increase in the mobility and an enhanced degradation of GABAARs, whereas P2X2Rs are stabilized and form larger clusters. Antagonist-induced blocking of P2XRs results in co-stabilization of this receptor complex at the cell surface. These results suggest a novel mechanism where association of P2X2Rs and GABAARs could be used for specific targeting to neuronal membranes, thus providing an extrasynaptic receptor reserve that could regulate the excitability of neurons. We further conclude that blocking the excitatory activity of excessively released ATP under diseased state by P2XR antagonists could simultaneously enhance synaptic inhibition mediated by GABAARs. PMID:21343285

  16. Potent and long-lasting inhibition of human P2X2 receptors by copper

    PubMed Central

    Punthambaker, Sukanya; Hume, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    P2X receptors are ion channels gated by ATP. In rodents these channels are modulated by zinc and copper. Zinc is co-released with neurotransmitter at some synapses and can modulate neuronal activity, but the role of copper in the brain is unclear. Rat P2X2 receptors show potentiation by 2–100 µM zinc or copper in the presence of a submaximal concentration of ATP but are inhibited by zinc or copper at concentrations above 100 µM. In contrast, human P2X2 (hP2X2) receptors show no potentiation and are strongly inhibited by zinc over the range of 2–100 µM. The effect of copper on hP2X2 is of interest because there are human brain disorders in which copper concentration is altered. We found that hP2X2 receptors are potently inhibited by copper (IC50 = 40 nM). ATP responsiveness recovered extremely slowly after copper washout, with full recovery requiring over 1 h. ATP binding facilitated copper binding but not unbinding from this inhibitory site. A mutant receptor in which the first six extracellular cysteines were deleted, C(1–6)S, showed normal copper inhibition, however reducing agents dramatically accelerated recovery from copper inhibition in wild type hP2X2 and the C(1–6)S mutant, indicating that the final two disulfide bonds are required to maintain the high affinity copper binding site. Three histidine residues required for normal zinc inhibition were also required for normal copper inhibition. Humans with untreated Wilson’s disease have excess amounts of copper in the brain. The high copper sensitivity of hP2X2 receptors suggests that they are non-functional in these patients. PMID:24067922

  17. Molecular orbital investigation of the protonated H2X2AlNHn(CH3)3-n+ (X = F, Cl, and Br; n = 0-3) complexes.

    PubMed

    El Firdoussi, Aziz; Boutalib, Abderrahim

    2005-11-24

    Structures of protonated alane-Lewis base donor-acceptor complexes H2X2AlNHn(CH3)(3-n)+ (X = F, Cl, and Br; n = 0-3) as well as their neutral parents were investigated. All the monocations H2X2AlNHn(CH3)(3-n)+ are Al-H protonated involving hypercoordinated alane with a three-center two-electron bond and adopt the C(s) symmetry arrangement. The energetic results show that the protonated alane-Lewis complexes are more stable than the neutral ones. They also show that this stability decreases on descending in the corresponding periodic table column from fluorine to bromine atoms. The calculated protonation energies of HX2AlNHn(CH3)(3-n) to form H2X2AlNHn(CH3)(3-n)+ were found to be highly exothermic. The possible dissociation of the cations H2X2AlNHn(CH3)(3-n)+ into X2AlNHn(CH3)(3-n)+ and molecular H2 is calculated to be endothermic.

  18. Double-exposure duplication of preoperative and postoperative 2 X 2 transparencies.

    PubMed

    Smith, H W

    1977-01-01

    Before and after photographs in plastic surgery are an essential part of the patient's record. They also provide visual data to supplement both primary and continuing education lectures. When successive photographs are used in lectures, a sharp visual memory is required to compare effectively the preoperative and postoperative photograph. The method presented in this article uses a specially constructed frame used as an accessory for one of the common commercial slide copiers. This device makes it possible to copy, duplicate, and frame preoperative and postoperative 2 X 2 transparencies onto a single 2 X 2 transparency without any additional work on the original, such as framing, cutting, and remounting. This technique leaves the original preoperative and postoperative 2 X 2 transparency slides intact for possible use elsewhere in the same lecture or subsequent lectures on the same subject.

  19. Window types: (from left to right) Pair of 2x2 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window types: (from left to right) Pair of 2x2 multipaned steel casements; triplet of 1x4 multipaned steel casements (center panel fixed); 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Building 20, facing southwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. The 2 x 2 Model of Perfectionism: A Comparison across Asian Canadians and European Canadians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franche, Veronique; Gaudreau, Patrick; Miranda, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The 2 x 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of…

  1. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  2. Visualization of the trimeric P2X2 receptor with a crown-capped extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Ogura, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tomomi; Sato, Chikara

    2005-11-25

    The P2X2 purinergic receptor permeates cationic ions in response to stimulation by ATP and mediates fast synaptic transmission. Here, we purified the P2X2 receptor using baculovirus-Sf9 cell expression system and observed its structure using electron microscopy. The FLAG-tagged P2X2 receptor, which has intact ion channel function, was purified to be a single peak by affinity purification and gel filtration chromatography. It was confirmed to be a trimer by introducing cross-linking. Negatively stained P2X2 protein images were homogeneous and picked up by automated pick-up programs, aligned, and classified using the modified growing neural gas network method. Similarly oriented projections were averaged to decrease the signal-to-noise ratio. These images demonstrate an inverted three-sided pyramid with the dimensions of 215 A in height and 200 A in side length. It is composed of a high-density trunk and a stain-permeable swollen extracellular domain of a crown-shaped structure. The internal cavities and constituent segments were clearly demonstrated in both the raw images and the averaged images. The threefold symmetrical top view demonstrates the first visual evidence of the trimeric composition of the P2X receptor family.

  3. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  4. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  5. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  6. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  7. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  8. Bayesian Procedures for Prediction Analysis of Implication Hypotheses in 2 X 2 Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecoutre, Bruno; Charron, Camilo

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates procedures for prediction analysis in 2 X 2 contingency tables through the analyses of solutions of six types of problems associated with the acquisition of fractions. Reviews and extends confidence interval procedures previously proposed for an index of predictive efficiency of implication hypotheses. Compares frequentist coverage…

  9. Bayesian Procedures for Prediction Analysis of Implication Hypotheses in 2 X 2 Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecoutre, Bruno; Charron, Camilo

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates procedures for prediction analysis in 2 X 2 contingency tables through the analyses of solutions of six types of problems associated with the acquisition of fractions. Reviews and extends confidence interval procedures previously proposed for an index of predictive efficiency of implication hypotheses. Compares frequentist coverage…

  10. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  11. Cohen's Linearly Weighted Kappa Is a Weighted Average of 2 x 2 Kappas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2011-01-01

    An agreement table with [n as an element of N is greater than or equal to] 3 ordered categories can be collapsed into n - 1 distinct 2 x 2 tables by combining adjacent categories. Vanbelle and Albert ("Stat. Methodol." 6:157-163, 2009c) showed that the components of Cohen's weighted kappa with linear weights can be obtained from these n - 1…

  12. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  13. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  14. Entanglement monogamy inequality in a 2 x 2 x 4 system

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Xijun; Jiang Wei

    2010-02-15

    In this report, we show explicitly that the tangles of an arbitrary pure state in a 2 x 2 x 4 system satisfy the monogamy relation. This relation is also generalized to mixed states. As the tangle is always larger than the square of the concurrence, our result implies that the monogamy relation holds for concurrence too. It also supports the idea that the tangle could qualify as an elementary bipartite entanglement measure.

  15. Water adsorption on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) from STM experiments andfirst-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera-Sanfelix, P.; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Mugarza, A.; Shimizu,T.K.; Salmeron, M.; Arnau, A.

    2007-10-15

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of water adsorption on Ru(0001) pre-covered with 0.25 monolayers (ML) of oxygen forming a (2 x 2) structure. Several structures were analyzed by means of Density Functional Theory calculations for which STM simulations were performed and compared with experimental data. Up to 0.25 monolayers the molecules bind to the exposed Ru atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell via the lone pair orbitals. The molecular plane is almost parallel to the surface with its H atoms pointing towards the chemisorbed O atoms of the 2 x 2 unit cell forming hydrogen bonds. The existence of these additional hydrogen bonds increases the adsorption energy of the water molecule to approximately 616 meV, which is {approx}220 meV more stable than on the clean Ru(0001) surface with a similar configuration. The binding energy shows only a weak dependence on water coverage, with a shallow minimum for a row structure at 0.125 ML. This is consistent with the STM experiments that show a tendency of the molecules to form linear rows at intermediate coverage. Our calculations also suggest the possible formation of water dimers near 0.25 ML.

  16. A 2x2 bit Vedic multiplier with different adders in 90nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Lee Shing; Ruslan, Siti Hawa

    2017-09-01

    Adders play an important role in various arithmetic circuits such as multipliers. Speed and power consumption become very vital in multiplier design consideration to conserve energy. In this paper, a 2x2 bit Vedic multiplier has been designed using 3 different adder circuits. The first circuit is utilizing two half adders which used 3 transistors exclusive OR gate (3T XOR), the second circuit used two full adders with 6 transistors XOR (6T XOR) gate and the last circuit used two 13 transistors hybrid full adders (13T HFA). The adders used are combined with four AND gates to form a multiplier module to execute a Vedic mathematics algorithm. This algorithm satisfied the requirement of a fast multiplication operation because of the vertical and crosswise architecture from the Urdhva Triyakbyam Sutra which reduced the number of partial products compared to the conventional multiplication algorithm. The 2x2 bit multiplier is simulated using Synopsys Custom Tools using General Process Design Kit (GPDK) of 90 nm CMOS technology. Performance parameters such as power consumption and delay were compared as well as the swing of the output produced. With a 1 V voltage supply, the 2x2 Vedic multiplier with 13T HFA was found to be the best multiplier which produced a full output voltage swing even though the power consumption is second lowest at 22.96 µW and a delay of 47.70 ps. With the combination of hybrid full adder and Vedic mathematics, a new combination of multiplier method with low power and low delay has been successfully produced.

  17. Understanding students' motivation in project work: a 2 x 2 achievement goal approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, C K John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline

    2009-03-01

    The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students in PW, especially with the use of the recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. To use a cluster analytic approach to identify students' achievement goal profiles at an intra-individual level, and to examine their links to various psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Participants were 491 Secondary 2 students (mean age = 13.78, SD = 0.77) from two government coeducational schools. Cluster analysis was performed to identify distinct subgroups of students with similar achievement goal profiles. One-way MANOVAs, followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests for pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether there was any significant difference amongst clusters in terms of the psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Four distinct clusters of students were identified. The cluster with high achievement goals and the cluster with moderately high goals had the most positive psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes. In contrast, the cluster with very low scores for all four achievement goals had the most maladaptive profile. The study provides support for the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, and demonstrates that multiple goals can operate simultaneously. However, it highlights the need for cross-cultural studies to look into the approach-avoidance dimension in the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

  18. 2 x 2 TeV mu(superscript +) mu (superscript) collider

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Noble, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    The scenarios for high-luminosity 2 x 2 TeV and 250 x 250 GeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} colliders are presented. Having a high physics potential, such a machine has specific physics and technical advantages and disadvantages when compared with an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Parameters for the candidate designs and the basic components - proton source, pion production and decay channel, cooling, acceleration and collider storage ring - are considered. Attention is paid to the areas mostly affecting the collider performance: targetry, energy spread, superconducting magnet survival, detector backgrounds, polarization, environmental issues. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. New coplanar waveguide feed network for 2 x 2 linearly tapered slot antenna subarray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Perl, Thomas D.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-01-01

    A novel feed method is presently demonstrated for a 2 x 2 linearly tapered slot antenna (LTSA) on the basis of a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-to-slotline transition and a coax-to-CPW in-phase, four-way power divider. The LTSA subarray exhibits excellent radiation patterns and return-loss characteristics at 18 GHz, and has symmetric beamwidth; its compactness renders it applicable as either a feed for a reflector antenna or as a building-block for large arrays.

  20. Supramolecular Co(II)-[2 x 2] grids: metamagnetic behavior in a single molecule.

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Oliver; Ruben, Mario; Ziener, Ulrich; Müller, Paul; Lehn, Jean M

    2006-08-07

    The magnetic anisotropy of the supramolecular [2 x 2] grid [Co(II)4L4]8+, with a bis(bipyridyl)-pyrimidine-based ligand L, was investigated by single-crystal magnetization measurements at low temperatures. The magnetization curves exhibit metamagnetic-like behavior and are explained by the weak-exchange limit of a minimal spin Hamiltonian including Heisenberg exchange, easy-axis ligand fields, and the Zeeman term. It is also shown that the magnetic coupling strength can be varied by the substituent R1 in the two-position on the central pyrimidine group of the ligand L.

  1. Operating manual holographic interferometry system for 2 x 2 foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic interferometer system was installed in a 2X2 foot transonic wind tunnel. The system incorporates a modern, 10 pps, Nd:YAG pulsed laser which provides reliable operation and is easy to align. The spatial filtering requirements of the unstable resonator beam are described as well as the integration of the system into the existing Schieren system. A two plate holographic interferometer is used to reconstruct flow field data. For static wind tunnel models the single exposure holograms are recorded in the usual manner; however, for dynamic models such as oscillating airfoils, synchronous laser hologram recording is used.

  2. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  3. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  4. [How I explore the various statistical facets of 2 x 2 tables in medicine].

    PubMed

    Albert, A

    2013-09-01

    In the medical scientific literature, 2 x 2 contingency tables are widely used to display the distribution of binary data. They are associated with the definition of basic concepts in medicine and epidemiology that are universally utilized. They are usually taught in any basic course in biostatistics early in the medical curriculum; their interpretation however is not always straightforward. We have discerned at least eight different facets of such fourfold tables: homogeneity test, independence test, McNemar test, Cohen kappa coefficient, incidence relative risk, prevalence relative risk, odds ratio, diagnostic value of a clinical test. Each facet is illustrated by a clinical problem used as an example. This article should help the reader to understand which table he/she is actually dealing with.

  5. Analysis of Factorial Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    The pro- bability that y 13 is bad is .37. Choosing Q greater than .37 ends the iteration. Choos - ing Q so that Y 13 is identified as a bad...ances as a Fraction of Their Total. Annals of Eugenics , 11, 47-52. Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. (1957) Experimental Designs. New York: John Wiley...Experiments. London: Oliver and Boyd. Finney, D. J. (1945) The Fractional Replication of Factorial Arrangements. Annals of Eugenics , 12, 291-301

  6. Transcription factories

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Dietmar; Trajanoski, Zlatko; McNally, James G.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that transcription does not occur homogeneously or diffusely throughout the nucleus, but rather at a number of specialized, discrete sites termed transcription factories. The factories are composed of ~4–30 RNA polymerase molecules, and are associated with many other molecules involved in transcriptional activation and mRNA processing. Some data suggest that the polymerase molecules within a factory remain stationary relative to the transcribed DNA, which is thought to be reeled through the factory site. There is also some evidence that transcription factories could help organize chromatin and nuclear structure, contributing to both the formation of chromatin loops and the clustering of active and co-regulated genes. PMID:23109938

  7. 2x2 oversampling in digital radiography imaging for CsI-based scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Sik; Kim, Eun; Lee, Eunae; Shin, Choul Woo

    2017-03-01

    In order to efficiently conduct the anti-aliasing filtering in digital radiography imaging, the oversampling scheme using an oversampling detector, in which the sampling frequency is higher than that of the desired detector, is considered in this paper. Instead of using difficult analog anti-aliasing filters, digital anti-aliasing filters are applied to the oversampled data and then their downsampling enables acquiring the desired x-ray images. Supposing an ideal anti-aliasing filtering, the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) performance of the desired detector can be close to that of the oversampling detector since the overlap of the adjacent noise aliases can be minimized while maintaining the frequency amplitude response for the fundamental frequency range. In this paper, a 2 x 2 oversampling is conducted for the desired pixel pitch of 152 μm/pixel and various filters are tested for anti-aliasing filtering. It is shown that securing an enough transition band is important to avoid the ringing artifacts even though the anti-aliasing performance deteriorates due to the wide transition band. From an experiment using a CsI(Tl)-based detector, the aliasing artifact problem is alleviated and a DQE improvement of 0.1 is achieved at 2.5 lp/mm from the oversampling radiography imaging over the binning scheme.

  8. Entanglement and dissipation in a 2x2 quantum-dot cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debora Contreras, Lesbia; Rojas, Fernando

    2005-03-01

    Quantum dot arrays or quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as elements capable to encode, process and transmit logical information based on quantum effects in terms of charge distributions in specific geometries. and the basis for the charge qubits. Quantum Entanglement is a resource to encode information in a completely new way making possible quantum teleportation, quantum error correction, quantum dense coding. In this work, we explore the dynamical formation of entangled states including dissipative effects, of two parallel double dots (four dots, 2x2 cell), with one extra electron each, coupled by the Coulomb interaction and controlled by a time dependent potential difference applied to one of the double dots, causing the electron to switch. We include dissipative effects via electron-phonon interaction in the Markovian approximation for the reduced density matrix. Dynamical properties of the cell such as charge polarization, measure the entanglement (Wootters concurrence) and the probabilities for each Bell state, are discussed as a function of relevant parameters (tunneling, potential difference, temperature). We find that it is possible to obtain entangled states in the cell based on the electronic charge distribution and produce a specific Bell state from an initially non entangled state through the control of the time dependent potential. The work is supported by DGAPA project IN114403 and CONACyT project 43673-F

  9. Elucidating the Foundations of Statistical Inference with 2 x 2 Tables

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Leena; Blume, Jeffrey D.; Dupont, William D.

    2015-01-01

    To many, the foundations of statistical inference are cryptic and irrelevant to routine statistical practice. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables, omnipresent in the scientific literature, is a case in point. Fisher's exact test is routinely used even though it has been fraught with controversy for over 70 years. The problem, not widely acknowledged, is that several different p-values can be associated with a single table, making scientific inference inconsistent. The root cause of this controversy lies in the table's origins and the manner in which nuisance parameters are eliminated. However, fundamental statistical principles (e.g., sufficiency, ancillarity, conditionality, and likelihood) can shed light on the controversy and guide our approach in using this test. In this paper, we use these fundamental principles to show how much information is lost when the tables origins are ignored and when various approaches are used to eliminate unknown nuisance parameters. We present novel likelihood contours to aid in the visualization of information loss and show that the information loss is often virtually non-existent. We find that problems arising from the discreteness of the sample space are exacerbated by p-value-based inference. Accordingly, methods that are less sensitive to this discreteness - likelihood ratios, posterior probabilities and mid-p-values - lead to more consistent inferences. PMID:25849515

  10. Epitaxial growth and properties of MoOx(2<x <2.75) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhosle, V.; Tiwari, A.; Narayan, J.

    2005-04-01

    We report the growth of epitaxial molybdenum oxide (MoOx,2<x<2.75) films on c plane of sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition in oxygen environment. The structure was characterized using x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrical resistivity and optical properties were investigated using four-point-probe resistivity measurements and spectroscopy techniques, respectively. It was found that the film had a monoclinic structure based on MoO2 phase and showed an unusual combination of high conductivity and high transmittance in the visible region after annealing. The unusual combination of these properties was realized by systematically controlling the relative fraction of different oxidation states of molybdenum, namely Mo4+, Mo5+, and Mo6+ in the monoclinic phase. For a film 60nm thick and annealed at 250°C for 1h, the ratio of Mo6+/(Mo4++Mo5+) was determined to be ˜2.9/1 using XPS, and a typical value of transmittance was ˜65% and resistivity close to 1×10-3Ωcm. These results demonstrate growth of epitaxial MoOx films with tunable electrical and optical properties. Further optimization of these properties is expected to result in applications related to display panels, solar cells, chromogenic (photochromic, electrochromic, gasochromic) devices, and transparent conducting oxides. Our ability to grow epitaxial MoOx films can further aid their integration with optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  11. Robust optimization of 2x2 multimode interference couplers with fabrication uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Samee ur; Langelaar, Matthijs; Van Keulen, Fred

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel design-for-manufacture strategy for integrated photonics which specifically addresses the commonly encountered scenario in which probability distributions of the manufacturing variations are not available, however their bounds are known. The best design point for the device, in the presence of these uncertainties, can be found by applying robust optimization. This is performed by minimizing the maximum realizable value of the objective with respect to the uncertainty set so that an optimum is found whose performance is relatively immune to fabrication variations. Instead of applying robust optimization directly on a computationally expensive simulation model of the integrated photonic device, we construct a cheap surrogate model by uniformly sampling the simulated device at different values of the design variables and interpolating the resulting objective using a Kriging metamodel. By applying robust optimization on the constructed surrogate, the global robust optimum can be found at low computational cost. As an illustration of the method's general applicability, we apply the robust optimization approach on a 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler. We robustly minimize the imbalance in the presence of uncertainties arising from variations in the fabricated design geometry. For this example device, we also study the influence of the number of sample points on the quality of the metamodel and on the robust optimization process.

  12. Elucidating the foundations of statistical inference with 2 x 2 tables.

    PubMed

    Choi, Leena; Blume, Jeffrey D; Dupont, William D

    2015-01-01

    To many, the foundations of statistical inference are cryptic and irrelevant to routine statistical practice. The analysis of 2 x 2 contingency tables, omnipresent in the scientific literature, is a case in point. Fisher's exact test is routinely used even though it has been fraught with controversy for over 70 years. The problem, not widely acknowledged, is that several different p-values can be associated with a single table, making scientific inference inconsistent. The root cause of this controversy lies in the table's origins and the manner in which nuisance parameters are eliminated. However, fundamental statistical principles (e.g., sufficiency, ancillarity, conditionality, and likelihood) can shed light on the controversy and guide our approach in using this test. In this paper, we use these fundamental principles to show how much information is lost when the tables origins are ignored and when various approaches are used to eliminate unknown nuisance parameters. We present novel likelihood contours to aid in the visualization of information loss and show that the information loss is often virtually non-existent. We find that problems arising from the discreteness of the sample space are exacerbated by p-value-based inference. Accordingly, methods that are less sensitive to this discreteness - likelihood ratios, posterior probabilities and mid-p-values - lead to more consistent inferences.

  13. Development of a 2x2 optical switch for plastic optical fiber using liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Carmen; Sanchez-Pena, J. M.; Contreras, Pedro; Pontes, M. A. J.

    2005-07-01

    A 2x2 optical switch for plastic optical fibre (POF) has been developed, able to work for both 660 and 850nm simultaneous and independently of the input light's polarization, improving previous developments. The device has four bidirectional optical ports, and is able to switch from each port to any other. In this way, there are three operation modes: straight (each input connected to the corresponding output), crossed (inputs and outputs crosses) and closed (inputs connected on the one part, and output connected on the other part). As the device is bidirectional, inputs and outputs are interchangeable. The switching process is carried out by a set of Polarized Beam Splitters, Liquid Crystal cells, λ/4 plates, lens and mirrors. An electronic circuitry has been developed to control the state of the optical switch, which is shown in a Liquid Crystal Display. The system has been tested for both 660nm and 850nm, and the optical switch exhibits miliseconds switching times, an optical interchannel crosstalk better than -25 dB, and low power consumption. Applications of the switch include systems where a redundant path is needed to guarantee communication, such as safety systems in automobiles, LANs, telemedicine, heavy machinery in the industry along with coarse WDM GI (graded index) POF networks. Device size reduction is under development.

  14. Effects of protein deprivation and re-feeding on P2X2 receptors in enteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Misawa, Rúbia; Girotti, Priscila Azevedo; Mizuno, Márcia Sanae; Liberti, Edson Aparecido; Furness, John Barton; Castelucci, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of malnutrition and re-feeding on the P2X2 receptor, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calretinin, calbindin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in neurons of the rat ileum. METHODS: We analyzed the co-localization, numbers and sizes of P2X2-expressing neurons in relation to NOS-immunoreactive (IR), calbindin-IR, ChAT-IR, and calretinin-IR neurons of the myenteric and submucosal plexus. The experimental groups consisted of: (1) rats maintained on normal feed throughout pregnancy until 42 d post-parturition (N); (2) rats deprived of protein throughout pregnancy and 42 d post-parturition (D); and (3) rats undernourished for 21 d post-parturition and then given a protein diet from days 22 to 42 (DR). The myenteric and submucosal plexuses were evaluated by double labeling by immunohistochemical methods for P2X2 receptor, NOS, ChAT, calbindin and calretinin. RESULTS: We found similar P2X2 receptor immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm and surface membranes of myenteric and submucosal neurons from the N, D and DR groups. Double labeling of the myenteric plexus demonstrated that approximately 100% of NOS-IR, calbindin-IR, calretinin-IR and ChAT-IR neurons in all groups also expressed the P2X2 receptor. In the submucosal plexus, the calretinin-IR, ChAT-IR and calbindin-IR neurons were nearly all immunoreactive for the P2X2 receptor. In the myenteric plexus, there was a 19% increase in numbers per cm2 for P2X2 receptor-IR neurons, 64% for NOS-IR, 84% for calretinin-IR and 26% for ChAT-IR neurons in the D group. The spatial density of calbindin-IR neurons, however, did not differ among the three groups. The submucosal neuronal density increased for calbindin-IR, calretinin-IR and ChAT-IR neurons. The average size of neurons in the myenteric plexus neurons in the D group was less than that in the controls and, in the re-fed rats; there was a 34% reduction in size only for the calretinin-IR neurons. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates that expression of

  15. Subunit-specific coupling between gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and P2X2 receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Toulmé, Estelle; Emerit, Michel B; Garret, Maurice

    2004-12-10

    ATP and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two fast neurotransmitters co-released at central synapses, where they co-activate excitatory P2X and inhibitory GABAA (GABA type A) receptors. We report here that co-activation of P2X2 and various GABAA receptors, co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, leads to a functional cross-inhibition dependent on GABAA subunit composition. Sequential applications of GABA and ATP revealed that alphabeta- or alphabetagamma-containing GABAA receptors inhibited P2X2 channels, whereas P2X2 channels failed to inhibit gamma-containing GABAA receptors. This functional cross-talk is independent of membrane potential, changes in current direction, and calcium. Non-additive responses observed between cation-selective GABAA and P2X2 receptors further indicate the chloride independence of this process. Overexpression of minigenes encoding either the C-terminal fragment of P2X2 or the intracellular loop of the beta3 subunit disrupted the functional cross-inhibition. We previously demonstrated functional and physical cross-talk between rho1 and P2X2 receptors, which induced a retargeting of rho1 channels to surface clusters when co-expressed in hippocampal neurons (Boue-Grabot, E., Emerit, M. B., Toulme, E., Seguela, P., and Garret, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6967-6975). Co-expression of P2X2 and chimeric rho1 receptors with the C-terminal sequences of alpha2, beta3, or gamma2 subunits indicated that only rho1-beta3 and P2X2 channels exhibit both functional cross-inhibition in Xenopus oocytes and co-clustering/retargeting in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, the C-terminal domain of P2X2 and the intracellular loop of beta GABAA subunits are required for the functional interaction between ATP- and GABA-gated channels. This gamma subunit-dependent cross-talk may contribute to the regulation of synaptic activity.

  16. The spatiotemporal relationship between local Ca(2+) signaling and P2X2R-activated membrane blebbing.

    PubMed

    Qudrat, Anam; Kim, Jae Ik; Truong, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian P2X receptors (P2XRs), a family of seven ionotropic purinergic receptors, function as ion channels modulating diverse cellular processes such as secretion, apoptosis and proliferation in response to extracellular ATP. Previously, it was shown that upon ATP stimulus, the P2X7 receptor (a member of P2XR family) triggers plasma membrane (PM) blebbing in HEK293 cells. In this study, we demonstrate that this phenomenon extends to another member of the P2XR family-P2X2 receptor (P2X2R). Similar to P2X7 receptor, P2X2R blebbing is dependent on Ca(2+)-calmodulin and ROCK-I. To elucidate the spatiotemporal relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and blebbing, protein biosensors and switches were used to image and generate Ca(2+) signals, respectively, while observing PM blebbing in cells. Blebbing cannot be initiated by Ca(2+) influx from the endoplasmic reticulum or by Ca(2+) transport across the PM by other Ca(2+) channels. To trigger blebbing, it is necessary for Ca(2+) to enter specifically through the P2X2R. Lastly, a local Ca(2+) signal near a fragment that encodes the intracellular P2X2R C-terminus tail is sufficient to trigger blebbing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  18. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  19. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  20. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...

  1. Explaining computation of predictive values: 2 x 2 table versus frequency tree. A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN74278823].

    PubMed

    Steckelberg, Anke; Balgenorth, Andrea; Berger, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2004-08-10

    Involving patients in decision making on diagnostic procedures requires a basic level of statistical thinking. However, innumeracy is prevalent even among physicians. In medical teaching the 2 x 2 table is widely used as a visual help for computations whereas in psychology the frequency tree is favoured. We assumed that the 2 x 2 table is more suitable to support computations of predictive values. 184 students without prior statistical training were randomised either to a step-by-step self-learning tutorial using the 2 x 2 table (n = 94) or the frequency tree (n = 90). During the training session students were instructed by two sample tasks and a total of five positive predictive values had to be computed. During a follow-up session 4 weeks later participants had to compute 5 different tasks of comparable degree of difficulty without having the tutorial instructions at their disposal. The primary outcome was the correct solution of the tasks. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. About 58% achieved correct solutions in 4-5 tasks following the training session and 26% in the follow-up examination. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the 2 x 2 table is more valuable to facilitate the calculation of positive predictive values than the frequency tree.

  2. On Association Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Properties that Do Not Depend on the Marginal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss properties that association coefficients may have in general, e.g., zero value under statistical independence, and we examine coefficients for 2x2 tables with respect to these properties. Furthermore, we study a family of coefficients that are linear transformations of the observed proportion of agreement given the marginal…

  3. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  4. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  5. Neutrino factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ13. The accelerator facility will deliver 1021 muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δCP that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δCP coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  6. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  7. Collaborative Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cota-Robles, Eugene; Doby, Winston

    Two conference papers describing various collaborative arrangements within the educational community among teachers, students and others are presented in this document. The first paper, "Successful Collaborations" (Eugene Cota-Robles), describes the following projects in California that seek to forge collaborations to improve the…

  8. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  9. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGES

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; ...

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  10. Seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1987-01-01

    A seal arrangement is provided for preventing gas leakage along a reciprocating piston rod or other reciprocating member passing through a wall which separates a high pressure gas chmber and a low pressure gas chamber. Liquid lubricant is applied to the lower pressure side of a sealing gland surrounding the piston rod to prevent the escape of gas between the rod and the gland. The sealing gland is radially forced against the piston rod by action of a plurality of axially stacked O-rings influenced by an axially acting spring as well as pressure from the gas.

  11. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  12. Attentional Performance in Children and Adolescents with Tic Disorder and Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: New Insights from a 2 x 2 Factorial Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greimel, Ellen; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Roessner, Veit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of both tic disorder (TD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on attentional functions. N = 96 children and adolescents participated in the study, including n = 21 subjects with TD, n = 23 subjects with ADHD, n = 25 subjects with TD+ADHD, and n = 27 controls. Attentional…

  13. Modulation of P2X3 and P2X2/3 Receptors by Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shcherbatko, Anatoly; Foletti, Davide; Poulsen, Kris; Strop, Pavel; Zhu, Guoyun; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Melton Witt, Jody; Loo, Carole; Krimm, Stellanie; Pios, Ariel; Yu, Jessica; Brown, Colleen; Lee, John K; Stroud, Robert; Rajpal, Arvind; Shelton, David

    2016-06-03

    Purinergic homomeric P2X3 and heteromeric P2X2/3 receptors are ligand-gated cation channels activated by ATP. Both receptors are predominantly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, and an increase in extracellular ATP concentration under pathological conditions, such as tissue damage or visceral distension, induces channel opening, membrane depolarization, and initiation of pain signaling. Hence, these receptors are considered important therapeutic targets for pain management, and development of selective antagonists is currently progressing. To advance the search for novel analgesics, we have generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against human P2X3 (hP2X3). We have found that these antibodies produce distinct functional effects, depending on the homomeric or heteromeric composition of the target, its kinetic state, and the duration of antibody exposure. The most potent antibody, 12D4, showed an estimated IC50 of 16 nm on hP2X3 after short term exposure (up to 18 min), binding to the inactivated state of the channel to inhibit activity. By contrast, with the same short term application, 12D4 potentiated the slow inactivating current mediated by the heteromeric hP2X2/3 channel. Extending the duration of exposure to ∼20 h resulted in a profound inhibition of both homomeric hP2X3 and heteromeric hP2X2/3 receptors, an effect mediated by efficient antibody-induced internalization of the channel from the plasma membrane. The therapeutic potential of mAb12D4 was assessed in the formalin, complete Freund's adjuvant, and visceral pain models. The efficacy of 12D4 in the visceral hypersensitivity model indicates that antibodies against P2X3 may have therapeutic potential in visceral pain indications.

  14. Reconstruction of the P2X(2) receptor reveals a vase-shaped structure with lateral tunnels above the membrane.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tomomi; Hiroaki, Yoko; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Chikara

    2009-02-13

    In response to the intercellular messenger ATP, P2X receptors transfer various sensory information, including pain. Here we have reconstructed the structure of the P2X(2) receptor at 15 A resolution from more than 90,000 particle images, taken with a cryo-electron microscope equipped with a helium-cooled stage. This three-dimensional depiction, presumably in a closed state, revealed an elongated vase-shaped structure 202 A in height and 160 A in major diameter. The extracellular and transmembrane domains present a two-layered structure, in which a sparse outer layer surrounds a pore-forming inner density. The decreased diameter of a putative ion-conducting pathway at the middle of the membrane was considered to be the narrowest part of the pore, which has been predicted from electrophysiological studies. The sparse, extended structure of the P2X(2) receptor indicates a loose assembly of subunits, which could be a basis for the activation-dependent pore dilation of P2X receptors.

  15. Characterization of dopamine releasable and reserve pools in Drosophila larvae using ATP/P2X2-mediated stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic signaling pathways are conserved between mammals and Drosophila, but the factors important for maintaining the functional pool of synaptic dopamine are not fully understood in Drosophila. In this study, we characterized the releasable and reserve dopamine pools in Drosophila larvae using ATP/ P2X2-mediated stimulation. Dopamine release was stable with stimulations performed at least every 5 min but decayed with stimulations performed 2 min apart or less, indicating the replenishment of the releasable pool occurred on a time scale between 2 and 5 min. Dopamine synthesis or uptake were pharmacologically inhibited with 3-iodotyrosine and cocaine, respectively, to evaluate their contributions to maintaining the releasable dopamine pool. We found that both synthesis and uptake were needed to maintain the releasable dopamine pool, with synthesis playing a major part in long-term replenishment and uptake being more important for short-term replenishment. These effects of synthesis and uptake on different time scales in Drosophila are analogous to mammals. However, unlike in mammals, cocaine did not activate a reserve pool of dopamine in Drosophila when using P2X2 stimulations. Our study shows that both synthesis and uptake replenish the releasable pool, providing a better understanding of dopamine regulation in Drosophila. PMID:25951875

  16. P2X2 Receptor Terminal Field Demarcates a "Transition Zone" for Gustatory and Mechanosensory Processing in the Mouse Nucleus Tractus Solitarius.

    PubMed

    Breza, Joseph M; Travers, Susan P

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral gustatory neurons express P2X2 purinergic receptors and terminate in the rostral portion of the nucleus tractus solitarius (rNTS), but a relationship between the P2X2 terminal field and taste evoked activity has not been established. Additionally, a portion of somatosensory neurons from the trigeminal nerve, which are devoid of P2X2 expression, also terminate in the lateral rNTS. We hypothesized that P2X2 receptor expression on afferent nerve endings could be used as an anatomical tool for segregating gustatory from mechanosensory responsive regions in the mouse rNTS. C57BL/6 mice were used to record extracellular activity from neurons within the rNTS and the laterally adjacent reticular formation and trigeminal nucleus. Histological reconstruction of electrolytic lesions indicated that gustatory activity coincided with electrode tracks that traversed through P2X2 terminal fields. Gustatory recordings made more rostral in the rNTS had receptive fields located in the anterior oral cavity (AO), whereas gustatory recordings made more caudal in the rNTS had receptive fields located in the posterior oral cavity (PO). Mechanosensory neurons with AO receptive fields were recorded near the lateral border of the P2X2 terminal field and became numerous on electrode tracks made lateral to the P2X2 terminal field. In contrast, mechanosensory responses with PO receptive fields were recorded within the P2X2 terminal field along with gustatory activity and transitioned to mechanosensory only outside the P2X2 terminal field. Collectively, our results indicate that the lateral border of the P2X2 terminal field, demarcates a faithful "transition zone," where AO responses transition from gustatory to mechanosensory. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 60-GHz optical/wireless MIMO system integrated with optical subcarrier multiplexing and 2x2 wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Chiang, Shou-Chih; Chang, Hsi-Yu

    2015-05-04

    This paper proposes a 2x2 MIMO OFDM Radio-over-Fiber scheme based on optical subcarrier multiplexing and 60-GHz MIMO wireless transmission. We also schematically investigated the principle of optical subcarrier multiplexing, which is based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). In our simulation result, combining two MIMO OFDM signals to drive DP-MZM gives rise to the PAPR augmentation of less than 0.4 dB, which mitigates nonlinear distortion. Moreover, we applied a Levin-Campello bit-loading algorithm to compensate for the uneven frequency responses in the V-band. The resulting system achieves OFDM signal rates of 61.5-Gbits/s with BER of 10(-3) over 25-km SMF transmission followed by 3-m wireless transmission.

  18. Phase gap in pseudoternary R1-yRy'Mn2X2-xXx' compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Kennedy, S. J.; Campbell, S. J.; Hofmann, M.; Dou, S. X.

    2013-03-01

    Our neutron diffraction investigation of PrMn2Ge2-xSix reveals a clear separation into two magnetic phases, canted ferromagnetic (Fmc) and antiferromagnetic (AFmc), between x = 1.0 and 1.2 and a commensurate phase gap in the lattice, due to magnetostrictive distortion. This remarkable magnetoelastic phenomenon is driven by a nonuniform atomic distribution on the X site which in turn produces subtle variations in the local lattice and abrupt changes in the Mn-Mn magnetic exchange interaction. Our results show that coexistence of Fmc and AFmc phases depends on lattice parameter, chemical pressure from the rare-earth and metalloid sites, and local lattice strain distributions. We demonstrate that these magnetostructural correlations act across the entire family of R1-yRy'Mn2X2-xXx' compounds.

  19. Statistical perspective on adjusting for center effect in a 2 x 2 crossover design with application to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Yue, L Q

    2000-11-01

    Patients for large-scale clinical trials are typically recruited from multiple centers to ensure adequate patient population and timely enrollment. In this note, carryover, treatment, and period effects for continuous data in multicenter studies with a 2 x 2 crossover design are examined using two types of covariate analysis adjusted for center effect proposed by Castellana and Patel (1). The correspondence among F-tests for various sources of variation in the two approaches is derived in detail. An example from a clinical study with complete and incomplete data is given to illustrate the use of the two types of covariate analysis. Also, the impact of complete and incomplete data on the covariate analyses is discussed along with the weighted squares of means analysis used in SAS procedure PROC GLM and residual maximum likelihood (REML) estimation employed in SAS procedure PROC MIXED.

  20. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  1. Photoelectron diffraction k-space volumes of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) structure

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) studies have either been done by scanning the diffraction angle for fixed kinetic energy (ADPD), or scanning the kinetic energy at fixed exit angle (EDPD). Both of these methods collect subsets of the full diffraction pattern, or volume, which is the intensity of photoemission as a function of momentum direction and magnitude. With the high density available at the Spectromicroscopy Facility (BL 7.0) {open_quotes}ultraESCA{close_quotes} station, the authors are able to completely characterize the photoelectron diffraction patterns of surface structures, up to several hundred electron volts kinetic energy. This large diffraction `volume` can then be analyzed in many ways. The k-space volume contains as a subset the energy dependent photoelectron diffraction spectra along all emission angles. It also contains individual, hemispherical, diffraction patterns at specific kinetic energies. Other `cuts` through the data set are also possible, revealing new ways of viewing photoelectron diffraction data, and potentially new information about the surface structure being studied. In this article the authors report a brief summary of a structural study being done on the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy. This system is interesting for both structural and magnetic reasons. Magnetically, the Mn/Ni(100) surface alloy exhibits parallel coupling of the Mn and Ni moments, which is opposite to the reported coupling for the bulk, disordered, alloy. Structurally, the Mn atoms are believed to lie well above the surface plane.

  2. Maltodextrin and fat preference deficits in "taste-blind" P2X2/P2X3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine triphosphate is a critical neurotransmitter in the gustatory response to the 5 primary tastes in mice. Genetic deletion of the purinergic P2X2/P2X3 receptor greatly reduces the neural and behavioral response to prototypical primary taste stimuli. In this study, we examined the behavioral response of P2X double knockout mice to maltodextrin and fat stimuli, which appear to activate additional taste channels. P2X double knockout and wild-type mice were given 24-h choice tests (vs. water) with ascending concentrations of Polycose and Intralipid. In Experiment 1, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.5-4%) Polycose solutions but preferred concentrated (8-32%) Polycose to water. In a retest, the Polycose-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, preferred all Polycose concentrations. In Experiment 2, naive double knockout mice, unlike wild-type mice, were indifferent to dilute (0.313-2.5%) Intralipid emulsions but preferred concentrated (5-20%) Intralipid to water. In a retest, the fat-experienced double knockout mice, like wild-type mice, strongly preferred 0.313-5% Intralipid to water. These results indicate that the inherent preferences of mice for maltodextrin and fat are dependent upon adenosine triphosphate taste cell signaling. With experience, however, P2X double knockout mice develop strong preferences for the nontaste flavor qualities of maltodextrin and fat conditioned by the postoral actions of these nutrients.

  3. Determination of the rate constants for the NH2(X2B1) + NH2(X2B1) and NH2(X2B1) + H Recombination reactions with collision partners CH4, C2H6, CO2, CF4, and SF6 at low pressures and 296 K. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Altinay, Gokhan; Macdonald, R Glen

    2012-03-08

    The recombination rate constants for the reactions NH2(X2B1) + NH2(X2B1) + M → N2H4 + M and NH2(X2B1) + H + M → NH3 + M, where M was CH4, C2H6, CO2, CF4, or SF6, were measured in the same experiment over presseure ranges of 1-20 and 7-20 Torr, respectively, at 296 ± 2 K. The NH2 radical was produced by the 193 nm laser photolysis of NH3. Both NH2 and NH3 were monitored simultaneously following the photolysis laser pulse. High-resolution time-resolved absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the temporal dependence of both species: NH2 on the (1)2(21) ← (1)3(31) rotational transition of the (0,7,0)A2A1 ← (0,0,0)X2B1 electronic transition near 675 nm and NH3 in the IR on either of the inversion doublets of the qQ3(3) rotational transition of the ν1 fundamental near 2999 nm. The NH2 self-recombination clearly exhibited falloff behavior for the third-body collision partners used in this work. The pressure dependences of the NH2 self-recombination rate constants were fit using Troe’s parametrization scheme, k(inf), k(0), and F(cent), with k(inf) = 7.9 × 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), the theoretical value calculated by Klippenstein et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A113, 113, 10241). The individual Troe parameters were CH4, k(0)(CH4) = 9.4 × 10(-29) and F(cent)(CH4) = 0.61; C2H6, k(0)(C2H6) = 1.5 × 10(-28) and F(cent)(C2H6) = 0.80; CO2, k(0)(CO2) = 8.6 × 10(-29) and F(cent)(CO2) = 0.66; CF4, k(0)(CF4) = 1.1 × 10(-28) and F(cent)(CF4) = 0.55; and SF6, k(0)(SF6) = 1.9 × 10(-28) and F(cent)(SF6) = 0.52, where the units of k0 are cm6 molecule(-2) s(-1). The NH2 + H + M reaction rate constant was assumed to be in the three-body pressure regime, and the association rate constants were CH4, (6.0 ± 1.8) × 10(-30); C2H6, (1.1 ± 0.41) × 10(-29); CO2, (6.5 ± 1.8) × 10(-30); CF4, (8.3 ± 1.7) × 10(-30); and SF6, (1.4 ± 0.30) × 10(-29), with units cm6 molecule(-1) s,(-1) and the systematic and experimental errors are given at the 2σ confidence level.

  4. Residual Chemosensory Capabilities in Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Null Mice: Intraoral or Postingestive Detection?

    PubMed Central

    Hallock, Robert M.; Tatangelo, Marco; Barrows, Jennell

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking the purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3 (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−), exhibit essentially no tastant-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves and substantial loss of tastant-evoked behavior as measured in long-term intake experiments. To assess whether the residual chemically driven behaviors in these P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice were attributable to postingestive detection or oropharyngeal detection of the compounds, we used brief access lickometer tests to assess the behavioral capabilities of the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− animals. The P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice showed avoidance to high levels (10 mM quinine and 10–30 mM denatonium benzoate) of classical “bitter”-tasting stimuli in 24-h, 2-bottle preference tests but minimal avoidance of these substances in the lickometer tests, suggesting that the strong avoidance in the intake tests was largely mediated by post-oral chemosensors. Similarly, increases in consumption of 1 M sucrose by P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice in long-term intake tests were not mirrored by increases in consumption of sucrose in lickometer tests, suggesting that sucrose detection in these mice is mediated by postingestive consequences. In contrast, in brief access tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice avoided citric acid and hydrochloric acid at the same concentrations as their wild-type counterparts, indicating that these weak acids activate oropharyngeal chemoreceptors. PMID:19833662

  5. A scaled quantum mechanical force field for the sulfuryl halides. I. The symmetric halides SO2X2 (X=F, Cl, Br).

    PubMed

    Fernández, L E; Verón, M G; Varetti, E L

    2004-01-01

    Force fields and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated for the molecules SO2X2 (X=F, Cl, Br) using DFT techniques. The previously available experimental data and assignments for SO2F2 and SO2Cl2 were compared with the theoretical results and revised, and new low temperature infrared and Raman data were obtained for SO2Cl2. These data were subsequently used in the definition of scaled quantum mechanics force fields for such molecules. Adjusted wavenumbers were also predicted for the still unknown SO2Br2. A comparison is made with results published for the VO2X2- anions.

  6. A scaled quantum mechanical force field for the sulfuryl halides. I. The symmetric halides SO 2X 2 (X=F, Cl, Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, L. E.; Verón, M. G.; Varetti, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    Force fields and vibrational wavenumbers were calculated for the molecules SO 2X 2 (X=F, Cl, Br) using DFT techniques. The previously available experimental data and assignments for SO 2F 2 and SO 2Cl 2 were compared with the theoretical results and revised, and new low temperature infrared and Raman data were obtained for SO 2Cl 2. These data were subsequently used in the definition of scaled quantum mechanics force fields for such molecules. Adjusted wavenumbers were also predicted for the still unknown SO 2Br 2. A comparison is made with results published for the VO 2X 2- anions.

  7. Sport Ability Beliefs, 2 x 2 Achievement Goals, and Intrinsic Motivation: The Moderating Role of Perceived Competence in Sport and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R.; Stevenson, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the…

  8. TRPV1, ASICs and P2X2/3 expressed in bone cells simultaneously regulate bone metabolic markers in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, K.; Iba, K.; Dohke, T.; Okazaki, S.; Yamashita, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nociceptors are expressed at peripheral terminals of neurons. Recent studies have shown that TRPV1, a nociceptor, is expressed in bone tissue and regulates bone metabolism. We have demonstrated that a TRPV1 antagonist improved pain-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether nociceptors, including TRPV1, acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) and P2X2/3 are expressed in bone cells, and to examine the effects of nociceptor antagonists on bone metabolism. Methods: The expression of nociceptors in femoral bone tissue and cultured bone marrow cells in OVX and sham-operated mice were examined. The effects of nociceptor antagonists on the up-regulated expression of bone metabolic markers, Runx2, Osterix, osteocalcin and RANKL, were also examined. Results: TRPV1, ASIC 2 and 3, and P2X2 and 3, were expressed in bone tissue and bone marrow cells, and the expression levels of ASIC1 and 2, and P2X2 were significantly increased in OVX mice in comparison with those in sham mice. Treatment with nociceptor antagonists significantly inhibited the expression of bone metabolic markers in OVX mice. Conclusion: An array of nociceptors, TRPV1, ASICs and P2X2/3, could simultaneously regulate not only increases in skeletal pain but also bone turnover in OVX mice. PMID:27282458

  9. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes. PMID:26273225

  10. Oil fence arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, I.; Tatsuguchi, M.

    1984-01-10

    An oil fence arrangement for effectively preventing oil spills from spreading or diffusing over the surface of the sea. The arrangement is of a double wall construction and can fold into a small space.

  11. Sport ability beliefs, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation: the moderating role of perceived competence in sport and exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J

    2009-06-01

    We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.

  12. Minodronic acid induces morphological changes in osteoclasts at bone resorption sites and reaches a level required for antagonism of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Hosoya, Akihiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Kayasuga, Ryoji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Hidehiro

    2017-02-27

    Minodronic acid is an aminobisphosphonate that is an antagonist of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors involved in pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and distribution of minodronic acid and the potential for P2X2/3 receptor antagonism based on the estimated concentration of minodronic acid. Microlocalization of radiolabeled minodronic acid was examined in the femur of neonatal rats. The bone-binding characteristics of minodronic acid and morphological changes in osteoclasts were analyzed in vitro. The minodronic acid concentration around bone resorption lacunae was predicted based on bone binding and the shape of lacunae. In microautoradiography, radioactive silver grains were abundant in bone-attached osteoclasts and were detected in calcified and ossification zones and in the cytoplasm of osteoclasts but not in the hypertrophic cartilage zone. In an osteoclast culture with 1 µM minodronic acid, 65% of minodronic acid was bound to bone, and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide release was inhibited by 96%. Cultured osteoclasts without minodronic acid treatment formed ruffled borders and bone resorption lacunae and had rich cytoplasm, whereas those treated with 1 µM minodronic acid were not multinucleated, stained densely with toluidine blue, and were detached from the bone surface. In the 1 µM culture, the estimated minodronic acid concentration in resorption lacunae was 880 µM, which is higher than the IC50 for minodronic acid antagonism of P2X2/3 receptors. Thus, inhibition of P2X2/3 receptors around osteoclasts may contribute to the analgesic effect of minodronic acid.

  13. A Survey of Small Factories*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferys, Margot; Wood, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    This survey was undertaken by a group of doctors, nurses, and lecturers in the Department of Public Health of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as part of the teaching programme for the Diploma in Public Health. Fifty small factories in an area of a metropolitan borough were invited to answer questions concerning their industrial processes, their labour force, their premises, their first-aid provision, and the visits they received from officials of local and central government. Forty-eight of these factories responded and observations were made by teams of three recording independently of each other in 45. A variety of industries was represented in these 48 firms, half of which employed less than 10 workers. The working environment, in respect of sanitary arrangements, cleanliness and tidiness, lighting on stairs and passage ways, was considered to be unsatisfactory in many firms. Some instances of inadequate safeguards of machines were seen. The accident rate was found to be rather less than the computed national rate for manufacturing industry in 1956. First-aid equipment and workers were also considered to be deficient in a number of instances. In case of accident and for the treatment of minor ailments most firms made use of a local casualty and out-patient department of a general hospital. This service was considered quite adequate. Many firms had not been visited by the Factory Inspector or his deputy during the previous year. Rather more had received visits from the local authority health inspectors. Many firms expressed confusion about the duties and functions of their various official visitors. The conclusions drawn from this limited enquiry were that the working conditions in small factories are often unsatisfactory; that in areas such as the one surveyed it is unrealistic to think in terms of development of an industrial health service similar to those operating in Slough and Harlow; and that the greatest impact on environmental

  14. What's Up in Factories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A school-to-work curriculum (What's Up in Factories?) developed by a New York PBS station is giving some Ohio students a view of factory careers in the 1990s. Students are surprised at the level of job skills needed and are discovering the importance of teamwork, willingness to take responsibility, punctuality, effective communication, and…

  15. Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

    In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…

  16. What's Up in Factories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A school-to-work curriculum (What's Up in Factories?) developed by a New York PBS station is giving some Ohio students a view of factory careers in the 1990s. Students are surprised at the level of job skills needed and are discovering the importance of teamwork, willingness to take responsibility, punctuality, effective communication, and…

  17. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  18. CALUTRON PLANT ARRANGEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Waite, L.O.

    1959-06-01

    A description is given of an arrangement for calutrons in which the tanks and magnets are placed alternately in a race track'' figure. Pump connections are through the floor to the pumps below where roughing and finishing headers are provided. The arrangement provides more efficient and exonomical operaton, economy of construction, and saving of space. (T.R.H.)

  19. Teaching Arrangement Inductively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Argues that teaching arrangement inductively offers an alternative to the standard imitation of business communication text models. Asserts that the inductive method stimulates individual rather than formulaic responses to the problems of organization, and that inductively-trained writers see arrangements as a powerful element in persuasive…

  20. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  1. Modulation of bladder afferent signals in normal and spinal cord-injured rats by purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Alvaro; Somogyi, George T.; Boone, Timothy B.; Ford, Anthony P.; Smith, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE • To evaluate the role of bladder sensory purinergic P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors on modulating the activity of lumbosacral neurones and urinary bladder contractions in vivo in normal or spinal cord-injured (SCI) rats with neurogenic bladder overactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS • SCI was induced in female rats by complete transection at T8 – T9 and experiments were performed 4 weeks later, when bladder overactivity developed. Non-transected rats were used as controls (normal rats). • Neural activity was recorded in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and field potentials were acquired in response to intravesical pressure steps via a suprapubic catheter. Field potentials were recorded under control conditions, after stimulation of bladder mucosal purinergic receptors with intravesical ATP (1 mm), and after intravenous injection of the P2X3/P2X2/3 antagonist AF-353 (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). • Cystometry was performed in urethaneanaesthetised rats intravesically infused with saline. AF-353 (10 mg/kg) was systemically applied after baseline recordings; the rats also received a second dose of AF-353 (20 mg/kg). Changes in the frequency of voiding (VC) and non-voiding (NVC) contractions were evaluated. RESULTS • SCI rats had significantly higher frequencies for field potentials and NVC than NL rats. Intravesical ATP increased field potential frequency in control but not SCI rats, while systemic AF-353 significantly reduced this parameter in both groups. • AF-353 also reduced the inter-contractile interval in control but not in SCI rats; however, the frequency of NVC in SCI rats was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION • The P2X3/P2X2/3 receptors on bladder afferent nerves positively regulate sensory activity and NVCs in overactive bladders. PMID:22540742

  2. Factors influencing tetranuclear [2 x 2] grid vs dinuclear side-by-side structures for silver(I) complexes of pyridazine-based bis-bidentate ligands.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason R; White, Nicholas G; Perez-Velasco, Alejandro; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Hunter, Christopher A; Brooker, Sally

    2008-11-17

    Silver(I) complexes of five bis-bidentate Schiff-base ligands, derived from 3,6-diformylpyridazine and substituted anilines (2,4-dimethylaniline L ( o,p - Me ); 3,5-dichloroaniline L ( m,m - Cl ); 2-aminobiphenyl L ( o - Ph ); p-toluidine L ( p - Me ); 4-aminophenol L ( p - OH ); p-anisidine L ( p - OMe )), have been prepared. The ligands have a wide range of steric and electronic properties due to variation in the extent and nature of the substitution of the aniline rings. Four of the resulting complexes were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography: three of the four, [Ag 2( L ( o,p - Me )) 2](BF 4) 2, [Ag 2( L ( m,m - Cl )) 2](BF 4) 2 and [Ag 2( L ( o - Ph )) 2](BF 4) 2 formed dinuclear side-by-side complexes, while [Ag 4( L ( p - Me )) 4](BF 4) 4 gave a tetranuclear [2 x 2] grid. The previously reported tetranuclear [2 x 2] grid [Ag 4( L ( p - OMe )) 4](BF 4) 4 was recrystallized in the presence of benzene to see if this would alter the architecture of this complex. It did not: the [2 x 2] grid architecture was retained despite the benzene molecules of solvation. Given the flexibility of silver(I) with regard to coordination geometry, the molecular structure of these complexes is influenced mostly by the ligand rather than the metal ion. In each case, the factors which influence the molecular architecture are presented and discussed. Substituent effects on the electrostatics of the intramolecular ligand-ligand pi-pi interactions (XED2.8) account for some of the differences observed in the structures.

  3. Responses of Rat P2X2 Receptors to Ultrashort Pulses of ATP Provide Insights into ATP Binding and Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Luciano; Hume, Richard I.

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into the way that P2X2 receptors localized at synapses might function, we explored the properties of outside-out patches containing many of these channels as ATP was very rapidly applied and removed. Using a new method to calibrate the speed of exchange of solution over intact patches, we were able to reliably produce applications of ATP lasting <200 μs. For all concentrations of ATP, there was a delay of at least 80 μs between the time when ATP arrived at the receptor and the first detectable flow of inward current. In response to 200-μs pulses of ATP, the time constant of the rising phase of the current was ∼600 μs. Thus, most channel openings occurred when no free ATP was present. The current deactivated with a time constant of ∼60 ms. The amplitude of the peak response to a brief pulse of a saturating concentration of ATP was ∼70% of that obtained during a long application of the same concentration of ATP. Thus, ATP leaves fully liganded channels without producing an opening at least 30% of the time. Extensive kinetic modeling revealed three different schemes that fit the data well, a sequential model and two allosteric models. To account for the delay in opening at saturating ATP, it was necessary to incorporate an intermediate closed state into all three schemes. These kinetic properties indicate that responses to ATP at synapses that use homomeric P2X2 receptors would be expected to greatly outlast the duration of the synaptic ATP transient produced by a single presynaptic spike. Like NMDA receptors, P2X2 receptors provide the potential for complex patterns of synaptic integration over a time scale of hundreds of milliseconds. PMID:17664346

  4. e+ e- Factory Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The impressive performance of current (KEKB) and recent (PEP-II) B-Factory colliders has increased interest in developing even higher luminosity B-factories. Two new designs are being developed (SuperKEKB and SuperB). Both designs plan to deliver a luminosity in the range of 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, nearly 100 times the present B-factory level. Achieving this high luminosity requires high-current beams and short bunch lengths and/or a new way of colliding the beams. The SuperB design employs a crabbed magnetic waist with a large crossing angle and the SuperKEKB design is looking at crab cavities with high-current beams and/or a travelling focus. I describe the designs being studied to achieve the high luminosity needed for the next generation of B-Factories.

  5. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  6. Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001): thermal stability and inhibition of dissociation by H2O-O bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-08-01

    The effect of preadsorbed oxygen on the subsequent adsorption and reactions of water on Ru(0001) has been studied using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and DFT calculations. Experiments were carried out for O coverages close to 0.25 ML. It was found that no dissociation of water takes place up to the desorption temperature of {approx}180-230 K. DFT calculations show that intact water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) is {approx} 0.49 eV more stable than the dissociation products, H and OH, at their preferred fcc and top adsorption sites.

  7. A 2x2 W-Band Reference Time-Shifted Phase-Locked Transmitter Array in 65nm CMOS Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian; Virbila, Gabriel; Hsiao, Frank; Wu, Hao; Murphy, David; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, P. H.; Chang, M-C. Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a complete 2x2 phased array transmitter system operating at W-band (90-95 GHz) which employs a PLL reference time-shifting approach instead of using traditional mm-wave phase shifters. PLL reference shifting enables a phased array to be distributed over multiple chips without the need for coherent mm-wave signal distribution between chips. The proposed phased array transmitter system consumes 248 mW per array element when implemented in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  8. Conductance simulation of the purinergic P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 ionic channels using a combined Brownian dynamics and molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Turchenkov, Dmitry A; Bystrov, Vladimir S

    2014-08-07

    This paper investigates the application of an original combined approach of molecular and Brownian dynamic methods with quantum chemistry calculations for modeling the process of conductance of ion channels using purinergic P2X family receptors P2X2, P2X4, and P2X7 as a case study. A simplified model of the ionic channel in the lipid bilayer has been developed. A high level of conductance (30 pS) of P2X2 ionic channel together with the key role of Asp349 in forming the selectivity filter of P2X2 has been shown by using this approach. Calculated P2X2 permeability to monovalent cations Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) conforms to the free diffusion coefficient of these ions, which shows the low selectivity of P2X2 ionic channel.

  9. Sense circuit arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, Oliver D. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A unique, two-node sense circuit is disclosed. The circuit includes a bridge comprised of resistance elements and a differential amplifier. The two-node circuit is suitably adapted to be arranged in an array comprised of a plurality of discrete bridge-amplifiers which can be selectively energized. The circuit is arranged so as to form a configuration with minimum power utilization and a reduced number of components and interconnections therebetween.

  10. Computer-aided design of AD 2 X 2 intermetallics with a ThCr2Si2-type of crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselyova, N. N.; Sen'ko, O. V.; Kropotov, D. A.; Dokukin, A. A.

    2012-07-01

    Several hundred new AD 2 X 2 ( A and D are various elements; X = B, Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As, Sn, Sb) compounds are computer designed, and the types of their crystal structures under normal conditions are predicted. A special software package is used for the calculations; it includes a set of databases on the properties of inorganic substances and materials and a system for an analysis of these data, which is based on precedent pattern recognition methods. Only data on the properties of the elements entering into the compound compositions are used to predict unknown compounds. The parameters of elements in positions A and D (i.e., the Mendeleev-Pettifor numbers, the pseudopotential radii, and their algebraic functions) are found to mainly determine the possibility of formation of AD 2 X 2 compounds and the type of their crystal structures. New compounds of AD 2B2, AD 2Ga2, and AD 2Sn2 compositions are predicted for the first time.

  11. A 2x2 multi-chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask: a stepping stone to large format microshutter arrays for coded aperture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNie, Mark E.; Brown, Alan G.; King, David O.; Smith, Gilbert W.; Gordon, Neil T.; Riches, Stephen; Rogers, Stanley

    2010-08-01

    Coded aperture imaging has been used for astronomical applications for several years. Typical implementations used a fixed mask pattern and are designed to operate in the X-Ray or gamma ray bands. Recently applications have emerged in the visible and infra red bands for low cost lens-less imaging systems and system studies have shown that considerable advantages in image resolution may accrue from the use of multiple different images of the same scene - requiring a reconfigurable mask. Previously reported work focused on realising a 2x2cm single chip mask in the mid-IR based on polysilicon micro-optoelectro- mechanical systems (MOEMS) technology and its integration with ASIC drive electronics using conventional wire bonding. It employs interference effects to modulate incident light - achieved by tuning a large array of asymmetric Fabry-Perot optical cavities via an applied voltage and uses a hysteretic row/column scheme for addressing. In this paper we report on the latest results in the mid-IR for the single chip reconfigurable MOEMS mask, trials in scaling up to a mask based on a 2x2 multi-chip array and report on progress towards realising a large format mask comprising 44 MOEMS chips. We also explore the potential of such large, transmissive IR spatial light modulator arrays for other applications and in the current and alternative architectures.

  12. Io 2x2 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Perhaps the most spectacular of all the Voyager photos of Io is this mosaic obtained by Voyager 1 on March 5 at a range of 400,000 kilometers. A great variety of color and albedo is seen on the surface, now thought to be the result of surface deposits of various forms of sulfur and sulfur dioxide. The two great volcanoes Pele and Loki (upper left) are prominent.

  13. Cell Factory Engineering.

    PubMed

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-03-22

    Rational approaches to modifying cells to make molecules of interest are of substantial economic and scientific interest. Most of these efforts aim at the production of native metabolites, expression of heterologous biosynthetic pathways, or protein expression. Reviews of these topics have largely focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies in the field, all applicable to multiple types of cells and products, and proven successful in multiple major cell types. These apply to three major categories: production of native metabolites and/or bioactives, heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways, and protein expression. This meta-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  15. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St. (Duplicate Color view of HAER MI-334-1) - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  16. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

  17. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

  18. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Somers, Edward V.

    1982-01-01

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  19. Driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic library of molecular helices toward the selective generation of [2 x 2] gridlike arrays under the pressure of metal ion coordination.

    PubMed

    Giuseppone, Nicolas; Schmitt, Jean-Louis; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2006-12-27

    Constitutional dynamics, self-assembly, and helical-folding control are brought together in the efficient Sc(OTf)3/microwave-catalyzed transimination of helical oligohydrazone strands, yielding highly diverse dynamic libraries of interconverting constituents through assembly, dissociation, and exchange of components. The transimination-type mechanism of the ScIII-promoted exchange, as well as its regioselectivity, occurring only at the extremities of the helical strands, allow one to perform directional terminal polymerization/depolymerization processes when starting with dissymmetric strands. A particular library is subsequently brought to express quantitatively [2 x 2] gridlike metallosupramolecular arrays in the presence of ZnII ions by component recombination generating the correct ligand from the dynamic set of interconverting strands. This behavior represents a process of driven evolution of a constitutional dynamic chemical system under the pressure (coordination interaction) of an external effector (metal ions).

  20. Concerted diffusion, clustering, and magnetic properties of Mn dopants on a 2 x 2-T4 GaN(0001) substrate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shiqiang; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-10-19

    Based on first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we propose a kinetic pathway for Mn incorporation on reconstructed 2 x 2-T4 GaN(0001), characterized by concerted substitution of a Ga atom by a Mn adatom via a precursor surface site T4. The Mn dopants at low densities are randomly distributed, resulting in intrinsic diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). At high Mn densities, planar ferromagnetic clusters oriented in the (0001) plane can be readily formed at relatively low growth temperatures, but ferrimagnetic zigzag columns along the growth orientation will be formed at high temperatures. Furthermore, intrinsic DMS are more likely to be formed via codeposition of Mn+Ga+N at high growth rates. These findings help to explain the observed variations in both the magnetic ordering temperature TC and the magnetic nature of Ga1-xMnxN.

  1. Chemical pressure effects on magnetism in the quantum spin liquid candidates Yb2X2O7 (X =Sn, Ti, Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun, Z. L.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Hallas, A. M.; Wiebe, C. R.; Gardner, J. S.; Arrighi, E.; Freitas, R. S.; Arevalo-Lopez, A. M.; Attfield, J. P.; Zhou, H. D.; Cheng, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    The linear and nonlinear ac susceptibility measurements of Yb-pyrochlores, Yb2X2O7 (X =Sn, Ti, and Ge), show transitions with a ferromagnetic nature at 0.13 and 0.25 K for Yb2Sn2O7 and Yb2Ti2O7, respectively, and an antiferromagnetic ordering at 0.62 K for Yb2Ge2O7. These systematical results (i) provided information about the nature of the unconventional magnetic ground state in Yb2Ti2O7; (ii) realized a distinct antiferromagnetic ordering state in Yb2Ge2O7; and (iii) demonstrated that the application of chemical pressure through the series of Yb-pyrochlores can efficiently perturb the fragile quantum spin fluctuations of the Yb3+ ions and lead to very different magnetic ground states.

  2. Results of the AFRSI rewaterproofing systems screening test in the NASA/Ames Research Center (ARC) 2 x 2-foot transonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Kingsland, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 2x2-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to evaluate two AFRSI rewaterproofing systems and to investigate films as a means of reducing blanket joint distortion. The wind tunnel wall slot configuration influenced on the flow field over the test panel was investigated; primarily using oil flow data, and resulted in a closed slot configuration to provide a satisfactory screening environment flow field for the test. Sixteen AFRSI test panels, configured to represent the test system or film, were subjected to this screening environment (a flow field of separated and reattached flow at a freestream Mach numnber of 0.65 and q = 650 or 900 psf). Each condition was held until damage to the test article was observed or 55 minutes if no damage was incurred. All objectives related to AFRSI rewaterproofing and to the use of films to stiffen the blanket fibers were achieved.

  3. High performace silicon 2x2 optical switch based on a thermo-optically tunable multimode interference coupler and efficient electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Álvaro; Gutiérrez, Ana; Brimont, Antoine; Griol, Amadeu; Sanchis, Pablo

    2016-01-11

    Optical switches based on tunable multimode interference (MMI) couplers can simultaneously reduce the footprint and increase the tolerance against fabrication deviations. Here, a compact 2x2 silicon switch based on a thermo-optically tunable MMI structure with a footprint of only 0.005 mm(2) is proposed and demonstrated. The MMI structure has been optimized using a silica trench acting as a thermal isolator without introducing any substantial loss penalty or crosstalk degradation. Furthermore, the electrodes performance have significantly been improved via engineering the heater geometry and using two metallization steps. Thereby, a drastic power consumption reduction of around 90% has been demonstrated yielding to values as low as 24.9 mW. Furthermore, very fast switching times of only 1.19 µs have also been achieved.

  4. Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Elizabeth K; Green, Paul G; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D

    2013-02-13

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique among a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ET(A) receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia but had no effect on SIEH, suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Because vascular endothelial cells are both stretch sensitive and express ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase Cε (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X(2/3) receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hindlimb vibration) and in a model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X(2/3) receptor.

  5. Vascular Endothelial Cells Mediate Mechanical Stimulation-Induced Enhancement of Endothelin Hyperalgesia via Activation of P2X2/3 Receptors on Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Green, Paul G.; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique amongst a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ETA and ETB, attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ETA receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia, but had no effect on SIEH suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Since vascular endothelial cells are both stretch-sensitive and express ETA and ETB receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X2/3 receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hind limb vibration) and in model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X2/3 receptor. PMID:23407944

  6. Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2 / (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices from first-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, San-Dong

    2016-05-01

    To identify thermoelectric materials containing abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, we have studied the electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) superlattices with state-of-the-art first-principles calculations using a modified Becke and Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. Our results show that (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 are semi-metals using mBJ plus spin-orbit coupling (mBJ + SOC), while (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 is predicted to be a direct-gap semiconductor with a mBJ gap value of 0.46 eV and mBJ + SOC gap value of 0.44 eV. Thermoelectric properties are predicted by through solving the Boltzmann transport equations within the constant scattering time approximation. It is found that (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Ge)2 has a larger Seebeck coefficient and power factor than (Mg2Ge)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 and (Mg2Si)2/ (Mg2Sn)2 for both p-type and n-type doping. The detrimental influence of SOC on the power factor of p-type (Mg2X)2/ (Mg2Y)2 (X, Y = Si, Ge, Sn) is analyzed as a function of the carrier concentration, but there is a negligible SOC effect for n-type. These results can be explained by the influence of SOC on their valence and conduction bands near the Fermi level.

  7. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  8. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  9. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  10. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  11. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  12. Neutrino Factory Downstream Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-23

    We describe the Neutrino Factory accelerator systems downstream from the target and capture area. These include the bunching and phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and decay ring systems. We also briefly discuss the R&D program under way to develop these systems, and indicate areas where help from CERN would be invaluable.

  13. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  14. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  15. Some Thoughts on Arrangement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald C.

    1987-01-01

    Raises questions about the extent to which the classical treatment of arrangement is still appropriated by the modern composition teacher, and the ways in which this concept is tied to notions of coherence. Discusses implications for modern composition theory and practice. (MS)

  16. A Randomized 2x2 Factorial Clinical Trial of Renal Transplantation: Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression with Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal after Six Months Associates with Improved Renal Function and Reduced Chronic Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, R. Brian; Foster, Kirk W.; Miles, Clifford D.; Kalil, Andre C.; Florescu, Diana F.; Sandoz, John P.; Rigley, Theodore H.; Malik, Tamer; Wrenshall, Lucile E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The two most significant impediments to renal allograft survival are rejection and the direct nephrotoxicity of the immunosuppressant drugs required to prevent it. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), a mainstay of most immunosuppression regimens, are particularly nephrotoxic. Until less toxic antirejection agents become available, the only option is to optimize our use of those at hand. Aim To determine whether intensive rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) induction followed by CNI withdrawal would individually or combined improve graft function and reduce graft chronic histopathology–surrogates for graft and, therefore, patient survival. As previously reported, a single large rATG dose over 24 hours was well-tolerated and associated with better renal function, fewer infections, and improved patient survival. Here we report testing whether complete CNI discontinuation would improve renal function and decrease graft pathology. Methods Between April 20, 2004 and 4-14-2009 we conducted a prospective, randomized, non-blinded renal transplantation trial of two rATG dosing protocols (single dose, 6 mg/kg vs. divided doses, 1.5 mg/kg every other day x 4; target enrollment = 180). Subsequent maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, a CNI, and sirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. We report here the outcome of converting patients after six months either to minimized tacrolimus/sirolimus or mycophenolate mofetil/sirolimus. Primary endpoints were graft function and chronic histopathology from protocol kidney biopsies at 12 and 24 months Results CNI withdrawal (on-treatment analysis) associated with better graft function (p <0.001) and lower chronic histopathology composite scores in protocol biopsies at 12 (p = 0.003) and 24 (p = 0.013) months, without affecting patient (p = 0.81) or graft (p = 0.93) survival, or rejection rate (p = 0.17). Conclusion CNI (tacrolimus) withdrawal at six months may provide a strategy for decreased nephrotoxicity and improved long-term function in steroid-free low immunological risk renal transplant patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00556933 PMID:26465152

  17. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  18. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  19. Crystal structure, phase transition and conductivity study of two new organic - inorganic hybrids: [(CH2)7(NH3)2]X2, X = Cl/Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, Mohga Farid; El-khiyami, Shimaa Said; Abd-Elal, Seham Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Two hybrids 1,7-heptanediammonium di-halide, [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br crystallize in monoclinic P21/c, Z = 4. [(C7H20N2]Cl2: a = 4.7838 (2) Å, b = 16.9879 (8) Å, c = 13.9476 (8) Å, β = 97.773 (2)°, V = 1203.58(10) Å3, D = 1.137 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.052 for 1055 reflections with I > 2σ(I), T = 298(2) K. [(C7H20N2]Br2: a = 4.7952 (10) Å, b = 16.9740 (5) Å, c = 13.9281 (5) Å, β = 97.793 (2)°, V = 1203.83(6) Å3, D = 1.612 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.03 for 1959 reflections with I > 2σ(I) T = 298(2) K. Asymmetric unit cell of [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br, each consist of one heptane-1,7-diammonium cation and two halide anions. The organic hydrocarbon layers pack in a stacked herring-bone manner, hydrogen bonded to the halide ions. Lattice potential energy is 1568.59 kJ/mol and 1560.78 kJ/mol, and cation molar volumes are 0.295 nm3 and 0.300 nm3 for chloride and bromide respectively. DTA confirmed chain melting transitions for both hybrids below T ∼ 340 K. Dielectric and ac conductivity measurements (290 < T K < 410; 0.080 < f kHz<100) indicated higher conductivity and activation energy of bromide for T > 340 K. Cross over from Jonscher's universal dielectric response at low temperatures T < 340 K to super-linear power law for T > 340 K is observed. At high temperatures halide ion hopping in accordance with the jump relaxation model prevails.

  20. Voltage- and ATP-dependent structural rearrangements of the P2X2 receptor associated with the gating of the pore

    PubMed Central

    Keceli, Batu; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    P2X2 is an extracellular ATP-gated cation channel which has a voltage-dependent gating property even though it lacks a canonical voltage sensor. It is a trimer in which each subunit has two transmembrane helices and a large extracellular domain. The three inter-subunit ATP binding sites are linked to the pore forming transmembrane (TM) domains by β-strands. We analysed structural rearrangements of the linker strands between the ATP binding site and TM domains upon ligand binding and voltage change, electrophysiologically in Xenopus oocytes, using mutants carrying engineered thiol-modifiable cysteine residues. (1) We demonstrated that the double mutant D315C&I67C (at β-14 and β-1, respectively) shows a 2- to 4-fold increase in current amplitude after treatment with a reducing reagent, dithiothreitol (DTT). Application of the thiol-reactive metal Cd2+ induced current decline due to bond formation between D315C and I67C. This effect was not observed in wild type (WT) or in single point mutants. (2) Cd2+-induced current decline was analysed in hyperpolarized and depolarized conditions with different pulse protocols, and also in the presence and absence of ATP. (3) Current decline induced by Cd2+ could be clearly observed in the presence of ATP, but was not clear in the absence of ATP, showing a state-dependent modification. (4) In the presence of ATP, Cd2+ modification was significantly faster in hyperpolarized than in depolarized conditions, showing voltage-dependent structural rearrangements of the linker strands. (5) Experiments using tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) with controlled number and position of mutations in the trimer showed that the bridging by Cd2+ between 315 and 67 was not intra- but inter-subunit. (6) Finally, we performed similar analyses of a pore mutant T339S, which makes the channel activation voltage insensitive. Cd2+ modification rates of T339S were similar in hyperpolarized and depolarized conditions. Taking these results together, we

  1. Engineering the smart factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  2. The Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  3. SLAC B Factory computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics.

  4. Clusters, factories and domains

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    During S-phase of the cell cycle, chromosomal DNA is replicated according to a complex replication timing program, with megabase-sized domains replicating at different times. DNA fiber analysis reveals that clusters of adjacent replication origins fire near-synchronously. Analysis of replicating cells by light microscopy shows that DNA synthesis occurs in discrete foci or factories. The relationship between timing domains, origin clusters and replication foci is currently unclear. Recent work, using a hybrid Xenopus/hamster replication system, has shown that when CDK levels are manipulated during S-phase the activation of replication factories can be uncoupled from progression through the replication timing program. Here, we use data from this hybrid system to investigate potential relationships between timing domains, origin clusters and replication foci. We suggest that each timing domain typically comprises several replicon clusters, which are usually processed sequentially by replication factories. We discuss how replication might be regulated at different levels to create this complex organization and the potential involvement of CDKs in this process. PMID:20724827

  5. Chemical pressure induced change in multiferroicity of Bi1+2xGd2x/2Fe1-2xO3 bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. K.; Sahu, D. R.; Rout, P. P.; Das, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K.; Srinivasu, V. V.; Roul, B. K.

    2017-04-01

    We have optimized Gd ion substitution in BiFeO3 (BFO) and observed prominently change in structural, electrical and magnetic behavior of Bi1+2xGd2x/2Fe1-2xO3 ceramics synthesized through slow step sintering schedule. It is observed that with the increase in concentration of Gd (x=0.1), original structure of BFO is transformed from rhombohedral R3c space group to orthorhombic Pn21a space group. Surprisingly, unit cell volume is drastically contracted (35% for x=0.2) and the sintered specimen showed enhanced room temperature ferromagnetic behavior although the original BFO is normally G-type antiferromagnetic in nature at 643 K. It is expected that intrinsic chemical pressure within the bulk body built by the substitution of Gd in presence of excess bismuth greatly supported through unidirectional movement of electrical dipole moment with in each individual domain as a result of which suppression of leakage current with enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric hysteresis is observed.

  6. Confidence interval for rate ratio in a 2 x 2 table with structural zero: an application in assessing false-negative rate ratio when combining two diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man-Lai; Tang, Nian-Sheng; Carey, Vincent J

    2004-06-01

    In this article, we consider problems with correlated data that can be summarized in a 2 x 2 table with structural zero in one of the off-diagonal cells. Data of this kind sometimes appear in infectious disease studies and two-step procedure studies. Lui (1998, Biometrics54, 706-711) considered confidence interval estimation of rate ratio based on Fieller-type, Wald-type, and logarithmic transformation statistics. We reexamine the same problem under the context of confidence interval construction on false-negative rate ratio in diagnostic performance when combining two diagnostic tests. We propose a score statistic for testing the null hypothesis of nonunity false-negative rate ratio. Score test-based confidence interval construction for false-negative rate ratio will also be discussed. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the performance of the new derived score test statistic and existing statistics for small to moderate sample sizes. In terms of confidence interval construction, our asymptotic score test-based confidence interval estimator possesses significantly shorter expected width with coverage probability being close to the anticipated confidence level. In terms of hypothesis testing, our asymptotic score test procedure has actual type I error rate close to the pre-assigned nominal level. We illustrate our methodologies with real examples from a clinical laboratory study and a cancer study.

  7. Cluster perturbation theory in Hubbard model exactly taking into account the short-range magnetic order in 2 x 2 cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, S. V. Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2010-10-15

    The cluster perturbation theory is presented in the 2D Hubbard model constructed using X operators in the Hubbard-I approximation. The short-range magnetic order is taken into account by dividing the entire lattice into individual 2 x 2 clusters and solving the eigenvalue problem in an individual cluster using exact diagonalization taking into account all excited levels. The case of half-filling taking into account jumps between nearest neighbors is considered. As a result of numerical solution, a shadow zone is discovered in the quasiparticle spectrum. It is also found that a gap in the density of states in the quasiparticle spectrum at zero temperature exists for indefinitely small values of Coulomb repulsion parameter U and increases with this parameter. It is found that the presence of this gap in the spectrum is due to the formation of a short-range antiferromagnetic order. An analysis of the temperature evolution of the density of states shows that the metal-insulator transition occurs continuously. The existence of two characteristic energy scales at finite temperatures is demonstrated, the larger scale is associated with the formation of a pseudogap in the vicinity of the Fermi level, and the smaller scale is associated with the metal-insulator transition temperature. A peak in the density of states at the Fermi level, which is predicted in the dynamic mean field theory in the vicinity of the metal-insulator transition, is not observed.

  8. The Nicotinic α6 Subunit Gene Determines Variability in Chronic Pain Sensitivity via Cross-inhibition of P2X2/3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Mathur, Jayanti; Limapichat, Walrati; Post, Michael R.; Al-Qazzaz, Mona; Sorge, Robert E.; Martin, Loren J.; Zaykin, Dmitri V.; Smith, Shad B.; Freitas, Kelen; Austin, Jean-Sebastien; Dai, Feng; Zhang, Jie; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Tuttle, Alexander H.; Slepian, Peter M.; Clarke, Sarah; Drenan, Ryan M.; Janes, Jeff; Sharari, Shakir Al; Segall, Samantha K.; Aasvang, Eske K.; Lai, Weike; Bittner, Reinhard; Richards, Christopher I.; Slade, Gary D.; Kehlet, Henrik; Walker, John; Maskos, Uwe; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Devor, Marshall; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Belfer, Inna; Dougherty, Dennis A.; Su, Andrew I.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lester, Henry A.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain is a highly prevalent and poorly managed human health problem. We used microarray-based expression genomics in 25 inbred mouse strains to identify dorsal root ganglion (DRG)-expressed genetic contributors to mechanical allodynia, a prominent symptom of chronic pain. We identified expression levels of Chrna6, which encodes the α6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), as highly associated with allodynia. We confirmed the importance of α6* (i.e., α6-containing) nAChRs by analyzing both gain- and loss-of-function mutants. We find that mechanical allodynia associated with neuropathic and inflammatory injuries is significantly altered in α6* mutants, and that α6* but not α4* nicotinic receptors are absolutely required for peripheral and/or spinal nicotine analgesia. Furthermore, we show that Chrna6’s role in analgesia is at least partially due to direct interaction and cross-inhibition of α6* nAChRs with P2X2/3 receptors in DRG nociceptors. Finally, we establish relevance of our results to humans by the observation of genetic association in patients suffering from chronic postsurgical pain and temporomandibular pain. PMID:25972004

  9. Crystal Structure of Pseudorhombohedral InFe 1- xTi xO 3+ x/2 ( x=2/3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michiue, Yuichi; Onoda, Mitsuko; Watanabe, Akiteru; Watanabe, Mamoru; Brown, Francisco; Kimizuka, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    The structure of pseudorhombohedral-type InFe1-xTixO3-x/2 (x=2/3) was refined by Rietveld profile fitting. The crystal is a commensurate member of a series in a solution range on InFeO3-In2Ti2O7 including incommensurate structures. The structure with the unit cell of a=5.9188(1), b=10.1112(2), and c=6.3896(1) Å, β=108.018(2)°, and a space group P21/a is the alternate stacking of an edge-shared InO6 octahedral layer and an Fe/Ti-O plane along c*. Metal sites on the Fe/Ti-O plane are surrounded by four oxygen atoms on the Fe/Ti-O plane and two axial ones. Electric conductivities of the order 10-4 S/cm were observed for the samples at 1000 K, while the oxide ion transport number is almost zero as no electromotive force was detected by an oxygen concentration cell.

  10. Adsorption site and structure determination of c(2x2) N{sub 2}/Ni(100) using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Kellar, S.A.; Huff, W.R.A.

    1997-04-01

    The authors have determined the atomic spatial structure of c(2x2) N2Ni(100) with Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the nitrogen 1s core level using monochromatized x-rays from beamline 6.1 at SSRL and beamline 9.3.2 at the ALS. The chemically shifted N 1s peak intensities were summed together to obtain ARPEFS curves for both nitrogen atoms in the molecule. They used a new, highly-optimized program based on the Rehr-Albers scattering matrix formalism to find the adsorption site and to quantitatively determine the bond-lengths. The nitrogen molecule stands upright at an atop site, with a N-Ni bond length of 2.25(1) {angstrom}, a N-N bond length of 1.10(7) {angstrom}, and a first layer Ni-Ni spacing of 1.76(4) {angstrom}. The shake-up peak shows an identical ARPEFS diffraction pattern, confirming its intrinsic nature and supporting a previous use of this feature to decompose the peak into contributions from the chemically inequivalent nitrogen atoms. Comparison to a previously published theoretical treatment of N-N-Ni and experimental structures of analogous adsorbate systems demonstrates the importance of adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in weakly chemisorbed systems.

  11. Gas cooler arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Zabelka, J.

    1985-01-15

    The gas cooler arrangement includes a first pressure vessel in which heat is yielded by radiation and a following convection gas cooler. The pressure vessel of the convection gas cooler includes a faller flue and at least one riser flue for cooling the gas. The flues comprise heat-removing tubes which are parts of a steam generator. The bottom of the pressure vessel contains an ash collection chamber which is connected to the ends of the flues and which can be emptied via a suitable closure element.

  12. Thermal radiation measuring arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, H.L.; Sprout, J.C.

    1983-02-08

    In a thermal radiation measuring arrangement, a thermal radiation detector is located at the focal point of a collecting mirror, upon which incident thermal radiation from a surface, such as a building wall, is directed. The thermal radiation detector may be, for example, a thermopile, and provides an output signal having a magnitude proportional to the amount of thermal radiation which it receives. The temperature detection means detects the temperature of the thermal radiation detector and, for example, may detect the cold junction of the thermopile. In a first operating condition, a signal summing means receives the output signal from the thermal radiation detector and the temperature detection means and provides a third output signal proportional to the sum of these first and second output signals. In a second operating condition, a signal biasing means is connected into the signal summing means. The signal biasing means provides a signal to the signal summing means to cause the third output signal to become zero when radiation is received from a reference surface. When the arrangement is in the second operating condition and directed to receive thermal radiation from a second surface different from the reference surface, the signal biasing means maintains the same level of bias to the signal summing means as it did when detecting the radiation from the reference surface.

  13. Heavy Metal Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löbling, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    The metal enrichment in the cosmic circuit of matter is dominated by the yields of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis, that are blown back into the interstellar medium just before these stars die as white dwarfs. To establish constraints on AGB processes, spectral analyses of hot post-AGB stars are mandatory. These show that such stars are heavy metal factories due to the AGB s-process. The Virtual Observatory service TheoSSA offers access to synthetic stellar spectra calculated with our Tübingen non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model-atmosphere package that are suitable for the analysis of hot post-AGB stars.

  14. Percolating hierarchical defect structures drive phase transformation in Ce1-x Gd x O2-x/2: a total scattering study.

    PubMed

    Scavini, Marco; Coduri, Mauro; Allieta, Mattia; Masala, Paolo; Cappelli, Serena; Oliva, Cesare; Brunelli, Michela; Orsini, Francesco; Ferrero, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    A new hierarchical approach is presented for elucidating the structural disorder in Ce1-x Gd x O2-x/2 solid solutions on different scale lengths. The primary goal of this investigation is to shed light on the relations between the short-range and the average structure of these materials via an analysis of disorder on the mesocopic scale. Real-space (pair distribution function) and reciprocal-space (Rietveld refinement and microstructure probing) analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data and electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations were carried out following this approach. On the local scale, Gd- and Ce-rich droplets (i.e. small regions a few ångströms wide) form, exhibiting either a distorted fluorite (CeO2) or a C-type (Gd2O3) structure in the whole compositional range. These droplets can then form C-type nanodomains which, for Gd concentrations x Gd ≤ 0.25, are embedded in the fluorite matrix. At the site percolation threshold p C for a cubic lattice (x Gd = p C ≃ 0.311), C-type nanodomains percolate inside each crystallite and a structural phase transformation is observed. When this occurs, the peak-to-peak ESR line width ΔH pp shows a step-like behaviour, which can be associated with the increase in Gd-Gd dipolar interactions. A general crystallographic rationale is presented to explain the fluorite-to-C-type phase transformation. The approach shown here could be adopted more generally in the analysis of disorder in other highly doped materials.

  15. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  16. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  17. Innovative worktime arrangements.

    PubMed

    Knauth, P

    1998-01-01

    New worktime models can be introduced from an employer's point of view for many reasons. They can extend operational time for better utilization of expensive equipment, provide customer-oriented service hours, adjust operational time to the varying needs of personnel, adhere to a given operational time despite a reduction in workhours, avoid dismissals, or improve job attractiveness for qualified personnel. On the other hand, there are also many reasons for changing traditional worktime models from an employee's point of view. For example, new models can help fit private needs to occupational demands, change worktime according to life's phases, provide more autonomy for the organization of worktime or the choice of worktime model, and allow for reduced capacity due to illness or age. The paper primarily presents examples of innovative worktime models (eg, annual worktime, time-autonomous group, variable worktime, choice between different worktime models) but also discusses the possible negative effects of new worktime arrangements.

  18. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  19. Concentric differential gearing arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiger, R. J.; Gerdts, J. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Two input members and two concentric rotatable output members are interconnected by a planetary gear arrangement. The first input drives directly the first output. The second input engages a carrier having the planetary gears affixed thereto. Rotation of the carriage causes rotation of the central sun gear of the planetary gear system. The sun gear is journaled to the carriage and is drivingly connected to the second output through a direction reversing set of bevel gears. The first input drive member includes a ring gear drivingly connected to the planetary gears for driving the second output member in the same direction and by the same amount as the first output member. Motion of the first input results in equal motion of the two outputs while input motion of the second input results in movement of the second output relative to the first output. This device is useful where non-interacting two-axis control of remote gimbaled systems is required.

  20. Hybrid drive arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Oetting, H.; Heidemeyer, P.

    1985-02-19

    The invention concerns a hybrid drive arrangement for vehicles, with an engine drive and with a flywheel storage drive, which includes a storage flywheel supported concentrically relative to the crankshaft for storing kinetic energy during such operations as braking operations of the vehicle. Both drives can be connected with the driving wheels of the vehicle by means of a common, preferably continuously variable, transmission. In order to obtain a faster response of the engine drive on suddenly occurring power demands and in order to achieve a more favorable design of the storage flywheel, there is to be provided in accordance with the invention, in addition to a storage flywheel, an engine flywheel associated with the reciprocating-piston internal combustion engine, which compensates for torque irregularities of the engine. The engine flywheel can be connected with a crankshaft by means of a first clutch and with the storage flywheel by means of at least one further clutch.

  1. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  2. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  3. The crystal chemistry of Ca(10-y)(SiO4)3(SO4)3Cl(2-x-2y)F(x) ellestadite.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanan; Ritter, Clemens; White, Tim

    2011-12-19

    Fluor-chlorellestadite solid solutions Ca(10)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x)F(x), serving as prototype crystalline matrices for the fixation of hazardous fly ash, were synthesized and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction (PXRD and PND), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The lattice parameters of the ellestadites vary linearly with composition and show the expected shrinkage of unit cell volume as fluorine (IR = 1.33 Å) displaces chlorine (IR = 1.81 Å). FTIR spectra indicate little or no OH(-) in the solid solutions. All compositions conform to P6(3)/m symmetry where F(-) is located at the 2a (0, 0, (1)/(4)) position, while Cl(-) is displaced out of the 6h Ca(2) triangle plane and occupies 4e (0, 0, z) split positions with z ranging from 0.336(3) to 0.4315(3). Si/S randomly occupy the 6h tetrahedral site. Ellestadites rich in Cl (x ≤ 1.2) show an overall deficiency in halogens (<2 atom per formula unit), particularly Cl as a result of CaCl(2) volatilization, with charge balance achieved by the creation of Ca vacancies (Ca(2+) + 2Cl(-) →□(Ca) + 2□(Cl)) leading to the formula Ca(10-y)(SiO(4))(3)(SO(4))(3)Cl(2-x-2y)F(x). For F-rich compositions the vacancies are found at Ca(2), while for Cl-rich ellestadites, vacancies are at Ca(1). It is likely the loss of CaCl(2) which leads tunnel anion vacancies promotes intertunnel positional disorder, preventing the formation of a P2(1)/b monoclinic dimorph, analogous to that reported for Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)Cl(2). Trends in structure with composition were analyzed using crystal-chemical parameters, whose systematic variations served to validate the quality of the Rietveld refinements.

  4. The eldercare factory.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly.

  5. Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Quimby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) was designed to explicitly to chart the transient sky with a particular focus on events which lie in the nova-supernova gap. With its innovative two-telescope architecture it achieves both high cadence and large areal rate of coverage. PTF was commissioned during the summer of 2009. PTF is now finding an extragalactic transient every 20 minutes and a Galactic (strong) variable every 10 minutes. Spectroscopy undertaken at Keck and Palomar has allowed us: identify an emerging class of ultra-luminous supernovae, discover luminous red novae, undertake UV spectroscopy of Ia supernovae, discover supernovae powered by something other than Nickel-56, clarification of sub-classes of core collapse and thermo-nuclear explosions, map the systematics of core collapse supernovae, a trove of eclipsing binaries and many others.

  6. Tau physics and tau factories

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial progress in tau lepton physics requires larger and cleaner samples of /tau/'s produced in e/sup +/e/sup minus/ ..-->.. /tau//sup +//tau//sup minus/. Single-tagging of the /tau/ pair is crucial. Possibilities for such progress at particle factories are discussed with emphasis on the Tau-Charm Factory concept. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. General B factory design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences.

  8. Flavour physics at B factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Križan, Peter

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the impact of B factories in the era of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. It presents the advantages of experiments at a B factory and at a super B factory, and their complementarity to the studies at the LHC. As examples, some selected recent results from B factories are presented; precision measurements of the unitarity triangle, studies of rare B decays, full reconstruction of events in D meson decays and searches for lepton violating τ lepton decays. The paper also reviews the status of the preparation of the next step, a super B factory at KEK, with the SuperKEKB high luminosity asymmetric electron-positron collider and the detector Belle II. Finally a summary and an outlook are given.

  9. Solar shutter arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, P.L.

    1988-02-02

    In a structure having a roof with a skylight including a glass panel which transmits solar energy, a shutter arrangement supported on the roof is described comprising an insulative flat one-piece solid shutter in the form of a panel selectively and linearly slidable on tracks which conceal the side edges thereof from a position blocking transmittal of solar energy through the glass panel of the skylight into an area within the structure to a position permitting transmittal of solar energy through the glass panel of the skylight into the area within the structure. The skylight presents a space between the glass panel and the selectively and linearly slidable insulative flat one-piece solid shutter, where the latter serves as the selective inner wall of the space contiguous with the area within the structure and the glass panel serves as the fixed outer wall of the space, where temperature responsive means is disposed within the space and in direct engagement with the inner surface of the glass panel, where the temperature responsive means is a black thermocouple operating a motor in a driving relationship with the insulative flat one-piece solid shutter. The insulative flat one-piece solid shutter is supported by a cable secured to a rotatable shaft controlled by the motor, where bi-directional movement of the rotatable shaft achieves raising and lowering of the insulative flat one-piece solid shutter to each of the solar energy blocking and transmittal positions, and where the insulative flat one-piece solid shutter includes a reflective surface facing the skylight and a decorative surface facing the area within the structure.

  10. Transmission gearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Klemen, D.

    1987-08-04

    A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

  11. Sperm gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) and its interaction with purinergic P2X2 receptors in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenming; Wang, Ke; Chen, Yan; Liang, Xiao Tong; Yu, Mei Kuen; Yue, Huanxun; Tierney, M Louise

    2017-02-13

    The mechanism underlying the non-genomic action of progesterone in sperm functions and related Ca2+ mobilisation remains elusive. Herein we report the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) in human and rodent sperm and its involvement in mediating the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. GABRD was localised in the sperm head/neck region. A δ(392-422)-specific inhibitory peptide against GABRD blocked the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and the associated increase in intracellular Ca2+. Similarly, an inhibitory effect against both progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx and the acrosome reaction was observed with a P2X2 receptor antagonist. The lack of synergism between the GABRD and P2X2 inhibitors suggests that these two receptors are playing a role in the same pathway. Furthermore, a co-immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated that GABRD could undergo protein-protein interactions with the Ca2+-conducting P2X2 receptor. This interaction between the receptors could be reduced following progesterone (10μM) inducement. Significantly reduced GABRD expression was observed in spermatozoa from infertile patients with reduced acrosome reaction capacity, suggesting that normal expression of GABRD is critical for the sperm acrosome reaction and thus male fertility. The results of the present study indicate that GABRD represents a novel progesterone receptor or modulator in spermatozoa that is responsible for the progesterone-induced Ca2+ influx required for the acrosome reaction through its interaction with the P2X2 receptor.

  12. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  13. The Aesthetics of Behavioral Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    With their origins in scientific validation, behavior-analytic applications have understandably been developed with an engineering rather than a crafting orientation. Nevertheless, traditions of craftsmanship can be instructive for devising aesthetically pleasing arrangements--arrangements that people will try, and having tried, will choose to…

  14. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  15. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  16. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  17. Seal arrangement for intersecting conduits

    DOEpatents

    Goedicke, Friedrich E.

    1980-01-01

    A seal arrangement in which two intersecting conduits are sealed from each other. A sleeve insert is locked in a sealed relationship within one conduit enclosing the openings of the intersecting conduit.

  18. The Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Fernandez Martinez, Enrique; Li, Tracey; Pascoli, Silvia; Mena, Olga

    2010-03-30

    We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -4}, and to the mass hierarchy for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -3}. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

  19. Rural "Dropout Factories" Often Overshadowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the northwest corner of South Carolina, high schools' attempts to curb student dropouts may not match what many people picture when they hear talk of the nation's "dropout factories." Yet one-fifth of the 2,000 high schools nationwide categorized that way by researchers at Johns Hopkins…

  20. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  1. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  2. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  3. Cytogenetic Characterization of Brown Howler Monkeys, Alouatta guariba clamitans (Atelidae, Platyrrhini): Meiotic Confirmation of an X1X1X2X2X3X3/X1X2X3Y1Y2 Sex Chromosome System.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Eliana R; Fortes, Vanessa B; Rossi, Luis F; Murer, Laurete; Lovato, Maristela; Merani, Maria S; Mudry, Marta D

    2017-04-13

    For brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans), diploid chromosome numbers varying from 2n = 45 to 2n = 52, with XX/XY, X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y, and X1X1X2X2X3X3/X1X2X3Y1Y2 sex chromosome systems have been described by mitotic studies but still await confirmation by meiotic analyses. We analyzed 3 male individuals sampled in the wild (in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil) as well as 1 male and 1 female individual in captivity at the São Braz breeding center. Peripheral blood samples and testicular biopsies were taken. We found different diploid numbers for both sexes in somatic cells, 2n = 45,X1X2X3Y1Y2 in males and 2n = 46,X1X1X2X2X3X3 in females, with 4 metacentric (9-12), 7 submetacentric (1-6, 8), and 9 acrocentric autosomal chromosome pairs (13-20, 22). X1 and X2 were submetacentric chromosomes, while X3, Y1, and Y2 were acrocentric ones. Spermatocyte microspreads were examined for synaptonemal complexes. Pachytene spermatocyte analysis was done to verify the chromosome number and morphologies observed in mitotic karyotypes. Immunodetection was performed using anti-SMC3 and anti-CREST antibodies. The presence of a sex chromosome pentavalent X1X2X3Y1Y2 in the males was confirmed by C-banding in metaphase I and by immunodetection in prophase I by the clear identification of 5 centromeres. The G-banded karyotype corresponded to that previously described for A. g. clamitans in the south of Brazil (Curitiba, Parana State, and Blumenau, Santa Catarina State) and for the Misiones Province, Argentina.

  4. Solar collector and arrangements thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.N.

    1985-03-19

    In an all liquid flat plate type solar collector having risers therein, the risers having inlet and outlet portions, the improvement comprises providing a single header for servicing the risers and arranging the risers inlet and outlet portions within the header so as to obtain flow through the risers using the velocity effect or dynamic effect of flow through the header.

  5. Phyllotactic arrangements of optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, M.; Meluzin, P.; Kratky, S.; Matejka, M.; Kolarik, V.

    2017-05-01

    Phyllotaxy studies arrangements of biological entities, e.g. a placement of seeds in the flower head. Vogel (1979) presented a phyllotactic model based on series of seeds ordered along a primary spiral. This arrangement allows each seed to occupy the same area within a circular flower head. Recently, a similar arrangement of diffraction primitives forming a planar relief diffractive structure was presented. The planar relief structure was used for benchmarking and testing purposes of the electron beam writer patterning process. This contribution presents the analysis of local periods and azimuths of optical phyllotactic arrangements. Two kinds of network characteristic triangles are introduced. If the discussed planar structure has appropriate size and density, diffraction of the incoming light creates characteristic a phyllotactic diffraction pattern. Algorithms enabling the analysis of such behavior were developed and they were validated by fabricated samples of relief structures. Combined and higher diffraction orders are also analyzed. Different approaches enabling the creation of phyllotactic diffractive patterns are proposed. E-beam lithography is a flexible technology for various diffraction gratings origination. The e-beam patterning typically allows for the creation of optical diffraction gratings in the first diffraction order. Nevertheless, this technology enables also more complex grating to be prepared, e.g. blazed gratings and zero order gratings. Moreover, the mentioned kinds of gratings can be combined within one planar relief structure. The practical part of the presented work deals with the nano patterning of such structures by using two different types of the e-beam pattern generators.

  6. Special Issue: Flexible Work Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Barney, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Section 1 contains five chapters on flexible work arrangements, self-employment, working from home, part-time professionals, job sharing, and temporary employment. Section 2 includes reviews of four books on working flexibly, concluding with a list of 23 additional readings. (SK)

  7. Real-time scanning tunneling microscopy observations of the oxidation of a Ti/Pt(111)-(2x2) surface alloy using O{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh Shuchen; Liu, G. F.; Koel, Bruce E.

    2008-09-15

    The authors have used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to study the nascent oxidation of an ordered Ti/Pt(111)-(2x2) surface alloy exposed to oxygen (O{sub 2}) or nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The Ti/Pt(111)-(2x2) surface alloy was formed by depositing an ultrathin Ti film on Pt(111) and annealing to 1050 K. This produces an alloy film in which the surface layer is pure Pt and the second layer contains Ti atoms in a (2x2) structure, which causes the pattern observed by STM and LEED. Real-time imaging of the surface at 300 K was carried out by continuously scanning with the STM while either O{sub 2} or NO{sub 2} was introduced into the chamber. O{sub 2} exposures did not cause any gross structural changes; however oxygen was detected on the surface afterward using AES. Annealing this surface to 950 K resulted in the formation of an ordered TiO{sub x} overlayer as characterized by both LEED and STM. In contrast, NO{sub 2} exposures caused definite changes in the surface morphology at 300 K, and the root-mean-square roughness increased from 3.5 to 7.1 A after a large NO{sub 2} exposure. No ordered structures were produced by this treatment, but annealing the surface to 950 K formed an ordered pattern in LEED and corresponding clear, well-resolved structures in STM images. We account for these observations on the disruption or reconstruction of the Ti/Pt(111)-(2x2) surface alloy by arguments recalling that Ti oxidation is an activated process. The energetic barrier to TiO{sub x} formation cannot be surmounted at room temperature at low oxygen coverages, and annealing the surface was necessary to initiate this reaction. However, the higher oxygen coverages obtained using the more reactive oxidant NO{sub 2} lowered the chemical potential in the system sufficiently to overcome the activation barrier to extract Ti from the alloy at room temperature and form a

  8. Supernova Dust Factory in M74

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-09

    Astronomers using NASA Spitzer Space Telescope have spotted a dust factory 30 million light-years away in the spiral galaxy M74. The factory is located at the scene of a massive star explosive death, or supernova.

  9. Outsourcing the Gender Factory: Living Arrangements and Service Expenditures on Female and Male Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruijter, Esther; Treas, Judith K.; Cohen, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Consumer Expenditure Survey 1998, this study analyzes how much money different types of households spend for domestic services on "female" and "male" tasks. We test alternative hypotheses based on economic and sociological theories of gender differentiation. Contrary to arguments that marriage lowers the risk to one…

  10. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  11. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  12. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  13. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  14. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more than...

  15. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  16. On KEK B-Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, H.

    2009-07-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records.

  17. Exotic Hadrons from B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulsom, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.

  18. Intelligent Robots for Factory Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Oh, S. J.

    1985-04-01

    Industrial robots are now proven technology in a variety of applications including welding, materials handling, spray painting, machine loading and assembly. However, to fully realize the potential of these universal manipulators , "intelligence" needs to be added to the industrial robot. This involves adding sensory capability and machine intelligence to the controls. The "intelligence" may be added externally or as integral components of the robot. These new "intelligent robots" promise to greatly enhance the versatility of the robot for factory applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief review of the techniques and applications of intelligent robots for factory automation and to suggest possible designs for the intelligent robot of the future.

  19. Neuropharmacology of Purinergic Receptors in Human Submucous Plexus: Involvement of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 Channels, P2Y and A3 Metabotropic Receptors in Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Liñán-Rico, A.; Wunderlich, JE.; Enneking, JT.; Tso, DR.; Grants, I.; Williams, KC.; Otey, A.; Michel, K.; Schemann, M.; Needleman, B.; Harzman, A.; Christofi, FL.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The role of purinergic signaling in the human ENS is not well understood. We sought to further characterize the neuropharmacology of purinergic receptors in human ENS and test the hypothesis that endogenous purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission. Experimental Approach LSCM-Fluo-4-(Ca2+)-imaging of postsynaptic Ca2+ transients (PSCaTs) was used as a reporter of neural activity. Synaptic transmission was evoked by fiber tract electrical stimulation in human SMP surgical preparations. Pharmacological analysis of purinergic signaling was done in 1,556 neurons from 234 separate ganglia 107 patients; immunochemical labeling for P2XRs of neurons in ganglia from 19 patients. Real-time MSORT (Di-8-ANEPPS) imaging was used to test effects of adenosine on fast excitatory synaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Results Synaptic transmission is sensitive to pharmacological manipulations that alter accumulation of extracellular purines. Apyrase blocks PSCaTs in a majority of neurons. An ecto-NTPDase-inhibitor 6-N,N-diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP or adenosine deaminase augments PSCaTs. Blockade of reuptake/deamination of eADO inhibits PSCaTs. Adenosine inhibits fEPSPs and PSCaTs (IC50=25μM), sensitive to MRS1220-antagonism (A3AR). A P2Y agonist ADPβS inhibits PSCaTs (IC50=111nM) in neurons without stimulatory ADPβS responses (EC50=960nM). ATP or a P2X1,2,2/3 (α,β-MeATP) agonist evokes fast, slow, biphasic Ca2+ transients or Ca2+ oscillations (EC50=400μM). PSCaTs are sensitive to P2X1 antagonist NF279. Low (20nM) or high (5μM) concentrations of P2X antagonist TNP-ATP block PSCaTs in different neurons; proportions of neurons with P2XR-ir follow the order P2X2>P2X1≫P2X3; P2X1+ P2X2 and P2X3+P2X2 are co-localized. RT-PCR identified mRNA-transcripts for P2X1-7,P2Y1,2,12-14R. Responsive neurons were also identified by HuC/D-ir. Conclusions Purines are critical regulators of neurotransmission in the human enteric nervous system. Purinergic signaling involves

  20. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  1. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  2. Safety in Royal Filling Factories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-10-01

    Risks to personnel at R.F.F.s - Clean conditions 6 - Fireproof clothing 5 - Protection from Explosion 4,5 - Protection against Lightning 5 Royal...Last War Accident Records New factory planning methods Industrial safety Section 3 METHODS General Safety principles Test of clothing Clean...Instruction (1799) B. Report on safety aspects of certain explosives by the Government Committee of 1914/18* C. Standard tests on D.B. clothing

  3. Apiary B Factory Lattice Design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-05-03

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent.

  4. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R. ); Garren, A.A. )

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab.

  5. Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2009-01-08

    These proceedings are based on lectures given at the Helmholtz International Summer School Heavy Quark Physics at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Russia, during August 2008. I review the current status of CP violation in B meson decays from the B factories. These results can be used, along with measurements of the sides of the Unitarity Triangle, to test the CKM mechanism. In addition I discuss experimental studies of B decays to final states with 'spin-one' particles.

  6. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  7. Visitation arrangements for impaired parents.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stephen A; Street, David F

    2011-07-01

    Forensic mental health professionals are frequently asked to evaluate the parenting skills of divorcing parents because the court seeks help in determining the custody, visitation, and parenting time arrangements for the children. When one of the parents is impaired, the court wants to know the way to help the children have a good relationship with that parent and keep the children safe. There is little empirical research to answer such questions. In this article, the authors describe their methodology for providing useful clinical information to the court to help guide their decisions regarding visitation with impaired parents.

  8. Ferro- and anti-ferromagnetically coupled tetracopper(II) 2 x 2 homoleptic rectangular grids supported by both mu-O and mu-(N-N) bridges derived from a new pyrazole based polydentate Schiff base ligand-magneto-structural correlations and DFT calculation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Mandal, Tarak Nath; Barik, Anil Kumar; Gupta, Samik; El Fallah, Mohamed Salah; Tercero, Javier; Butcher, Ray J; Kar, Susanta Kumar

    2009-10-21

    The pyrazole derived Schiff base polytopic ligand 5-methyl-N'-[1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbohydrazide (PzCAP), prepared by the reaction between 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide and 2-acetyl pyridine, has two potentially bridging functional groups [mu-O and mu-(N-N)] and consequently can exhibit different coordination conformations. Two tetranuclear homoleptic copper(II) 2 x 2 rectangular grid-complexes [Cu(4)(PzCAP)(4)(NO(3))(2)] (NO(3))(2).8H(2)O (1) and [Cu(4)(PzCAP)(4)(ClO(4))(2)] (ClO(4))(2) (2) were formed by a strict self-assembly process employing metal and ligand under 1:1 mol proportion. Each pair of the ligand molecules in the two complexes are arranged in roughly parallel fashion but under different conformations. The ligand PzCAP contains terminal pyridine and pyrazole residues bound to a central flexible diazine subunit (N-N). The rectangular Cu(II) 2 x 2 grid complexes having [Cu(4)(mu-N-N)(2)(mu-O)(2)] core involve a mixture of two diazine (Cu-N-N-Cu approximately 160 degrees ) and two alkoxo (Cu-O-Cu approximately 138 degrees ) bridges along the length and breadth respectively. In the [Cu(4)(mu-N-N)(2)(mu-O)(2)] core in , out of the four Cu(II) centers, all are hexa-coordinated but there are two penta-coordinated and two hexa-coordinated Cu(II) centers in the same core of . Each complex having the central [Cu(4)(mu-N-N)(2)(mu-O)(2)] core, exhibits quite different magnetic interactions among the metal centers. The paramagnetic Cu(II) centers bridged through the diazine fragment are involved in anti-ferromagnetic interaction while a dominant ferromagnetic interaction prevails between the alkoxo-bridged Cu(II) centers. The [Cu(4)(mu-N-N)(2)(mu-O)(2)] cluster in shows both ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic interaction (J(1) = -0.80 cm(-1) and J(2) = +3.49 cm(-1)), a very unusual characteristic in this system while the same cluster in exhibits dominant anti-ferromagnetic coupling (J(1) = -89.1 cm(-1) and J(2) = +5.5 cm(-1)) through

  9. Manganese(II)-azido/thiocyanato complexes of naphthylazoimidazoles: X-ray structures of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(X) 2 (β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Chand, B. G.; Wu, J. S.; Lu, T.-H.; Sinha, C.

    2007-10-01

    Manganese(II)-naphthylazoimidazole complexes using N3- and NCS - as counter ions are characterized as Mn(β-NaiR) 2(X) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-alkyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -). The ligands are unsymmetric N(imidazole), N(azo) chelating agents. The microanalytical, spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis), magnetic (bulk moment and EPR) and electrochemical data establish the structure and composition of the complexes. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(N 3) 2 and Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(NCS) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole) have confirmed the three dimensional structure of the complexes. Cyclic voltammetry exhibits high potential Mn(III)/Mn(II) couple along with azo reductions. The EPR spectra show usual pattern.

  10. Distribution of P2Y2 receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system and its coexistence with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide synthase and calretinin.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhenghua; Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    The distribution of P2Y2 receptor-immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers and coexistence of P2Y2 with P2X2 and P2X3 receptors, neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was investigated with immunostaining methods. The results showed that P2Y2-ir neurons and fibers were distributed widely in myenteric and submucous plexuses of the guinea pig stomach corpus, jejunum, ileum and colon. The typical morphology of P2Y2-ir neurons was a long process with strong positive staining on the same side of the cell body. The P2Y2-ir neurons could be Dogiel type 1. About 40-60% P2X3-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2Y2 in the myenteric plexus and all the P2X3-ir neurons expressed the P2Y2 receptor in the submucosal plexus; almost all the NPY-ir neurons and the majority of CR-ir neurons were also immunoreactive for P2Y2, especially in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine; no P2Y2-ir neurons were immunoreactive for P2X2 receptors, CB and NOS. It is shown for the first time that S type/Dogiel type 1 neurons with fast P2X and slow P2Y receptor-mediated depolarizations could be those neurons expressing both P2Y2-ir and P2X3-ir and that they are widely distributed in myenteric and submucosal plexuses of guinea pig gut.

  11. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae).

    PubMed

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation. Both species possess male heterogamety with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system; however, the Y and one of the X chromosomes are not small chromosomes as previously reported in L. burtonis, but the largest macrochromosomal pair in the karyotype. The Y chromosomes in both species have large heterochromatic blocks with extensive accumulations of GATA and AC microsatellite motifs. FISH with telomeric probe revealed an exclusively terminal position of telomeric sequences in L. jicari (2n = 42 chromosomes in females), but extensive interstitial signals, potentially remnants of chromosomal fusions, in L.burtonis (2n = 34 in females). Our study shows that even largely differentiated and heteromorphic sex chromosomes might be misidentified by conventional cytogenetic analyses and that the application of more sensitive cytogenetic techniques for the identification of sex chromosomes is beneficial even in the classical examples of multiple sex chromosomes.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of new 12H hexagonal perovskite-related oxides Ba 6M2Na 2X2O 17 ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb; X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarez, Eric; Abraham, Francis; Mentré, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    The new Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, Mn) compounds have been prepared by electrosynthesis in molten NaOH and their crystal structures have been refined from single crystals X-ray diffraction, space group P6 3/ mmc, Z=2, for X=V: a =5.8506(1) Å, c =29.6241(4) Å, R1=4.76%, for X=Mn : a =5.8323(1) Å, c =29.5299(3) Å, R1=3.48%. The crystal structure is a 12H-type perovskite with a ( c' cchcc) 2 stacking sequence of [BaO 3] c, [BaO 3] h and [BaO 2] c' layers. The tridimensional edifice is formed by blocks of Ru 2O 9 dimers that share corners with NaO 6 octahedra. These blocks sandwich double sheets of X5+O 4 tetrahedra. Several isotypic Ba 6M5+2Na 2X5+2O 17 materials ( X=V, Cr, Mn, P, As) and ( M=Ru, Nb, Ta, Sb) have been prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by Rietveld analysis. The magnetic and electric properties have been investigated and show besides the Ru 5+2O 9 typical intradimer antiferromagnetic couplings, discrepancies of both χ and ρ versus T at 50 and 100 K for Ba 6Ru 2Na 2X2O 17 ( X=V, As). In this work, a review of the identified Ru-hexagonal perovskite materials is also reported in order to overview the wide variety of possibilities in the field of new compounds synthesis.

  13. Influences of the substituents on the M-M bonding in Cp4Al4 and Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, Ga; Cp = C5H5, X = halogen).

    PubMed

    Lu, Feifei; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Zheng; Zeng, Yanli; Meng, Lingpeng

    2015-08-21

    Although the geometries of CpAl4 (Cp* = C5Me5) and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5) are similar, CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4. CpAl2I2 is the first complex involving an Al(ii)-Al(ii) bond to be supported by Cp-type ligands. In this work, the stability of CpAl4 and Cp4Al4 (Cp = C5H5), the nature of M-M bonding in Cp2M2X2 (M = B, Al, and Ga), and the influences of the X atom on the M-M bonds have been analyzed and compared within the framework of the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory, electron localization function (ELF), energy decomposition analysis (EDA), and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The calculated results show that CpAl4 is more stable than Cp4Al4 because of HH interactions between the methyl groups on the same and different Cp rings and not because of the Al-Al bonds. In Cp2M2X2, the B-B bond is stronger than the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds. The B-B bond is most consistent with covalent bonding, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds are more consistent with metallic bonding. The strengths of the B-B bond increase in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I, whereas the Al-Al and Ga-Ga bonds decrease in the sequence X = F, Cl, Br, and I. The different change tendencies arise from the different M-M bonds and the orbital interactions between atoms X and M.

  14. Super B Factory at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Byung Gu

    2008-11-23

    A Super--KEKB factory, an asymmetric--energy e{sup +}e{sup -} lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  15. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  16. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  17. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  18. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section 302.34... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide that the State will enter into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with appropriate courts,...

  19. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 63.4 Section 63.4 Public... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION General § 63.4 Cooperative arrangements. (a) Eligible parties may enter into cooperative arrangements with other eligible parties, including those...

  20. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section 302.34... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide that the State will enter into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with appropriate courts,...

  1. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 63.4 Section 63.4 Public... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION General § 63.4 Cooperative arrangements. (a) Eligible parties may enter into cooperative arrangements with other eligible parties, including those...

  2. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 63.4 Section 63.4 Public... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION General § 63.4 Cooperative arrangements. (a) Eligible parties may enter into cooperative arrangements with other eligible parties, including those...

  3. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section 302.34... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide that the State will enter into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with appropriate courts,...

  4. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section 302.34... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide that the State will enter into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with appropriate courts,...

  5. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 63.4 Section 63.4 Public... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION General § 63.4 Cooperative arrangements. (a) Eligible parties may enter into cooperative arrangements with other eligible parties, including those...

  6. 45 CFR 63.4 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 63.4 Section 63.4 Public... OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION General § 63.4 Cooperative arrangements. (a) Eligible parties may enter into cooperative arrangements with other eligible parties, including those...

  7. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.229 Other arrangements. With respect to those arrangements...” establishment will be considered a part of the same “enterprise.” For example, whether a franchise, lease, or... the enterprise which grants the franchise, right, or concession. (S. Rept. 145, 87th Cong., 1st...

  8. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  9. Aft outer rim seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J; Campbell, Christian X

    2015-04-28

    An outer rim seal arrangement (10), including: an annular rim (70) centered about a longitudinal axis (30) of a rotor disc (31), extending fore and having a fore-end (72), an outward-facing surface (74), and an inward-facing surface (76); a lower angel wing (62) extending aft from a base of a turbine blade (22) and having an aft end (64) disposed radially inward of the rim inward-facing surface to define a lower angel wing seal gap (80); an upper angel wing (66) extending aft from the turbine blade base and having an aft end (68) disposed radially outward of the rim outward-facing surface to define a upper angel wing seal gap (80, 82); and guide vanes (100) disposed on the rim inward-facing surface in the lower angel wing seal gap. Pumping fins (102) may be disposed on the upper angel wing seal aft end in the upper angel wing seal gap.

  10. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of hydraulic loading (2 sizes and 2 flow rates), the presence/absence of a buried wood chip layer (2) and the presence/absence of a sub-surface saturated zone (SZ) (2) on nitrate-nitrite 〖(NO〗_3^--〖NO〗_2^-) removal. Captured stormwater runoff was used in this study. Results showed that incorporating a SZ in the design greatly reduced 〖NO〗_3^--〖NO〗_2^- mass reduction (84% compared to 5% reduction without the SZ). Presence of SZ significantly decreased ammonia-N (NH3-N) mass reduction (p<0.00001). The difference in total nitrogen (TN) mass reduction with the introduced SZ was not significant, largely due to 〖NO〗_3^--〖NO〗_2^- mass decreases that resulted in NH3-N mass increases in rain gardens with the SZ. The buried woodchip layer showed no significant effect on N removal. No significant interactions were found between the factors. Overall, the results in this study highlight the importance of incorporating a sub-surface SZ for 〖NO〗_3^--〖NO〗_2^- load reduction and that a buried woodchip layer as a carbon source did not make a significant contribution to N removal. This paper describes the reults of a mesocosm expeiroment evaluating the mass remov

  11. Process-oriented administration of the picture arrangement test does not affect the quantitative outcome.

    PubMed

    Gaudette, M D; Smith, J A

    1998-01-01

    Extracting the maximum amount of qualitative information of cognitive functioning from tests is one of the major goals, of the process approach to neuropsychological assessment. This study examined whether there is a difference in score in the Picture Arrangement (PA) test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for participants who completed the standardized versus a process-oriented administration (i.e., asking the person to "tell the story" immediately following each item). Eighteen traumatic brain injury patients and 20 control participants (i. e., non-brain-injury volunteers) were randomly assigned to the standardized administration or the process-oriented administration of the PA test. A 2 x 2 (Group x Type of Administration) analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant interaction effect or main effect for type of administration. Therefore, the process of maximizing the elicitation of qualitative information does not appear to affect the quantitative outcome of the PA test.

  12. Charmonium production at neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, A.A.; Torma, T.

    1999-11-01

    At existing and planned neutrino factories (high energy and high intensity neutrino beam facilities) precision studies of QCD in neutrino-nucleon interactions are a realistic opportunity. We investigate charmonium production in fixed target neutrino experiments. We find that J/{psi} production in neutrino-nucleon collisions is dominated by the color octet {sup 3}S{sub 1} nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) matrix element in a neutral current process, which is not accessible in photoproduction or leptoproduction. Neutrino experiments at a future Muon Collider will acquire a sufficient event rate to accurately measure color octet matrix element contributions. The currently running high energy neutrino experiments NOMAD and NuTeV could also observe several such events. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  14. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory as...

  15. Transcription factories and nuclear organization of the genome.

    PubMed

    Eskiw, C H; Cope, N F; Clay, I; Schoenfelder, S; Nagano, T; Fraser, P

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic compartmental organization of the transcriptional machinery in mammalian nuclei places particular constraints on the spatial organization of the genome. The clustering of active RNA polymerase I transcription units from several chromosomes at nucleoli is probably the best-characterized and universally accepted example. RNA polymerase II localization in mammalian nuclei occurs in distinct concentrated foci that are several-fold fewer in number compared to the number of active genes and transcription units. Individual transcribed genes cluster at these shared transcription factories in a nonrandom manner, preferentially associating with heterologous, coregulated genes. We suggest that the three-dimensional (3D) conformation and relative arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus has a major role in delivering tissue-specific gene-expression programs.

  16. Practical method using superposition of individual magnetic fields for initial arrangement of undulator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, K.; Shioya, T.

    2015-04-15

    We have developed a practical method for determining an excellent initial arrangement of magnetic arrays for a pure-magnet Halbach-type undulator. In this method, the longitudinal magnetic field distribution of each magnet is measured using a moving Hall probe system along the beam axis with a high positional resolution. The initial arrangement of magnetic arrays is optimized and selected by analyzing the superposition of all distribution data in order to achieve adequate spectral quality for the undulator. We applied this method to two elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), called U#16-2 and U#02-2, at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The measured field distribution of the undulator was demonstrated to be excellent for the initial arrangement of the magnet array, and this method saved a great deal of effort in adjusting the magnetic fields of EPUs.

  17. Practical method using superposition of individual magnetic fields for initial arrangement of undulator magnets.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, K; Shioya, T

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a practical method for determining an excellent initial arrangement of magnetic arrays for a pure-magnet Halbach-type undulator. In this method, the longitudinal magnetic field distribution of each magnet is measured using a moving Hall probe system along the beam axis with a high positional resolution. The initial arrangement of magnetic arrays is optimized and selected by analyzing the superposition of all distribution data in order to achieve adequate spectral quality for the undulator. We applied this method to two elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), called U#16-2 and U#02-2, at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The measured field distribution of the undulator was demonstrated to be excellent for the initial arrangement of the magnet array, and this method saved a great deal of effort in adjusting the magnetic fields of EPUs.

  18. Structure determination of neptunium(VI) mu3-hydroxobenzoate, [(NpO2)2(mu3-OH)2(H5C6COO)2] x 2 H2O.

    PubMed

    Charushnikova, Iraida A; Krot, Nikolai N; Makarenkov, Vadim I

    2010-09-06

    Neptunium(VI) benzoate with mu(3)-OH(-) has been isolated and studied by the X-ray method. The main structural motive in the crystal is corrugated ribbons [(NpO(2))(2)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(C(7)H(5)O(2))(2)](n) extended along the c axes in which three neptunium pentagonal bipyramids are linked through the mu(3)-OH(-) ligand. The benzoate ions are arranged at both sides of the ribbons, and each anion binds two adjacent NpO(2). The water molecules are arranged in the channels along the c axis.

  19. The aesthetics of behavioral arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    With their origins in scientific validation, behavior-analytic applications have understandably been developed with an engineering rather than a crafting orientation. Nevertheless, traditions of craftsmanship can be instructive for devising aesthetically pleasing arrangements—arrangements that people will try, and having tried, will choose to continue living with. Pye (1968) provides suggestions for this, particularly through his distinctions between workmanship of risk versus workmanship of certainty, and the mating of functional precision with effective or otherwise pleasing variability. Close examination of woodworking tools as well as antique machines offers instructive analogues that show, for instance, that misplaced precision can be dysfunctional when precision is not essential to a design. Variability should be allowed or even encouraged. Thus, in the design of behavioral contingencies as well as of practical or purely aesthetic objects, “precise versus variable” is not necessarily a distinction between good and bad. More generally, behavior analysts would do well to look beyond their technical experience for ways to improve the aesthetics of contingency design while continuing to understand the resulting innovations in relation to behavior-analytic principles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:22478437

  20. Linearly arranged polytypic CZTSSe nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Feng-Jia; Wu, Liang; Gong, Ming; Chen, Shi You; Liu, Guang Yao; Yao, Hong-Bin; Liang, Hai-Wei; Wang, Yi-Xiu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Even colloidal polytypic nanostructures show promising future in band-gap tuning and alignment, researches on them have been much less reported than the standard nano-heterostructures because of the difficulties involved in synthesis. Up to now, controlled synthesis of colloidal polytypic nanocrsytals has been only realized in II-VI tetrapod and octopod nanocrystals with branched configurations. Herein, we report a colloidal approach for synthesizing non-branched but linearly arranged polytypic I2-II-IV-VI4 nanocrystals, with a focus on polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystals. Each synthesized polytypic non-stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnSxSe4−x nanocrystal is consisted of two zinc blende-derived ends and one wurtzite-derived center part. The formation mechanism has been studied and the phase composition can be tuned through adjusting the reaction temperature, which brings a new band-gap tuning approach to Cu2ZnSnSxSe4-x nanocrystals. PMID:23233871

  1. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  2. Yttrium complexes incorporating the chelating diamides [ArN(CH2)xNAr]2- (Ar = C6H3-2,6-iPr2, x= 2, 3) and their unusual reaction with phenylsilane.

    PubMed

    Avent, Anthony G; Cloke, F Geoffrey N; Elvidge, Benjamin R; Hitchcock, Peter B

    2004-04-07

    Novel yttrium chelating diamide complexes [(Y[ArN(CH(2))(x)NAr](Z)(THF)(n))(y)] (Z = I, CH(SiMe(3))(2), CH(2)Ph, H, N(SiMe(3))(2), OC(6)H(3)-2,6-(t)Bu(2)-4-Me; x = 2, 3; n = 1 or 2; y = 1 or 2) were made via salt metathesis of the potassium diamides (x = 3 (3), x = 2 (4)) and yttrium triiodide in THF (5,10), followed by salt metathesis with the appropriate potassium salt (6-9, 11-13, 15) and further reaction with molecular hydrogen (14). 6 and 11(Z = CH(SiMe(3))(2), x = 2, 3) underwent unprecedented exchange of yttrium for silicon on reaction with phenylsilane to yield (Si[ArN(CH(2))(x)NAr]PhH) (x = 2 (16), 3) and (Si[CH(SiMe(3))(2)]PhH(2)).

  3. Chromosomal distribution of two multigene families and the unusual occurrence of an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in the dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae): an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Soares, R X; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; F Molina, W

    2014-04-03

    Dolphinfishes (Coryphaenidae) are pelagic predators distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical oceans and are very important for commercial, traditional, and sport fishing. This small family contains the Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis species whose chromosomal aspects remain unknown, despite recent advances in cytogenetic data assimilation for Perciformes. In this study, both species were cytogenetically analyzed using different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, and CMA3 banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization, to detect 18S rDNA and 5S rDNA. C. hippurus females exhibit 2n = 48 chromosomes, with 2m+4sm+42a (NF = 54). In C. equiselis, where both sexes could be analyzed, females displayed 2n = 48 chromosomes (2m+6sm+40a) and males exhibited 2n = 47 chromosomes (3m+6sm+38a) (NF = 56), indicating the presence of X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosomes. Sex-chromosome systems are rare in Perciformes, with this study demonstrating the first occurrence in a marine pelagic species. It remains unknown as to whether this system extends to other populations; however, these data are important with respect to evolutionary, phylogenetic, and speciation issues, as well as for elucidating the genesis of this unique sex system.

  4. Quetzalcoatlite: A new octahedral-tetrahedral structure from a 2 x 2 x 40 {micro}m{sup 3} crystal at the Advanced Photon Source-GSE-CARS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, P.C.; Pluth, J.J.; Smith, J.V.; Eng, P.; Steele, I.; Housley, R.M.

    2000-04-01

    The structure of quetzalcoatlite, Zn{sub 6}Cu{sub 3}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 6}(Ag{sub x}Pb{sub y})Cl{sub x+2y}, x + y {le} 2, Z = 1, was solved and refined using data collected at the Advanced Photon Source-GSE-CARS facility, using a 2 x 2 x 40 {micro}m{sup 3} single crystal. Te{sup 6+}O{sub 6} octahedra and Jahn-Teller distorted Cu{sup 2+}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 2} octahedra share edges to form layers parallel to (001), and ZnO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} tetrahedra share vertices to form six-member rings parallel to (001). Layers of octahedra and tetrahedra alternate along c, and form a new framework structure by vertex sharing. Channels through the framework parallel to c are occupied by Ag, Pb, and Cl ions. Electron microprobe analysis revealed Ag and Cl overlooked in the original microchemical analysis. Up to one-third of the Ag was substituted by Pb, and a Pb-rich analog may exist.

  5. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 or P2X2/3 is involved in the pain-like behavior under a high bone turnover state in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Kumiko; Iba, Kousuke; Abe, Yasuhisa; Dohke, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Matsumura, Tadaki; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pathological changes leading to increased bone resorption by osteoclast activation are related to the induction of pain-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In addition, bisphosphonate and the antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), an acid-sensing nociceptor, improved the threshold value of pain-like behaviors accompanying an improvement in the acidic environment in the bone tissue based on osteoclast inactivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (i) an inhibitor of vacuolar H(+) -ATPase, known as an proton pump, (ii) an antagonist of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 3, as another acid-sensing nociceptor, and (iii) the P2X2/3 receptor, as an ATP-ligand nociceptor, on pain-like behavior in OVX mice. This inhibitor and antagonists were found to improve the threshold value of pain-like behavior in OVX mice. These results indicated that the skeletal pain accompanying osteoporosis is possibly associated with the acidic microenvironment and increased ATP level caused by osteoclast activation under a high bone turnover state.

  6. New insights into the comprehension of the magnetic properties of dinuclear Mn(III) compounds with the general formula [{MnL(NN)}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2.

    PubMed

    Escriche-Tur, Luis; Font-Bardia, Mercè; Albela, Belén; Corbella, Montserrat

    2016-07-19

    Five new dinuclear Mn(iii) compounds with benzoato derivative bridges [{Mn(bpy)L}2(μ-O)(μ-n-RC6H4COO)2]X2 (n-R = 3-MeO, 4-MeO and 4-tBu, X = NO3(-) and ClO4(-)) were synthesised and characterised. According to X-ray diffraction, the X anions tend to be coordinated to the Mn ions and may occupy the place of the monodentate ligand L. Two structural isomers that only differ in one of their monodentate ligands have been obtained with the 3-MeOC6H4COO(-) bridges. For all compounds, the Mn(iii) ions display elongated octahedra with a pronounced rhombic distortion. To quantify these distortions separately, the elongation and rhombicity parameters Δ and ρ have been defined. The magnetic study shows a good relationship between the distortion of the coordination polyhedra and the zero field splitting parameters (DMn and EMn). From the magnetic data of a powder sample, it is possible to determine the sign and magnitude of DMn for ferromagnetic systems or weak antiferromagnetic systems with DMn < 0. For this kind of dinuclear compound, the R group at the meta position, the rhombic distortion of the octahedra, and large torsion angles between the Jahn-Teller axes lead to ferromagnetic interactions.

  7. Physics at a Higgsino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Mickelson, Dan; Mustafayev, Azar; Tata, Xerxes

    2014-06-01

    Naturalness arguments applied to supersymmetric theories imply a spectrum containing four light higgsinos and with masses ~ 100 - 300 GeV (the closer to M Z , the more natural). The compressed mass spectrum and associated low energy release from and three-body decay makes higgsinos difficult to detect at LHC14, while the other sparticles might be heavy, and possibly even beyond LHC14 reach. In contrast, the International Linear e + e - Collider (ILC) with > 2 m( higgsino) would be a higgsino factory in addition to a Higgs boson factory and would serve as a discovery machine for natural SUSY! In this case, both chargino and neutralino production occur at comparable rates, and lead to observable signals above SM backgrounds. We examine two benchmark cases, one just beyond the LHC8 reach with mass gap of 15 (21) GeV, and a second more difficult case beyond even the LHC14 reach, where the mass gap is just 10 GeV, close to its minimum in models with no worse than 3% fine-tuning. The signal is characterized by low visible energy events together with [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] T in the one or two jets +1 ℓ channel from chargino production, and in the opposite sign, same-flavour, acoplanar dilepton channel from production. For both cases, we find that the signal is observable above backgrounds from the usual 2 → 2 SM events and from γγ collisions with just a few fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We also show that with an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1, it should be possible to extract and masses at 2-3% level from chargino events if the mass gap is ≥ 15 GeV, and neutralino masses at the sub-percent level from neutralino events. The latter should also allow a determination of at the 200 MeV level. These measurements would point to higgsinos as the origin of new physics and strongly suggest a link to a natural origin for W , Z and h masses.

  8. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  9. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  10. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  11. Optimal Arrangement of Components Via Pairwise Rearrangements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    reliability function under component pairwise rearrangement. They use this property to find the optimal component arrangement. Worked examples illustrate the methods proposed. Keywords: Optimization; Permutations; Nodes.

  12. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  13. Plant cells as pharmaceutical factories.

    PubMed

    Rischer, Heiko; Häkkinen, Suvi T; Ritala, Anneli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Miralpeix, Bruna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2013-01-01

    Molecules derived from plants make up a sizeable proportion of the drugs currently available on the market. These include a number of secondary metabolite compounds the monetary value of which is very high. New pharmaceuticals often originate in nature. Approximately 50% of new drug entities against cancer or microbial infections are derived from plants or micro-organisms. However, these compounds are structurally often too complex to be economically manufactured by chemical synthesis, and frequently isolation from naturally grown or cultivated plants is not a sustainable option. Therefore the biotechnological production of high-value plant secondary metabolites in cultivated cells is potentially an attractive alternative. Compared to microbial systems eukaryotic organisms such as plants are far more complex, and our understanding of the metabolic pathways in plants and their regulation at the systems level has been rather poor until recently. However, metabolic engineering including advanced multigene transformation techniques and state-of-art metabolomics platforms has given us entirely new tools to exploit plants as Green Factories. Single step engineering may be successful on occasion but in complex pathways, intermediate gene interventions most often do not affect the end product accumulation. In this review we discuss recent developments towards elucidation of complex plant biosynthetic pathways and the production of a number of highvalue pharmaceuticals including paclitaxel, tropane, morphine and terpenoid indole alkaloids in plants and cell cultures.

  14. 6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  15. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: charge transfer reaction of N2(+)(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C Y

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N(2)(+)(v(+), N(+)) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+), v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N(2)(+) PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔE(lab) = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E(cm)'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) for the N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+); v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E(cm) range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E(cm)-dependencies of σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E(cm) = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar(+) from N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 0, N(+)) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v(+) = 0), confirming the narrow ΔE(cm) spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions

  16. A new multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 in Siluriformes: cytogenetic characterization of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Aspredinidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Milena; Garcia, Caroline; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; de Jesus, Isac Silva; Feldberg, Eliana

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed one Bunocephalus coracoideus population from the Negro River basin using cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a diploid number of 42 chromosomes in both sexes, with the karyotypic formula 4m + 14sm + 24a and fundamental number (FN) = 60 for females and the formula 5m + 14sm + 23a and FN = 61 for males, constituting an X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 multiple sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes, of which the X1, X2, and Y1 chromosomes were euchromatic and the Y2 chromosome was partially heterochromatic. 18S rDNA mapping confirmed the presence of nucleolar organizer regions on the short arms of the fifth chromosomal pair for both sexes. The 5S rDNA is present in the terminal regions of the short arms on the 2nd, 10th, and 12th pairs and on the X2 chromosome of both sexes; however, we observed variations in the presence of these ribosomal cistrons on the Y1 chromosome, on which the cistrons are pericentromeric, and on the Y2 chromosome, on which these cistrons are present in the terminal portions of the short and long arms. Telomeric sequences are located in the terminal regions of all of the chromosomes, particularly conspicuous blocks on the 10th and 12th pairs and internal telomeric sequences in the centromeric regions of the 1st, 6th, and 9th pairs for both sexes. This work describes an new sex chromosomes system for the Siluriformes and increases our genetic knowledge of the Aspredinidae family.

  17. 75 FR 346 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and the Agreement Between the United States and the Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 28,409 kg... Doc No: E9-31370] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Proposed Subsequent Arrangement AGENCY: Office of...

  18. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  19. More Combinatorial Proofs via Flagpole Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane; Reynolds, H. David, II

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial identities are proved by counting the number of arrangements of a flagpole and guy wires on a row of blocks that satisfy a set of conditions. An identity is proved by first deriving and then equating two expressions that each count the number of permissible arrangements. Identities for binomial coefficients and recursion relations…

  20. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...

  1. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...

  2. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...

  3. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1...

  4. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  5. 48 CFR 48.104 - Sharing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing arrangements. 48.104 Section 48.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104 Sharing arrangements. ...

  6. 77 FR 22480 - Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BH77 Conduit Financing Arrangements; Correction AGENCY... correction to final regulations (TD 9562) that were published in the Federal Register on Friday, December 9... arrangement. DATES: This correction is effective on April 16, 2012 and is applicable on December 9, 2011....

  7. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the following: (a) The responsibilities of each partner regarding the Restructuring Plan; (b) The resources...

  8. More Combinatorial Proofs via Flagpole Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane; Reynolds, H. David, II

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial identities are proved by counting the number of arrangements of a flagpole and guy wires on a row of blocks that satisfy a set of conditions. An identity is proved by first deriving and then equating two expressions that each count the number of permissible arrangements. Identities for binomial coefficients and recursion relations…

  9. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  10. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  11. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  12. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  13. 7 CFR 28.906 - Sampling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sampling arrangements. 28.906 Section 28.906... Producers Sampling § 28.906 Sampling arrangements. (a) Cotton must be sampled by a gin or warehouse that... an authorized representative may direct that sampling be performed by employees of the Department of...

  14. 7 CFR 28.906 - Sampling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling arrangements. 28.906 Section 28.906... Producers Sampling § 28.906 Sampling arrangements. (a) Cotton must be sampled by a gin or warehouse that... an authorized representative may direct that sampling be performed by employees of the Department of...

  15. 7 CFR 28.906 - Sampling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling arrangements. 28.906 Section 28.906... Producers Sampling § 28.906 Sampling arrangements. (a) Cotton must be sampled by a gin or warehouse that... an authorized representative may direct that sampling be performed by employees of the Department of...

  16. 7 CFR 28.906 - Sampling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling arrangements. 28.906 Section 28.906... Producers Sampling § 28.906 Sampling arrangements. (a) Cotton must be sampled by a gin or warehouse that... an authorized representative may direct that sampling be performed by employees of the Department of...

  17. 7 CFR 28.906 - Sampling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling arrangements. 28.906 Section 28.906... Producers Sampling § 28.906 Sampling arrangements. (a) Cotton must be sampled by a gin or warehouse that... an authorized representative may direct that sampling be performed by employees of the Department of...

  18. 48 CFR 48.104 - Sharing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing arrangements. 48.104 Section 48.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104 Sharing arrangements....

  19. 48 CFR 48.104 - Sharing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing arrangements. 48.104 Section 48.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104 Sharing arrangements....

  20. 48 CFR 48.104 - Sharing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing arrangements. 48.104 Section 48.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104 Sharing arrangements....

  1. 48 CFR 48.104 - Sharing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing arrangements. 48.104 Section 48.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104 Sharing arrangements....

  2. External Quality Arrangements for Scotland's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document represents an innovative and radical landmark in the development of external quality arrangements for Scotland's colleges. The quality framework and arrangements for annual engagement, subject-based aspect reports, and external review reflect new thinking nationally, within HMIE, in the Scottish Further and Higher Education Funding…

  3. Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, George

    2010-07-27

    A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

  4. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  5. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  6. Visual evoked potentials in rubber factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tandon, O P; Kumar, V

    1997-01-01

    Pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEP) were studied in 39 male rubber factory workers in the age range of 18-55 years and 20 control subjects (aged 18-46 years) not exposed to the rubber factory environment. Results revealed that 20 (51%) rubber factory workers had abnormal latencies of wave P1 (dominant component of pVEP) as per accepted criteria of 99% tolerance limit set for the control group (i.e. any value above mean +3 SD of control was considered abnormal). The section-wise per cent distribution of abnormalities was vulcanization (83%), tubing (75%), calendering (60%), loading (38%) and mixing (14%). This study provides electrophysiological evidence that rubber factory environments affect the conduction processes in optical pathways from their origin in the retina to striate cortex. However, this study has its limitations in not identifying the specific chemical(s) causing these changes in VEP.

  7. Spacecraft factory-to-pad testing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    It is noted that the concept of factory-to-pad testing is based on the shipment of a flight-ready spacecraft to the launch base and can be achieved by thorough and comprehensive factory testing of the spacecraft. The principal objectives and results of this approach are shown to be significant cost reductions, increased test effectiveness, and fewer flight problems. Key elements for this concept's success are discussed, including factory-to-pad commonality of support equipment, test requirements and procedures, test teams, and computer programs. Applications of this approach in the space-shuttle era are considered, and a preliminary factory-to-pad concept for the Large Space Telescope spacecraft is presented.

  8. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  9. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  10. The Physics of the B Factories

    DOE PAGES

    Bevan, A. J.

    2014-11-19

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  11. Where is the ooid factory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Pruss, S. B.; klepac-Ceraj, V.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, S. A.; Bosak, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ooids, concentrically laminated carbonate grains, are found in high-energy shallow water environments (the ooid factory). Consequently, ooid laminae are thought to precipitate around suspended grains. The role of microbes in this process is debated: abiotic models neither explain how ooids acquire a high organic content, nor do they account for the fast abrasion and loss of ooid carbonate in highly agitated areas. Here we probe the role of microbes and physical processes in ooid accretion on an oolitic beach in the leeward coast of Cat Island, the Bahamas. Grain size and petrography, microbial community composition and physical factors are compared along a cross-shore transect. A hydro-morphodynamic model is used to analyze sediment transport and sorting across the beach and shallow shelf. We find that the surf zone has a barren seafloor, and it is dominated by shiny and rounded ooids whose size decreases seaward, as predicted by physical grain sorting. Dull ooids and grapestones, irregular coated grains that are thought to form by microbially-mediated precipitation of carbonate around ooids and other grains, are present outside of the surf zone. The bulk size of these grains increases seaward, and they contain more abundant and diverse microbial communities than agitated ooids. The inverted sorting trend indicates that the time scale for grain accretion in this region is shorter than the decadal time scale for grain sorting. Modeling and field observations suggest that carbonate precipitation of both ooids and grapestones occurs in sediments that are colonized by diatom- and cyanobacteria-rich mats and reworked during storms. Periodic storms transport ooids to the surf zone, where they are rounded by abrasion and gain a shiny exterior in less than a day of reworking. Small ooids are periodically transported back to the microbially colonized areas, and the accretion cycle restarts. Grains too large to be frequently transported exit the accretion-erosion conveyor

  12. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has been...

  13. Filling arrangement for coke oven chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Galow, M.

    1984-03-27

    An arrangement for filling at least one coke oven chamber has a transport device arranged to transport coal, a chute member located under the transport device to guide coal to a filling opening of the coke oven chamber, at least one closing member arranged between the chute member and the filling opening of the coke oven chamber, and a sliding plate moveable in a housing above the chute member between open and closed positions, wherein the sliding plate and the housing in its region in which the sliding plate is in its open position are inclined toward a horizontal.

  14. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  15. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) advertising; (3) sales promotions; (4) managerial advice; (5) store engineering; (6) accounting systems; (7... the arrangements are so restrictive as to products, prices, profits, or management as to deny...

  16. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  17. 76 FR 17407 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... and the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice is being issued under...

  18. Visual reinforcement audiometry. Comparison of loudspeaker arrangements.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, L; Börjesson, E; Axelsson, A C

    1997-01-01

    Two different loudspeaker arrangements are currently used when performing Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA). In the one arrangement, the loudspeakers are mounted on separate movable arms and positioned 15 cm from each ear. In the other, the loudspeakers are rigidly mounted close to their respective picture monitor at a distance of 50-70 cm from the child. In the present study, these two arrangements were compared by measuring real-ear sound pressure levels and actual sound field conditions. It was shown that a predominantly monaural stimulation was best achieved by using the 15-cm position, but also that the measurements were significantly more affected by small head movements when using this close position. When assessing the acoustics as well as practical aspects, it was concluded that loudspeakers mounted beside the picture monitors at a distance of 50-70 cm from the child makes a generally appropriate arrangement for VRA.

  19. 77 FR 53876 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 2,959,580 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (UF6) (67.60% U), 2,000,000 kg of which is uranium, from Cameco Corporation (Cameco) in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan...

  20. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science. PMID:27273762

  1. Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014406 TITLE: Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens...Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens Darci M. S. Esquivel, Eliane Wajnberg, Geraldo R. Cernicchiaro, Daniel Acosta-Avalos’ and B.E...transition (52 K- 91 K). Hysteresis curves of Apis mellifera abdomens organized parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field were obtained

  2. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-06-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science.

  3. Mass fainting in garment factories in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities. These included "haunting" ghosts at factory sites in the wake of Khmer Rouge atrocities or recent fatal accidents and retaliating guardian spirits at sites violated by foreign owners. Prefigurative dreams, industrial accidents, or possession of a coworker heralded the episodes. Workers witnessing a coworker fainting felt afraid and fainted. When taken to clinics, some showed signs of continued spirit influence. Afterwards, monks performed ritual ceremonies to appease spirits, extinguish bonds with ghosts, and prevent recurrence. Decoded through its cultural motifs of fear and protest, contagion, forebodings, the bloody Khmer Rouge legacy, and trespass, mass fainting in Cambodia becomes less enigmatic.

  4. The Factory Approach to Creating TSTT Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T

    2003-10-21

    The factory approach (a.k.a. virtual constructor) hides the details of the class implementing the TSTT from TSTT users. In version 0.5 of TSTT.sidl, the client hard codes the name of the implementing class into their code. The client is forced to choose from the small set of possible concrete classes defined in TSTT.sidl. This approach makes it impossible to support multiple implementations of the TSTT in a single process because each implementation has to implement the same class. The factory approach hides the details of mesh creation from the client. The client does not need to know the name of the implementing class, and the client can dynamically determine which interfaces are supported by the new mesh. A factory can support multiple TSTT implementation because each implementation defines its own concrete classes to implement. The factory approach does require the TSTT compliant mesh packages to implement a MeshFactory interface, and everyone needs to link against an implementation of the Registry. The Registry only has 7 methods that are fairly easy to implement, and everyone can share one implementation of the Registry.

  5. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New generation electron-positron factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Mikhail

    2011-09-01

    In 2010 we celebrate 50 years since commissioning of the first particle storage ring ADA in Frascati (Italy) that also became the first electron-positron collider in 1964. After that date the particle colliders have increased their intensity, luminosity and energy by several orders of magnitude. Namely, because of the high stored beam currents and high rate of useful physics events (luminosity) the modern electron-positron colliders are called "factories". However, the fundamental physics has required luminosities by 1-2 orders of magnitudes higher with respect to those presently achieved. This task can be accomplished by designing a new generation of factories exploiting the potential of a new collision scheme based on the Crab Waist (CW) collision concept recently proposed and successfully tested at Frascati. In this paper we discuss the performance and limitations of the present generation electron-positron factories and give a brief overview of new ideas and collision schemes proposed for further collider luminosity increase. In more detail we describe the CW collision concept and the results of the crab waist collision tests in DAϕNE, the Italian ϕ-factory. Finally, we briefly describe most advanced projects of the next generation factories based on the CW concept: SuperB in Italy, SuperKEKB in Japan and SuperC-Tau in Russia.

  7. Evaluating occupational health nursing units in Bangkok textile factories: exploring the world through international occupational health programs.

    PubMed

    Silpasuwan, Pimpan; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Phalee, Piangjai; Kalampakorn, Surintorn

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the service quality of nursing units in Bangkok textile factories. Descriptive survey research was combined with a qualitative design using participative observation. The sample consisted of factory managers, nurses, and employees. Data were collected between November 2001 and February 2002 using questionnaires, observation, in-depth interviews, and focus groups. Nurses' education levels and quality of design and arrangement of nursing units explained 15.7% of the variance in service quality. Furthermore, qualitative data supported clients' satisfaction with service quality, except for the tangibility of the service. These findings suggest that the quality of nursing service units could be improved by management's attention to unit design, arrangement of nursing units, and nurses' education levels. Hiring registered nurses and restructuring nursing units are recommended.

  8. The Physics of the B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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J.; Steinhauser, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Swanson, E. S.; Tackmann, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; van de Water, R.; Vasseur, G.; Verkerke, W.; Waldi, R.; Wang, M. Z.; Wilson, F. F.; Zupan, J.; Zupanc, A.; Adachi, I.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bellis, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Biassoni, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cartaro, C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, C.; Chiang, C. C.; Cowan, R.; Dalseno, J.; Davier, M.; Davies, C.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Echenard, B.; Epifanov, D.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gary, J. W.; Godang, R.; Graham, M. T.; Hafner, A.; Hamilton, B.; Hartmann, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hearty, C.; Iwasaki, Y.; Khodjamirian, A.; Kusaka, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, J.; Lindemann, D.; Long, O.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinelli, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muller, D. R.; Nakazawa, H.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Pacetti, S.; Palombo, F.; Pedlar, T. K.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pilloni, A.; Poireau, V.; Prothmann, K.; Pulliam, T.; Rama, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roudeau, P.; Schrenk, S.; Schroeder, T.; Schubert, K. R.; Shen, C. P.; Shwartz, B.; Soffer, A.; Solodov, E. P.; Somov, A.; Starič, M.; Stracka, S.; Telnov, A. V.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uglov, T.; Vinokurova, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Wormser, G.; Wright, D. H.; Ye, S.; Zhang, C. C.; Abachi, S.; Abashian, A.; Abe, K.; Abe, N.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Abrams, G. S.; Adam, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Adametz, A.; Adye, T.; Agarwal, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ahn, B. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Aitchison, I. J. R.; Akai, K.; Akar, S.; Akatsu, M.; Akemoto, M.; Akhmetshin, R.; Akre, R.; Alam, M. S.; Albert, J. N.; Aleksan, R.; Alexander, J. P.; Alimonti, G.; Allen, M. T.; Allison, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Altenburg, D.; Alwyn, K. E.; An, Q.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Andress, J. C.; Angelini, C.; Anipko, D.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Anthony, P. L.; Antillon, E. A.; Antonioli, E.; Aoki, K.; Arguin, J. 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N.; Browne, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, C.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Bünger, C.; Bugg, W.; Bukin, A. D.; Bula, R.; Bulten, H.; Burchat, P. R.; Burgess, W.; Burke, J. P.; Button-Shafer, J.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Buzzo, A.; Cai, Y.; Calabrese, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Calderini, G.; Camanzi, B.; Campagna, E.; Campagnari, C.; Capra, R.; Carassiti, V.; Carpinelli, M.; Carroll, M.; Casarosa, G.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castelli, G.; Cavallo, N.; Cavoto, G.; Cecchi, A.; Cenci, R.; Cerizza, G.; Cervelli, A.; Ceseracciu, A.; Chai, X.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Chang, M. C.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, D. S.; Chao, M.; Chao, Y.; Charles, E.; Chavez, C. A.; Cheaib, R.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, E.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P.; Chen, S.; Chen, W. T.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. Q.; Cheng, B.; Cheon, B. G.; Chevalier, N.; Chia, Y. M.; Chidzik, S.; Chilikin, K.; Chistiakova, M. V.; Cizeron, R.; Cho, I. S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, H. H. F.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, S. K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Christ, S.; Chu, P. H.; Chun, S.; Chuvikov, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cinabro, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Claus, R.; Claxton, B.; Clifton, Z. C.; Cochran, J.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cohn, H.; Colberg, T.; Cole, S.; Colecchia, F.; Condurache, C.; Contri, R.; Convert, P.; Convery, M. R.; Cooke, P.; Copty, N.; Cormack, C. M.; Dal Corso, F.; Corwin, L. A.; Cossutti, F.; Cote, D.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Cottingham, W. N.; Couderc, F.; Coupal, D. P.; Covarelli, R.; Cowan, G.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Crawley, H. B.; Cremaldi, L.; Crescente, A.; Cristinziani, M.; Crnkovic, J.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Cunha, A.; Curry, S.; D'Orazio, A.; Dû, S.; Dahlinger, G.; Dahmes, B.; Dallapiccola, C.; Danielson, N.; Danilov, M.; Das, A.; Dash, M.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Daudo, F.; Dauncey, P. D.; David, P.; Davis, C. L.; Day, C. T.; De Mori, F.; De Domenico, G.; De Groot, N.; De la Vaissière, C.; de la Vaissière, Ch.; de Lesquen, A.; De Nardo, G.; de Sangro, R.; De Silva, A.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Del Buono, L.; Del Gamba, V.; del Re, D.; Della Ricca, G.; Denig, A. G.; Derkach, D.; Derrington, I. M.; DeStaebler, H.; Destree, J.; Devmal, S.; Dey, B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Marco, E. Di; Dickopp, M.; Dima, M. O.; Dittrich, S.; Dittongo, S.; Dixon, P.; Dneprovsky, L.; Dohou, F.; Doi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Doll, D. A.; Donald, M.; Dong, L.; Dong, L. Y.; Dorfan, J.; Dorigo, A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dowd, R.; Dowdell, J.; Drásal, Z.; Dragic, J.; Drummond, B. W.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Duh, Y. C.; Duh, Y. T.; Dujmic, D.; Dungel, W.; Dunwoodie, W.; Dutta, D.; Dvoretskii, A.; Dyce, N.; Ebert, M.; Eckhart, E. A.; Ecklund, S.; Eckmann, R.; Eckstein, P.; Edgar, C. L.; Edwards, A. J.; Egede, U.; Eichenbaum, A. M.; Elmer, P.; Emery, S.; Enari, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Erdos, E.; Erickson, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Erwin, R. J.; Escalier, M.; Eschenburg, V.; Eschrich, I.; Esen, S.; Esteve, L.; Evangelisti, F.; Everton, C. W.; Eyges, V.; Fabby, C.; Fabozzi, F.; Fahey, S.; Falbo, M.; Fan, S.; Fang, F.; Fanin, C.; Farbin, A.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Feindt, M.; Fella, A.; Feltresi, E.; Ferber, T.; Fernholz, R. E.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Field, R. C.; Filippi, A.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Fischer, P.-A.; Fisher, A. S.; Fisher, P. H.; Flacco, C. J.; Flack, R. L.; Flaecher, H. U.; Flanagan, J.; Flanigan, J. M.; Ford, K. E.; Ford, W. T.; Forster, I. J.; Forti, A. C.; Forti, F.; Fortin, D.; Foster, B.; Foulkes, S. D.; Fouque, G.; Fox, J.; Franchini, P.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Franek, B.; Frank, E. D.; Fransham, K. B.; Fratina, S.; Fratini, K.; Frey, A.; Frey, R.; Friedl, M.; Fritsch, M.; Fry, J. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujikawa, M.; Fujita, Y.; Fujiyama, Y.; Fukunaga, C.; Fukushima, M.; Fullwood, J.; Funahashi, Y.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furano, F.; Furman, M.; Furukawa, K.; Futterschneider, H.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabriel, T. A.; Gabyshev, N.; Gaede, F.; Gagliardi, N.; Gaidot, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gaillard, J. R.; Galagedera, S.; Galeazzi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Gamet, R.; Gan, K. K.; Gandini, P.; Ganguly, S.; Ganzhur, S. F.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gaponenko, I.; Garmash, A.; Garra Tico, J.; Garzia, I.; Gaspero, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Gatto, C.; Gaur, V.; Geddes, N. I.; Geld, T. L.; Genat, J.-F.; George, K. A.; George, M.; George, S.; Georgette, Z.; Gershon, T. J.; Gill, M. S.; Gillard, R.; Gilman, J. D.; Giordano, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Giraud, P.-F.; Gladney, L.; Glanzman, T.; Glattauer, R.; Go, A.; Goetzen, K.; Goh, Y. M.; Gokhroo, G.; Goldenzweig, P.; Golubev, V. B.; Gopal, G. P.; Gordon, A.; Gorišek, A.; Goriletsky, V. I.; Gorodeisky, R.; Gosset, L.; Gotow, K.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graffin, P.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Green, M. G.; Greene, M. G.; Grenier, G. J.; Grenier, P.; Griessinger, K.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinyov, B. V.; Gritsan, A. V.; Grosdidier, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grosso, P.; Grothe, M.; Groysman, Y.; Grünberg, O.; Guido, E.; Guler, H.; Gunawardane, N. J. W.; Guo, Q. H.; Guo, R. S.; Guo, Z. J.; Guttman, N.; Ha, H.; Ha, H. C.; Haas, T.; Haba, J.; Hachtel, J.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadig, T.; Hagner, C.; Haire, M.; Haitani, F.; Haji, T.; Haller, G.; Halyo, V.; Hamano, K.; Hamasaki, H.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hamilton, J.; Hamilton, R.; Hamon, O.; Han, B. Y.; Han, Y. L.; Hanada, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Handa, F.; Hanson, J. E.; Hanushevsky, A.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Harrison, P. F.; Harrison, T. J.; Harrop, B.; Hart, A. J.; Hart, P. A.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Harton, J. L.; Haruyama, T.; Hasan, A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hast, C.; Hastings, N. C.; Hasuko, K.; Hauke, A.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hee, C.; Heenan, E. M.; Heffernan, D.; Held, T.; Henderson, R.; Henderson, S. W.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Hervé, S.; Heß, M.; Heusch, C. A.; Hicheur, A.; Higashi, Y.; Higasino, Y.; Higuchi, I.; Hikita, S.; Hill, E. J.; Himel, T.; Hinz, L.; Hirai, T.; Hirano, H.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Hitomi, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Höcker, A.; Hoi, C. T.; Hojo, T.; Hokuue, T.; Hollar, J. J.; Hong, T. M.; Honscheid, K.; Hooberman, B.; Hopkins, D. A.; Horii, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Hoshina, K.; Hou, S.; Hou, W. S.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Hsu, C. L.; Hsu, S. C.; Hu, H.; Hu, T.; Huang, H. C.; Huang, T. J.; Huang, Y. C.; Huard, Z.; Huffer, M. E.; Hufnagel, D.; Hung, T.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hyun, H. J.; Ichizawa, S.; Igaki, T.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, S.; Igarashi, Y.; Igonkina, O.; Ikado, K.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Ilic, J.; Inami, K.; Innes, W. R.; Inoue, Y.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itagaki, K.; Itami, S.; Itoh, K.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Iverson, R.; Iwabuchi, M.; Iwai, G.; Iwai, M.; Iwaida, S.; Iwamoto, M.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwashita, T.; Izen, J. M.; Jackson, D. J.; Jackson, F.; Jackson, G.; Jackson, P. S.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Jacoby, C.; Jaegle, I.; Jain, V.; Jalocha, P.; Jang, H. K.; Jasper, H.; Jawahery, A.; Jayatilleke, S.; Jen, C. M.; Jensen, F.; Jessop, C. P.; Ji, X. B.; John, M. J. J.; Johnson, D. R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolly, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Joshi, N.; Joshi, N. J.; Judd, D.; Julius, T.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, R.; Kah, D. H.; Kaiser, S.; Kaji, H.; Kajiwara, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kameshima, T.; Kaminski, J.; Kamitani, T.; Kaneko, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kani, T.; Kapusta, P.; Karbach, T. M.; Karolak, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kasami, K.; Katano, G.; Kataoka, S. U.; Katayama, N.; Kato, E.; Kato, Y.; Kawai, H.; Kawai, M.; Kawamura, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kay, J.; Kay, M.; Kelly, M. P.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kent, N.; Kerth, L. T.; Khan, A.; Khan, H. R.; Kharakh, D.; Kibayashi, A.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kikuchi, M.; Kikutani, E.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, P.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, S. M.; Kim, T. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. J.; King, G. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Kirk, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kitayama, I.; Klemetti, M.; Klose, V.; Klucar, J.; Knecht, N. S.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Knowles, D. J.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M. J.; Koblitz, S.; Koch, H.; Kocian, M. L.; Kodyš, P.; Koeneke, K.; Kofler, R.; Koike, S.; Koishi, S.; Koiso, H.; Kolb, J. A.; Kolya, S. D.; Kondo, Y.; Konishi, H.; Koppenburg, P.; Koptchev, V. B.; Kordich, T. M. B.; Korol, A. A.; Korotushenko, K.; Korpar, S.; Kouzes, R. T.; Kovalskyi, D.; Kowalewski, R.; Kozakai, Y.; Kozanecki, W.; Kral, J. F.; Krasnykh, A.; Krause, R.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Krebs, J.; Kreisel, A.; Kreps, M.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Kroeger, R.; Kroeger, W.; Krokovny, P.; Kronenbitter, B.; Kroseberg, J.; Kubo, T.; Kuhr, T.; Kukartsev, G.; Kulasiri, R.; Kulikov, A.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumita, T.; Kuniya, T.; Kunze, M.; Kuo, C. C.; Kuo, T.-L.; Kurashiro, H.; Kurihara, E.; Kurita, N.; Kuroki, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kutter, P. E.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kvasnička, P.; Kyberd, P.; Kyeong, S. H.; Lacker, H. M.; Lae, C. K.; Lamanna, E.; Lamsa, J.; Lanceri, L.; Landi, L.; Lang, M. I.; Lange, D. J.; Lange, J. S.; Langenegger, U.; Langer, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Laplace, S.; Latour, E.; Lau, Y. P.; Lavin, D. R.; Layter, J.; Lebbolo, H.; LeClerc, C.; Leddig, T.; Leder, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lee, C. L.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, M. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S.-J.; Lee, S. E.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Lees, J. P.; Legendre, M.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, R.; Leonardi, E.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Lepeltier, V.; Leruste, Ph.; Lesiak, T.; Levi, M. E.; Levy, S. L.; Lewandowski, B.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lewis, P.; Li, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Gioi, L. Li; Libby, J.; Lidbury, J.; Lillard, V.; Lim, C. L.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Lin, S. W.; Lin, Y. S.; Lindquist, B.; Lindsay, C.; Lista, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, R.; Liu, T.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Liventsev, D.; Lo Vetere, M.; Locke, C. B.; Lockman, W. S.; Di Lodovico, F.; Lombardo, V.; London, G. W.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lopez, L.; Lopez-March, N.; Lory, J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Louvot, R.; Lu, A.; Lu, C.; Lu, M.; Lu, R. S.; Lueck, T.; Luitz, S.; Lukin, P.; Lund, P.; Luppi, E.; Lutz, A. M.; Lutz, O.; Lynch, G.; Lynch, H. L.; Lyon, A. J.; Lyubinsky, V. R.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Mackay, C.; MacNaughton, J.; Macri, M. M.; Madani, S.; Mader, W. F.; Majewski, S. A.; Majumder, G.; Makida, Y.; Malaescu, B.; Malaguti, R.; Malclés, J.; Mallik, U.; Maly, E.; Mamada, H.; Manabe, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Mandelkern, M.; Mandl, F.; Manfredi, P. F.; Mangeol, D. J. J.; Manoni, E.; Mao, Z. P.; Margoni, M.; Marker, C. E.; Markey, G.; Marks, J.; Marlow, D.; Marques, V.; Marsiske, H.; Martellotti, S.; Martin, E. C.; Martin, J. P.; Martin, L.; Martinez, A. J.; Marzolla, M.; Mass, A.; Masuzawa, M.; Mathieu, A.; Matricon, P.; Matsubara, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsumoto, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuo, H.; Mattison, T. S.; Matvienko, D.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, B.; Mazur, M. A.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McCulloch, M.; McDonald, J.; McFall, J. D.; McGrath, P.; McKemey, A. K.; McKenna, J. A.; Mclachlin, S. E.; McMahon, S.; McMahon, T. R.; McOnie, S.; Medvedeva, T.; Melen, R.; Mellado, B.; Menges, W.; Menke, S.; Merchant, A. M.; Merkel, J.; Messner, R.; Metcalfe, S.; Metzler, S.; Meyer, N. T.; Meyer, T. I.; Meyer, W. T.; Michael, A. K.; Michelon, G.; Michizono, S.; Micout, P.; Miftakov, V.; Mihalyi, A.; Mikami, Y.; Milanes, D. A.; Milek, M.; Mimashi, T.; Minamora, J. S.; Mindas, C.; Minutoli, S.; Mir, L. M.; Mishra, K.; Mitaroff, W.; Miyake, H.; Miyashita, T. S.; Miyata, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Moffitt, L. C.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohapatra, A.; Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohapatra, D.; Moll, A.; Moloney, G. R.; Mols, J. P.; Mommsen, R. K.; Monge, M. R.; Monorchio, D.; Moore, T. B.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Morandin, M.; Morgan, N.; Morgan, S. E.; Morganti, M.; Morganti, S.; Mori, S.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morris, J. P.; Morsani, F.; Morton, G. W.; Moss, L. J.; Mouly, J. P.; Mount, R.; Mueller, J.; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R.; Mugge, M.; Muheim, F.; Muir, A.; Mullin, E.; Munerato, M.; Murakami, A.; Murakami, T.; Muramatsu, N.; Musico, P.; Nagai, I.; Nagamine, T.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nagayama, S.; Nagel, M.; Naisbit, M. T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, I.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura, T. T.; Nakano, E.; Nakayama, H.; Nam, J. W.; Narita, S.; Narsky, I.; Nash, J. A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nauenberg, U.; Nayak, M.; Neal, H.; Nedelkovska, E.; Negrini, M.; Neichi, K.; Nelson, D.; Nelson, S.; Neri, N.; Nesom, G.; Neubauer, S.; Newman-Coburn, D.; Ng, C.; Nguyen, X.; Nicholson, H.; Niebuhr, C.; Nief, J. Y.; Niiyama, M.; Nikolich, M. B.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishimura, K.; Nishio, Y.; Nitoh, O.; Nogowski, R.; Noguchi, S.; Nomura, T.; Nordby, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Nozaki, S.; Nozaki, T.; Nugent, I. M.; O'Grady, C. P.; O'Neale, S. W.; O'Neill, F. G.; Oberhof, B.; Oddone, P. J.; Ofte, I.; Ogawa, A.; Ogawa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohmi, K.; Ohnishi, Y.; Ohno, F.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Ohuchi, N.; Oide, K.; Oishi, N.; Okabe, T.; Okazaki, N.; Okazaki, T.; Okuno, S.; Olaiya, E. O.; Olivas, A.; Olley, P.; Olsen, J.; Ono, S.; Onorato, G.; Onuchin, A. P.; Onuki, Y.; Ooba, T.; Orimoto, T. J.; Oshima, T.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ostrowicz, W.; Oswald, C.; Otto, S.; Oyang, J.; Oyanguren, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozcan, V. E.; Paar, H. P.; Padoan, C.; Paick, K.; Palka, H.; Pan, B.; Pan, Y.; Panduro Vazquez, W.; Panetta, J.; Panova, A. I.; Panvini, R. S.; Panzenböck, E.; Paoloni, E.; Paolucci, P.; Pappagallo, M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Park, H. K.; Park, K. S.; Park, W.; Parry, R. J.; Parslow, N.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F. C.; Patel, P. M.; Patrignani, C.; Patteri, P.; Pavel, T.; Pavlovich, J.; Payne, D. J.; Peak, L. S.; Peimer, D. R.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrini, R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Peng, C. C.; Peng, J. C.; Peng, K. C.; Peng, T.; Penichot, Y.; Pennazzi, S.; Pennington, M. R.; Penny, R. C.; Penzkofer, A.; Perazzo, A.; Perez, A.; Perl, M.; Pernicka, M.; Perroud, J.-P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Pestotnik, R.; Peters, K.; Peters, M.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petigura, E.; Petrak, S.; Petrella, A.; Petrič, M.; Petzold, A.; Pia, M. G.; Piatenko, T.; Piccolo, D.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Piemontese, M.; Pierini, M.; Pierson, S.; Pioppi, M.; Piredda, G.; Pivk, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Polci, F.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Posocco, M.; Potter, C. T.; Potter, R. J. L.; Prasad, V.; Prebys, E.; Prencipe, E.; Prendki, J.; Prepost, R.; Prest, M.; Prim, M.; Pripstein, M.; Prudent, X.; Pruvot, S.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Purohit, M. V.; Qi, N. D.; Quinn, H.; Raaf, J.; Rabberman, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Ragghianti, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahmat, R.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Randle-Conde, A.; Rankin, P.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ratkovsky, S.; Raven, G.; Re, V.; Reep, M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Reidy, J.; Reif, R.; Reisert, B.; Renard, C.; Renga, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Richman, J. D.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ritter, M.; Rivetta, C.; Rizzo, G.; Roat, C.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Robertson, A. I.; Robutti, E.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Rodriguez, R.; Roe, N. A.; Röhrken, M.; Roethel, W.; Rolquin, J.; Romanov, L.; Romosan, A.; Ronan, M. T.; Rong, G.; Ronga, F. J.; Roos, L.; Root, N.; Rosen, M.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rossi, A.; Rostomyan, A.; Rotondo, M.; Roussot, E.; Roy, J.; Rozanska, M.; Rozen, Y.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, A. E.; Ruddick, W. O.; Ruland, A. M.; Rybicki, K.; Ryd, A.; Ryu, S.; Ryuko, J.; Sabik, S.; Sacco, R.; Saeed, M. A.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sagawa, H.; Sahoo, H.; Sahu, S.; Saigo, M.; Saito, T.; Saitoh, S.; Sakai, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakaue, H.; Saleem, M.; Salnikov, A. A.; Salvati, E.; Salvatore, F.; Samuel, A.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanders, P.; Sandilya, S.; Sandrelli, F.; Sands, W.; Sands, W. R.; Sanpei, M.; Santel, D.; Santelj, L.; Santoro, V.; Santroni, A.; Sanuki, T.; Sarangi, T. R.; Saremi, S.; Sarti, A.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satapathy, M.; Sato, Nobuhiko; Sato, Noriaki; Sato, Y.; Satoyama, N.; Satpathy, A.; Savinov, V.; Savvas, N.; Saxton, O. H.; Sayeed, K.; Schaffner, S. F.; Schalk, T.; Schenk, S.; Schieck, J. R.; Schietinger, T.; Schilling, C. J.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmid, S.; Schmitz, R. E.; Schmuecker, H.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schönmeier, P.; Schofield, K. C.; Schott, G.; Schröder, H.; Schram, M.; Schubert, J.; Schümann, J.; Schultz, J.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarz, H.; Schwiening, J.; Schwierz, R.; Schwitters, R. F.; Sciacca, C.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, I. J.; Seeman, J.; Seiden, A.; Seitz, R.; Seki, T.; Sekiya, A. I.; Semenov, S.; Semmler, D.; Sen, S.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Serbo, V. V.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Serfass, B.; Serra, M.; Serrano, J.; Settai, Y.; Seuster, R.; Sevior, M. E.; Shakhova, K. V.; Shang, L.; Shapkin, M.; Sharma, V.; Shebalin, V.; Shelkov, V. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shen, D. Z.; Shen, Y. T.; Sherwood, D. J.; Shibata, T.; Shibata, T. A.; Shibuya, H.; Shidara, T.; Shimada, K.; Shimoyama, M.; Shinomiya, S.; Shiu, J. G.; Shorthouse, H. W.; Shpilinskaya, L. I.; Sibidanov, A.; Sicard, E.; Sidorov, A.; Sidorov, V.; Siegle, V.; Sigamani, M.; Simani, M. C.; Simard, M.; Simi, G.; Simon, F.; Simonetto, F.; Sinev, N. B.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sinha, R.; Sitt, S.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Sloane, R. J.; Smerkol, P.; Smith, A. J. S.; Smith, D.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J. G.; Smol, A.; Snoek, H. L.; Snyder, A.; So, R. Y.; Sobie, R. J.; Soderstrom, E.; Soha, A.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sokolov, A.; Solagna, P.; Solovieva, E.; Soni, N.; Sonnek, P.; Sordini, V.; Spaan, B.; Spanier, S. M.; Spencer, E.; Speziali, V.; Spitznagel, M.; Spradlin, P.; Staengle, H.; Stamen, R.; Stanek, M.; Stanič, S.; Stark, J.; Steder, M.; Steininger, H.; Steinke, M.; Stelzer, J.; Stevanato, E.; Stocchi, A.; Stock, R.; Stoeck, H.; Stoker, D. P.; Stroili, R.; Strom, D.; Strother, P.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stypula, J.; Su, D.; Suda, R.; Sugahara, R.; Sugi, A.; Sugimura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Summers, D. J.; Sun, L.; Sun, S.; Sundermann, J. E.; Sung, H. F.; Susaki, Y.; Sutcliffe, P.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Swain, J. E.; Swain, S. K.; T'Jampens, S.; Tabata, M.; Tackmann, K.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Takayama, T.; Takita, M.; Tamai, K.; Tamponi, U.; Tamura, N.; Tan, N.; Tan, P.; Tanabe, K.; Tanabe, T.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Taras, P.; Tasneem, N.; Tatishvili, G.; Tatomi, T.; Tawada, M.; Taylor, F.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, G. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Teodorescu, L.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Teramoto, Y.; Teytelman, D.; Thérin, G.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Thiessen, D.; Thomas, E. W.; Thompson, J. M.; Thorne, F.; Tian, X. C.; Tibbetts, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tinslay, J. S.; Tiozzo, G.; Tisserand, V.; Tocut, V.; Toki, W. H.; Tomassini, E. W.; Tomoto, M.; Tomura, T.; Torassa, E.; Torrence, E.; Tosi, S.; Touramanis, C.; Toussaint, J. C.; Tovey, S. N.; Trapani, P. P.; Treadwell, E.; Triggiani, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trischuk, W.; Troost, D.; Trunov, A.; Tsai, K. L.; Tsai, Y. T.; Tsujita, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tumanov, A.; Tung, Y. W.; Turnbull, L.; Turner, J.; Turri, M.; Uchida, K.; Uchida, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueki, M.; Ueno, K.; Ujiie, N.; Ulmer, K. A.; Unno, Y.; Urquijo, P.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Usseglio, M.; Usuki, Y.; Uwer, U.; Va'vra, J.; Vahsen, S. E.; Vaitsas, G.; Valassi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vallereau, A.; Vanhoefer, P.; van Hoek, W. C.; Van Hulse, C.; van Winkle, D.; Varner, G.; Varnes, E. W.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasileiadis, G.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Verderi, M.; Versillé, S.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Vidal, P. B.; Villa, S.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Vinograd, E. L.; Vitale, L.; Vitug, G. M.; Voß, C.; Voci, C.; Voena, C.; Volk, A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Vuagnin, G.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, A. P.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wagner, S. R.; Wagoner, D. E.; Walker, D.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallom, D.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. G.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, P.; Wang, T. J.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wappler, F. R.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, J. E.; Watson, N. K.; Watt, M.; Weatherall, J. H.; Weaver, M.; Weber, T.; Wedd, R.; Wei, J. T.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wenzel, W. A.; West, C. A.; West, C. G.; West, T. J.; White, E.; White, R. M.; Wicht, J.; Widhalm, L.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wienands, U.; Wilden, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, G.; Williams, J. C.; Williams, K. M.; Williams, M. I.; Willocq, S. Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Winstrom, L. O.; Winter, M. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittlin, J.; Wittmer, W.; Wixted, R.; Woch, A.; Wogsland, B. J.; Won, E.; Wong, Q. K.; Wray, B. C.; Wren, A. C.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, C. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Xella, S. M.; Xie, Q. L.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yéche, Ch.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, Y.; Yanai, H.; Yanaka, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, R.; Yang, S.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yashchenko, S.; Yashima, J.; Yasin, Z.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, S. W.; Yeh, P.; Yi, J. I.; Yi, K.; Yi, M.; Yin, Z. W.; Ying, J.; Yocky, G.; Yokoyama, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Young, C. C.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, Z.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yusa, Y.; Yushkov, A. N.; Yuta, H.; Zacek, V.; Zain, S. B.; Zallo, A.; Zambito, S.; Zander, D.; Zang, S. L.; Zanin, D.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. M.; Zhulanov, V.; Ziegler, T.; Ziegler, V.; Zioulas, G.; Zisman, M.; Zito, M.; Zürcher, D.; Zwahlen, N.; Zyukova, O.; Živko, T.; Žontar, D.

    2014-11-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.

  9. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Bogacz, S.A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  10. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  11. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-01

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  12. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  13. Syntheses, crystal structures, magnetic properties, and EPR spectra of tetranuclear copper(II) complexes featuring pairs of "roof-shaped" Cu2X2 dimers with hydroxide, methoxide, and azide bridges.

    PubMed

    Graham, B; Hearn, M T; Junk, P C; Kepert, C M; Mabbs, F E; Moubaraki, B; Murray, K S; Spiccia, L

    2001-03-26

    Hydroxo- and methoxo-bridged tetranuclear copper(II) complexes of the tetramacrocyclic ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(1,4,7-triazacyclonon-1-ylmethyl)benzene (Ldur), have been prepared from [Cu4Ldur(H2O)8](ClO4)8.9H2O (1). Addition of base to an aqueous solution of 1 gave [Cu4Ldur(mu2-OH)4](ClO4)4 (2). Diffusion of MeOH into a DMF solution of 2 produces [Cu4Ldur(mu2-OMe)4](ClO4)4.HClO4.2/3MeOH (3), a complex which hydrolyzes on exposure to moisture regenerating 2. The structurally related azido-bridged complex, [Cu4Ldur(mu2-N3)4](PF6)4.4H2O.6CH3CN (4), was produced by reaction of Ldur with 4 molar equiv of Cu(OAc)2.H2O and NaN3 in the presence of excess KPF6. Compounds 2-4 crystallize in the triclinic space group P1 (No. 2) with a = 10.248(1) A, b = 12.130(2) A, c = 14.353(2) A, alpha = 82.23(1) degrees, beta = 80.79(1) degrees, gamma = 65.71(1) degrees, and Z = 1 for 2, a = 10.2985(4) A, b = 12.1182(4) A, c = 13.9705(3) A, alpha = 89.978(2) degrees, beta = 82.038(2) degrees, gamma = 65.095(2) degrees, and Z = 1 for 3, and a = 12.059(2) A, b = 12.554(2) A, c = 14.051(2) A, alpha = 91.85(1) degrees, beta = 98.22(1) degrees, gamma = 105.62(1) degrees, and Z = 1 for 4. The complexes feature pairs of isolated dibridged copper(II) dimers with "roof-shaped" Cu2(mu2-X)2 cores (X = OH-, OMe-, N3-), as indicated by the dihedral angle between the two CuX2 planes (159 degrees for 2, 161 degrees for 3, and 153 degrees for 4). This leads to Cu.Cu distances of 2.940(4) A for 2, 2.962(1) A for 3, and 3.006(5) A for 4. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate weak antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -27 cm(-1)) for the hydroxo-bridged copper(II) centers in 2 and very strong antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -269 cm(-1)) for the methoxo-bridged copper(II) centers in 3. Pairs of copper(II) centers in 4 display the strongest ferromagnetic interaction (J = 94 cm(-1)) reported thus far for bis(mu2-1,1-azido)-bridged dicopper units. Spectral measurements on a neat powdered

  14. Developing Multicomponent Interventions using Fractional Factorial Designs

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Bibhas; Collins, Linda M.; Strecher, Victor J.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Multicomponent interventions composed of behavioral, delivery, or implementation factors in addition to medications are becoming increasingly common in health sciences. A natural experimental approach to developing and refiing such multicomponent interventions is to start with a large number of potential components and screen out the least active ones. Factorial designs can be used efficiently in this endeavor. We address common criticisms and misconceptions regarding the use of factorial designs in these screening studies. We also provide an operationalization of screening studies. As an example we consider the use of a screening study in the development of a multicomponent smoking cessation intervention. Simulation results are provided to support the discussions. PMID:19575485

  15. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  16. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  17. Boat electrofishing relative to anode arrangement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Kratochvil, M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effect of boom (i.e., anode) arrangement (a single boom and double booms spaced 1.3, 1.9, and 3.2 m apart) on the characteristics of the electric field formed ahead of an electrofishing boat as well as on fish catch. Anode arrangement affected the lengthwise and crosswise characteristics of the field. As a general rule, rearranging the anodes from a single boom located centrally to a double-boom system with broadly separated anodes shifted the strength of the field outward (away from the center) and forward (away from the boat). The highest voltage gradients occurred when the anodes had the greatest separation. Catch rates varied by boom arrangement, increasing as boom separation increased. Differences in species and length selectivity with respect to boom arrangement were minor. We suggest that the double-boom arrangement with the booms placed about 1.9 m apart (but no more than about 2.5 m) is suitable for most electrofishing applications. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Cooling arrangement for a superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Herd, Kenneth Gordon; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    1998-06-30

    A superconducting device, such as a superconducting rotor for a generator or motor. A vacuum enclosure has an interior wall surrounding a cavity containing a vacuum. A superconductive coil is placed in the cavity. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-conductive sheet has an inward-facing surface contacting generally the entire outward-facing surface of the superconductive coil. A generally-annularly-arranged coolant tube contains a cryogenic fluid and contacts a generally-circumferential portion of the outward-facing surface of the sheet. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-insulative coil overwrap generally circumferentially surrounds the sheet. The coolant tube and the inward-facing surface of the coil overwrap together contact generally the entire outward-facing surface of the sheet.

  19. Cooling arrangement for a superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Herd, K.G.; Laskaris, E.T.

    1998-06-30

    A superconducting device is disclosed, such as a superconducting rotor for a generator or motor. A vacuum enclosure has an interior wall surrounding a cavity containing a vacuum. A superconductive coil is placed in the cavity. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-conductive sheet has an inward-facing surface contacting generally the entire outward-facing surface of the superconductive coil. A generally-annularly-arranged coolant tube contains a cryogenic fluid and contacts a generally-circumferential portion of the outward-facing surface of the sheet. A generally-annularly-arranged, thermally-insulative coil overwrap generally circumferentially surrounds the sheet. The coolant tube and the inward-facing surface of the coil overwrap together contact generally the entire outward-facing surface of the sheet. 3 figs.

  20. Predictors of Turnover of Female Factory Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James L.; Rhodes, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines predictors of turnover of female factory workers in a multivariate framework. Findings indicate that organizational, job, and personal characteristics are equally important in explaining turnover. Variables significantly related to turnover are tenure, cycle time, peer leadership, communication flow, training time, family income, and…

  1. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  2. Making Connections: After the Factories Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Bergman, Edward M.

    This analysis of employment patterns in the American South extends a 1985 report, "After the Factories: Changing Employment Patterns in the Rural South," which was based on the years between 1977-1982. The 1985 report included Texas, but this analysis includes only the 12 Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) member states. This new…

  3. Undergraduate Students' Initial Conceptions of Factorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Erickson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Counting problems offer rich opportunities for students to engage in mathematical thinking, but they can be difficult for students to solve. In this paper, we present a study that examines student thinking about one concept within counting, factorials, which are a key aspect of many combinatorial ideas. In an effort to better understand students'…

  4. Reinventing the Factory with Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nopper, Norman S.

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell Inc.'s Canadian manufacturing facility offers comprehensive adult education and training programs. Courses offered spearhead cultural changes needed to become globally competitive. Changes start on the factory floor with those who directly affect three aspects of customer satisfaction: on-time delivery, product quality, and low cost.…

  5. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  6. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  7. Monochromatic design for the Apiary B -factory

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovin, A.; Zholents, A. ); Garren, A. )

    1990-10-10

    There are several ways to design {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} circular colliders to maximize luminosity. Here we present a design that achieves two principal goals: high luminosity and very small center-of-mass energy spread. The design possesses several attractive features, especially for an asymmetric {ital B}-factory.

  8. A Factorial Analysis of BDI Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ian M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Undertook a factorial analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on a sample of male cardiac outpatients (N=214) to investigate whether the BDI factor structure is dependent on the range of BDI scores selected. Results indicated that, in general, the subgroups' factor structures provided no clear interpretation. (LLL)

  9. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  10. Performance Comparison: Superbeams, Beta Beams, Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Walter

    2011-10-06

    In this talk, the performance comparison among superbeams (SB), beta beams (BB), and the Neutrino Factory (NF) is discussed. The ingredients to such a comparison are described, and the optimization and status of BB and NF are addressed. Finally, one example for the performance comparison is shown.

  11. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  12. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  13. LPT. EBOR (TAN646). Reactor vault and pool arrangement. Stepped arrangement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646). Reactor vault and pool arrangement. Stepped arrangement of shielding blocks. Floor plan, elevation of reactor, and details. Kaiser engineers EBOR/GA-646-P-102. Date: May 1963. INEEL index code no. 037-0646-00-486-119116 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. The Relationship between Women's Working Arrangements and Their Child Care Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenHeuvel, Audrey

    1996-01-01

    An Australian survey examined the child care and working arrangements (part time, shift work, overtime) of 2,890 mothers. Differences in use of formal child care or unmet child care needs depended on children's ages and full-time/overtime status. Those working in nontraditional arrangements may be more likely to use informal child care. (SK)

  15. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN CENTER GROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  16. 5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. Understanding managed care risk sharing arrangements.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J R

    1995-01-01

    A risk sharing agreement between a managed care organization and an employer can be used by employers to either guarantee a managed care plan's short-term success or mitigate its failure. Under such arrangements, the managed care organization financially shares the employer's risk of unfavorable claims experience.

  19. Living Arrangements: A Closer Look at Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Inst.

    This Kids Count pamphlet provides information on the living arrangements of Florida's children, focusing on family types. Drawing on information from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families, the Current Population Survey, and the National Center for Health Statistics, the pamphlet presents information on changes in America's families,…

  20. 46 CFR 153.332 - Hoisting arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hoisting arrangement. 153.332 Section 153.332 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Pumprooms...

  1. 77 FR 35366 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... the United States of America and the Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy... Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. Telephone:...

  2. 75 FR 62121 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States and the European Atomic Energy... Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 573 g of U.S... Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nyk ping, Sweden, to the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-Mura, Japan....

  3. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Nuclear Energy and the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and Australia Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. Telephone:...

  4. 78 FR 52170 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Concerning Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the... Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of...

  5. 76 FR 17406 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Nuclear Energy Between the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the United States of America and... Government of Norway Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of...

  6. 76 FR 37343 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY... Cooperation Concerning Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear...

  7. 75 FR 81593 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Article VIII.C of the Agreement for Cooperation Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, signed April 4, 1972, as amended,...

  8. Metacognitive Scaffolding in an Innovative Learning Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Inge; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing form. In an experimental design the two…

  9. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  10. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  11. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  12. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  13. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  14. 77 FR 53876 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the United States of America and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice is being issued under...

  15. 78 FR 40132 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the United States of America and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice is being issued under...

  16. Diagram of Liquid Rocket Systems General Arrangement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-21

    S64-05966 (1964) --- Diagram shows the general arrangement of the liquid rocket systems on the Gemini spacecraft are shown. The locations of the 25-pound, 85-pound and 100-pound thrusters of the orbital attitude and maneuver system and the 25-pound thrusters of the re-entry control system are shown.

  17. 75 FR 4545 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Energy. ACTION: Subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice has been issued under the authority of Section 131 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2160). The Department is...

  18. 15 CFR 743.1 - Wassenaar Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exports of certain commodities, software and technology controlled under the Wassenaar Arrangement. Such...). Note that exports of technology and source code under License Exception TSR to foreign nationals... 2B001.b.2) of the Commerce Control List (CCL). Reports for 2E001, are for “technology” according to the...

  19. 15 CFR 743.1 - Wassenaar Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exports of certain commodities, software and technology controlled under the Wassenaar Arrangement. Such...). Note that exports of technology and source code under License Exception TSR to foreign nationals... 2B001.b.2) of the Commerce Control List (CCL). Reports for 2E001, are for “technology” according to the...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  3. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  4. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  5. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Arranging a Library to Support Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesari, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…

  7. School Principals. Collaborative Arrangements. Linking Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Paul, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of three studies conducted by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development in San Francisco, California. The first comprised five case studies of school principals. The second synthesized studies on collaborative arrangements for school improvement, and the third is a review of five studies…

  8. 15 CFR 743.1 - Wassenaar Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SPECIAL REPORTING... Arrangement. Such reports must be submitted to BIS semiannually in accordance with the provisions of paragraph... must be kept in accordance with part 762 of the EAR. This section does not require reports for...

  9. 15 CFR 784.5 - Subsidiary arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsidiary arrangements. 784.5 Section 784.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS COMPLEMENTARY ACCESS...

  10. Arranging a Library to Support Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesari, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    When designing a school library space and deciding how to arrange resources, it is important to consider multiple components of adolescent development, including social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Acknowledging these developmental facets and their importance can provide additional justification for some of the more controversial aspects of…

  11. Gendered Living Arrangements among Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Philip N.; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna

    2006-01-01

    Using data on disabilities from the 2000 Census, we found a consistent pattern of living arrangements that leaves children (aged 5-15 years) with disabilities living disproportionately with women. Children with disabilities are more likely to live with single parents, and especially their mothers, than are other children. Further, those who do not…

  12. Is your leasing arrangement paying off?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Curtis

    2006-08-01

    Lease rates for healthcare equipment should not exceed fair market value for comparable leases in the market. Valuators usually analyze lease arrangements under a cost approach and a market approach to determine the fair market value lease rate. Healthcare financial executives need to perform significant research to support the lease rate.

  13. Employment and Childcare Arrangements among Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N.

    A study investigated parents' experiences and their views on labor force participation and childcare arrangements. An in-depth interview was conducted with the parent or parents from 60 families with 5-year-old children, selected randomly from 14 schools in the greater Wellington, New Zealand, region. Results included the following: (1) playgroups…

  14. 47 CFR 36.301 - Section arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Section arrangement. 36.301 Section 36.301 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES JURISDICTIONAL SEPARATIONS... Billing and Collecting Expense 36.381. Category 3—All other Customer Service Expense 36.382....

  15. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  16. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  17. The arrangement of fascicles in whole muscle.

    PubMed

    Infantolino, Benjamin W; Neuberger, Thomas; Challis, John H

    2012-07-01

    The architecture of the muscle fascicles, here meaning their lengths and their arrangement relative to one another, has important implications for the force a muscle can produce. Therefore, quantifying this architectural arrangement and understanding the implications of the architecture are important for understanding muscle function in vivo. There were two purposes of this study: (1) to assess, via blunt dissection, the number and the length of all the fascicles comprising the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) muscle and (2) to visually identify, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the arrangement of the fascicles comprising the FDI. Simple blunt dissection of all the fascicles comprising four FDI muscles and their subsequent measurement demonstrated that the fascicles comprising the whole muscle were not as long as the muscle belly from which they were extracted. Muscle fascicles are surrounded by connective tissue hence the paths of the fascicles in two whole FDI muscles were identified via MRI by tracking the connective tissue surrounding the fascicles. The fascicles had a spiral pattern along the length of each muscle, within both muscles many of the fascicles were arranged in series with other fascicles. These architectural features of the fascicles of the FDI have important implications for the force-length and force-velocity properties of the whole muscle. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION WITH BRICK PARAPET BUILT WITH FACTORY EXPANSION CA. 1948. GABLE ROOF SECTION IS PART OF ORIGINAL 1892 FACTORY. TO THE RIGHT IS AN ABANDONED (COMMONWEALTH EDISON) ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  19. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704) ...

  20. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 40.47 Section 40.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of a...

  1. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be used...

  2. Testing Factorial Invariance in Multilevel Data: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Kwok, Oi-man; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2012-01-01

    Testing factorial invariance has recently gained more attention in different social science disciplines. Nevertheless, when examining factorial invariance, it is generally assumed that the observations are independent of each other, which might not be always true. In this study, we examined the impact of testing factorial invariance in multilevel…

  3. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Florian; Le Couedic, Clement; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  4. IONIZATION COOLING SCENARIO FOR A NEUTRINO FACTORY.

    SciTech Connect

    FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.; PALMER, R.B.; LEBRUN, P.L.

    2001-06-18

    The neutrino factory program aims to produce well-characterized neutrino fluxes, orders of magnitude larger than those available from conventional beams. An important feature of the machine design is a cooling section for reducing the muon transverse emittance to a level that can be accepted by the downstream accelerators and be contained in the storage ring. We describe simulations of a high-performance ionization cooling channel for the front end of a neutrino factory. The design considered here consists of a solenoidal lattice with alternating polarity and 2.75 m and 1.65 m cell lengths. Simulations show that the cooling increases the phase space density into the acceptance of the following linac by a factor of 3.

  5. New Physics Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-02-10

    We present a review of some recent experimental searches for new physics effects in precision flavour physics measurements performed at B factories. Recent results on selected leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic charm-less B decay channels studied by the BaBar and Belle collaborations will be presented and their implication within the framework of model extensions of the Standard Model will be discussed.

  6. Status of the Super B Factory Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-08-05

    Two proposals have been presented for the construction of super high luminosity B factories, the SuperB in Italy and SuperKEKB in Japan. We review the physics case for the construction of such facilities in the LHC era and highlight several topics of hadronic physics that can benefit from the high luminosity they will integrate. The present status of the accelerator and detector work toward the Technical Design Reports is also presented.

  7. Hadronic Charm Decays From B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2007-11-09

    The B factories, KEKB and PEPII, provide enormous samples of charmed mesons and baryons as well as B{bar B} events. The BELLE and BaBar collaborations have discovered many new particles containing charm quarks in the last few years and have measured their properties with increasing precision. The current status and most recent studies of these charm particle properties is briefly reviewed.

  8. On near detectors at a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Jian; Winter, Walter

    2010-03-30

    The geometric effects of the beam in near detectors at a neutrino factory are discussed. The refined systematics treatment, including cross section errors, flux errors and background uncertainties, is compared with the IDS-NF one. Different near detector setups are included. We also probe their effects both at the measurements of standard neutrino oscillation parameters and constraints of the non-standard neutrino interaction.

  9. IDR Neutrino Factory Front End and Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Alekou, A.; Rogers, C.; Snopok, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The International Design Report (IDR) neutrino factory scenario for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of {mu}'s produced from a proton source target is explored. It requires a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a {phi}-{delta}E rotation section leading into the cooling channel. Optimization and variations are discussed. Important concerns are rf limitations within the focusing magnetic fields and large losses in the transport.

  10. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1361 - Master switch arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master switch arrangement. 23.1361 Section... Systems and Equipment § 23.1361 Master switch arrangement. (a) There must be a master switch arrangement... controlled by the switch arrangement. If separate switches are incorporated into the master...

  12. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  13. Physics opportunities at mu+ mu- Higgs factories

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blochinger et al.

    2004-01-12

    We update theoretical studies of the physics opportunities presented by {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factories. Interesting measurements of the Standard Model Higgs decays into {bar b}b, {tau}{sup +} {tau}{sup -} and WW* may be possible if the Higgs mass is less than about 160 GeV, as preferred by the precision electroweak data, the mass range being extended by varying appropriately the beam energy resolution. A suitable value of the beam energy resolution would also enable the uncertainty in the b-quark mass to be minimized, facilitating measurements of parameters in the MSSM at such a first {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory. These measurements would be sensitive to radiative corrections to the Higgs-fermion-antifermion decay vertices, which may violate CP. Radiative corrections in the MSSM may also induce CP violation in Higgs-mass mixing, which can be probed via various asymmetries measurable using polarized {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} beams. In addition, Higgs-chargino couplings may be probed at a second {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} Higgs factory.

  14. Engineering Robustness of Microbial Cell Factories.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens; Zhou, Yongjin J

    2017-08-31

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offer great prospects in developing microbial cell factories capable of converting renewable feedstocks into fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals. However, prohibitively low production rate and mass concentration remain the major hurdles in industrial processes even though the biosynthetic pathways are comprehensively optimized. These limitations are caused by a variety of factors unamenable for host cell survival, such as harsh industrial conditions, fermentation inhibitors from biomass hydrolysates, and toxic compounds including metabolic intermediates and valuable target products. Therefore, engineered microbes with robust phenotypes is essential for achieving higher yield and productivity. In this review, the recent advances in engineering robustness and tolerance of cell factories is described to cope with these issues and briefly introduce novel strategies with great potential to enhance the robustness of cell factories, including metabolic pathway balancing, transporter engineering, and adaptive laboratory evolution. This review also highlights the integration of advanced systems and synthetic biology principles toward engineering the harmony of overall cell function, more than the specific pathways or enzymes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mox fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    2001-05-15

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion. characteristics of the assembly.

  16. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  17. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    2001-07-17

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  18. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, M.L.; Rosenstein, R.G.

    1998-10-13

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly. 38 figs.

  19. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Financial arrangement selection for energy management projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroof, Eric Aubrey

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to develop a model (E-FUND) to help facility managers select financial arrangements for energy management projects (EMPs). The model was developed with the help of a panel of expert financiers. The panel also helped develop a list of key objectives critical to the decision process. The E-FUND model was tested by a population of facility managers in four case studies. Findings and conclusions. The results may indicate that having a high economic benefit (from an EMP) is not overwhelmingly important, when compared to other qualitative objectives. The results may also indicate that the true lease and performance contract may be the most applicable financial arrangements for EMPs.

  1. Living arrangements after divorce: cohabitation versus remarriage.

    PubMed

    Wineberg, H; Mccarthy, J

    1998-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of all [U.S.] couple households in which one or both partners were previously married. In this examination, we will consider not only households maintained by married couples...; we will also consider households formed by cohabiting couples. In addition, we will examine the living arrangements of children in these households, with particular attention to whether children are from the current union or a previous union."

  2. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancans, G.; Bobrovs, V.; Ivanovs, G.

    2015-02-01

    The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz) band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) in ITU Region 1 (Europe included), to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT). At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15). In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  3. Chk1 inhibits replication factory activation but allows dormant origin firing in existing factories

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xin Quan

    2010-01-01

    Replication origins are licensed by loading MCM2-7 hexamers before entry into S phase. However, only ∼10% of licensed origins are normally used in S phase, with the others remaining dormant. When fork progression is inhibited, dormant origins initiate nearby to ensure that all of the DNA is eventually replicated. In apparent contrast, replicative stress activates ataxia telangiectasia and rad-3–related (ATR) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases that inhibit origin firing. In this study, we show that at low levels of replication stress, ATR/Chk1 predominantly suppresses origin initiation by inhibiting the activation of new replication factories, thereby reducing the number of active factories. At the same time, inhibition of replication fork progression allows dormant origins to initiate within existing replication factories. The inhibition of new factory activation by ATR/Chk1 therefore redirects replication toward active factories where forks are inhibited and away from regions that have yet to start replication. This minimizes the deleterious consequences of fork stalling and prevents similar problems from arising in unreplicated regions of the genome. PMID:21173116

  4. TESTING FOR CPT VIOLATION IN Barrange="stack">0arrange="stack">s SEMILEPTONIC DECAYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooten, R. Van

    2014-01-01

    A DØ analysis measuring the charge asymmetry Aarrange="stack">barrange="stack">sl of like-sign dimuon events due to semileptonic b-hadron decays at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider has shown indications of possible anomalous CP violation in the mixing of neutral B mesons. This result has been used to extract the first senstivity to CPT violation in the Barrange="stack">0arrange="stack">s system. An analysis to explore further this anomaly by specifically measuring the semileptonic charge asymmetry, aarrange="stack">sarrange="stack">sl, in Barrange="stack">0arrange="stack">s decays is described, as well as how a variant of this analysis can be used to explore a larger set of CPT-violating parameters in the Barrange="stack">0arrange="stack">s system for the first time.

  5. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  6. The Personal Software Process: Downscaling the factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that the next wave of software process improvement (SPI) activities will be based on a people-centered paradigm. The most promising such paradigm, Watts Humphrey's personal software process (PSP), is summarized and its advantages are listed. The concepts of the PSP are shown also to fit a down-scaled version of Basili's experience factory. The author's data and lessons learned while practicing the PSP are presented along with personal experience, observations, and advice from the perspective of a consultant and teacher for the personal software process.

  7. Microbial Cell Factories for Diol Production.

    PubMed

    Sabra, W; Groeger, C; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diols are compounds with two hydroxyl groups and have a wide range of appealing applications as chemicals and fuels. In particular, five low molecular diol compounds, namely 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO), 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), 1,3-butanediol (1,3-BDO), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO), can be biotechnologically produced by direct microbial bioconversion of renewable materials. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the microbial production of diols, especially regarding the engineering of typical microbial strains as cell factory and the development of corresponding bioconversion processes.

  8. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  9. Apiary B-Factory separation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A. ); Sullivan, M. )

    1991-04-01

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B-Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak {beta}-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Survey and Alignment of SLAC's B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Pietryka, Matthew J.; Gaydosh, Michael L.; /SLAC

    2011-09-08

    The survey and alignment of SLAC's B-factory injector and high energy ring will be complete in March 1997. Modern digital electronic surveying tools are contributing to new, efficient alignment procedures. A laser tracker was used to fiducialize almost 300 quadrupole magnets. Digital levels were used to pre-set base plate elevations. Theodolites with very accurate co-axial distance meters were used for everything from layout to 3D magnet positioning to network surveys, all in free stationing mode. A number of procedures and measurement results are outlined.

  11. Resin Dermatitis in a Car Factory

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis in a car assembly factory is described; it affected 50 workers who handled rubber weatherstrips coated with an adhesive. The adhesive was found to contain para-tertiary butyl phenol (P.T.B.P.) formaldehyde resin. Of those patch tested 70% gave positive reactions to the adhesive and 65% to the resin. Improved methods of handling and personal protection succeeded in arresting the occurrence of dermatitis. Barrier creams gave no protection in these circumstances. The episode illustrates the different preventive control methods which have to be tried when dealing with a simple skin hazard which cannot be abolished. Images PMID:5904100

  12. APIARY B-Factory Separation Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.; Sullivan, M.

    1991-05-03

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak {beta}-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate.

  13. Sprinkler arrangement for UiTM's stadium field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Safaron, Saiful Bahri; Suder, Nurazeera Md; Omar, Nurul Wahidah

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the arrangement of water sprinkler at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam stadium field. There are 35 number of sprinklers used with 7 × 5 arrangement. The current problem is that as there are too many sprinkler used, the overlapping area becomes too large and hence leads to waste. In order to minimize the number of sprinklers used as well as the overlapping area, new arrangement of sprinklers is proposed. The validity of the developed arrangement is tested by using Microsoft Excel and mathematical software, MAPLE 14. Finally, there are six possible arrangements that can be used to replace the current arrangement.

  14. Waveguide arrangements based on adiabatic elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Suchowski, Haim; Mrejen, Michael; Wu, Chihhui; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-13

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to nanophotonics. In one aspect, an arrangement of waveguides includes a substrate and three waveguides. Each of the three waveguides may be a linear waveguide. A second waveguide is positioned between a first waveguide and a third waveguide. The dimensions and positions of the first, the second, and the third waveguides are specified to substantially eliminate coupling between the first waveguide and the third waveguide over a distance of about 1 millimeter to 2 millimeters along lengths of the first waveguide, the second waveguide, and the third waveguide.

  15. Internal Arrangement of the Skylab Orbital Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The wardroom deck of the Orbital Workshop, showing the living quarters arrangement, is seen here in good detail. From left to right is the dining area, waste management, and sleeping quarters. Portable restraints are on the wall beside the sleeping quarters. The ergometer for the vectorcardiograph (Experiment - M093) and lower-body Negative Pressure (Experiment M092) unit, used in some of the medical experiments, are in the foreground. The round brown object in the center of the room is the trash disposal airlock.

  16. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  17. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, J.D.; Kadlec, E.G.; Klimas, P.C.

    1983-09-15

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  18. Improved microgrid arrangement for integrated imaging polarimeters.

    PubMed

    LeMaster, Daniel A; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-04-01

    For almost 20 years, microgrid polarimetric imaging systems have been built using a 2×2 repeating pattern of polarization analyzers. In this Letter, we show that superior spatial resolution is achieved over this 2×2 case when the analyzers are arranged in a 2×4 repeating pattern. This unconventional result, in which a more distributed sampling pattern results in finer spatial resolution, is also achieved without affecting the conditioning of the polarimetric data-reduction matrix. Proof is provided theoretically and through Stokes image reconstruction of synthesized data.

  19. Dental school and community clinic financial arrangements.

    PubMed

    Piskorowski, Wilhelm; Bailit, Howard L; McGowan, Taegen L; Krell, Rachel E

    2011-10-01

    In community-based dental education programs, student-provided services can be an important source of community clinic and practice revenues. The University of Michigan School of Dentistry has developed a revenue-sharing arrangement with multiple community clinics and practices. During their ten-week externship, senior students produce at least $800 a day in patient care revenues, and the school receives an average of $165 per student per day from community sites. These funds are used to cover program costs and enrich the curriculum. Revenue-sharing with community clinics and practices helps to ensure program longevity and is an increasingly significant source of school revenues.

  20. Internal Arrangement of the Skylab Orbital Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The wardroom deck of the Orbital Workshop, showing the living quarters arrangement, is seen here in good detail. From left to right is the dining area, waste management, and sleeping quarters. Portable restraints are on the wall beside the sleeping quarters. The ergometer for the vectorcardiograph (Experiment - M093) and lower-body Negative Pressure (Experiment M092) unit, used in some of the medical experiments, are in the foreground. The round brown object in the center of the room is the trash disposal airlock.

  1. Sealing arrangement with annular flexible disc

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Honigsberg, Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    Fluid sealing arrangements including an annular shaped flexible disc having enlarged edges disposed within channel-shaped annular receptacles which are spaced from one another. The receptacles form an annular region for contacting and containing the enlarged edges of the disc, and the disc is preloaded to a conical configuration. The disc is flexibly and movably supported within the receptacles so that unevenly distributed relative motion between the components containing the receptacles is accommodated without loss of sealing contact between the edges of the disc and the walls of the receptacles.

  2. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  3. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  4. The Skateboard Factory: Curriculum by Design--Oasis Skateboard Factory Q&A with Craig Morrison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Since its opening three years ago, Oasis Skateboard Factory (OSF), founded by teacher Craig Morrison, has attracted considerable media exposure and received a Ken Spencer Award from the CEA for its innovative program. OSF is one of three programs offered by Oasis Alternative Secondary School, one of 22 alternative secondary schools of the Toronto…

  5. Arrangement in a heat recovery unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsson, K.A.; Jansson, K.A.; Kruse, R.A.

    1983-03-22

    A heat recovery unit is adapted for installing in a cookery cupboard or the like space in a dwelling. Within a casing the unit has a lamella heat exchanger, which is arranged on one corner edge and has two of its defining surfaces provided with openings for passages facing upwards and two downwards. The heat exchanger has its end walls oriented in vertical planes. It is adapted for heating supply air through heat take-up from exhaust air. Four vertical wall portions form a cross above the heat exchanger, thus providing four chambers for the ingoing and outgoing air flows. By means of portions airtightly sealed against the casing and wall portions the heat exchanger is divided into two portions, each having a cross-stream course between supply air and exhaust air, with its passages for supply air and exhaust air arranged in series with the corresponding passages of the other portion. The heat exchanger is removable as a unit after opening the front of the casing.

  6. Fiber Arrangement in the Rat Tympanic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Agrawal, Sumit K; Ladak, Hanif M; Wan, Wankei

    2016-11-01

    The fiber arrangement in the pars tensa of the rat tympanic membrane (TM) was observed using a high resolution scanning electron microscope. The entire pars tensa is composed of fibrils with diameter of approximately 25 nm. These fibrils can be grouped into radial, circular, parabolic, and oblique fibers as reported in other mammals. The radial fibrils interweave into a planar form rather than into discrete cylindrical fibers. Before attaching to the manubrium and tympanic ring, the radial fibrils bend and cross neighboring fibrils to form a random fibril network, and change their direction from perpendicular to somewhat parallel to the manubrium and tympanic ring. The circular fibrils form cylindrical fibers near the peripheral part of the TM while closer to the manubrium, they form planar bundles. The observed fiber morphology and arrangement may provide helpful information in improving numerical models for the TM's acoustical response and designing a fibrous graft for the repair of TM perforations. Anat Rec, 299:1531-1539, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weiqi; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Khraiwesh, Basel; Nelson, David R; Al-Khairy, Dina; Mystikou, Alexandra; Alzahmi, Amnah; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2016-12-13

    With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive "cell factories": the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO₂, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  8. Separators for SLAC B-Factory

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, Dave

    2002-08-21

    In order to separate the beams during injection, a closed vertical bump will be introduced in the B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER) using four dedicated, pulsed magnets. The design field in the magnets is B{sub 0} = 660 G; the field integrals of the magnets are nominally: {integral} Hdl = 0.0450 T{center_dot}m; {integral} Hdl = 0.0420 T{center_dot}m; {integral} Hdl = 0.0756 T{center_dot}m; {integral} Hdl = 0.0832 T{center_dot}m. The magnet apertures are 15 cm horizontal along the field direction and 10 cm in the vertical direction. The beams will be separated with a rise time of about 200 ms at the end of a coast and brought back into collision within about 1 ms. A good-field-region of {+-} 4.1 cm in the horizontal and {+-} 2.1 cm in the vertical direction with field non-uniformity less than 0.2% is aimed for, and fast magnetic field switch-off even through the present steel vacuum pipe of about 4 mm thickness. A 15% variation in each magnet current is done with variable shunts to allow tuning of the bump for different lattice configurations. The magnets have to fit into the existing constrained space of the B-factory. The magnets have been made and tested successfully at BINP and at SLAC. The whole system including pulsed power supply and shunts were also tested successfully.

  9. Quarkonium States at B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Robutti, Enrico; /INFN, Genoa

    2011-11-21

    An overview is given on recent progress in the study of quarkonium spectroscopy at the B-factories. In particular, an updated status report is presented of the long list of 'charmonium-like' resonances newly discovered, whose assignment as true charmonium states is in most cases at least controversial. Also, new measurements on the decay properties of bottomonium states above open-B production thresholds are shown. Much of the progress attained in recent years in the study of the quarkonium spectra is owed to the measurements performed at B-factories. The impressive amount of data recorded by the BABAR and Belle experiments has made it possible to study rare decay chains and to look for as yet undiscovered resonances in the charmonium and bottomonium mass regions. Results presented here are based on different subsamples of the full datasets recorded up to now by the two experiments, corresponding to integrated luminosities of about 430 fb{sup -1}(BABAR - final) and about 850 fb{sup -1}(Belle). Significant contributions also come from the analysis of the various data samples recorded by the CLEO detector.

  10. Muon Acceleration Concepts for Future Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogacz, Slawomir Alex

    2016-05-01

    Here, we summarize current state of concept for muon acceleration aimed at future Neutrino Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance through exploring interplay between complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival of the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to initially low RF frequency, e.g. 325 MHz, and then increased to 650 MHz, as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. Here, we considered two cost effective schemes for accelerating muon beams for a stagable Neutrino Factory: Exploration of the so-called 'dual-use' linac concept, where the same linac structure is used for acceleration of both H- and muons and alternatively, the SRF efficient design based on multi-pass (4.5) 'dogbone' RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  11. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B{sup 0} decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Carbonate factories: A conundrum in sedimentary geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, L.; Hallock, P.

    2008-03-01

    by the end-Permian extinctions, excess photosynthesis by phytoplankton and microbial assemblages in surface waters, induced by moderately high CO 2 and temperature during the Early Mesozoic, supported proliferation of non-tissular metazoans (e.g., sponges) and heterotrophic bacteria at the sea floor. Metabolic activity by those microbes, especially sulfate reduction, resulted in abundant biologically-induced geochemical carbonate precipitation on and within the sea floor. For example, with the opening of Tethyan seaways during the Triassic, massive sponge/microbe boundstones (the benthic automicrite factory) formed steep, massive and thick progradational slopes and, locally, mud-mounds. As tectonic processes created shallow epicontinental seas, photosynthesis drove lime-mud precipitation in the illuminated zone of the water column. The resulting neritic lime-mud component of the shallow-water carbonate factory became predominant during the Jurassic, paralleling the increase in atmospheric pCO 2, while the decreasing importance of the benthic automicrite factory parallels the diversification of calcifying metazoans, phytoplankton and zooplankton. With atmospheric pCO 2 declining through the Cretaceous, the potential habitats for neritic lime-mud precipitation declined. At the same time, peak oceanic Ca 2+ concentrations promoted biotically-controlled calcification by the skeletal factory. With changes produced by extinctions and turnovers at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, adaptations to decreasing Ca 2+ and pCO 2, coupled with increasing global temperature gradients (i.e., high-latitude and deep-water cooling), and strategies that efficiently linked photosynthesis and calcification, promoted successive changes of the dominant skeletal factory through the Cenozoic: larger benthic foraminifers (protist-protist symbiosis) during the Paleogene, red algae during the Miocene and modern coral reefs (metazoan-protist symbiosis) since Late Miocene.

  13. Asymptotic Normality Through Factorial Cumulants and Partition Identities

    PubMed Central

    Bobecka, Konstancja; Hitczenko, Paweł; López-Blázquez, Fernando; Rempała, Grzegorz; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we develop an approach to asymptotic normality through factorial cumulants. Factorial cumulants arise in the same manner from factorial moments as do (ordinary) cumulants from (ordinary) moments. Another tool we exploit is a new identity for ‘moments’ of partitions of numbers. The general limiting result is then used to (re-)derive asymptotic normality for several models including classical discrete distributions, occupancy problems in some generalized allocation schemes and two models related to negative multinomial distribution. PMID:24591773

  14. Integrating PCLIPS into ULowell's Lincoln Logs: Factory of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Brenda J.; Miller, Mark D.; Krolak, Patrick; Barr, Stanley J.

    1990-01-01

    We are attempting to show how independent but cooperating expert systems, executing within a parallel production system (PCLIPS), can operate and control a completely automated, fault tolerant prototype of a factory of the future (The Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future). The factory consists of a CAD system for designing the Lincoln Log Houses, two workcells, and a materials handling system. A workcell consists of two robots, part feeders, and a frame mounted vision system.

  15. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  16. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  17. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  18. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  19. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The...

  20. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,...

  1. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  2. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  3. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  4. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  5. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,...

  6. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,...

  7. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,...

  8. 14 CFR 23.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 23.477 Section 23....477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 23.479 through 23.483, or the conditions in appendix C, apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gear, or main and tail gear....

  9. 14 CFR 25.477 - Landing gear arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Landing gear arrangement. 25.477 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.477 Landing gear arrangement. Sections 25.479 through 25.485 apply to airplanes with conventional arrangements of main and nose gears,...

  10. 45 CFR 303.107 - Requirements for cooperative arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for cooperative arrangements. 303.107... HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.107 Requirements for cooperative arrangements. The State must ensure that all cooperative arrangements: (a) Contain a clear description of the...

  11. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  12. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  13. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  14. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  15. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Arrangement of papers. 92.63 Section 92.63... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are received, the various papers comprising the completed record of the depositions should usually be arranged...

  16. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  17. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. 199.145....145 Marine evacuation system launching arrangements. (a) Arrangements. Each marine evacuation system... from the marine evacuation system platform by a person either in the liferaft or on the platform;...

  18. 46 CFR 108.199 - Arrangement of sleeping spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangement of sleeping spaces. 108.199 Section 108.199... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.199 Arrangement of sleeping spaces. To the extent practicable, each occupation group must be berthed together in sleeping spaces...

  19. 46 CFR 108.199 - Arrangement of sleeping spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Arrangement of sleeping spaces. 108.199 Section 108.199... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.199 Arrangement of sleeping spaces. To the extent practicable, each occupation group must be berthed together in sleeping spaces...

  20. 46 CFR 108.199 - Arrangement of sleeping spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arrangement of sleeping spaces. 108.199 Section 108.199... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.199 Arrangement of sleeping spaces. To the extent practicable, each occupation group must be berthed together in sleeping spaces...

  1. 46 CFR 108.199 - Arrangement of sleeping spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Arrangement of sleeping spaces. 108.199 Section 108.199... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.199 Arrangement of sleeping spaces. To the extent practicable, each occupation group must be berthed together in sleeping spaces...

  2. 46 CFR 108.199 - Arrangement of sleeping spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arrangement of sleeping spaces. 108.199 Section 108.199... AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.199 Arrangement of sleeping spaces. To the extent practicable, each occupation group must be berthed together in sleeping spaces...

  3. 17 CFR 49.20 - Governance arrangements (Core Principle 2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governance arrangements (Core... SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.20 Governance arrangements (Core Principle 2). (a) General. (1) Each registered swap data repository shall establish governance arrangements that are transparent to...

  4. 17 CFR 49.20 - Governance arrangements (Core Principle 2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governance arrangements (Core... (CONTINUED) SWAP DATA REPOSITORIES § 49.20 Governance arrangements (Core Principle 2). (a) General. (1) Each registered swap data repository shall establish governance arrangements that are transparent to...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-56 - Transit Arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transit Arrangements. 52....247-56 Transit Arrangements. As prescribed in 47.305-13(a)(3)(ii), insert the following provision in solicitations when benefits may accrue to the Government because transit arrangements may apply:...

  6. 48 CFR 47.305-13 - Transit arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transit arrangements. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-13 Transit arrangements. (a) Transit privileges. (1) Transit arrangements permit the stopping of a carload or truckload shipment at...

  7. 48 CFR 47.305-13 - Transit arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transit arrangements. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-13 Transit arrangements. (a) Transit privileges. (1) Transit arrangements permit the stopping of a carload or truckload shipment at...

  8. 48 CFR 47.305-13 - Transit arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transit arrangements. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-13 Transit arrangements. (a) Transit privileges. (1) Transit arrangements permit the stopping of a carload or truckload shipment at...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-56 - Transit Arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transit Arrangements. 52....247-56 Transit Arrangements. As prescribed in 47.305-13(a)(3)(ii), insert the following provision in solicitations when benefits may accrue to the Government because transit arrangements may apply:...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-56 - Transit Arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transit Arrangements. 52....247-56 Transit Arrangements. As prescribed in 47.305-13(a)(3)(ii), insert the following provision in solicitations when benefits may accrue to the Government because transit arrangements may apply:...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-56 - Transit Arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transit Arrangements. 52....247-56 Transit Arrangements. As prescribed in 47.305-13(a)(3)(ii), insert the following provision in solicitations when benefits may accrue to the Government because transit arrangements may apply:...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-56 - Transit Arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transit Arrangements. 52....247-56 Transit Arrangements. As prescribed in 47.305-13(a)(3)(ii), insert the following provision in solicitations when benefits may accrue to the Government because transit arrangements may apply:...

  13. 46 CFR 199.155 - Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. 199.155....155 Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements, in... operator on the vessel to observe the lifeboat at all times during recovery. (c) Each launching...

  14. 46 CFR 199.155 - Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. 199.155....155 Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements, in... operator on the vessel to observe the lifeboat at all times during recovery. (c) Each launching...

  15. 46 CFR 108.555 - Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. 108.555... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.555 Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements. Lifeboat launching and recovery arrangements, in addition to meeting the requirements in §§...

  16. 22 CFR 120.35 - Australia Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Australia Implementing Arrangement. 120.35 Section 120.35 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.35 Australia Implementing Arrangement. Australia Implementing Arrangement means...

  17. 22 CFR 120.36 - United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. 120.36 Section 120.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.36 United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement...

  18. 22 CFR 120.36 - United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. 120.36 Section 120.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.36 United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement...

  19. 22 CFR 120.36 - United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. 120.36 Section 120.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.36 United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement. United Kingdom Implementing Arrangement...

  20. 42 CFR 408.90 - Termination of group billing arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of group billing arrangement. 408.90 Section 408.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 408.90 Termination of group billing arrangement. (a) A group billing arrangement may be...

  1. 42 CFR 408.90 - Termination of group billing arrangement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination of group billing arrangement. 408.90 Section 408.90 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 408.90 Termination of group billing arrangement. (a) A group billing arrangement may be...

  2. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section 117.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft...

  3. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section 117.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft...

  4. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section 117.150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft...

  5. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliated business arrangements... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.15 Affiliated business arrangements. (a) General. An affiliated business arrangement is defined in section 3(7) of RESPA (12...

  6. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  7. Tappet arrangement for engine valve train

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmi, M.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a valve arrangement for an internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder head assembly, poppet valves supported by the cylinder head assembly at one side thereof for reciprocation between opened and closed positions, the valves being juxtaposed to each other, a camshaft, and a slidably supported tappets supported by the cylinder head assembly and each interposed between the camshaft and a respective one of the valves. The improvement described here comprises at least one of the tappets being non-circular in cross-sections taken perpendicular to its line of reciprocation and having a short dimension extending in the direction of the adjacent valves and a long dimension extending in the perpendicular direction. The distance between the valves is less than the long dimension.

  8. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  9. Rim seal arrangement having pumping feature

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Myers, Caleb

    2017-04-25

    A rim seal arrangement for a gas turbine engine includes a first seal face on a rotor component, and a second seal face on a stationary annular rim centered about a rotation axis of the rotor component. The second seal face is spaced from the first seal face along an axial direction to define a seal gap. The seal gap is located between a radially outer hot gas path and a radially inner rotor cavity. The first seal face has a plurality of circumferentially spaced depressions, each having a depth in an axial direction and extending along a radial extent of the first seal face. The depressions influence flow in the seal gap such that during rotation of the rotor component, fluid in the seal gap is pumped in a radially outward direction to prevent ingestion of a gas path fluid from the hot gas path into the rotor cavity.

  10. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    PubMed

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility.

  11. The climacteric of Chinese factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tang, G W

    1994-10-01

    Chinese factory workers (427) mainly of Fujian origin were found to have few climacteric symptoms. Of these, 65% and 50% reported having no circulatory and nervosity symptoms, respectively. Only 18% of women experienced hot flushes. The climacteric symptoms were more pronounced at the perimenopausal period (P < 0.001) when these women experienced more irregular menstruation. Low socio-economic status and educational level did not have adverse effects on the symptom reporting. High parity and employment may be positive factors in this period of change of life. A majority of women (74%) felt that the climacteric and menopause is a natural process which caused them no concern. Of those who were still menstruating 80% did not anticipate that they would have problems with the climacteric and menopause. These women's different climacteric pattern could be related to their introspective abilities to cope adequately or in an impersonal manner.

  12. KEKB and PEP-II B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Two asymmetric B-Factories KEKB at KEK and PEP-II at SLAC are under construction, designed to study CP violation in the b-quark sector with a center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. These two new accelerators are high luminosity two-ring two-energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders with one interaction point. There are many challenging accelerator physics and engineering issues associated with the high beam currents and high luminosities of these rings. The chosen solutions to these issues and the general parameters of the two rings are described in detail side-by-side. KEKB and PEP-II are well into the installation phase and are both scheduled to be completed in 1998. The particle physics programs are scheduled to start in 1999.

  13. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-10-05

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings ({mu}SR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included.

  14. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  15. Upgrade of the Photon Factory Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obina, T.; Pak, C. O.; Sato, Y.; Mishina, A.; Harada, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Myajima, T.; Nagahashi, S.; Nogami, T.; Sakanaka, S.; Shioya, T.; Tadano, M.; Takahashi, T.; Tanimoto, Y.; Umemori, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Photon Factory control system was originally developed more than 20 years ago and has been upgraded several times. As a part of the straight-sections upgrade, which started in March, 2005, we renewed the control system incorporating modern technologies in both low-level and high-level control layers. In the low-level layer, a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is now intensively used for title safety control system, for RF klystron control boards and for the vacuum control system. In the middle-level and high-level layers, the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) software toolkit was adopted. We also replaced VME-board computers with HP-RT operating system by Linux-based computers, which are now used as input/output controllers (IOCs) for the EPICS. The new system has been running without any serious problems since its commissioning in September, 2005.

  16. [Toxic polyneuropathies in shoe factories: preventive aspects].

    PubMed

    Carapella, C

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out concerning 19 shoe factories of Marches province, where 32 cases of polyneuropathy, upon 1264 workmen, have been verified. After examination of qualitative and quantitative risk factors the following conclusions can be deduced. Under the etiological aspect the syndrome can be attributed to poisoning caused by environmental pollutions and thus relating to aliphatic hydrocarbons (exane-cicloexane). Under the quantitative aspect the tecnopatic risk has a multifactorial origin which can be summarised as follows: 1) lack of poor efficiency of environmental purification systems; 2) lack of hygienic-environmental elements; 3) lack of sanitary precautions; 4) poor work organization. A strong preventive therapy is necessary to avoid or at least to reduce the polyneuretic tecnopathy incidence.

  17. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  18. Cells as factories for humanized encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhengwei; Cartier, Regis; Hohl, Anja; Farinacci, Maura; Dorhoi, Anca; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Ralston, John; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Möhwald, Helmuth; Wang, Dayang

    2011-05-11

    Biocompatibility is of paramount importance for drug delivery, tumor labeling, and in vivo application of nanoscale bioprobes. Until now, biocompatible surface processing has typically relied on PEGylation and other surface coatings, which, however, cannot minimize clearance by macrophages or the renal system but may also increase the risk of chemical side effects. Cell membranes provide a generic and far more natural approach to the challenges of encapsulation and delivery in vivo. Here we harness for the first time living cells as "factories" to manufacture cell membrane capsules for encapsulation and delivery of drugs, nanoparticles, and other biolabels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the built-in protein channels of the new capsules can be utilized for controlled release of encapsulated reagents.

  19. The preparation and evaluation of sustained release suppositories containing ketoprofen and Eudragit RL 100 by using factorial design.

    PubMed

    Ozgüney, I; Ozcan, I; Ertan, G; Güneri, T

    2007-01-01

    The preparation of ketoprofen (KP) sustained release (SR) suppositories was designed according to the 3(2) x 2(1) factorial design as three different KP:Eudragit RL 100 ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2), three particle sizes of prepared granules (250-500, 500-710, and 710-1000 microm) and two different PEG 400:PEG 6000 ratios (40:60, 50:50). The conventional KP suppositories were also prepared by using Witepsol H 15, Massa Estarinum B, Cremao and the mixture of PEG 400:PEG 6000. The dissolution studies of suppositories prepared were carried out according to the USP XXIII basket method in the phosphate buffer (pH = 7.2) at 50 rpm, and it was shown that the dissolution time was sustained up to 8 hours. According to the results of the factorial design, the most important independent variable on t50 and t80 was drug:polymer ratios. The log of partition coefficient of KP was determined as 1.46, showing the high affinity to the oily phase. n exponent and kinetic studies were conducted to explain diffusion mechanism, and it is understood that if the inert KP:Eudragit RL 100 ratio is increased in the particles, the Fickian difusion dominates and the best kinetic turns to Higuchi from the Hixson-Crowell. There is neither crystalline form of KP nor degradation product in the suppositories detected with the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. In addition to these studies, antiinflammatory activity of SR suppositories also determined that it was significantly extended according to the conventional suppositories.

  20. Factorial Invariance of a Pan-Hispanic Familism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Ricardo; Blozis, Shelley A.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the validity and factorial invariance of an attitudinal measure of familism. Using a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. Hispanics, the validity and factorial invariance of the measure was tested across country of origin (United States, Mexico, and Latin America) and the language in which the survey was conducted…