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  1. 7 CFR 8.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 8.3 Section 8.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.3 Definitions. 4-H Club Name and Emblem as used in this part means the emblem consisting of a green four-leaf clover with stem and the letter “H” in...

  2. 7 CFR 8.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 8.3 Section 8.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.3 Definitions. 4-H Club Name and Emblem as used in this part means the emblem consisting of a green four-leaf clover with stem and the letter “H” in...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9504 - Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9504 Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8... substance identified as silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5, 5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)- (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9504 - Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9504 Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8... substance identified as silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5, 5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)- (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9504 - Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9504 Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8... substance identified as silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5, 5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)- (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9504 - Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9504 Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8... substance identified as silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5, 5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)- (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9504 - Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9504 Silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5,5, 6,6,7,7,8,8,8... substance identified as silane, triethoxy (3,3,4,4,5, 5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctyl)- (PMN...

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  9. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, AND 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCB'S IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA: LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from t...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9503 - Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl)trimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9503 Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silane,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9503 - Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl)trimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9503 Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silane,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9503 - Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl)trimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9503 Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silane,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9503 - Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl)trimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9503 Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silane,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9503 - Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecyl)trimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9503 Silane, (3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silane,...

  15. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs in marine sediments and biota: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River (PR), New Jersey. Organisms were exposed to PR sediments for up to 180 days in the laboratory. In addition, sediments and associated infauna from the New York Bight were collected and analyzed for the same suite of chemical compounds.

  16. BIOAVAILABILITY OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCBS TO MARINE BENTHOS FROM PASSAIC RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macom...

  17. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  18. VAPOR-PHASE 2,3,7,8-TCDD SORPTION TO PLANT FOILAGE - A SPECIES COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant uptake rate constants (k1) were determined for vapor-phase 2,3,7,8-TCDD using grass, azalea, spruce, kale and pepper foliage, and the fruit from apple, tomato and pepper. lants were exposed to vapor-phase 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD for 96 h, and the TCDD sorption rate constant for eac...

  19. Bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs to marine benthos from passaic river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, N.I.; Pruell, R.J.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta) and shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment from the Passaic River, New Jersey for up to 180 days. Worms accumulated the highest concentrations of these compounds. Uptake and depuration rates were slowest in the worms and most rapid in the clams.

  20. Photolysis of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on soils: Production of 2,3,7,8-tcdd

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.; Hebert, V.R.; Miille, M.J.; Mitzel, R.; Zepp, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Photolysis of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) on soils results in production of the lower chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, notably 2,3,7,7-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8-PCDD) and three hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin isomers substituted at the 2,3,7,8-positions. Photodechlorination is favored at the lateral positions for the H6CDD and P5CDD congeners, based on the relative yields of the various isomers produced. The mean depth of photolysis of OCDD in the two soils examined varied between 0.06 and 0.13 mm.

  1. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT ON THE BILIARY EXCRETION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD), 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZOFURAN (TCDF) NAD 3,3'4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL (TCB) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laterally halogenated chemicals 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 3,3',4,4 1-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) exhibit the same spectrum of toxic effects as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prototype and most toxic member of the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon fam...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of p-type conductivity dopant 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Wang, Liang; Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2013-01-22

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Ad1), a substituted analog of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), designed for p-type conductivity doping. The dopant is designed as a model for substituted alternatives to F4TCNQ that maintain similar electronic properties with the goal of engineering dopants with superior fabrication characteristics over F4TCNQ. We describe the design strategy for F3TCNQ-Ad1 based on molecular modeling predictions that substitution of a single fluorine atom of F4TCNQ has little effect on the electronic properties of the molecule. Photophysical and electrochemical characterization reveal that the adamantyl substituent in F3TCNQ-Ad1 does not significantly alter the electronic properties of the substituted dopant relative to F4TCNQ. Unfortunately, F3TCNQ-Ad1 degrades under standard sublimation conditions, preventing sublimation deposition processing. Instead, hole-only devices were made via solution-processing of the p-doped films with the structure glass/ITO/2.3 x103Å PVK:(MTDATA:dopant)/2.0x102Å Au/1.0x103Å Al, where dopant is either F4TCNQ or F3TCNQ-Ad1. We demonstrate that F3TCNQ-Ad1 increased the conductivity of the films by at least 1,000 times compared to an undoped device.

  3. Human health effects after exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M H; Mocarelli, P

    2000-04-01

    In 1949, the first descriptions of human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)-contaminated chemicals were reported after a trichlorophenol reactor explosion in Nitro, West Virginia, USA. Reported non-cancer health effects included a range of conditions affecting most systems. Additional reports of the health consequences of exposure continued through the remainder of the century. The majority of effects have been reported among highly exposed groups including occupational populations, such as chemical production workers, pesticide applicators, and individuals who handled or were exposed to materials treated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD-contaminated pesticides, and among residents of communities contaminated with tainted waste oil (Missouri, USA) and industrial effluent (Seveso, Italy). For only six exposed populations were biological measurements of 2,3,7,8-TCDD-contaminated collected and used to examine the relationship between non-cancer health effects and exposure. Of the many non-cancer health effects thought to be associated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure, only chloracne, elevations in GGT and triglyceride levels, and alterations in FSH and LH were related to serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD levels. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases also appeared to be elevated among cohorts of exposed chemical workers and Seveso residents. Continued surveillance of the health of exposed populations will be useful in identifying the long-term effects of both high and low 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure. PMID:10912244

  4. Estimating exposures to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This exposure assessment document provides a review and update of information related to exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Several scenarios are constructed to illustrate how contaminated material from contaminated soil, various land-disposal situations, and municipal-waste incineration can result in exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Estimates are also provided to show what the human exposure and risk would be via inhalation, dermal contact, and ingestion of contaminated soil. Part One presents an update of previous work and an analysis of key issues related to exposure assessment for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins with emphasis on 2,3,7,8-TCDD, such as the behavior of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in soil and sediment, bioavailability from soil, the use of pharmacokinetics for estimating 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposures, and plant uptake. Part Two addresses the application of exposure-assessment methods discussed in Part One, in evaluating 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposures from selected situations. Twenty different exposure scenarios, covering contaminated soil, landfills, and incineration are presented. Human exposure and risk calculations are then computed under each pathway for the different scenarios.

  5. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the larvae of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Olivieri, C.E.; Cooper, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study evaluated the sensitivity of the fathead minnow larvae to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. There are no reported studies that have examined 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic effects on fathead minnow larvae (0.0017--0.0094 g). One month old fathead minnow larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of [H{sup 3}]2,3,7,8-TCDD for 24h, and then were transferred into clean water. The no-treatment, acetone-control and 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposed larvae were observed for at least 32 days after exposure. Mortality, growth and appearance of a wasting-type syndrome were noted. The tissue dose were based on larvae wet weight. One hundred percent mortality was observed at a tissue dose of 163 ng/g at 32 days. The wasting-type syndrome appeared at day 7 after the 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure. Statistically significant differences in growth (total length and weight) were observed at tissue doses as low as 20 ng/g. The wasting-type syndrome was observed in all fish by day 20. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD tissue level showing this effect was 44 ng/g. These results suggested that the fathead minnow larvae are more sensitive than the Japanese medaka larvae, and not as sensitive as the lake trout.

  6. Ternary borides Nb7Fe3B8 and Ta7Fe3B8 with Kagome-type iron framework.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiang; Gumeniuk, Roman; Borrmann, Horst; Schnelle, Walter; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Rosner, Helge; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Reissner, Michael; Grin, Yuri; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas

    2016-06-21

    Two new ternary borides TM7Fe3B8 (TM = Nb, Ta) were synthesized by high-temperature thermal treatment of samples obtained by arc-melting. This new type of structure with space group P6/mmm, comprises TM slabs containing isolated planar hexagonal [B6] rings and iron centered TM columns in a Kagome type of arrangement. Chemical bonding analysis in Nb7Fe3B8 by means of the electron localizability approach reveals two-center interactions forming the Kagome net of Fe and embedded B, while weaker multicenter bonding present between this net and Nb atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic order below TN = 240 K for Nb7Fe3B8 and TN = 265 K for Ta7Fe3B8. Small remnant magnetization below 0.01μB per f.u. is observed in the antiferromagnetic state. The bulk nature of the magnetic transistions was confirmed by the hyperfine splitting of the Mössbauer spectra, the sizable anomalies in the specific heat capacity, and the kinks in the resistivity curves. The high-field paramagnetic susceptibilities fitted by the Curie-Weiss law show effective paramagnetic moments μeff≈ 3.1μB/Fe in both compounds. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity also reveals metallic character of both compounds. Density functional calculations corroborate the metallic behaviour of both compounds and demonstrate the formation of a sizable local magnetic moment on the Fe-sites. They indicate the presence of both antiferro- and ferrromagnetic interactions. PMID:27216270

  7. Molecular doping of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) layers by 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane investigated by infrared spectroscopy and electrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadaki, Daisuke; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Iino, Shohei; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

    2015-09-01

    Molecular doping is a charge-transfer process intended to improve the performance of organic electronic devices such as organic transistors. We have investigated molecular doping of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layers by 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) using infrared absorption spectroscopy in the multiple internal reflection geometry (MIR-IRAS) and conductivity measurements. IRAS data confirm that F4-TCNQ acts as an effective p-type dopant for P3HT; highly doped P3HT displayed an intense, broad absorption band due to polaron (“polaron band”) and a high carrier (hole) density which are indicative of the charge transfer between F4-TCNQ and P3HT. We demonstrate that the charge (hole) transferred from the dopant molecule is distributed along the P3HT polymer chain and spreads over at least 10 thiophene monomer units on the chain. From a comparison of the measured conductivity of F4-TCNQ-doped P3HT layers with the carrier density, we show that the carrier mobility is proportional to the concentration of carriers (holes), which suggests that F4-TCNQ doping induces the conformational change of P3HT polymer chains to enhance the mobility of holes in the films of the doped P3HTs.

  8. Human and rat primary hepatocyte CYP1A1 and 1A2 induction with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran.

    PubMed

    Budinsky, Robert A; LeCluyse, Edward L; Ferguson, Stephen S; Rowlands, J Craig; Simon, Ted

    2010-11-01

    The concentration dose response for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) induction and enzyme activity was determined in primary cultures of rat and human hepatocytes for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Eleven different congener concentrations from 0.00001 to 100 nM were used, thus spanning seven orders of magnitude. The Hill model was used to obtain values of EC(x) and maximal response from the individual data sets. No-observed effect concentration values were derived using several statistical methods including Dunnett's test, the Welch-Aspin test, and step-down bilinear regression. Thresholds were estimated using baseline projection methods and a "hockey stick" fitting method. Human hepatocytes were less responsive and less sensitive with respect to CYP1A1 activity and mRNA induction than rats. On the other hand, the human CYP1A2 response was more robust than the response in rats but generally less sensitive. These data allow an evaluation of relative species sensitivities for developing interspecies toxicodynamic adjustment factors, for assessing AHR activation thresholds, and for evaluating relative congener potencies. Overall, these data support the position that humans are less sensitive than rats to these AHR-dependent end points and support the use of a data-derived adjustment factor of 1.0 or less for extrapolating between rats and humans. PMID:20705892

  9. Calculation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent concentrations of complex environmental contaminant mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Eadon, George; Kaminsky, Laurence; Silkworth, Jay; Aldous, Kenneth; Hilker, David; O'Keefe, Patrick; Smith, Robert; Gierthy, John; Hawley, John; Kim, Nancy; DeCaprio, Anthony

    1986-01-01

    Sufficient toxicological data are now available to permit use of conventional risk assessment techniques to estimate the hazards associated with human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). However, many real-world exposures involve complex mixtures of dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds. Historical approaches to risk assessment on such mixtures have ranged from ignoring all compounds except 2,3,7,8-TCDD itself to assuming that all compounds have potencies equal to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. An alternative approach which uses existing literature data and analytical results to calculate the “2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent” concentration of a mixture in order to “predict” its biological potency relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD itself is advanced here. Previously reported in vivo acute and subchronic studies and some recently obtained analytical chemistry data are integrated here to clarify the utility of this important approach and to assess the uncertainties associated with its use. This predictive approach, and various conceptually similar ones, have now found wide applicability to the risk assessment process associated with exposure to complex mixtures of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds. PMID:3830107

  10. Calculation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent concentrations of complex environmental contaminant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Eadon, G.; Kaminsky, L.; Silkworth, J.; Aldous, K.; Hilker, D.; O'Keefe, P.; Smith, R.; Gierthy, J.; Hawley, J.; Kim, N.

    1986-12-01

    Sufficient toxicological data are now available to permit use of conventional risk assessment techniques to estimate the hazards associated with human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). However, many real-world exposures involve complex mixtures of dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds. Historical approaches to risk assessment on such mixtures have ranged from ignoring all compounds except 2,3,7,8-TCDD itself to assuming that all compounds have potencies equal to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. An alternative approach which uses existing literature data and analytical results to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent concentration of a mixture in order to predict its biological potency relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD itself is advanced here. Previously reported in vivo acute and subchronic studies and some recently obtained analytical chemistry data are integrated here to clarify the utility of this important approach and to assess the uncertainties associated with its use. This predictive approach, and various conceptually similar ones, have now found wide applicability to the risk assessment process associated with exposure to complex mixtures of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds.

  11. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River.

    PubMed

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-07-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints. PMID:25726763

  12. Fingerprinting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin contamination within the lower Passaic River

    PubMed Central

    Quadrini, James D; Ku, Wen; Connolly, John P; Chiavelli, Deborah A; Israelsson, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    The lower Passaic River is an operable unit of the Diamond Alkali Superfund site at 80 and 120 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Between 1948 and 1969, the Diamond Shamrock Chemicals Company and its predecessors manufactured chemicals such as pesticides and phenoxy herbicides, including 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, which is a precursor to 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, one of the primary components used to make the military defoliant Agent Orange. A by-product of this manufacturing process was 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), and the site is considered the dominant source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to the lower Passaic River and its environs. Several investigators have identified the ratio of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to total TCDD as a fingerprint for the site source. The present study presents data that establish polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (collectively, PCDD/F) congener and homolog fingerprints of soil and sump samples from the site. It then compares those fingerprints to the PCDD/F congener and homolog patterns in lower Passaic River sediments. The similarity of the patterns in lower Passaic River sediments to the site fingerprint indicates the site is the dominant source of the 2,3,7,8-TCDD in sediments within approximately the lower 14 miles of the lower Passaic River, excluding, for the purposes of the present discussion, Newark Bay. In addition, PCDD/F congener data indicate that the ratio of 1,3,7,8-TCDD to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is another marker of the site and corroborates the findings from the other fingerprints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1485–1498. © 2015 The Authors. Published by SETAC. PMID:25726763

  13. Anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Won; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Platelets play a critical role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders and strokes. The inhibition of platelet function is beneficial for the treatment and prevention of these diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (EATN), a neolignan isolated from Myristica fragrans, using human platelets. EATN preferentially inhibited thrombin- and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation without affecting platelet damage in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. However, much higher concentrations of EATN were required to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. EATN also inhibited thrombin-induced serotonin and ATP release, and thromboxane B2 formation in human platelets. Moreover, EATN caused an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in thrombin-activated human platelets. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory mechanism of EATN on platelet aggregation may increase cAMP levels and subsequently inhibit intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization by interfering with a common signaling pathway rather than by directly inhibiting the binding of thrombin or PAF to their receptors. This is the first report of the anti-platelet activity of EATN isolated from M. fragrans. PMID:23296979

  14. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.

  15. Integrated hybrid treatment for the remediation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Varima; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eun-Ju; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-10-01

    The dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TeCDD) has been reported as the deadliest compound known to science. Due to its highly recalcitrant nature and low bioavailability, it is stubborn toward bioremediation and chemical treatment. Efforts to degrade it using one single technique have not accomplished the desired results. In this study, we have tried to develop an integrated 2,3,7,8-TeCDD removal process using palladized iron nanoparticles (Pd/nFe) for initial reductive dechlorination under anoxic conditions and subsequent oxidative biomineralization. Using laboratory synthesized Pd/nFe, 2,3,7,8-TeCDD was completely dechlorinated to form the end product dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD). Oxidative degradation of DD was successfully achieved by growing active cells of a dioxin-degrading microorganism Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 (DSM 6014) under aerobic culture conditions. Metabolite identification was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and whole cell protein was measured as the indicator for cell growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrated hybrid degradation method for 2,3,7,8-TeCDD. PMID:22909785

  16. Differential Regulation of Human Papillomavirus Type 8 by Interferon Regulatory Factors 3 and 7

    PubMed Central

    Oldak, Monika; Tolzmann, Liv; Wnorowski, Artur; Podgórska, Marta Justyna; Silling, Steffi; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John; Müller, Cornelia Sigrid Lissi; Vogt, Thomas; Smola, Hans; Smola, Sigrun

    2011-01-01

    The genus β human papillomavirus (HPV) type 8 is associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and evidence for its protumorigenic potential in the general population increases. To date, strategies to suppress genus β HPV infections are limited. Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 play key roles in the activation of the innate immune response to viral infections. In this study, we show for the first time that both IRF-3 and IRF-7 regulate transcription of a papillomavirus, but with opposing effects. IRF-7, expressed in the suprabasal layers of human epidermis, increased HPV8 late promoter activity via direct binding to viral DNA. UV-B light-induced activation of the HPV8 promoter involved IRF-7 as a downstream effector. In contrast, IRF-3, expressed in all layers of human epidermis, induced strong HPV8 suppression in primary keratinocytes. IRF-3-mediated suppression prevailed over IRF-7-induced HPV8 transcription. Unlike the E6 oncoprotein of the mucosal high-risk HPV16, the HPV8 E6 protein did not bind to IRF-3 and only weakly antagonized its activity. Strong antiviral activity was also observed, when keratinocytes were treated with potent IRF-3 activators, poly(I:C) or RNA bearing 5′ phosphates. In conclusion, we show that IRF-3 activation induces a state of cell-autonomous immunity against HPV in primary human keratinocytes. Our study suggests that local application of IRF-3-activating compounds might constitute an attractive novel therapeutic strategy against HPV8-associated diseases, particularly in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. PMID:20980500

  17. The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) in TCDD-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Cheng Catsby.

    1989-01-01

    Halogenated aryl hydrocarbon(HAH)-induced porphyria is caused by alteration of porphyrin metabolism and results in the accumulation of hepatic and urinary porphyrins. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (75 {mu}/kg) caused significant increases of hepatic porphyrin levels in C57BL/6 male, female and ovariectomized female, and C57BL/10 male mice 3 weeks after treatment. In contrast, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) was inactive at a dose of 750 {mu}mol/kg. Cotreatment with MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD (75 {mu}g/kg) resulted in partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyrin accumulation in female but not in male mice. In female C57BL/6 mice, 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyria was accompanied by the induction of hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and the inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) activity. MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) did not significantly affect these enzyme activities. In coadministration studies, MCDF partially antagonized 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatic porphyrin accumulation but did not affect the activities of hepatic AHH, EROD or UROD. These results demonstrate that the induction of the monooxygenase enzyme activities and the inhibition of UROD activity by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the development of porphyria are not coordinately regulated in C57BL/6 female mice. In cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, 2,3,7,8-TCDD caused a significant increase in porphyrin levels and induced AHH and EROD activities. MCDF and Aroclor 1254 partially antagonized the 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced AHH and EROD activities but not the porphyrin accumulation.

  18. Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

  19. Nqrs Data for C8H7ClN2O3 (Subst. No. 1078)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C8H7ClN2O3 (Subst. No. 1078)

  20. Nqrs Data for C8H7ClN2O3 (Subst. No. 1079)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C8H7ClN2O3 (Subst. No. 1079)

  1. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  2. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects v...

  3. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of 14C-labelcd 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evaluated by using batch shake testing. orption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (foc) were l...

  4. ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TUMOR PROMOTION ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a high estimated cancer potency in animals which has been reasoned to imply that TCDD might be carcinogenic to man. The animal cancer data show that TCDD can act in a solitary manner causing tumors without the participation of other ...

  5. 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN LEVELS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE OF VIETNAM VETERANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been detected at levels ranging from 20 to 173 parts per trillion in adipose tissue from three Vietnam veterans who were 'heavily exposed' to Herbicide Orange. Some tissue samples from other Vietnam veterans and from controls also co...

  6. Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( HxCDD ) , mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8 - HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9 - HxCDD ; CASRN 57653 - 85 - 7 and 19408 - 74 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in

  7. Rationale for assessment of risk from exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerjee, D.; Stara, J.F.; Schaum, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The human health risk assessment is supported by methodology for utilizing toxic effects in animals consisting of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic responses as a result of chronic, subchronic and acute exposures. One of the initial steps in a risk assessment activity involves the estimation of exposure levels. These estimates are typically based on either direct environmental measurements or predictions obtained from fate and transport models. The decision to develop assessment of risk from chronic exposure based on a nonthreshold model is made if a chemical demonstrates carcinogenic activity in animal bioassays and/or in human epidemiological studies. In the absence of any positive human epidemiologic data, it is assumed that a substance which induces a statistically significant carcinogenic response in animals has the probability to cause cancer in humans. The carcinogenic potential of 2,3,7,8-TCDD has been established based on chronic exposure in rodents. In addition, 2,3,7,8-TCDD has also been shown to be a liver cancer promoter in rodents. In the risk assessment on dioxins based on chronic exposure in experimental animals, 2,3,7,8-TCDD is regarded as a carcinogenic substance.

  8. Is 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) a carcinogen for humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, S.M.; Webb, K.B.; Evans, R.G.; Mikes, J.

    1985-10-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has suddenly become the focal point of controversy over the relationship of chemical waste to human health. Specific concern exists regarding its potential association with human malignancy. Subcellular, cellular, and whole-animal experiments suggest that TCDD exerts much of its activity by inducing enzymes that protect the intact organism from the assault of environmental contamination. TCDD is a potent inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, although wide variations between species do exist. Conventional tests for mutagenicity have produced conflicting results. Animal experiments have shown the development of tumors following chronic low level ingestion of TCDD. The human evidence regarding the potential carcinogencity of TCDD comes from occupational, military and environmental exposures. Several studies have come out of Sweden suggesting an association between sarcoma and exposure to herbicides. Although there is little solid evidence that 2,3,7,8-TCDD produces substantial chronic disability or premature death in man, a significant body of experimental evidence for its carcinogenicity makes it likely that a small number of human malignancies may be due to its action. Since 2,3,7,8-TCDD is an unwanted contaminant it could be eliminated with little measurable consequence.

  9. Is 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin) a carcinogen for humans?

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, S M; Webb, K B; Evans, R G; Mikes, J

    1985-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has suddenly become the focal point of controversy over the relationship of chemical waste to human health. Specific concern exists regarding its potential association with human malignancy. Subcellular, cellular, and whole-animal experiments suggest that TCDD exerts much of its activity by inducing enzymes that protect the intact organism from the assault of environmental contamination. TCDD is a potent inducer of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, although wide variations between species do exist. Conventional tests for mutagenicity have produced conflicting results. Animal experiments have shown the development of tumors following chronic low level ingestion of TCDD. The human evidence regarding the potential carcinogencity of TCDD comes from occupational, military and environmental exposures. Several studies have come out of Sweden suggesting an association between sarcoma and exposure to herbicides. Although there is little solid evidence that 2,3,7,8-TCDD produces substantial chronic disability or premature death in man, a significant body of experimental evidence for its carcinogenicity makes it likely that a small number of human malignancies may be due to its action. Since 2,3,7,8-TCDD is an unwanted contaminant it could be eliminated with little measurable consequence. PMID:3910419

  10. Dynamical D4-D8 and D3-D7 branes in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Binetruy, Pierre; Sasaki, Misao; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2009-07-15

    We present a class of dynamical solutions for intersecting D4-D8 and D3-D7 brane systems in ten-dimensional type IIA and IIB supergravity. We discuss if these solutions can be recovered in lower-dimensional effective theories for the warped compactification of a general p-brane system. It is found that an effective p+1-dimensional description is not possible in general due to the entanglement of the transverse coordinates and the p+1-dimensional coordinates in the metric components. For the D4-D8 brane system, the dynamical solutions reduces to a static warped AdS{sub 6}xS{sup 4} geometry in a certain spacetime region. For the D3-D7 brane system, we find a dynamical solution whose metric form is similar to that of a D3-brane solution. The main difference is the existence of a nontrivial dilaton configuration in the D3-D7 solution. Then we discuss cosmology of these solutions. We find that they behave like a Kasner-type cosmological solution at {tau}{yields}{infinity}, while it reduces to a warped static solution at {tau}{yields}0, where {tau} is the cosmic time.

  11. Dynamical D4-D8 and D3-D7 branes in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetruy, Pierre; Sasaki, Misao; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2009-07-01

    We present a class of dynamical solutions for intersecting D4-D8 and D3-D7 brane systems in ten-dimensional type IIA and IIB supergravity. We discuss if these solutions can be recovered in lower-dimensional effective theories for the warped compactification of a general p-brane system. It is found that an effective p+1-dimensional description is not possible in general due to the entanglement of the transverse coordinates and the p+1-dimensional coordinates in the metric components. For the D4-D8 brane system, the dynamical solutions reduces to a static warped AdS6×S4 geometry in a certain spacetime region. For the D3-D7 brane system, we find a dynamical solution whose metric form is similar to that of a D3-brane solution. The main difference is the existence of a nontrivial dilaton configuration in the D3-D7 solution. Then we discuss cosmology of these solutions. We find that they behave like a Kasner-type cosmological solution at τ→∞, while it reduces to a warped static solution at τ→0, where τ is the cosmic time.

  12. Disposition of 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-09-30

    1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (1PeCDF) is one of several toxic polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Related in structure and toxicity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), PCDFs have been detected in municipal and industrial effluents, PCB mixtures, and in a variety of antiseptics and preservative solutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and elimination of 1PeCDF in the rat and to compare these parameters with that of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF). After iv administration of 0.1 mumol (3H)1PeCDF/kg, 1PeCDF was rapidly cleared from the blood and distributed to the liver, muscle, skin, and adipose tissue in a manner similar to that for other dibenzofurans. The initial pool sizes of 1PeCDF-derived radioactivity in the liver, muscle, skin, and adipose tissue were 43,35,10, and 7% of the administered dose, respectively. In all cases, loss of radioactivity from these tissues could be described by exponential decay and the initial half-lives for these tissues were 1.36, 0.03, 13, and 1 day, respectively. After redistribution from the muscle, skin, and adipose tissues to the liver, 1PeCDF was metabolized to a polar metabolite(s) and excreted from the body via the bile into the feces. No parent compound was detected in the bile and fecal excretion was the major route of elimination. Most of the radioactivity in the urine was excreted within the first day, after which less than 0.5% of the dose/day was detected. More than half of the administered dose was excreted in the urine and feces within 2 days. The whole-body half-life of related compounds is 4PeCDF much greater than 1PeCDF greater than or equal to TCDF.

  13. Radiolytic degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in artificially contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hillarides, R.J.; Gray, K.A. ); Guzzetta, J.; Cortellucci, N.; Sommer, C. )

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports results of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) destruction on artificially contaminated soil using cobalt-60 ([sup 60]Co) [gamma] radiation. Important parameters (soil moisture content, surfactant type/concentration, equilibration, and radiation dose) and their optimum ranges are identified. Scavenger (N[sub 2]O, O[sub 2], 2-propanol) studies were conducted to explore the consequences of controlling oxidative and reductive conditions in the soil, and reaction byproducts have been analyzed under selected reaction conditions. A standard soil (EPA SSM-91) was artificially contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD to 100 ppb, and in the presence of 25% water and 2% surfactant (RA-40) and at a high irradiation dose (800 kGy), greater than 92% TCDD destruction was achieved, resulting in a final TCDD concentration of less than 7 ppb. Results of scavenger and byproduct studies and theoretical target theory calculations indicate that TCDD destruction is caused primarily by direct radiation effects and proceeds through reductive dechlorination. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hassoun, E.; d'Argy, R.; Dencker, L.

    1984-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDBF) was administered in single doses (0.1-0.8 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pregnant C57BL mice on d 10, 11, 12, or 13 of gestation. A dose-dependent increase was observed in the frequency of fetal resorptions and fetal death, especially in the earlier stages (d 10-11). Cleft palate and hydronephrosis as well appeared in a dose-dependent manner, with a peak in sensitivity after administration on d 11-12. TCDBF given at a dose level of 0.1 mg/kg body weight on d 12 of gestation (only dose- and stage-tested) produced a marked thymic hypoplasia as well. A few cases of general hydrops occurred. The pattern of malformations and time of sensitivity corresponded well to that observed earlier after administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; ED50 approx. = 25 ..mu..g/kg) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazoxybenzene (TCAOB; ED50 approx. = 6 mg/kg), two congeners of TCDBF, indicating common mechanisms of action of this family of compounds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an important enzyme in cell proliferation and growth with a high activity in embryonic tissues. Liver ODC activity has previously been found to be stimulated by TCDD in weanling mice. However, this enzyme was not found to be stimulated in fetal and placental tissues, but slightly in maternal kidney after treatment with TCDBF in teratogenic doses. It is possible that the ODC activity increases under certain conditions only, on administration of TCDD and its congeners. 40 references, 3 tables, 3 figures.

  15. DISPOSITION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRABROMODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN IN THE RAT: BILIARY EXCRETION AND INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROMES CYP1A1 AND CYP1A2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biologic activity and pharmacokinetic properties of 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD) are similar to those of the chlorinated congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Metabolism of both compounds appears to be rate-limiting for excretion which is primaril...

  16. High antiallergic activity of 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone and 5,6-dihydroxy-7,8,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone from eau de cologne mint (Mentha×piperita citrata).

    PubMed

    Sato, Akihiko; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2015-04-01

    The following compounds with higher antiallergic activities were isolated from eau de cologne mint leaves: 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (6), 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8,3'-trimethoxyflavone (7), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (8), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,8,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (9), and 5,6-dihydroxy-7,8,4'-trimethoxyflavone (10). The IC50 values of compounds 6-10 against RBL-2H3 cells were 6.7, 2.4, 5.6, 3.0, and 6.1μM. Compounds 7 and 9 (IC50 2.4μM and 3.0μM) had the highest antiallergic activities among the flavonoids previously reported. The amounts of 7, 9, and 10 isolated were fairly high, at 177.7mg/kg, 278.0mg/kg, and 179.7mg/kg in the mint, respectively. LD5 value (index of toxicity) and LD5/IC50 ratio of 7 and 9 indicate that the safety is greater than that of luteolin, a typical antiallergic substance. The extract containing powerful antiallergic flavones, 6-10 with higher hydrophobicity could be selectively separated from the extract containing luteolin and other flavonoid glycosides by partition with dichloromethane and water. Therefore, compounds 7 and 9 in mint, and the dichloromethane extract would be the most potent and preventive resources against type I allergy. PMID:25704366

  17. Metabolism and disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.

    1986-09-15

    Marked interspecies variability exists in the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with the guinea pig being the mammalian species most sensitive to the acute toxicity of TCDD. The metabolism and disposition of TCDD was investigated in guinea pigs for 45 days following a single exposure to purified (/sup 3/H)TCDD (0.56 microgram/kg, ip). Guinea pigs included in the toxicokinetic study gained body weight, maintained a normal relative body composition, and exhibited no gross signs of toxicity during the 45-day study. Approximately 36% of the dose of TCDD-derived /sup 3/H remained in the adipose tissue at 45 days following exposure to (/sup 3/H)TCDD, while the liver, pelt, and skeletal muscle and carcass each contained about 7% of the administered dose. Although most of the TCDD-derived radioactivity in liver, kidney, perirenal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle represented unchanged TCDD, from 4 to 28% of the /sup 3/H was associated with metabolites of TCDD. This unexpected finding suggests that TCDD metabolites are not efficiently excreted from guinea pigs. The urinary and fecal excretion of TCDD-derived radioactivity followed apparent first-order kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 93.7 +/- 15.5 days (mean +/- SD). HPLC analysis of urine and bile from (/sup 3/H)TCDD-treated guinea pigs showed that all of the radioactivity represented metabolites of TCDD, indicating that these routes of elimination are dependent on prior metabolism of TCDD. However, 70 to 90% of the radioactivity in fecal samples was found to represent unmetabolized TCDD throughout the 45-day excretion study. The presence of TCDD in feces and its absence in bile suggest that the fecal excretion of unchanged TCDD resulted from the direct intestinal elimination of the lipophilic toxin.

  18. 8-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one derivatives as potent and selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Koga, Yuichi; Hikota, Masataka; Matsuki, Kenji; Mochida, Hideki; Kikkawa, Kohei; Fujishige, Kotomi; Kotera, Jun; Omori, Kenji; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichiro

    2015-04-01

    A novel series of highly selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors was found. 8H-Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one derivatives bearing an (S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl group at the 2-position and a 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl group at the 8-position exhibited potent PDE5 inhibitory activities and high PDE5 selectivity over PDE6. Among the synthesized compounds, the 5-methyl analogue (5b) showed the most potent relaxant effect on isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum with an EC30 value of 0.85 nM. PMID:25754491

  19. Crystal structure of 2-amino-7,7-dimethyl-5-oxo-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4 H-chromene-3-carbonitrile hemihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, N.; Banerjee, B.; Brahmachari, G.; Kant, R.; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, 2-amino-7,7-dimethyl-5-oxo-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4 Hchromene-3-carbonitrile was synthesized by multicomponent reaction at room temperature using commercially available urea as inexpensive and environmentally benign organo-catalyst. Its structure was determined by X-ray structure analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, sp. gr. C2/ c, a = 22.010(6), b = 11.0364(10), c = 17.147(4) Å, β = 130.37(4)°, Z = 8, R = 0.0433 for 2377 observed reflections.

  20. REVIEW OF PLANT UPTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD FROM SOIL AND POTENTIAL INFLUENCES OF BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatilization of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from soil and resorption on foliage represents a significant route of contamination. ome studies indicate low-level uptake, translocation from roots to foliage and transpiration from foliage, while one shows more than 95% of 2,3,7,8-TCDD associated ...

  1. BIOAVAILABILITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash containing all 22 TCDD isomers, or the solvent extract of the fly ash, retain only 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Exposures with fly ash appears t...

  2. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, α-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (α-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  3. Effects of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane doping on diketopyrrolopyrrole-based, low crystalline, high mobility polymeric semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Seongwon; Cho, Jangwhan; Chung, Dae Sung; Lee, Han-Koo; Park, Sungmin; Son, Hae Jung

    2015-09-28

    The effects of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) doping on diketopyrrolo-pyrrole-based polymeric semiconductors in terms of charge transport behavior and structural ordering are systematically investigated. Although the energy level offset between the polymeric semiconductor and the F4TCNQ acceptor was not particularly large, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that a low doping ratio of 1 wt. % is sufficient to tune the energy distance between the Fermi level and the HOMO level, reaching saturation at roughly 5 wt. %, which is further confirmed by the depletion mode measurements of field effect transistors (FETs). Structural analyses using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) show that the overall degree of edge-on orientation is disturbed by the addition of dopants, with significant influence appearing at high doping ratios (>3 wt. %). The calculated charge carrier mobility from accumulation mode measurements of FETs showed a maximum value of 2 cm{sup 2}/V·s at the optimized doping ratio of 1%, enabled by additional holes in the channel region, which results in a roughly 40% increase relative to the undoped device. Further increases in the doping ratio, however, resulted in worse FET performance, which can be attributed to structural deformation. This result suggests that the electrochemical doping method can be also applied to donor-acceptor copolymers to further enhance their charge transport characteristics, once the optimized doping condition has been established.

  4. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and long term immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Sherr, David H

    2004-06-01

    The highlighted article by B. Paige Lawrence and Beth Vorderstrasse addresses an oft forgotten aspect of immunotoxicity, the effects of environmental toxins on immunologic memory. Here, the authors take a step towards filling that information gap by evaluating the effects of a prototypic environmental toxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on memory responses to a real-world pathogen, influenza A virus, presented to an animal model in a physiologically relevant manner. Multiple outcomes are evaluated, the vast majority of which suggest important and long-term TCDD-induced changes in the immune system after both primary and secondary exposure to this pathogen. The implications of these studies with regard to the immuno-competence of TCDD-exposed individuals are far reaching. PMID:15185717

  5. Pilot study on health effects of environmental 2,3,7,8-TCDD in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, K.; Evans, R.G.; Stehr, P.; Ayres, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Waste oil contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD was sprayed at various sites in the state of Missouri. Eighty-two individuals who reported living or working in TCDD-contaminated areas and 40 individuals with little or no exposure to TCDD were selected for study; 85% elected to participate in the study. Data were obtained from medical histories, general physicals, neurological and dermatological examinations, and laboratory tests. There were no cases of chloracne reported. The only hematologic comparison that was significant was a higher mean platelet count in the exposed group. This study did not produce any firm indication of increased disease prevalence related to environmental TCDD exposures. Since this was a pilot study, it is important that we continue to limit human exposure to dioxin to the lowest levels technologically feasible until definitive answers to the health consequences of exposure are determined.

  6. Soybean plastidal omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes GmFAD7 and GmFAD8: structure and expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genomic structure and deduced protein sequence of soybean FAD7 and FAD8 have features similar to higher plant plastidal '-3 desaturases: 8 exons and 7 introns, predicted proteins of 453 amino acid residues containing three conserved histidine motifs, amino terminal chloroplast transit peptides, ...

  7. A proposed occupational exposure limit for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Murray, F J; Paustenbach, D J

    1988-09-01

    One contaminant produced unintentionally during the manufacture of chlorophenols and phenoxy herbicides is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The resulting TCDD-containing wastes have been detected at many hazardous waste sites which in recent years have been in the process of remediation. Concerns about worker exposure to TCDD-contaminated soil (dust) during remediation of hazardous waste sites have produced a need for an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for TCDD. The animal toxicology data and human experience with TCDD are reviewed, and an occupational exposure limit for TCDD is proposed. The animal data support risk estimations which are based on TCDD as a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Studies on human populations have failed to demonstrate clearly any significant long-term health effects at levels to which humans have been exposed. The data indicate that an 8-hr time-weighted average limit of 2 ng/m3 is appropriate, and the associated risk would be consistent with other carcinogens at their corresponding OELs. A preliminary OEL of 0.2 ng/m3 (200 pg/m3) is recommended, however, in light of other sources of exposure because of TCDD's ubiquitousness in the environment, its unclear mechanism of action, and its rather long biological half-life in humans. This limit provides an ample margin of safety to prevent chloracne following repeated, acute exposure, and it addresses those chronic effects of TCDD observed in animal studies as well as those observed after accidental human exposure. The resulting body burden caused by chronic exposure to TCDD at the proposed OEL is examined. Its toxicological significance is compared with human tissue data and with other similarly persistent chemicals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2972183

  8. Solubility of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.; Roulier, M.H.; Grotta, H.M.; Rust, S.W.; Warner, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Soils from ten sites contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were investigated in aqueous batch and intact core leaching studies to determine water/soil partition coefficients (K/sub p/) for TCDD and factors affecting the K/sub p/. TCDD content in soils ranged from 8 to 26,000 ng/g. For the batch extractions, TCDD concentrations in solution ranged from 0.1 to 56 ng/L; 79% of the values were 2.0 ng/L or less. For the intact cores, TCDD concentrations in leachate ranged from 0.1 to 14 ng/L; 81% of the values were 2.0 ng/L or less. The amount of TCDD in the soil and the amount of TCDD in the water extracts were strongly related to the total solvent-extractable organic matter (SEOM) in soil and the halogenated semi-volatiles in the solvent-extractable fraction. These results suggest that co-contaminants in the wastes along with the TCDD were sorbed to the soil and that these materials as a group greatly influence the partitioning of TCDD between soil and water in these contaminated soils.

  9. 33.8 Tesla with a YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconducting Test Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, W. D.; Weijers, H. W.; Noyes, P. D.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Pickard, K. W.; Sheppard, W. R.; Jaroszynski, J. J.; Xu, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Hazelton, D. W.

    2010-04-01

    A small coil was made and tested for the purpose of magnet technology development for YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) high field coils. The coil has a winding inner diameter of 24 mm, outer diameter of 36 mm, and length of 46 mm in a pancake wound construction of 5 double pancakes. The YBCO conductor is SuperPower SCS4050 with 2×20 μm of copper stabilizer. The coil was tested in the high field user facility of the NHMFL in a 31 T background field magnet. At this background field, the coil was operated to a current of 325 A and produced a field increment of 2.8 T for a record total field of 33.8 T. The average current density in the windings at full current was very high at 446 A/mm2. The test was complicated by the accumulation of trapped helium gas about the coil due to the diamagnetic effect of helium at high field. Even though the coil operated at elevated temperature during the high field test, the coil performance was limited by mechanical degradation and not a critical current limit.

  10. Peripheral neuropathy after occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M H; Fingerhut, M A; Arezzo, J C; Hornung, R W; Connally, L B

    1993-06-01

    Reports of human exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) describe signs and symptoms consistent with exposure-related peripheral neuropathy. In a cross-sectional study, prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was measured in 265 workers exposed 15 years earlier to chemicals contaminated with TCDD and in 244 unexposed, age-, race-, gender- and community-matched comparisons. Cases of peripheral neuropathy were defined from examination, electrophysiologic and quantitative sensory tests, and symptoms. Exposure was assessed by measuring lipid-adjusted serum TCDD levels. The mean serum TCDD level for workers (220 parts per trillion (ppt)) was significantly higher than for referents (7 ppt) (p < .0001). Thirty-two percent of both worker and referent groups met the case definition for peripheral neuropathy. In the logistic regression analyses, serum TCDD level was not related to peripheral neuropathy. These data suggest that despite continued high serum TCDD levels, peripheral neuropathy is not a long-term sequela of high exposure to TCDD-contaminated chemicals. However, the study cannot preclude the occurrence and subsequent resolution of acute effects caused by high exposure, as experienced in Seveso and possibly by some workers, while exposed to high levels of TCDD-contaminated substances. PMID:8392292

  11. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on scratching behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Ono, Rie; Kagawa, Yoto; Takahashi, Yuji; Akagi, Masaki; Kamei, Chiaki

    2010-03-01

    The present study was performed to study the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on scratching behavior in hairless mice, which are highly sensitive to pruritogens (mediators causing itching), except for histamine, and are suitable for time-course studies due to their hairless skin. TCDD is a well-known environmental pollutant that causes skin diseases with itching; therefore, we examined whether TCDD induced itching. Oral administration of TCDD caused no increase in scratching behavior when used alone, whereas TCDD in combination with distilled water or acetone/olive oil application caused a significant increase in scratching behavior. Furthermore, nerve growth factor (NGF) content in the skin increased significantly. A single administration of chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), tranilast (chemical mediator release inhibitor) and olopatadine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist) had no effect on scratching behavior induced by TCDD in combination with acetone/olive oil application. With repeated administration for 7 days, chlorpheniramine and tranilast had no effect on scratching behavior, whereas olopatadine significantly inhibited scratching behavior. In addition, only olopatadine significantly inhibited NGF content in the skin. From these findings, it can be concluded that TCDD is not a pruritogen but causes alloknesis (itchy skin) with the simultaneous use of trivial external stimulation. In addition, it was found that drugs which decreased skin NGF contents may inhibit this scratching behavior. PMID:19969104

  12. Drinking-water criteria document for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable tricyclic aromatic compounds belonging to chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. 2,3,7,8-TCDD has been demonstrated to be teratogenic in rats, mice and rabbits, and feticidal in monkeys. The major toxic signs and terata observed were cleft palate in mice, edema, hemorrhage, and kidney anomalies in rats and extra ribs in rabbits. Some epidemiological studies have indicated a possible teratogenic effect in humans, but the evidence is not sufficient to reach a firm conclusion.

  13. Performance characteristics of a 1.8 by 3.7 meter Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    Line-focusing acrylic Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range were analytically and experimentally investigated. The measured solar concentration characteristics of a 1.8 by 3.7 m lens and its utilization in a solar collection mode are presented. A measured peak concentration ratio of 62 with 90 percent of the transmitted energy focused into a 5.0cm width was achieved. A peak concentration of 59 and a 90 percent target width of 4.3 cm were analytically computed. The experimental and analytical lens transmittance was 78 percent and 86 percent, respectively. The lens was also interfaced with a nonevacuated receiver assembly and operated in the collection mode. With a natural oxide absorber tube coating (alpha/epsilon = 0.79/0.10), the measured collection efficiency ranged from 43 percent to 200 C to 34 percent at 260 C. Efficiency improvements to the 40 to 50 percent range can be achieved with second generation lenses and higher performance absorptive coatings.

  14. A comparative study of Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2: Synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming; Dong, Youzhong; Fan, Qinghua; Lin, Xinghao; Liu, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The energy-density improvement for cathode materials by using the method of occupying the Li site with the lowest formation enthalpy was first presented, and successfully applied to Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2. Herein, the synthesis, structure and electrochemical properties (including both Li extraction and intercalation) of mixed alkali-ion phosphate Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 were comprehensively studied, and compared with its isologue Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2. Both Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 were synthesized via an original two-step method for the first time. The sintering temperature of Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 (650 °C) was much lower than that of Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 (750 °C). The Rietveld structure refinement indicated that Na ions occupied the Li1(2b) site of Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 as expected, and Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 showed a single charge plateau at 4.4 V vs. Li in the 1st cycle. However, the Na ions migrated from Li1(2b) site after the initial cycle, and the charge plateau at 3.7 V vs. Li reappeared. On the other hand, both Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 can deliver a high reversible capacity (∼200 mAh g-1), and reveal excellent cycle and rate performance in 3.0-0.05 V vs. Li. The gentle structure changes along with abundant Li intercalation into the bulks suggested that Li9V3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 and Li8NaV3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 were also promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  15. Review of plant uptake of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from soil and potential influences of bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, G.; Schaum, J.L.; White, P.; Evans, T.T.

    1989-08-01

    Volatilization of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from soil and resorption on foliage represents a significant route of contamination. Some studies indicate low-level uptake, translocation from roots to foliage and transpiration from foliage, while one shows more than 95% of 2,3,7,8-TCDD associated with edible fruits and with tubers is found in peels. Differences in bioavailability from different soils might account for some inconsistencies between existing studies, suggesting additional information useful in reporting future work.

  16. Oxidative stress in lake sturgeon orally exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Palace, V.P.; Dick, T.A.; Brown, S.B.; Baron, C.L.; Klaverkamp, J.F. |

    1994-12-31

    Juvenile lake sturgeon were orally dosed with gelatin containing nominal concentrations of 0, 0.16 or 1.6 ng 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF)/Kg fish weight. Liver, kidney and blood were collected 10 and 27 days after exposure. Phase 1 (mixed function oxidase MFO) and Phase 2 (glucuronyltransferase) enzyme activities were determined in liver. In addition, concentrations of nonenzymatic (ascorbic acid, tocopherol, retinoids) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) antioxidant parameters were quantified in liver and kidney. TCDF concentrations were elevated in liver and kidney of both dose groups at 10 and 27 days. However, lower tissue concentrations of TCDF at 27 days compared with 10 day exposures, as well as the presence of polar metabolites in bile, suggest rapid metabolism and clearance of the contaminant. Phase 1 and Phase 2 enzyme activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with activities at the two sample periods reflecting the different TCDF concentrations. Indicators of oxidative stress responded similarly.

  17. Cancer risk-specific dose estimate for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This draft report focuses on the hazard identification and dose-response assessment for the potential human carcinogenicity of the chemical. The objective of the report is to determine if EPA's 1985 cancer risk assessment for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins should be modified in light of recent data, alternative risk-assessment methods, or alternative interpretations of data on the chemical. The report concludes that (1) the 1985 assessment that associates a 0.006 pk/kg/day dose with a plausible upper-bound increased cancer risk of one in a million should be reconsidered, and (2) a change to a 0.1 pg/kg/day dose as a plausible upper bound associated with an increased lifetime risk of one in a million is consistent with the available data and theories, and represents a reasonable science policy for the Agency. Also, appendices A through F to the document contain important background information on a broad range of issues related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD including quantitative implications (A), epidemiology (B and D), reproductive and developmental toxicity (C), immunotoxicity (E), and mechanisms of action (F).

  18. Methods for aquatic ecological risk assessments of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and related chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, P.; Erickson, R.; Spehar, R.; Bradbury, S.; Ankley, G.; Burkhard, L.

    1994-12-31

    As part of USEPA`s ongoing assessment of the aquatic ecological risk of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and related polyhalogenated aromatic chemicals, available information on bioaccumulation and effects of these chemicals was analyzed to determine major uncertainties and approaches for addressing these uncertainties. Reported effects vary widely among chemicals, exposure conditions, and organisms. Considerable variability can be explained by relating effects to chemical accumulation, so measurement or prediction of chemical concentrations in tissues of aquatic organisms is essential in assessing risk. However, many of the most toxic of these compounds are difficult to measure in water and have uncertain activities based on available octanol-water partition coefficients. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), through direct measurement of the fugacity gradient between sediments and organisms, can be used to predict bioaccumulation. When TCDD toxicity is expressed on the basis of accumulation, fish early-life-stage survival appears to be the most sensitive endpoint for aquatic organisms. For aquatic-associated wildlife, limited data requires that dose be referenced to TCDD concentration in food. Reproductive effects on certain fish-eating birds and mammals are of greatest concern. Such effect concentrations can be used to assess risk based on fish contamination surveys or, when combined with BSAFs and BAFs, on sediment and water concentrations. However, such assessments are made uncertain by limited toxicity information for certain taxonomic groups and endpoints.

  19. Public health response to 2,3,7,8-TCDD environmental contamination in Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Stehr, P.A.; Forney, D.; Stein, G.; Donnell, H.D.; Falk, H.; Hotchkiss, R.; Spratlin, W.A.; Sampson, E.; Smith, S.J.

    1985-05-01

    In 1971, waste oil containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was sprayed for dust control on a number of residential, recreational, and work areas in Missouri. In several of them, the level and extent of environmental contamination were not known until late 1982 or 1983. Extrapolation from existing toxicological data indicated the potential for substantial adverse health effects in highly exposed populations. As a result, the Missouri Division of Health and the Centers for Disease Control initiated close collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on review and evaluation of environmental data, the development of health advisories to EPA on the need for remedial or preventive actions at specific contaminated sites, a health education effort for the medical community and general public, establishment of a dermatological screening clinic, establishment of a central listing of potentially exposed persons through administration of a health effects survey questionnaire, and a pilot medical study of a ''highest risk'' cohort. Strategies for additional interventions will continue to be based on findings derived from this first phase of the investigation.

  20. Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Ashida, Hiroshi; Toyotome, Takahito; Franchi, Luigi; Suzuki, Masato; Sanada, Takahito; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Núñez, Gabriel; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-10-01

    When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. Many bacterial pathogens provoke inflammasome activity and induce inflammatory responses, including cell death, by delivering type III secreted effectors, the rod component flagellin, and toxins. Recent studies indicated that Shigella deploy multiple mechanisms to stimulate NLR inflammasomes through type III secretion during infection. Here, we show that Shigella induces rapid macrophage cell death by delivering the invasion plasmid antigen H7.8 (IpaH7.8) enzyme 3 (E3) ubiquitin ligase effector via the type III secretion system, thereby activating the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and NLR family CARD domain-containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasomes and caspase-1 and leading to macrophage cell death in an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent manner. Mice infected with Shigella possessing IpaH7.8, but not with Shigella possessing an IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-null mutant, exhibited enhanced bacterial multiplication. We defined glomulin/flagellar-associated protein 68 (GLMN) as an IpaH7.8 target involved in IpaH7.8 E3 ligase-dependent inflammasome activation. This protein originally was identified through its association with glomuvenous malformations and more recently was described as a member of a Cullin ring ligase inhibitor. Modifying GLMN levels through overexpression or knockdown led to reduced or augmented inflammasome activation, respectively. Macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/ATP induced GLMN puncta that localized with the active form of caspase-1. Macrophages from GLMN(+/-) mice were more responsive to inflammasome activation than those from GLMN(+/+) mice. Together, these results highlight a unique bacterial adaptation that hijacks inflammasome activation via

  1. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerhut, M.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Marlow, D.A.; Piacitelli, L.A.; Honchar, P.A.; Sweeney, M.H.; Greife, A.L.; Dill, P.A.; Steenland, K.; Suruda, A.J. )

    1991-01-24

    In both animal and epidemiologic studies, exposure to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mortality among the 5172 workers at 12 plants in the United States that produced chemicals contaminated with TCDD. Occupational exposure was documented by reviewing job descriptions and by measuring TCDD in serum from a sample of 253 workers. Causes of death were taken from death certificates. Mortality from several cancers previously associated with TCDD (stomach, liver, and nasal cancers, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) was not significantly elevated in this cohort. Mortality from soft-tissue sarcoma was increased, but not significantly (4 deaths; standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 338; 95 percent confidence interval, 92 to 865). In the subcohort of 1520 workers with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency, however, mortality was significantly increased for soft-tissue sarcoma (3 deaths; SMR, 922; 95 percent confidence interval, 190 to 2695) and for cancers of the respiratory system (SMR, 142; 95 percent confidence interval, 103 to 192). Mortality from all cancers combined was slightly but significantly elevated in the overall cohort (SMR, 115; 95 percent confidence interval, 102 to 130) and was higher in the subcohort with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency (SMR, 146; 95 percent confidence interval, 121 to 176). This study of mortality among workers with occupational exposure to TCDD does not confirm the high relative risks reported for many cancers in previous studies. Conclusions about an increase in the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma are limited by small numbers and misclassification on death certificates.

  2. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) enhances placental inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Peltier, Morgan R.; Arita, Yuko; Klimova, Natalia G.; Gurzenda, Ellen M.; Koo, Hchi-Chi; Murthy, Amitasrigowri; Lerner, Veronica; Hanna, Nazeeh

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality that is often associated with ascending infections from the lower genital tract. Recent studies with animal models have suggested that developmental exposure to the environmental toxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can increase the risk of preterm birth in the offspring. How TCDD may modify placental immunity to ascending infections is unclear. Therefore, we studied the effects of TCDD treatment on basal and Escherichia coli-stimulated cytokine production by placental explants. Cultures of second-trimester placentas were treated with up to 40 nM TCDD for 72 h and then stimulated with 107 CFU/ml E. coli for an additional 24 h. Concentrations of cytokines and PGE2 were measured in conditioned medium by immunoassay. TCDD exposure increased mRNA levels of IL-1β by unstimulated cultures, but no effects on protein levels of this cytokine were detected. TNF-α production was unaffected by TCDD for unstimulated cultures, but pre-treatment with 40 nM TCDD significantly increased E. coli-stimulated TNF-α production. Both basal and bacteria-stimulated PGE2 and COX-2 gene expression were enhanced by TCDD pretreatment. In contrast, production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was reduced by TCDD pretreatment for both unstimulated and E. coli-stimulated cultures. No effect of TCDD on the viability of the cultures was detected. These results suggest that TCDD exposure may shift immunity to enhance a proinflammatory phenotype at the maternal–fetal interface that could increase the risk of infection-mediated preterm birth. PMID:23642494

  3. Transcriptional profiling of rat hypothalamus response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Houlahan, Kathleen E; Prokopec, Stephenie D; Moffat, Ivy D; Lindén, Jere; Lensu, Sanna; Okey, Allan B; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    In some mammals, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (HAH) exposure causes wasting syndrome, defined as significant weight loss associated with lethal outcomes. The most potent HAH in causing wasting is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Since TCDD toxicity is thought to predominantly arise from dysregulation of AHR-transcribed genes, it was hypothesized that wasting syndrome is a result of to TCDD-induced dysregulation of genes involved in regulation of food-intake. As the hypothalamus is the central nervous systems' regulatory center for food-intake and energy balance. Therefore, mRNA abundances in hypothalamic tissue from two rat strains with widely differing sensitivities to TCDD-induced wasting syndrome: TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans rats and TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar rats, 23h after exposure to TCDD (100μg/kg) or corn oil vehicle. TCDD exposure caused minimal transcriptional dysregulation in the hypothalamus, with only 6 genes significantly altered in Long-Evans rats and 15 genes in Han/Wistar rats. Two of the most dysregulated genes were Cyp1a1 and Nqo1, which are induced by TCDD across a wide range of tissues and are considered sensitive markers of TCDD exposure. The minimal response of the hypothalamic transcriptome to a lethal dose of TCDD at an early time-point suggests that the hypothalamus is not the predominant site of initial events leading to hypophagia and associated wasting. TCDD may affect feeding behaviour via events upstream or downstream of the hypothalamus, and further work is required to evaluate this at the level of individual hypothalamic nuclei and subregions. PMID:25529477

  4. [{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-TCDD uptake and elimination kinetics of medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, P.; Lothenbach, D.; Tietge, J.; Erickson, R.; Johnson, R.

    1995-10-01

    Uptake and elimination rate constants for [{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ([{sup 3}H]TCDD) were estimated by exposing medaka (Oryzias latipes) to [{sup 3}H]TCDD in flowing water with no solvent carriers. Uptake was determined from body-burdens measured on exposure days 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 12. Elimination was quantified for whole fish after 28, 90, and 175 d in uncontaminated water. Medaka accumulated [{sup 3}H]TCDD at a rapid rate, achieving residues 24,000 times the water concentration after 12 d, with no indication of approach to steady state. After 6 months in uncontaminated water, the pg TCDD/g decreased by 69%, much of the decrease due to growth dilution as evidenced by only a 47% decrease in the pg TCDD/fish. Uptake and elimination rate constant (2,300 ml/g/d and 0.0045/d, respectively) were estimated by fitting a one-compartment, linear, mass-balance model to the data, adjusting for growth rate. The experimental design, including solvent-free delivery of [{sup 3}H]TCDD, exposure at concentrations below maximum water solubility, and measurement of fish growth and lipid content during a 6-month elimination phase, resulted in a predicted steady-state bioconcentration factor (BCF) for medaka of 510,000, a number considerably higher than previously reported for dioxin BCFs. Kinetic parameters were used to successfully predict TCDD BCF in medaka exposed independently.

  5. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,7,8-Tetrasubstituted Xanthine Derivatives on Traceless Solid Support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohyun; Lee, Seungyeon; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Jong-Sup; Baek, Dong Jae; Lee, Taeho

    2016-01-11

    Traceless solid-phase synthesis of 1,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted xanthine (1,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted 1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione) derivatives has been developed. The solid-phase synthetic route began on a solid supported N'-cyano-N-substituted carbamimidothioate, which was prepared from cyanamide, isothiocyanate, and Merrifield resin. After N-alkylation of carbamimidothioate resin with ethyl 2-bromoacetate, an imidazole ring is introduced by Thorpe-Ziegler-type cyclization. The resulting imidazole resin is converted to 1,3,7-trisubstituted xanthine resin using sequential reactions, such as Lewis acid-catalyzed urea formation, pyrimidine ring cyclization, and N-alkylation. After oxidation of sulfides to sulfones, traceless cleavage with amine or thiol nucleophiles afforded the desired 1,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted xanthines in good purities and overall yields (eight-steps; 36 examples). This efficient solid-phase synthesis enables the incorporation of four diversity points into the preparation of the 1,3,7,8-tetrasubstituted xanthines. PMID:26616892

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-3 - Refusal and cancellation of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-3 Refusal and cancellation of permits. (a..., linters, waste, cottonseed, cottonseed hulls, and covers that have been used for cotton, may be...

  7. Suppression of Adipogenesis by 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3',4'-Hexamethoxyflavone from Orange Peel in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lee, Pei-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Fen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    We reported previously that hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs) effectively suppressed obesity in high-fat-induced mouse. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of action of 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (5-OH-HxMF), one of major HPMFs in orange peel. Treatment of 5-OH-HxMF effectively inhibited lipid accumulation by 55-60% in a dose-dependent manner. The 5-OH-HxMF attenuated adipogenesis through downregulating adipogenesis-related transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), as well as downstream target fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). 5-OH-HxMF activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling and silent mating type information regulation 1 (SIRTUIN 1 or SIRT1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to decrease lipid accumulation. In addition, the inhibition rate of lipid accumulation was compared between 5-OH-HxMF and 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HpMF). 5-OH-HxMF inhibited lipid accumulation 15-20% more than HpMF did, indicating that hydroxyl group at position 5 can be a key factor in the suppression of adipogenesis. PMID:27542074

  8. 7 CFR 8.7 - Continued use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continued use. 8.7 Section 8.7 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.7 Continued use. (a) The Cooperative... organziations recognized by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Cooperative Extension Service are authorized...

  9. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  10. Photoluminescence of Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 under vacuum ultraviolet excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Novel Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reaction and their photoluminescence properties in vacuum ultraviolet region were investigated for the first time. It can be observed from the excitation spectra that the host-related absorption band is located around 170 nm, and it overlaps the O 2- → Tb 3+ charge transfer band of Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7:Tb 3+ around 161 nm and the 3d 5 → 3d 44s transition band of Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7:Mn 2+ near 200 nm. The 4f-4f 5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb 3+ are verified to be located at 170-250 and 257-271 nm, respectively. Upon 147 nm excitation, the dominant emission peak intensity of the Ca 8MgGd 0.1(PO 4) 7:0.9Tb 3+ phosphor is about 2.7 times stronger than that of the commercial Zn 2SiO 4:Mn 2+ green phosphor, and the brightness of the former with a short decay time of 2.5 ms is about 98% of the latter's. The Ca 8MgGd(PO 4):Mn 2+ phosphor excited at 147 nm exhibits a deep red emission around 650 nm, which could be attributed to the 4T 1 → 6A 1 transition of Mn 2+, with the CIE index (0.679, 0.321). In a word, the results above indicate that both Tb 3+ and Mn 2+ activated Ca 8MgGd(PO 4) 7 phosphors could be promising for PDP or Hg-free lamp applications.

  11. The concentration and distribution of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid adjusted basis for each tissue. While there is a marked difference in the concentration of the 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the edible tissues expressed on a whole weight basis, the lipid-adjusted concentrations of the individual dioxins were not statistically different in the various tissues. This validates the use of lipid adjusted concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs in abdominal fat for the determination of the presence of these compounds in different tissues.

  12. Structure of {sup 7}He by proton removal from {sup 8}Li with the (d,{sup 3}He) reaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A. H.; Schiffer, J. P.; Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Jisonna, L.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Moore, E. F.; Pardo, R. C.; Patel, N.; Paul, M.; Peterson, D.; Pieper, S. C.; Savard, G.; Segel, R. E.; Siemssen, R. H.; Tang, X. D.; Wiringa, R. B.; Physics; Western Michigan Univ.; Northwestern Univ.; Colorado School of Mines; Hebrew Univ.; Kernfysich Versneller Inst.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a study of the structure of the unbound nucleus {sup 7}He utilizing the proton-removal reaction {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 3}He){sup 7}He. Combining the present results with those of our prior measurements of the neutron-adding reaction {sup 2}H({sup 6}He,p){sup 7}He, a consistent picture emerges for the low-lying excitations in {sup 7}He. Specifically, the negative-parity sequence of resonances, in order of excitation energies, is consistent with 3/2{sup -},1/2{sup -}, and 5/2{sup -}. The stable-beam reactions {sup 2}H({sup 7}Li,t){sup 6}Li and {sup 2}H({sup 7}Li,{sup 3}He){sup 6}He were also measured. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear structure models, including those of ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  13. Structure of {sup 7}He by proton removal from {sup 8}Li with the (dm {sup 3}He) reaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A. H.; Schiffer, J. P.; Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Jisonna, L.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Moore, E. F.; Pardo, R. C.; Patel, N.; Paul, M.; Peterson, D.; Pieper, S. C.; Savard, G.; Segel, R. E.; Siemssen, R. H.; Tang, X. D.; Wiringa, R. B.; Physics; Western Michigan Univ.; Northwestern Univ.; Colorado School of Mines; Hebrew Univ.; KVI Groningen

    2008-01-01

    We report on a study of the structure of the unbound nucleus {sup 7}He utilizing the proton-removal reaction {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 3}He){sup 7}He. Combining the present results with those of our prior measurements of the neutron-adding reaction {sup 2}H({sup 6}He,p){sup 7}He, a consistent picture emerges for the low-lying excitations in {sup 7}He. Specifically, the negative-parity sequence of resonances, in order of excitation energies, is consistent with 3/2{sup -},1/2{sup -}, and 5/2{sup -}. The stable-beam reactions {sup 2}H({sup 7}Li,t){sup 6}Li and {sup 2}H({sup 7}Li,{sup 3}He){sup 6}He were also measured. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear structure models, including those of ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  14. Structure of {sup 7}He by proton removal from {sup 8}Li with the (d,{sup 3}He) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A. H.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Schiffer, J. P.; Rehm, K. E.; Greene, J. P.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Jiang, C. L.; Moore, E. F.; Pardo, R. C.; Peterson, D.; Pieper, Steven C.; Savard, G.; Tang, X. D.; Wiringa, R. B.; Jisonna, L.; Segel, R. E.; Patel, N.; Paul, M.

    2008-10-15

    We report on a study of the structure of the unbound nucleus {sup 7}He utilizing the proton-removal reaction {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li,{sup 3}He){sup 7}He. Combining the present results with those of our prior measurements of the neutron-adding reaction {sup 2}H({sup 6}He,p){sup 7}He, a consistent picture emerges for the low-lying excitations in {sup 7}He. Specifically, the negative-parity sequence of resonances, in order of excitation energies, is consistent with 3/2{sup -},1/2{sup -}, and 5/2{sup -}. The stable-beam reactions {sup 2}H({sup 7}Li,t){sup 6}Li and {sup 2}H({sup 7}Li,{sup 3}He){sup 6}He were also measured. The results are compared with the predictions of nuclear structure models, including those of ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

  15. Localization of two metabotropic glutamate receptor genes, GRM3 and GRM8, to human chromosome 7q

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.W.; Heng, H.H.Q.; Lap-Chee Tsui

    1996-01-15

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (GRMs) are neutrotransmitter receptors that respond to glutamate stimulations by activating GTP-binding proteins and modulating second-messenger cascades. Eight related GRMs have been identified to date. In this study, we have mapped GRM3 and GRM8 to human chromosome 7q21.1-q21.2 and 7q31.3-q32.1, respectively, using somatic cell hybrid and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. A yeast artificial chromosome contig was constructed surrounding the genes, allowing their location to be integrated into the genetic and physical map of chromosome 7. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  16. 4-Imino-2,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-4H-1-benzothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-3-amine.

    PubMed

    Kalashetti, Mallikarjun B; Fathima, Nikhath; Khan, Ashraf Y; Begum, Noor Shahina; Khazi, I M

    2012-08-01

    In the title compound, C(12)H(16)N(4)S, the fused benzothio-phene and the pyrimidine rings are coplanar [dihedral angle = 1.61 (6)°]. Three C atoms of the cyclohexene ring (at positions 3, 6 and 7) are disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.702 (8):0.298 (8). The cyclo-hexene ring in both the major and minor components adopts a half-chair conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by N-H⋯N and C-H⋯N inter-actions, resulting in the formation of inversion dimers with R(2) (2)(10) and R(2) (2)(12) graph-set motifs. PMID:22904911

  17. Health effects of long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R E; Stehr-Green, P A; Webb, K B; Evans, R G; Knutsen, A P; Schramm, W F; Staake, J L; Gibson, B B; Steinberg, K K

    1986-04-18

    In 1971, sludge wastes contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were mixed with waste oil and sprayed on a dirt road at the Quail Run Mobile Home Park in Gray Summit, Mo. We performed a comprehensive examination of 154 exposed and 155 unexposed persons in the area. There were no consistent differences between the two groups on medical history, physical examination, serum and urinary chemistry studies, and neurologic tests. Results of liver function tests suggested possible subclinical effects. The exposed group had an increased frequency of anergy (11.8% vs 1.1%) and relative anergy (35.3% vs 11.8%). The exposed group also had non-statistically significant increased frequencies of abnormal T-cell subset test results (10.4% vs 6.8%), a T4/T8 ratio of less than 1.0 (8.1% vs 6.4%), and an abnormality in the functional T-cell test results (12.6% vs 8.5%). These findings suggest that long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is associated with depressed cell-mediated immunity, although the effects have not resulted in an excess of clinical illness in the exposed group. Further studies are indicated to elucidate the pathophysiology and clinical significance of these immunologic findings. PMID:3959286

  18. Adenosine deaminase inhibitors. Synthesis and biological evaluation of (+/-)-3,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]imidazo[4,5-d] [1,3]diazepin-8-ol and some selected C-5 homologues of pentostatin.

    PubMed

    Showalter, H D; Putt, S R; Borondy, P E; Shillis, J L

    1983-10-01

    The synthesis of several analogues of (8R)-3-(2-deoxy-beta-D-erythro- pentofuranosyl)-3,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8-ol (pentostatin, 1a) is described. Ring closure of 2-amino-1-(5-amino-1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethanone dihydrochloride (3) with triethyl orthoacetate or triethyl orthopropionate gave the C-5 methyl and ethyl ketoaglycons, 6,7-dihydro-5-methylimidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8(3H)-one (4b) and 5-ethyl-6,7-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8(3H)-one (4c), respectively. Stannic chloride catalyzed condensation of the pertrimethylsilyl derivatives of 4b and 4c with a protected glycosyl halide afforded anomeric mixtures of ketonucleosides 3-(2-deoxy-3,5-di-O-p-toluoyl-beta- and -alpha-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-6,7-dihydro-5-methylimidazo[4,5-d] [1,3]diazepin-8(3H)-one (5b and 6b) and 3-(2-deoxy-3,5-di-O-p-toluoyl)-beta- and -alpha-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-5-ethyl-6,7-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]- [1,3]diazepin-8(3H)-one (5c and 6c), respectively. Subsequent separation of the anomers, followed by deprotection and reduction of 5b, 6b, and 5c, afforded the respective 8R and 8S isomers. Stannic chloride catalyzed condensation of pertrimethylsilyl ketoaglycon 4a with 2-(chloromethoxy)-1-(p-toluoyloxy) ethane to give ketonucleoside 6,7-dihydro-3-[[2-(p-toluoyloxy)ethoxy] methyl]imidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8(3H)-one (9a) was followed by deprotection to 6,7-dihydro-3[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]imidazo[4,5-d][1,3] diazepin-8(3H)-one (9b) and then reduction to the racemic acyclic pentostatin analogue (+/-)-3,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-[ (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]imidazo[4,5-d][1,3]diazepin-8-ol (2). Ki values for the in vitro adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4; type I; calf intestinal mucosa) inhibitory activities of 1b, 1c, and 2 were determined to be 1.6 X 10(-8), 1.5 X 10(-6), and 9.8 X 10(-8) M, respectively. When compounds 2 and 9b were tested in combination with vidarabine against herpes simplex virus, type 1, in an HEp-2 plaque reduction assay, only compound 2 was able to

  19. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  20. CYP1A2 IS NOT REQUIRED FOR 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    One of the most sensitive and reproducible immunotoxic endpoints of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure is suppression of the antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in mice. Immunosuppression occurs in concert with hepatomegaly and associ...

  1. SORPTION OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14 C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD) to Soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. ncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (foc) from 0.0066 to...

  2. EFFECTS OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) ON FETAL MOUSE URINARY TRACT EPITHELIUM IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), produces hydronephrosis by altering the differentiation and proliferation of ureteric epithelial cells in the embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tract. This study examines the effects of TCDD on late gestation fetal urinary tract cells u...

  3. Fine Mutational Analysis of 2B8 and 3H7 Tag Epitopes with Corresponding Specific Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Lim; Cho, Man-Ho; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Bhoo, Seong Hee

    2016-06-30

    Bacteriophytochromes are phytochrome-like light-sensing photoreceptors that use biliverdin as a chromophore. To study the biochemical properties of the Deinococcus radiodurans bacteriophytochrome (DrBphP) protein, two anti-DrBphP mouse monoclonal antibodies (2B8 and 3H7) were generated. Their specific epitopes were identified in our previous report. We present here fine epitope mapping of these two antibodies by using truncation and substitution of original epitope sequences in order to identify minimized epitope peptides. The previously reported original epitope sequences for 2B8 and 3H7 were truncated from both sides. Our analysis showed that the minimal peptide sequence lengths for 2B8 and 3H7 antibodies were nine amino acids (RDPLPFFPP) and six amino acids (PGEIEE), respectively. We further characterized these peptides in order to investigate their reactivity after single deletion and single substitution of the original peptides. We found that single-substituted 2B8 epitope (RDPLPAFPP) and dual-substituted 3H7 epitope (PGEIAD) showed significantly increased reactivity. These two antibodies with high reactivity for the short modified peptide sequences are valueble for developing new peptide tags for protein research. PMID:27137090

  4. Percutaneous Absorption of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) From Soil (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight dermal absorption (two in vivo; six in vitro) and one intravenous experiment were conducted using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) either neat (high dose at ~250 µg/cm2 and low dose at 10 ng/cm2) or sorbed on a low organic (LOS) or high organic (HOS) soil at 1 ppm...

  5. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  6. Fine Mutational Analysis of 2B8 and 3H7 Tag Epitopes with Corresponding Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Lim; Cho, Man-Ho; Sangsawang, Kanidta; Bhoo, Seong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophytochromes are phytochrome-like light-sensing photoreceptors that use biliverdin as a chromophore. To study the biochemical properties of the Deinococcus radiodurans bacteriophytochrome (DrBphP) protein, two anti-DrBphP mouse monoclonal antibodies (2B8 and 3H7) were generated. Their specific epitopes were identified in our previous report. We present here fine epitope mapping of these two antibodies by using truncation and substitution of original epitope sequences in order to identify minimized epitope peptides. The previously reported original epitope sequences for 2B8 and 3H7 were truncated from both sides. Our analysis showed that the minimal peptide sequence lengths for 2B8 and 3H7 antibodies were nine amino acids (RDPLPFFPP) and six amino acids (PGEIEE), respectively. We further characterized these peptides in order to investigate their reactivity after single deletion and single substitution of the original peptides. We found that single-substituted 2B8 epitope (RDPLPAFPP) and dual-substituted 3H7 epitope (PGEIAD) showed significantly increased reactivity. These two antibodies with high reactivity for the short modified peptide sequences are valueble for developing new peptide tags for protein research. PMID:27137090

  7. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES OF TGFALPHA KNOCKOUT FETUSES TO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABBOTT1, B.D., A.R. BUCKALEW1, and P.L. BRYANT2. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, EPA, RAP, NC; 2Dept. Environ. Sciences & Engineering, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC. Teratogenic responses of TGF knockout fetuses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    TCDD induces cl...

  8. Li-Ion Conduction and Stability of Perovskite Li3/8Sr7/16Hf1/4Ta3/4O3.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Xu, Biyi; Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; You, Ya; Zhong, Shengwen; Wang, Chang-An; Goodenough, John B

    2016-06-15

    A solid Li-ion conductor with a high room temperature Li-ion conductivity and small interfacial resistance is required for its application in next-generation Li-ion batteries. Here, we prepared a cubic perovskite-related oxide with the general formula Li3/8Sr7/16Hf1/4Ta3/4O3 (LSHT) by a conventional solid-state reaction method, which was studied by X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and (7)Li MAS NMR. Li3/8Sr7/16Hf1/4Ta3/4O3 has a high Li-ion conductivity of 3.8 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 25 °C and a low activation energy of 0.36 eV in the temperature range 298-430 K. It exhibits both high stability and small interfacial resistance with commercial organic liquid electrolytes, which makes it promising as a separator in Li-ion batteries. PMID:27215282

  9. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for disposition of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in fathead minnow and medaka.

    PubMed

    Parhizgari, Zahra; Li, James

    2014-05-01

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was developed for the disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in 2 fish species--fathead minnow and medaka. The model was developed based on the empirical data on disposition of dioxins in fish tissues, as well as existing knowledge on the mechanisms of uptake, distribution, storage, and elimination of dioxins in various species (other than fish). The present study examined the applicability of mechanisms known to occur in other species for fish and concluded that the same mechanisms defined for disposition of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in (mostly) rodents can be applicable for the 2 fish species examined as well. Parameter values for the model were selected and/or calibrated using available databases. Model compartments included the gill, kidney, liver, and other richly-perfused tissues, as well as fat and other slowly-perfused tissues. The model was calibrated using 2 independent datasets for exposure of fathead minnow and medaka to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in water. The initial values of the model parameters were selected from several sources, and calibrated to represent the 2 exposure datasets. With very few exceptions, the estimated parameter values for the 2 species were comparable, and the final predictions were in strong agreement with the observations. The model developed in the present study can therefore be used in the prediction of the body burden of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in fathead minnow and medaka. Uncertainty in the model prediction as a result of variability in input parameters is discussed for the parameters with the highest impacts on the model outcome. PMID:24375498

  10. Two oxo complexes with tetranuclear [Fe(4)(mu(3)-O)(2)](8+) and trinuclear [Fe(3)(mu(3)-O)](7+) units.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Piedad; Atria, Ana María; Garland, María Teresa; Baggio, Ricardo

    2006-07-01

    Two new oxo complexes, namely hexa-mu(2)-acetato-acetatoaquabis(di-3-pyridylamine)di-mu(3)-oxo-tetrairon(III) chloride monohydrate ethanol 1.25-solvate, [Fe(4)(C(2)H(3)O(2))(7)O(2)(C(10)H(9)N(3))(2)(H(2)O)]Clx1.25C(2)H(6)OxH(2)O, (I), containing a tetranuclear [Fe(4)(mu(3)-O)(2)](8+) unit, and 2-methylimidazolium hexa-mu(2)-acetato-acetatodiaqua-mu(3)-oxo-triiron(III) chloride dihydrate, (C(4)H(7)N(2))[Fe(3)(C(2)H(3)O(2))(7)O(H(2)O)(2)]Clx2H(2)O, (II), with a trinuclear [Fe(3)(mu(3)-O)](7+) unit, are presented. Both structures are formed by two well differentiated entities, viz. a compact isolated cluster composed of Fe(III) ions coordinated to O(2-) and CH(3)CO(2)(-) anions, and an external group formed by a central Cl(-) ion surrounded by different solvent groups to which the anion is bound through hydrogen bonding. In the case of (I), charge balance cannot be achieved within the groups, so the structure is macroscopically ionic; in the case of (II), in contrast, each group is locally neutral owing to the internal compensation of charges. The trinuclear complex crystallizes with the metal cluster, chloride anion and 2-methylimidazolium cation bisected by a crystallographic mirror plane. PMID:16823197

  11. Mechanism and kinetics study on the ozonolysis reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Gong, Chen; Hu, Jingtian; Zhang, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    The ozonolysis of 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an efficient degradation way in the atmosphere. The ozonolysis process and possible reactions path of Criegee Intermediates with NO and H2O are introduced in detail at the method of MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p)//MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level. In ozonolysis, H2O is an important source of OH radical formation and initiated the subsequent degradation reaction. The Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory was applied to calculate rate constants with the temperature ranging from 200 to 600 K. The rate constant of reaction between 2,3,7,8-TCDD and O3 is 4.80 x 10(-20) cm3/(mole x sec) at 298 K and 760 Torr. The atmospheric lifetime of the reaction species was estimated according to rate constants, which is helpful for the atmospheric model study on the degradation and risk assessment of dioxin. PMID:24649705

  12. Thyroid hormones modulate the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Rozman, K.; Rozman, T.; Scheufler, E.; Pazdernik, T.; Greim, H.

    1985-01-01

    The first experiment is a continuation of a study reported previously. In this experiment, 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups. Four groups of rats were thyroidectomized by 3 mCi Na/sup 131/ l/kg rat. Five weeks later 2 of the thyroidectomized and 1 of the nonthyroidectomized groups of rats received ip 100 ..mu..g TCDD/kg body weight in corn oil/acetone, whereas 3 corresponding groups of rats served as vehicle controls. Two days after dosing and every 7 d thereafter, 1 thyroidectomized control group and 1 thyroidectomized TCDD-dosed group were given ip 105 ..mu..g t/sub 4//kg body weight. The course of TCDD toxicity was similar in nonthyroidectomized and thyroidectomized T/sub 4/-treated rats, but was different in thyroidectomized animals without T/sub 4/ replacement therapy. At d 90 after TCDD dosage, mortality was still lower and the mean time to death was increased (p < 0.01) in this group of rats compared to nonthyroidectomized or thyroidectomized T/sub 4/-treated rats. However, administration of T/sub 4/ starting at d 91 after dosing with TCDD resulted within 2 wk in the same final mortality in thyroidectomized rats as in nonthyroidectomized or thyroidectomized T/sub 4/-treated animals, indicating that thyroid hormones modulate the time course of the wasting syndrome but do not affect the ultimate mortality figure. In the second experiment the three vehicle control groups of the first experiment were used. Nonthyroidectomized vehicle controls and thyroidectomized T/sub 4/-treated controls were maintained as before, whereas thyroidectomized controls received T/sub 3/ at 5 ..mu..g/kg daily. One month later each rat was dosed with TCDD at 100 ..mu..g/kg in corn oil/acetone. Toxicity of TCDD was similar in nonthyroidectomized, thyroidectomized T/sub 4/-treated, and thyroidectomized T/sub 3/-treated rats as judged by mortality, body weight, and food intake, indicating no difference between T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ in the modulation of TCDD

  13. 28 CFR 8.7 - Judicial forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Judicial forfeiture. 8.7 Section 8.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.7 Judicial... 5312(a)(3) of title 31 of the United States Code, the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI field...

  14. 28 CFR 8.7 - Judicial forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial forfeiture. 8.7 Section 8.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.7 Judicial... 5312(a)(3) of title 31 of the United States Code, the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI field...

  15. 28 CFR 8.7 - Judicial forfeiture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Judicial forfeiture. 8.7 Section 8.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.7 Judicial... 5312(a)(3) of title 31 of the United States Code, the Special Agent in Charge of the FBI field...

  16. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  17. Crystal structure of 7,8-di­chloro-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H4Cl2O3, a dichlorinated 3-formyl­chromone derivative, the fused-ring system is slightly puckered [dihedral angle between the benzene and pyran rings = 3.66 (10)°]. The dihedral angle between the pyran ring and the formyl plane is 8.64 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance between the benzene and pyran rings = 3.727 (2) Å], C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and short C⋯O contacts [2.838 (4) Å]. Halogen bonds between the formyl O atoms and the Cl atoms at the 7-position [Cl⋯O = 2.984 (3) Å, C—Cl⋯O = 170.83 (12)° and Cl⋯O—C = 116.05 (19)°] are also formed along the a axis, resulting in helical structures constructed by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and Cl⋯O halogen bonds along the b axis. In addition, type II halogen–halogen contacts between the chlorine atoms at the 7- and 8-positions [Cl⋯Cl = 3.519 (2) Å, C–Cl⋯Cl = 171.24 (10)° and 88.74 (11)°] are observed. PMID:26396751

  18. CHAPTER 7: EPIDEMIOLOGY/HUMAN DATA - HEALTH ASSESSMENT FOR 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting a scientific reassessment of the risks of exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and chemically similar compounds collectively known as dioxin. PA has undertaken this task in response to emerging scienti...

  19. Cancer risk-specific dose estimate for 2,3,7,8-TCDD: appendices A through F. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This draft report reexamines the scientific basis and methods used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for estimating the cancer potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). It focuses on the hazard identification and dose-response assessment for the potential human carcinogenicity of this chemical. The objective of the report is to determine if EPA's 1985 cancer risk assessment for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins should be modified in light of recent data, alternative risk assessment methods, or alternative interpretations of data on the chemical. The report concludes that (1) the 1985 assessment that associates a 0.006 pk/kg/day dose with a plausible upper-bound increased cancer risk of one in a million should be reconsidered, and (2) a change to a 0.1 pg/kg/day dose as a plausible upper bound associated with an increased lifetime risk of one in a million is consistent with the available data and theories, and represents a reasonable science policy for the Agency. Appendices A through F to the document contain important background information on a broad range of issues related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD including quantitative implications (A), epidemiology (B and D), reproductive and developmental toxicity (C), immunotoxicity (E), and mechanisms of action (F).

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta-γ-2-benzopyran.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Zhou, Qixing; Chen, Chun

    2012-08-01

    Polycyclic musks have been indicated to cause lethal and sublethal effects on exposed biota. However, knowledge about the effect of polycyclic musks on the antioxidant defense system in earthworms is vague. In this work, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) exposed to 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB) were systematically investigated. The investigation shows that their activities are closely related to the exposed dose and time of HHCB. For SOD and CAT, the activities increased monotonically with increased exposed dose of HHCB, which indicates a dose-dependent change pattern. POD exhibited its peak activity in 0.0157 μg cm(-2) HHCB treatment and decreased at higher concentrations. These two changing patterns were complementary, which reveals the cooperation of enzymes in response to oxidative stress. MDA content in earthworms was basically unaffected with a 1-day exposure and significantly increased after 2-day and 3-day exposures, correlating with changes in the activities of SOD and CAT when the concentration of HHCB was high. It was also found that the sensitivity of Eisenia fetida to HHCB increased over time. These results may support the theoretical hypothesis that oxidative stress is an important component for the response of earthworms to the toxicity of HHCB in environment. Among the studied enzymes, SOD and CAT appeared to be the most responsive biomarkers of oxidative stress caused by HHCB. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012. PMID:22764077

  1. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran is far less potent than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in disrupting the pituitary–gonad axis of the rat fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Taura, Junki; Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2014-11-15

    The effect of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) on the fetal pituitary–gonad axis was compared with that produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Wistar rats. Maternal treatment at gestational day (GD) 15 with PnCDF and TCDD reduced the fetal expression at GD20 of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and the testicular proteins necessary for steroidogenesis. The relative potencies of PnCDF ranged from 1/42nd to 1/63rd of the TCDD effect. While PnCDF, at a dose sufficient to cause a reduction in fetal LH, provoked defects in sexual behavior at adulthood, a dose less than the ED{sub 50} failed to produce any abnormality. There was a loss of fetal body weight following in utero exposure to PnCDF, and the effect of PnCDF was also much less than that of TCDD. The disturbance in fetal growth was suggested to be due to a reduction in the level of fetal growth hormone (GH) by dioxins. The disorder caused by PnCDF/TCDD in the fetal pituitary–gonad axis occurred at doses less than those needed to cause wasting syndrome in pubertal rats. The harmful effect of PnCDF relative to TCDD was more pronounced in fetal rats than in pubertal rats. These lines of evidence suggest that: 1) PnCDF as well as TCDD imprints defects in sexual behavior by disrupting the fetal pituitary–gonad axis; 2) these dioxins hinder fetal growth by reducing the expression of fetal GH; and 3) the fetal effects of PnCDF/TCDD are more sensitive than sub-acute toxicity during puberty, and the relative effect of PnCDF varies markedly depending on the indices used. - Highlights: • 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) lowers gonadal steroidogenesis in fetuses. • PnCDF exerts the above effect through an initial attenuation in gonadotropin level. • PnCDF imprints sexual immaturity by transiently disrupting the pituitary–gonad axis. • PnCDF also disturbs pup growth probably due to a reduction in growth hormone level. • The above effects are far lesser in PnCDF than 2,3,7,8

  2. Biochemical and histological responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.B.; Evans, R.E.; Lockhart, W.L.; Delorme, P.D.; Ward, F.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow trout were given an intraperitoneal injection of corn oil containing 0 or 8.8 nmol (3 {micro}g) [{sup 14}C]2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (P{sub 5}CDF)/kg and were then held on a light cycle that induced spawning 10 months later. At 5- to 6-week intervals, blood samples were collected to monitor plasma levels of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), testosterone (T), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), 3,5,3{prime}-triiodo-L-thyronine (T{sub 3}), and calcium; packed cell volume (PCV); and differential blood cell counts. Fish were sacrificed after spawning to examine tissue P{sub 5}CDF concentration, liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), liver vitamins (retinoids and tocopherol), histology (liver, thyroid), and growth parameters. The P{sub 5}CDF injections produced tissue 2,3.7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations comparable to those reported in salmonids from contaminated areas. Highest P{sub 5}CDF concentrations occurred in gut and liver, but muscle accounted for the greatest proportion of the dose. Plasma hormone and calcium concentrations followed predicted seasonal patterns in both control and exposed fish. PCV was unchanged by repeated blood sampling but differential blood cell counts showed adaptive responses to blood removal. The P{sub 5}CDF exposure caused transient reductions in circulating lymphocytes and elevated EROD. Additionally, P{sub 5}CDF increased liver size and depleted retinoid stores in male fish. Liver histology, somatic growth, and gonadal development were unaltered by P{sub 5}CDF during the first reproductive cycle after exposure.

  3. Theoretical vibrations of carbon chains C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Joe; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1991-01-01

    The MBPT (2) procedure with the 6-31g (asterisk) basis set was used to study nearly linear carbon chains. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of the molecules C3 through C9 are presented and, for C3 through C6, compared to experimental stretching frequencies and their (C-13)/(C-12) isotopomers. Predictions for C7, C8, and C9 stretching frequencies are calculated by directly scaling the theoretical frequencies with factors derived from experimental-to-theoretical ratios known for the smaller molecules.

  4. Effect of thyroidectomy and thyroxine on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced immunotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pazdernik, T.L.; Rozman, K.K.

    1985-02-18

    Radiothyroidectomy protected against 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced immunotoxicity in rats as assessed by the spleen anti-SRBC plaque-forming cell assay. Thyroxin (T/sub 4/) replacement therapy partially reversed the effects of thyroidectomy on T/sub 4/ and triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) serum levels, body weight and immune function as well as restored TCDD-induced immunotoxicity. Thus, hypothyroidism induced by TCDD exposure can be viewed as a protective response of the organism to reduce the insult caused by TCDD.

  5. Developmental and posthatch effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF, and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kennedy, Sean W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise; Bursian, Steven J

    2011-07-01

    An egg injection study was conducted to confirm a proposed model of relative sensitivity of three avian species to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals. It was previously reported that the order of species sensitivity to in ovo exposure to TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at doses ranging from 0.044 to 37 picomoles (pmol)/g egg was the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) based on embryo mortality and hepatic enzyme induction. In the present study, the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses, and organ pathology of hatchlings as additional indicators of species sensitivity were assessed; in addition, embryo mortality in the three species was categorized by stage of development. Embryo mortality varied temporally with significant increases generally occurring after organogenesis and just prior to hatching. A significant increase in the percentage of developmental deformities was observed only in Japanese quail exposed to TCDF. Body and relative organ masses of quail, pheasants, and chickens dosed in ovo with TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF were not consistently affected. Chemical-related pathology occurred only in livers of quail at the greatest doses of each compound. These results indicated that the incidence of developmental deformities, changes in body and relative organ masses and organ pathology could not be used as indicators of species sensitivity or chemical potency. PMID:21509806

  6. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  7. Effects and mechanisms of 8-prenylnaringenin on osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and osteoclast-like cells RAW264.7

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Kang, Lumei; Ma, Yuhui; Chen, Hongping; Kuang, Haibin; Huang, Qiren; He, Ming; Peng, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a phytoestrogen with the highest estrogenic activity. The objective of the present study was to confirm the superiority of 8-PN on bone metabolisms and the estrogen receptor (ER) subtype mediating effects of 8-PN. The osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and osteoclast-like cell line RAW264.7 were treated with 17β-estradiol (10−8 mol/L), genistein (10−5 mol/L), daidzein (10−5 mol/L), 8-PN (10−5 mol/L) alone or in the presence of ERα antagonist MPP (10−7 mol/L) and ERβ antagonist PTHPP (1.5 × 10−7 mol/L). It has been found that 8-PN did not affect osteoblast proliferation, and that 8-PN increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) concentrations, and the mineralized nodules. 8-PN inhibited RAW264.7 differentiating into osteoclasts and reduced the pit area of bone resorption. 8-PN could also inhibit the protein and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts, and conversely promote the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). These effects of 8-PN were mainly inhibited not by PTHPP but by MPP and they were weaker than estrogen's effects but stronger than those of genistein and daidzein. In conclusion, the effects of 8-PN on promoting osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption were mediated by ERα instead of ERβ and the efficacy was more potent than that of the two classic phytoestrogens: genistein and daidzein. PMID:25473491

  8. Effects and mechanisms of 8-prenylnaringenin on osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and osteoclast-like cells RAW264.7.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Kang, Lumei; Ma, Yuhui; Chen, Hongping; Kuang, Haibin; Huang, Qiren; He, Ming; Peng, Weijie

    2014-07-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a phytoestrogen with the highest estrogenic activity. The objective of the present study was to confirm the superiority of 8-PN on bone metabolisms and the estrogen receptor (ER) subtype mediating effects of 8-PN. The osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and osteoclast-like cell line RAW264.7 were treated with 17β-estradiol (10(-8) mol/L), genistein (10(-5) mol/L), daidzein (10(-5) mol/L), 8-PN (10(-5) mol/L) alone or in the presence of ERα antagonist MPP (10(-7) mol/L) and ERβ antagonist PTHPP (1.5 × 10(-7) mol/L). It has been found that 8-PN did not affect osteoblast proliferation, and that 8-PN increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) concentrations, and the mineralized nodules. 8-PN inhibited RAW264.7 differentiating into osteoclasts and reduced the pit area of bone resorption. 8-PN could also inhibit the protein and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts, and conversely promote the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). These effects of 8-PN were mainly inhibited not by PTHPP but by MPP and they were weaker than estrogen's effects but stronger than those of genistein and daidzein. In conclusion, the effects of 8-PN on promoting osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption were mediated by ERα instead of ERβ and the efficacy was more potent than that of the two classic phytoestrogens: genistein and daidzein. PMID:25473491

  9. Dystonia and tremor following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Klawans, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-seven railroad workers who were exposed to polychlorinated phenols, including dioxin (TCDD), during 1979 while cleaning up the chemical spillage following damage to a tank car filled with these chemicals were followed medically for the subsequent 6 years. Two committed suicide. The initial neurological complaints included a sense of fatigue and muscle aching, both of which have been reported in other individuals following dioxin exposure. On detailed neurological examination in December, 1985, 24 of 45 had dystonic writer's cramp and/or other action dystonias of the hands. None of the involved individuals had a family history of dystonia, and all 24 dated the onset of the dystonia to the first 2 to 3 years subsequent to their toxic exposure. The dystonias varied in severity but were usually mild. No other types of dystonic involvement were recognized. Thirty-five of the 45 individuals also manifested postural and terminal intention tremor which resembled benign essential tremor. None of the involved individuals had a family history of tremor, and all 35 of those affected dated the onset of the tremor to some time subsequent to their toxic exposure. Forty-three of 45 patients had histories and findings suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. This is the first report relating any type of dystonia to prior dioxin exposure and the first report relating action dystonia, such as dystonic writer's cramp, and postural/terminal intention tremor, to toxic exposure of any type.

  10. Microwave-assisted Synthesis and antifungal activity of coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Yin, Wen-Zheng; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Pin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of novel coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives through a microwave-assisted three-component one-pot Mannich reaction is described in this study. All the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum capsici, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria mali. The preliminary bioassays showed that 5e, 5m, and 5s exhibited good antifungal activity and the most active compound was 5m with an [Formula: see text] value as low as 2.1 nM against Botrytis cinerea. PMID:26880591

  11. Chiral separation, configurational identification and antihypertensive evaluation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-isochromanone-4.

    PubMed

    Bai, Renren; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yao; Yang, Xue; Yang, Chen; Kong, Lingyi; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hengyuan; Yao, Hequan; Shen, Mingqin; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Jinyi

    2012-10-15

    (±)-7,8-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-isochromanone-4 [(±)-XJP] is a natural antihypertensive product contained in banana (Musa sapientum L.) peel. (-)-XJP and (+)-XJP were first obtained by chiral resolution, meanwhile circular dichroism (CD) calculations and chiral synthesis were employed to investigate the absolute configuration. The results indicated that the absolute configuration of (+)-XJP is S-configured and the absolute configuration of (-)-XJP is R-configured. Furthermore, the evaluation of antihypertensive effects in vivo proved that R-(-)-XJP was more potent than S-(+)-XJP and [(±)-XJP]. PMID:22963765

  12. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to several ecological receptor groups: a short review.

    PubMed

    Boening, D W

    1998-03-01

    Toxicity among TCDD isomers can vary significantly. Isomers containing four to six chlorine atoms possess the greatest potential for biological activity, as well as the highest acute toxicity. Information available in the literature focuses largely on fish and terrestrial mammal studies. Toxicity data for aquatic invertebrates and plants is wanting, and essentially no studies pertaining to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) accumulation in these organisms could be found. No data were procurable regarding TCDD toxicity in marine mammals or reptiles. Current knowledge is not sufficient to accurately characterize TCDD toxicity in ecological receptors, with quantification of uncertainty being particularly difficult given the limited base of knowledge. PMID:9570904

  13. Helix 8 and the i3 Loop of the Muscarinic M3 Receptor Are Crucial Sites for Its Regulation by the Gβ5-RGS7 Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) is a Gq-coupled receptor and is known to interact with many intracellular regulatory proteins. One of these molecules is Gβ5-RGS7, the permanently associated heterodimer of G protein β-subunit Gβ5 and RGS7, a regulator of G protein signaling. Gβ5-RGS7 can attenuate M3R-stimulated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores or enhance the influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane. Here we show that deletion of amino acids 304–345 from the central portion of the i3 loop renders M3R insensitive to regulation by Gβ5-RGS7. In addition to the i3 loop, interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8. According to circular dichroism spectroscopy, the peptide corresponding to amino acids 548–567 in the C-terminus of M3R assumes an α-helical conformation. Substitution of Thr553 and Leu558 with Pro residues disrupts this α-helix and abolished binding to Gβ5-RGS7. Introduction of the double Pro substitution into full-length M3R (M3RTP/LP) prevents trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. Using atropine or other antagonists as pharmacologic chaperones, we were able to increase the level of surface expression of the TP/LP mutant to levels comparable to that of wild-type M3R. However, M3R-stimulated calcium signaling is still severely compromised. These results show that the interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8 and the central portion of the i3 loop. PMID:25551629

  14. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to brook trout offspring following long-term dietary exposure to parents

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.D.; Fernandez, J.; Holcombe, G.; Jensen, K.; Lothenbach, D.; Tietge, J.

    1994-12-31

    Adult brook trout were exposed via diet to [1,6-H{sup 3}] 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD). The exposure, which began 15 July 1993, had a 4-week loading phase, to bring the adults to a specified TCDD residue, and a maintenance phase, to hold the fish at the desired TCDD level until spawning. Artificial spawning substrates were placed within tanks containing 2 male and 3 female fish. After the fish spawned, the eggs were removed from the artificial substrate and samples were taken for determination of TCDD residues, and lipid content. The remainder were incubated at 6.8--7.0 C to determine the effects of TCDD on egg, embryo, and fry development and survival. The most important endpoint monitored was the cumulative mortality induced by maternally derived TCDD residues. The effects of TCDD residues (total and lipid normalized) on eggs, embryos, and fry, will be presented. Lethal residues responsible for 50% mortality (LR{sub 50}) were determined. Descriptions of TCDD induced toxicity syndromes on brook trout will also be presented.

  15. Study on the 8He ground state via 8He(p, d)7He and 8He(p, t)6He reaction at 82.3 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, J. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Pang, D. Y.; Cao, Z. X.; Jiang, D. X.

    2013-03-01

    The differential cross sections for reactions 8He(p, d)7Heg.s and 8He(p, t)6He2+ were measured by the coincidence of d + 6 He and t + 4He in a wide angular range from 15 to 130 degree in the center-of-mass system. The cross sections of the 8He(p, t)6Heg.s reaction were extremely lower than that of 8He(p, t)6He2+ reaction, and was not obtained from the present data. The experimental results were compared to the preliminary theoretical calculations in the frame of adiabatic distorted-wave approximation with the code Fresco. The results show that the configuration of (1p3/2)2(1p1/2)2 may have some probability in the ground state wave function of 8He. The cluster structure of 8He = 5H + 3H could not be neglected.

  16. Effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD on F1 generation adult chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Alonso, K R; Peden-Adams, M M; Liu, J Y; Charbonneau, C; Henshel, D; Dickerson, R L

    1998-01-01

    White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) were used as surrogate species for the resident wild turkeys found on the Times Beach, Missouri, Superfund site. Parental chickens were injected with concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD which modeled soil concentrations before (200 ppb) and after remediation (1ppb)[1]. Offspring were followed through development to assess alterations in reproductive maturity through the use of a four-way breeding study. F1 adult females exposed to a maternal dose of 8.6 ng/day began egg production approximately two weeks later than did F1 control adult females. By week eight, however, egg production between groups was equivalent. No differences were observed in eggshell gland estrogen or progesterone receptor levels. PMID:9828316

  17. (2RS,8aRS)-6-Oxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,8,8a-octa­hydro­naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiopoulos, Georgia; Lalancette, Roger A.; Thompson, Hugh W.

    2008-01-01

    The title racemate, C11H14O3, aggregates in the crystal structure as acid-to-ketone O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding catemers whose components are glide-related. The relative stereochemistry at the carboxyl group arises spontaneously during the synthesis. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O=C close contacts were found, both involving the acid group. PMID:21581270

  18. Validating Geant4 Versions 7.1 and 8.3 Against 6.1 for BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Swagato; Brown, David N.; Chen, Chunhui; Cote, David; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory P.; Gaponenko, Igor; Kim, Peter C.; Lockman, William S.; Neal, Homer A.; Simi, Gabriele; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Wright, Dennis H.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Since 2005 and 2006, respectively, Geant4 versions 7.1 and 8.3 have been available, providing: improvements in modeling of multiple scattering; corrections to muon ionization and improved MIP signature; widening of the core of electromagnetic shower shape profiles; newer implementation of elastic scattering for hadronic processes; detailed implementation of Bertini cascade model for kaons and lambdas, and updated hadronic cross-sections from calorimeter beam tests. The effects of these changes in simulation are studied in terms of closer agreement of simulation using Geant4 versions 7.1 and 8.3 as compared to Geant4 version 6.1 with respect to data distributions of: the hit residuals of tracks in BABAR silicon vertex tracker; the photon and K{sub L}{sup 0} shower shapes in the electromagnetic calorimeter; the ratio of energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the flux return of the magnet instrumented with a muon detection system composed of resistive plate chambers and limited-streamer tubes; and the muon identification efficiency in the muon detector system of the BABAR detector.

  19. Estimates of the half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Vietnam veterans of operation ranch hand

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, J.L.; Wolfe, W.H.; Patterson, D.G.; Needham, L.L.; Philips, D.L. ); Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Peterson, M.R. )

    1989-01-01

    A half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD; commonly known as dioxin) in serum has been measured in 36 Air Force Vietnam Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, which was the operation that aerially sprayed the herbicide Agent Orange in Vietnam. From serum specimens taken in 1982 and 1987, the median half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in these Ranch Hand veterans was found to be 7.1 yr (95% confidence interval about the median of 5.8-9.6 yr). These veterans reported no civilian exposure to dioxin or herbicides. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the 1982 serum specimens from these veterans ranged from 16.9 to 423 parts per trillion on a lipid weight basis. The half-life estimates were not associated with the concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the 1982 serum specimens. This half-life of 7.1 yr is much longer than the half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD reported in animals but is consistent with recent evidence from other human exposures to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

  20. Low core loss of non-Si quaternary Fe83.3B8P8Cu0.7 nanocrystalline alloy with high Bs of 1.7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Akiri; Yamaki, Makoto; Takahashi, Masahiko; Okamoto, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shigeyoshi; Makino, Akihiro

    2012-04-01

    The effect of replacement Si by P on the soft magnetic and structural properties of nanocrystalline Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys has been investigated. The nanocrystalline Fe83.3SiXB8P8-XCu0.7 (X = 0, 2, 4, 6) alloy ribbons consist of precipitated α-Fe phase and residual amorphous phase, and initial permeability of these alloy ribbons are enhanced with decreasing Si content. In particular, the nanocrystalline Fe83.3B8P8Cu0.7 (X = 0) alloy has both low core loss of 1.4 W/kg at 1.0 T - 50 Hz and high saturation magnetic flux density of 1.70 T. In addition, this alloy exhibits the most favorable nanocrystalline structure containing the homogeneously precipitated α-Fe grains with 14 nm in mean diameter. Therefore, it can be concluded that the soft magnetic properties and nanostructure of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys are strongly affected by Si and P content. The Fe83.3B8P8Cu0.7 alloy with low core loss and high saturation magnetic flux density compared with a Fe amorphous alloy is suitable for a magnetic core material in electronic devices such as transformers, inductors and motors.

  1. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran is far less potent than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in disrupting the pituitary-gonad axis of the rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Taura, Junki; Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2014-09-16

    The effect of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) on the fetal pituitary-gonad axis was compared with that produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Wistar rats. Maternal treatment at gestational day (GD) 15 with PnCDF and TCDD reduced the fetal expression at GD20 of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and the testicular proteins necessary for steroidogenesis. The relative potencies of PnCDF ranged from 1/42nd to 1/63rd of the TCDD effect. While PnCDF, at a dose sufficient to cause a reduction in fetal LH, provoked defects in sexual behavior at adulthood, a dose less than the ED50 failed to produce any abnormality. There was a loss of fetal body weight following in utero exposure to PnCDF, and the effect of PnCDF was also much less than that of TCDD. The disturbance in fetal growth was suggested to be due to a reduction in the level of fetal growth hormone (GH) by dioxins. The disorder caused by PnCDF/TCDD in the fetal pituitary-gonad axis occurred at doses less than those needed to cause wasting syndrome in pubertal rats. The harmful effect of PnCDF relative to TCDD was more pronounced in fetal rats than in pubertal rats. These lines of evidence suggest that: 1) PnCDF as well as TCDD imprints defects in sexual behavior by disrupting the fetal pituitary-gonad axis; 2) these dioxins hinder fetal growth by reducing the expression of fetal GH; and 3) the fetal effects of PnCDF/TCDD are more sensitive than sub-acute toxicity during puberty, and the relative effect of PnCDF varies markedly depending on the indices used. PMID:25220434

  2. EVALUATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION GAS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD IN SOIL, SEDIMENT AND WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical protocol for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and total TCDDs in soil, sediment and aqueous samples using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was evaluated through replicate analyses...

  3. Geodetic model of the 2015 April 25 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake and Mw 7.3 aftershock estimated from InSAR and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guangcai; Li, Zhiwei; Shan, Xinjian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Guohong; Zhu, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    We map the complete surface deformation of 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock with two parallel ALOS2 descending ScanSAR paths' and two ascending Stripmap paths' images. The coseismic fault-slip model from a combined inversion of InSAR and GPS data reveals that this event is a reverse fault motion, with a slight right-lateral strike-slip component. The maximum thrust-slip and right-lateral strike-slip values are 5.7 and 1.2 m, respectively, located at a depth of 7-15 km, southeast to the epicentre. The total seismic moment 7.55 × 1020 Nm, corresponding to a moment magnitude Mw 7.89, is similar to the seismological estimates. Fault slips of both the main shock and the largest aftershock are absent from the upper thrust shallower than 7 km, indicating that there is a locking lower edge of Himalayan Main Frontal Thrust and future seismic disaster is not unexpected in this area. We also find that the energy released in this earthquake is much less than the accumulated moment deficit over the past seven centuries estimated in previous studies, so the region surrounding Kathmandu is still under the threaten of seismic hazards.

  4. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on development of anuran amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, R.E.; Walker, M.K.

    1997-02-01

    The authors exposed anuran eggs and tadpoles to vehicle control (0.7% acetone) or waterborne [{sup 3}H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for 24 h and subsequently raised them in clean water. Neither American toads nor green frogs exhibited TCDD-related mortality, but leopard frogs showed significantly increased mortality over controls. Eggs and tadpoles eliminated TCDD relatively quickly compared with published data for other vertebrates, with t{sub {1/2}} of 1 to 5 d (American toad), 2 to 7 d (leopard frog), and 4 to 6 d (green frog). Elimination rates were slowest for tadpoles fed nothing, fastest for those fed a low-fat diet, and intermediate for those fed a high-fat diet. Although not significant, American toads exposed to {ge}0.03 {micro}g TCDD/L appeared to metamorphose earlier, and those exposed to higher TCDD treatments appeared to metamorphose at a larger body mass than controls. Comparisons of these results with studies of fish early life stages suggest that anuran eggs and tadpoles eliminate TCDD more rapidly and are 100- to 1,000-fold less sensitive to its deleterious effects during development. These differences may be related to differences in metabolic rate, patterns of lipid storage and utilization, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding and signal transduction.

  5. Creep-constitutive behavior of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder using an internal stress approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, Martin A.; Plumbridge, W. J.; Cooper, S.

    2006-05-01

    The experimental tensile creep deformation of bulk Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder at temperatures between 263 K and 398 K, covering lifetimes up to 3,500 h, has been rationalized using constitutive equations that incorporate structure-related internal state variables. Primary creep is accounted for using an evolving internal back stress, due to the interaction between the soft matrix phase and a more creep-resistant particle phase. Steady-state creep is incorporated using a conventional power law, modified to include the steady-state value of internal stress. It is demonstrated that the observed behavior is well-fitted using creep constants for pure tin in the modified creep power law. A preliminary analysis of damage-induced tertiary creep is also presented.

  6. Rheological properties in discotic liquid crystalline phases of 2,3,7,8,12,13-hexa(n-tetradecanoyloxy)truxene.

    PubMed

    Negita, Keishi; Kawano, Chiharu; Moriya, Keiichi

    2004-08-01

    Measurements of rheological properties, including the electrorheological effect, are made in liquid crystalline phases, discotic nematic (ND) and discotic disordered rectangular columnar (Drd) phases, of 2,3,7,8,12,13-hexa(n-tetradecanoyloxy)truxene. It is found that the fluidity of the ND phase is Newtonian and an application of high electric field perpendicular to the flow direction (velocity gradient direction) causes a decrease of the viscosity. These results indicate that a flow alignment of the director occurs with its orientation near the velocity gradient direction and the signs of the Leslie coefficients alpha2 and alpha3 are positive. From the temperature dependence of alpha2, instability of the flow alignment structure in ND and Drd phases is also discussed. PMID:15447504

  7. FT-IR Measurements of Cross Sections of Cold C3H8 in the 7 - 15 µm for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L. R.; Toon, G. C.; Mantz, A. W.; Smith, M. A. H.

    2012-10-01

    To support atmospheric remote sensing of Titan, the absorption cross sections of N2-broadened C3H8 were obtained at temperatures between 145 and 296 K. For this, 17 spectra of pure- and N2-broadened propane were recorded in the 690 to 1550 cm-1 region using a Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS-125HR) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory configured with a 20.38 cm long temperature-stabilized cryogenic absorption cell. The coolable cell was developed at Connecticut College and described previously [1]. We report the absorption cross sections at the various cold temperatures for nine strong propane bands (v26, v8, v21, v20, v7, v19, v18, v4, v24). In addition, we present results from ‘pseudo-line generation’, which includes positions, intensities, and effective lower state energies’ determined from high-resolution laboratory spectra, (see http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/data/spec/Pseudo/Readme). The resulting compilation will be compared to earlier work, including the C3H8+N2 spectra recorded at PNNL [2] and available line-by-line predictions [3,4]. Research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, NASA Langley Research Center, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. References [1] K. Sung, A. W. Mantz, M. A. H. Smith, et al., J Mol Spectrosc 262, 122, 2010. [2] S. W. Sharpe, et al., Appl Spectrosc 58, 1452, 2004. [3] J. M. Flaud et al., Mol Phys 108, 699, 2010. [4] J. M. Flaud et al., J Chem Phys 114, 9361, 2001.

  8. Hepatic metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the rat and guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Wroblewski, V.J.; Olson, J.R.

    1985-11-01

    Marked interspecies variability exists in the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with the rat having an LD/sub 50/ about 25-fold greater than the guinea pig. The metabolism of TCDD was examined by incubating hepatocytes isolated from these animals with purified (/sup 14/C)TCDD (2.2 microM) for 8 hr. Over the 8-hr incubation, cytochrome P-450 content and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and benzphetamine N-demethylase activities were well maintained, indicating the functional viability of the hepatocytes. Quantitative differences were observed in the rate of (/sup 14/C)TCDD metabolism, with hepatocytes from control rats metabolizing TCDD at a rate 2.8-fold greater than hepatocytes from control guinea pigs. The role of the hepatic cytochrome P-450-448-dependent monooxygenase system in the metabolism of TCDD was examined through the use of hepatocytes isolated from animals pretreated with either TCDD or phenobarbital. The rate of (/sup 14/C)TCDD metabolite formation in hepatocytes from TCDD pretreated guinea pigs (0.26 +/- 0.14 pmol mg cell protein-1 hr-1) was unchanged from the control rate, while the rate in hepatocytes from TCDD pretreated rats was 3.2-fold greater than control and nine times greater than in hepatocytes from TCDD-pretreated guinea pigs. On the other hand, phenobarbital pretreatment produced little change in the rate of (/sup 14/C)TCDD metabolism in rat hepatocytes. These results suggest that TCDD may be metabolized by a TCDD inducible form of cytochrome P-448 which is expressed in the rat but not in the guinea pig.

  9. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in Air Force health study participants - preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-24

    In 1978, the US Air Force responded to a congressional mandate to initiate an epidemiologic study of the possible health effects of exposure to herbicides and their 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contaminants in Air Force veterans who served in the Ranch Hand defoliation operation during the Vietnam conflict. Accordingly, the Air Force conducted a nonconcurrent prospective study, the Air Force Health Study, of all 1267 members of the Ranch Hand unit and a series of matched controls. This phase of the Air Force study focused on measuring serum TCDD levels in 150 Ranch Hand veterans and 50 controls. All participants were enlisted men; the Ranch Hand veterans had been either herbicide loaders or herbicide specialists in Vietnam. The demographic and health characteristics of Ranch Hand personnel and controls were similar; however, their serum TCDD levels differed markedly.

  10. Low Concentration of a Dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8 TCDD) Affects the Glycosidases and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Mice Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jigyasi, Jyoti; Kundu, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Present communication reports the effects of environmentally available, low doses of tetra chloro di benzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) to lysosomal enzymes in mice liver. The study tests the hypothesis, in vivo exposure of low dose TCDD provokes dose and duration dependent toxic effects to key lysosomal enzymes and thereby causes cellular apoptotic changes. Three groups of female Swiss albino mice were subjected to two doses of TCDD (0.004 mg/kg bw/d, 0.04 mg/kg bw/d) for 2, 4 and 6 days of exposure durations. The results indicated significant exposure duration dependent effects of TCDD in mice liver cells. The results suggested that TCDD possibly induced an increase in intracellular ions or ROS which in turn altered different physiological activities by affecting different metabolic pathway of the liver cells. The altered functions of key lysosomal enzymes by TCDD may also evoke the process of cellular apoptosis. PMID:25552958

  11. Low concentration of a dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8 TCDD) affects the glycosidases and Acid phosphatase activity in mice hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jigyasi, Jyoti; Kundu, Rahul

    2014-12-01

    Present communication reports the effects of environmentally available, low doses of tetra chloro di benzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8 TCDD) to lysosomal enzymes in mice liver. The study tests the hypothesis, in vivo exposure of low dose TCDD provokes dose and duration dependent toxic effects to key lysosomal enzymes and thereby causes cellular apoptotic changes. Three groups of female Swiss albino mice were subjected to two doses of TCDD (0.004 mg/kg bw/d, 0.04 mg/kg bw/d) for 2, 4 and 6 days of exposure durations. The results indicated significant exposure duration dependent effects of TCDD in mice liver cells. The results suggested that TCDD possibly induced an increase in intracellular ions or ROS which in turn altered different physiological activities by affecting different metabolic pathway of the liver cells. The altered functions of key lysosomal enzymes by TCDD may also evoke the process of cellular apoptosis. PMID:25552958

  12. An analytical and experimental investigation of a 1.8 by 3.7 meter Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.; Jensen, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Line-focusing acrylic Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range are being analytically and experimentally evaluated. Investigations previously conducted with a 56 cm wide lens have been extended by the present study to experimentation/analyses with a 1.8 by 3.7 m lens. A measured peak concentration ratio of 64 with 90 percent of the transmitted energy focused into a 5.0 cm width was achieved. A peak concentration of 61 and a 90 percent target width of 4.5 cm were analytically computed. The experimental and analytical lens transmittance was 81 percent and 86 percent, respectively. The lens also was interfaced with a receiver assembly and operated in the collection mode. The collection efficiency ranged from 42 percent at 100 C to 26 percent at 300 C.

  13. Molecular mechanism of inhibition of estrogen-induced cathepsin D gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, V.; Porter, W.; Santostefano, M.; Wang, Xiahong

    1995-12-01

    This report describes how 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) induces cathepsin D gene expression, but is inhibited by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by disruption of the estrogen receptor/pBC12/S1/pac plasmid complex by interaction with an overlapping xenobiotic responsive element. It was also determined that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alone does not affect cathepsin D gene expression but can together with E2 to affect the rate of transcription and levels of immunoreactive protein. 85 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Effect of Cynaropicrin on 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran-induced Wasting Syndrome and Oxidative Stress].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Yuji; Takeda, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2015-05-01

    The effect of cynaropicrin that is the major component of an edible plant, artichoke (Cynara scolymus) on 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PenCDF)-induced toxicity in mice was studied. We evaluated the effect of cynaropicrin on the wasting syndrome and oxidative stress elicited by PenCDF. However, the PenCDF dose-response relationship on the wasting syndrome has been superficial. Therefore, we determined the dose which causes wasting syndrome in C57BL/6J mice, a responsive strain to dioxins. Since 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) induces hepatic ethoxyresorfin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in mice, we set the doses of PenCDF at 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg (once, p.o.) on the basis of its toxic-eqivalency factor (0.3). The wasting syndrome was evaluated by measuring the daily changes of body weight. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were used as an index of oxidative stress. Of PenCDF doses examined, wasting syndrome and oxidative stress took place most markedly in 5 mg/kg. In disagreement with this, EROD activity which is the marker of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent induction of cytochrome P450 1a1 was elevated most abundantly at 0.3 mg/kg. Then, we examined the effect of cynaropicrin on the wasting syndrome and oxidative stress provoked by PenCDF at 5 mg/kg. However, this compound up to 20 mg/kg (p.o.) did not attenuate PenCDF-induced wasting syndrome. On the contray, PenCDF-induced oxidateive stress was suppressed by cynaropicrin at the highest dose (20 mg/kg), although EROD activity was increased rather than reduced by cynaropicrin at lower doses. Thus, it is suggested that cynaropicrin has an ability to reduce oxidative stress caused by PenCDF. PMID:26226680

  15. Turtle sex determination assay: Mass balance and responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Bergeron, Judith M.; Willingham, Emily J.; Crews, David

    2002-01-01

    Polyhalogenated hydrocarbons have been implicated in the anomalous sexual differentiation of mammals and reptiles. Here, a temperature-sensitive turtle sex determination assay using the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) was used to determine the estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126). Neither TCDD nor PCB-126 showed a statistically significant difference in the resulting sex ratios (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.45). As a consequence of the dosing technique (eggshell spotting), the shell retained 90 and 96% of the dose for PCB-126 and TCDD, respectively, similar to retention of estradiol-17β. However, the dosing allowed transfer of sufficient chemical to achieve tissue concentrations that were greater than most concentrations reported for environmentally incurred residues. Similar relative mass distributions of PCB-126 and TCDD were observed in albumin (14–20%), yolk (55–70%), and embryo (16–25%). Relative concentration distributions in the embryo approached those in the yolk, 37 to 40% and 40 to 52%, respectively, while relative concentrations in the albumin remained at 11 to 20%. Lipid-normalized TCDD and PCB-126 concentrations were 30- to 40-fold greater in the embryo than in the yolk. It is hypothesized that nonpassive partitioning processes may have occurred in the embryo.

  16. Antioxidants inhibit the enhancement of malignant cell transformation induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Wölfle, D; Marquardt, H

    1996-06-01

    The mechanisms of the tumor promoting activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were studied using as in vitro model the enhancement ('promotion') of malignant transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 3-methylcholanthrene. In this assay, the promoting effect of TCDD was maximal at a very low concentration of 1.5 pM and was comparable to the effect of the reference tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 0.25 microg/ml). The role of reactive oxygen species in the promoting action was investigated: mannitol, a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, or antioxidants, i.e. ascorbic acid plus alpha-tocopherol, abolished the in vitro promoting effects of TPA and TCDD. Furthermore, the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation was studied: the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 markedly reduced the in vitro promoting activity of TPA but did not affect the promotion by TCDD. In accord with these results, TPA, but not TCDD, enhanced the PKC activity in C3H/M2 fibroblasts. Since the TPA-mediated activation of PKC was not affected by ascorbate plus alpha-tocopherol, it is concluded that the antioxidants interfere with tumor promotion at a step beyond PKC activation. Thus, the results suggest that the enhancement of malignant cell transformation by TPA and TCDD is dependent on a common mechanism, possibly induced by oxygen radicals, and, in addition, on further mechanisms that may involve agent-specific signalling pathways (e.g. PKC activation by TPA). PMID:8681442

  17. Immunotoxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Sack, G

    1989-02-01

    The organic phase of the leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The immunotoxic potential of OPL was determined in two mouse strains which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was administered in corn oil in a single oral gavage to male BALB/cByJ (Ahb/Ahb) mice (0.5, 0.8, or 1.1 g/kg) and DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) mice (0.6, 0.9, or 1.3 g/kg). TCDD was similarly administered at 0.25, 1.0, 4.0, or 16.0 micrograms/kg. Two days later all mice were immunized with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The antibody response (PFC) and organ weights were evaluated 4 days later. OPL produced thymic atrophy and hepatomegaly in both strains at all dose levels. The PFC/spleen in BALB/cByJ mice was significantly reduced at the three doses to 34, 13, and 15%, respectively, of the control response. Serum anti-SRBC antibody levels and relative spleen weights were also reduced. The only immune effect in the DBA/2J mice was a decrease of the PFC/spleen to 58% of the control at the highest dose. TCDD decreased the relative thymus and spleen weights only in BALB/cByJ mice. However, TCDD produced hepatomegaly, a decrease in serum antibody, and a decrease in PFC/spleen in both BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice to 3 and 15%, respectively, at 16 micrograms/kg. Thus, the TCDD dose required to cause a 50% suppression (ED50) of PFC/spleen for the BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J strains was 1.84 and 3.89 micrograms/kg, respectively. The ED50 for OPL was 0.24 g/kg in BALB/cByJ mice. The TCDD concentration in the OPL was estimated to be 7.6 ppm, which agrees closely with the chemical analysis (3 ppm). The results suggest that the immunosuppression caused by OPL in BALB/cByJ mice was primarily due to TCDD, that the non-TCDD components of OPL diminished the TCDD immunotoxicity in the DBA/2J strain, and that the thymic atrophy and hepatomegaly were caused primarily by the non

  18. Immunotoxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Silkworth, J.B.; Cutler, D.S.; Sack, G.

    1989-02-01

    The organic phase of the leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The immunotoxic potential of OPL was determined in two mouse strains which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was administered in corn oil in a single oral gavage to male BALB/cByJ (Ahb/Ahb) mice (0.5, 0.8, or 1.1 g/kg) and DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) mice (0.6, 0.9, or 1.3 g/kg). TCDD was similarly administered at 0.25, 1.0, 4.0, or 16.0 micrograms/kg. Two days later all mice were immunized with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The antibody response (PFC) and organ weights were evaluated 4 days later. OPL produced thymic atrophy and hepatomegaly in both strains at all dose levels. The PFC/spleen in BALB/cByJ mice was significantly reduced at the three doses to 34, 13, and 15%, respectively, of the control response. Serum anti-SRBC antibody levels and relative spleen weights were also reduced. The only immune effect in the DBA/2J mice was a decrease of the PFC/spleen to 58% of the control at the highest dose. TCDD decreased the relative thymus and spleen weights only in BALB/cByJ mice. However, TCDD produced hepatomegaly, a decrease in serum antibody, and a decrease in PFC/spleen in both BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice to 3 and 15%, respectively, at 16 micrograms/kg. Thus, the TCDD dose required to cause a 50% suppression (ED50) of PFC/spleen for the BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J strains was 1.84 and 3.89 micrograms/kg, respectively. The ED50 for OPL was 0.24 g/kg in BALB/cByJ mice. The TCDD concentration in the OPL was estimated to be 7.6 ppm, which agrees closely with the chemical analysis (3 ppm).

  19. Density functional theory calculations of UO2 oxidation: evolution of UO(2+x), U4O(9-y), U3O7, and U3O8.

    PubMed

    Andersson, D A; Baldinozzi, G; Desgranges, L; Conradson, D R; Conradson, S D

    2013-03-01

    Formation of hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide, UO2+x, derived from the fluorite structure was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oxidation was modeled by adding oxygen atoms to UO2 fluorite supercells. For each compound ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to allow the ions to optimize their local geometry. A similar approach was used for studying the reduction of U3O8. In agreement with the experimental phase diagram we identify stable line compounds at the U4O9-y and U3O7 stoichiometries. Although the transition from fluorite to the layered U3O8 structure occurs at U3O7 (UO2.333) or U3O7.333 (UO2.444), our calculated low temperature phase diagram indicates that the fluorite derived compounds are favored up to UO2.5, that is, as long as the charge-compensation for adding oxygen atoms occurs via formation of U(5+) ions, after which the U3O8-y phase becomes more stable. The most stable fluorite UO2+x phases at low temperature (0 K) are based on ordering of split quad-interstitial oxygen clusters. Most existing crystallographic models of U4O9 and U3O7, however, apply the cuboctahedral cluster. To better understand these discrepancies, the new structural models are analyzed in terms of existing neutron diffraction data. DFT calculations were also performed on the experimental cuboctahedral based U4O9-y structure, which enable comparisons between the properties of this phase with the quad-interstitial ones in detail. PMID:23406007

  20. 3,3,6,6-Tetra-methyl-9-[6-(3,3,6,6-tetra-methyl-1,8-dioxo-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-octa-hydro-1H-xanthen-9-yl)pyridin-2-yl]-2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-octa-hydro-1H-xanthene-1,8-dione.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Antar A; Mohamed, Shaaban Kamel; Allahverdiyev, Mirze A; Gurbanov, Atash V; Ng, Seik Weng

    2011-04-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C(39)H(45)NO(6), the two tetra-methyl-octa-hydroxanthen-1,8-dione substituents are arranged approximately parallel to each other and approximately perpendicular to the plane of the pyridine ring. The six-membered xanthene rings adopt flattened boat conformations with the O and methine C atoms deviating from the plane of the other four atoms. PMID:21754076

  1. Reproductive and toxicological effects in brook trout following a dietary exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Tietge, J.E.; Johnson, R.D.; Jensen, K.; Elonen, G.; Fernandez, J.; Holcombe, G.; Lothenbach, D.; West, C.

    1994-12-31

    One and one half year old brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were exposed to a diet containing [1,6-H{sup 3}]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to determine the effects of TCDD on survival, growth, and reproduction. Five dietary TCDD concentrations were fed to quadruplicate tanks with 1 6 fish per tank. The exposure was split into loading and maintenance phases. During the four week loading phase, the fish were fed a diet to bring their TCDD residues up to whole body target residues of 1200, 600, 300, 150, 75, and 0 pg/g. After the target residues were achieved, the fish were fed reduced TCDD concentrations to maintain whole body residues constant despite growth dilution and deputation. The maintenance diet was terminated after 11 weeks, and on the following day spawning substrates were introduced into the tanks and reproductive activity was monitored. During the exposure, excess fish were removed periodically to provide samples for whole body and tissue specific residue analysis. A spawning group of 3 females and 2 males were maintained in each tank through the reproductive phase on a non-contaminated diet. Spawning activities were observed twice daily. There were no treatment related effects on survival and growth, but a delay in spawning was observed in the high treatment. Tissue specific distribution of TCDD residues in whole body, liver, muscle, fat, and gonads, generally followed a lipid normalized distribution pattern.

  2. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Silkworth, J.B.; Cutler, D.S.; Antrim, L.; Houston, D.; Tumasonis, C.; Kaminsky, L.S. )

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups.

  3. Atg8 Transfer from Atg7 to Atg3: A Distinctive E1-E2 Architecture and Mechanism in the Autophagy Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Taherbhoy, Asad M.; Tait, Stephen W.; Kaiser, Stephen E.; Williams, Allison H.; Deng, Alan; Nourse, Amanda; Hammel, Michal; Kurinov, Igor; Rock, Charles O.; Green, Douglas R.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-07-11

    Atg7 is a noncanonical, homodimeric E1 enzyme that interacts with the noncanonical E2 enzyme, Atg3, to mediate conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) Atg8 during autophagy. Here we report that the unique N-terminal domain of Atg7 (Atg7{sup NTD}) recruits a unique 'flexible region' from Atg3 (Atg3{sup FR}). The structure of an Atg7{sup NTD}-Atg3{sup FR} complex reveals hydrophobic residues from Atg3 engaging a conserved groove in Atg7, important for Atg8 conjugation. We also report the structure of the homodimeric Atg7 C-terminal domain, which is homologous to canonical E1s and bacterial antecedents. The structures, SAXS, and crosslinking data allow modeling of a full-length, dimeric (Atg7 {approx} Atg8-Atg3){sub 2} complex. The model and biochemical data provide a rationale for Atg7 dimerization: Atg8 is transferred in trans from the catalytic cysteine of one Atg7 protomer to Atg3 bound to the N-terminal domain of the opposite Atg7 protomer within the homodimer. The studies reveal a distinctive E1 {approx} UBL-E2 architecture for enzymes mediating autophagy.

  4. Synthesis, structures, electrochemical studies and antioxidant activity of 5-aryl-4-oxo-3,4,5,8-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7-carboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, Jairo; Romo, Pablo E.; Ortiz, Alejandro; Isaza, José Hipólito; Insuasty, Braulio; Abonia, Rodrigo; Nogueras, Manuel; Cobo, Justo

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of 5-aryl-4-oxo-3,4,5,8-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7-carboxylic acids 3 from the reaction of 6-aminopyrimidines 1 with arylidene derivatives of pyruvic acid 2 under microwave and ultrasound irradiation is described. The orientation of cyclization process was determined by NMR measurements. The methodology provides advantages such as high yields and friendly to the environment without the use of solvents. The antioxidant properties, DPPH free radical scavenging, ORAC, and anodic potential oxidation of the new pyridopyrimidines were studied.

  5. Water-soluble Cp ruthenium complex containing 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane and 8-thiotheophylline derivatives: synthesis, characterization, and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Lazhar; Saraiba-Bello, Cristobal; Romerosa, Antonio; Segovia-Torrente, Gaspar; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Bergamini, Paola; Canella, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    The new water-soluble ruthenium(II) mononuclear complexes [RuCp(X)(PTA)(L)] (X = 8-thio-theophyllinate (TTH(-)), L = PTA (1), L = PPh(3) (7)); (X = 8-methylthio-theophyllinate (8-MTT(-)), L = PTA (2), L = PPh(3) (8)), (X = 8-benzylthio-theophyllinate (8-BzTT(-)), L = PTA (3), L = PPh(3) (9)) and binuclear complexes [{RuCp(PTA)(L)}(2)-μ-(Y-κN7,N'7)] (Y = bis(S-8-thiotheophyllinate)methane (MBTT(2-)), L = PTA (4), L = PPh(3) (10)), (Y = 1,2-bis(S-8-thiotheophyllinate)ethane (EBTT(2-)), L = PTA (5), L = PPh(3) (11)), (Y = 1,3-bis(S-8-thiotheophyllinate)propane (PBTT(2-)); L = PTA (6), L = PPh(3) (12)) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The single crystal X-ray structure of [RuCp(8-MTT-κS)(PTA)(2)] (2) was also obtained. The antiproliferative activity of the complexes on cisplatin-sensitive T2 and cisplatin-resistant SKOV3 cell lines has been evaluated. PMID:21226474

  6. 3,3,6,6,9,9-Hexaethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxacyclononane at 296 K.

    PubMed

    Cerna, Jorge; Bernès, Sylvain; Cañizo, Adriana; Eyler, Nora

    2009-11-01

    The title molecule (diethyl ketone triperoxide, DEKTP), C(15)H(30)O(6), is a cyclic triperoxide closely related to triacetone triperoxide (TATP), one of the most unstable explosives known. However, the stability of DEKTP is ca 20-50 times greater than that of TATP. DEKTP crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit, with virtually identical geometry. The cyclononane core is stabilized in a twisted boat-chair conformation (approximate D(3) symmetry), very close to that previously described for TATP. The explanation for the safe thermal behaviour of DEKTP compared with TATP should thus not be sought in the molecular dimensions, but rather in the thermal decomposition kinetics. PMID:19893236

  7. Diminished thymosin alpha-1 levels in persons exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Stehr-Green, P A; Naylor, P H; Hoffman, R E

    1989-01-01

    There is evidence from animal studies that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) impairs immune responses, with the thymus being a principal target organ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate thymic function, through measurement of thymic hormone levels, in persons exposed to TCDD. We examined thymosin alpha-1 (Thya-1) levels in sera from a group of 94 persons who were presumed to be exposed to TCDD from living, working, or recreating in a contaminated residential area. We compared these results, along with results from in vitro and in vivo tests of immune function, with those from a group of 105 unexposed persons who were similar with regard to age, sex, and race. The exposed group had a significantly lower mean Thya-1 serum level (977.3 +/- 304.1 pg/ml vs. 1148.7 +/- 482.1 pg/ml, p less than .01 by t-test). We also found a statistically significant trend of decreasing Thya-1 levels with increasing number of years of residence in the TCDD-contaminated area. However, Thya-1 levels were not associated with other measures of immune function in the TCDD-exposed group. Thus, while the principal findings suggest that long-term TCDD exposure may be associated with diminished secretion of Thya-1, the lack of an association with an increased prevalence of clinically diagnosed immune suppression in these TCDD-exposed persons makes the biologic significance of the findings unclear. Further studies are needed to more fully evaluate possible long-term TCDD-induced effects on the thymus and human immune function. PMID:2585536

  8. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagles

    SciTech Connect

    Koistinen, J.; Giesy, J.P.; Koivusaari, J.; Nuuja, I.; Vuorinen, P.J.; Paasivirta, J.

    1997-07-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-(TCDD) equivalents were measured in extracts of Baltic white-tailed sea eagle tissues. Extracts of salmon, ringed seal, and grey seal were analyzed as other predatory species of the same area. Concentrations in eagle and seal tissues were greater than those in salmon. Concentrations of TCDD equivalents (TCDD-EQs) determined by the H4IIE bioassay were compared with toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from instrumental chemical analyses in fractions containing polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Toxic equivalents were calculated by use of an additive model in which the product of the concentrations of instrumentally measured individual congeners were multiplied by their TCDD equivalency factors and were summed to give a total concentration of TEQs. The TCDD-EQs were compared with TEQs to develop a mass balance to determine whether all the TCDD-like activity was accounted for. The TEQs determined by chemical analyses for coplanar PCBs was 770 pg/g fw, and that of PCDD/PCDFs was 270 pg/g fw in this eagle. Thus, concentrations of TCDD-EQs were approx. 20% greater than those of TEQs. The true difference in activities is probably greater because of lower recoveries and infra-additivities among congeners in the bioassay. This indicates that there are compounds present in the extracts that can contribute to the total concentrations of TCDD-EQs in white-tailed sea eagle eggs to the no-observable-adverse-effect concentration, ranged from 7.3 to 141. This indicates that current concentrations of TCDD-EQs in these eggs are likely causing adverse effects in the Baltic populations of white-tailed sea eagles. This study indicated that the H4IIE bioassay is useful for monitoring the presence and biological activity of TCDD-like compounds in environmental samples like white-tailed sea eagles.

  9. Species differences in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity and biotransformation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, J.M.; Olson, J.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1988-02-01

    Rainbow trout, yellow perch, carp, bluegill, largemouth bass, and bullhead were treated with graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1, 5, 25, or 125 micrograms/kg) or vehicle, ip. The lethal potency of TCDD tended to be greater in yellow perch, carp, and bullhead than in the other three species (LD50 80 days post-treatment, 3-5 versus 10-16 micrograms/kg, respectively). All species treated with the highest dose of TCDD (125 micrograms/kg) displayed a latency period of 1-4 weeks prior to death; longer latency periods were produced by lower lethal doses. Effects of TCDD treatment on body weight were both species-dependent and dose-dependent. Fin necrosis was observed in all fish species; however, cutaneous hemorrhage was observed only in TCDD-treated perch, carp, and bluegill, and cutaneous hyperpigmentation only in TCDD-treated carp and largemouth bass. Gallbladder bile was analyzed for TCDD and its metabolites 7 days after fish were injected with (/sup 14/C)TCDD (60 micrograms/kg, ip). At least three TCDD metabolites in addition to the parent compound were found in the gallbladder bile of all six species. In addition, the retention time of the major biliary TCDD metabolite (determined by HPLC) was similar in all species except yellow perch. Beta-Glucuronidase treatment of the bile from largemouth bass and bluegill suggested that at least two of the TCDD metabolites were glucuronide conjugates. Thus, species differences exist in the lethal potency, signs of overt toxicity, and biotransformation of TCDD among freshwater fish.

  10. 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in Great Lakes salmon derived using mammalian, bird, and fish cell bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Heuvel, M.R. van den; Clemons, J.H.; Bols, N.C.; Dixon, D.G.; Kennedy, S.W.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Smith, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Chinook salmon from lakes Ontario and Huron, and Coho salmon from lakes Ontario and Erie were captured during their fall spawning migration. Subsamples of extracted pooled muscle, liver and egg tissue were used to measure congener specific PCBs, chlorinated dioxins and furans as well as bioassay derived 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent concentration (TEC). The cell culture bioassays used to measure TECs were rat hepatoma (H411E) and rainbow trout hepatocyte (RTL-W1) continuous cell lines as well as chicken embryo hepatocyte primary culture (CEH). Although excellent correlations were found between all 3 cell culture bioassays, CEH was found to be 10 times and 30 times more sensitive than H411E and RTL-W1 respectively. Lake Ontario TECs were found to be higher than either Lake Huron or Lake Erie samples for both species of Salmon, and Chinook salmon was elevated over Coho Salmon. Chemical data indicates that the more toxic coplanar PCBs are selectively concentrated in eggs as compared to liver and muscle. Bioassay derived TECs are discussed with regard to chemical contribution of the PCB and dioxin/furan congeners based on an additive model.

  11. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, X. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder joints was investigated over a range of test temperatures (25°C, 75°C, and 125°C), frequencies (0.001 Hz, 0.01 Hz, and 0.1 Hz), and strain ranges (0.78%, 1.6%, and 3.1%). Effects of temperature and frequency on the LCF life were studied. Results show that the LCF lifetime decreases with an increase in test temperature or a decrease of test frequency, which is attributed to the longer exposure time to creep and the stress relaxation mechanism during fatigue testing. A modified Coffin-Manson model considering effects of temperature and frequency on the LCF life is proposed. The fatigue exponent and ductility coefficient were found to be influenced by both the temperature and frequency. By fitting the experimental data, the mathematical relations between the fatigue exponent and temperature, and ductility coefficient and temperature, were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cross-sections and fracture surfaces of failed specimens at different temperature and frequency was applied to verify the failure mechanisms.

  12. Mode of metabolism is altered in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Muzi, G; Gorski, J R; Rozman, K

    1989-04-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat (HF) or a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet and subsequently injected with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (125 micrograms/kg) or vehicle (pair-fed controls). In all TCDD-treated animals, a reduction in caloric intake was evident as early as 1 day after dosage. Respiratory quotients (RQ) were determined at 5-day intervals. Their pattern for the HC-fed but not for the HF-fed TCDD-treated rats was different from that of the corresponding pair-fed controls. After an initial parallel decrease the RQ values remained low for TCDD-treated rats whereas they increased again for pair-fed controls. Serum total thyroxine (T4) was significantly lower in TCDD-treated animals and this reduction was not influenced by the composition of the diet. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) was neither altered by diet nor by TCDD. Thymic atrophy was as severe in pair-fed as in TCDD-treated rats fed the HC diet but not in rats fed the HF diet. Our results suggest that TCDD-treated rats are in a different mode of metabolism from pair-fed rats and that this difference is related to gluconeogenesis. PMID:2711413

  13. Discovery and Rational Design of Pteridin-7(8H)-one-Based Inhibitors Targeting FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3) and Its Mutants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Deheng; Yang, Yu; Lyu, Jiankun; Zhou, Wei; Song, Wenlin; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Yufang; Li, Honglin

    2016-07-14

    FLT3 has been validated as a therapeutic target for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this paper, we describe for the first time, pteridin-7(8H)-one as a scaffold for potent FLT3 inhibitors derived from structural optimizations on irreversible EGFR inhibitors. The representative inhibitor (31) demonstrates single-digit nanomolar inhibition against FLT3 and subnanomolar KD for drug-resistance FLT3 mutants. In profiling of the in vitro tumor cell lines, it shows good selectivity against AML cells harboring FLT3-ITD mutations over other leukemia and solid tumor cell lines. The mechanism of action study illustrates that pteridin-7(8H)-one derivatives suppress the phosphorylation of FLT3 and its downstream pathways, thereby inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in AML cells. In in vivo studies, 31 significantly suppresses the tumor growth in MV4-11 xenograft model. Overall, we provide a structurally distinct chemical scaffold with which to develop FLT3 mutants-selective inhibitors for AML treatment. PMID:27266526

  14. Induction of CYP1A and ABC transporters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon 2,3,7,8-TCDD waterborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Mariottini, Michela; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Trisciani, Anna; Marchi, Davide; Corsi, Ilaria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the responsiveness of CYP1A and ABC transport proteins in European Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) waterborne exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) (46 pg/L) for 24 h and 7 days. Genes modulation (abcb1, abcc1-2, cyp1a), EROD activity were investigated in liver and 2,3,7,8-TCDD bioconcentration in liver and muscle. TCDD induced significantly cyp1a gene expression and EROD activity at 24 h and 7 d. A significant up-regulation of abcb1 was also observed but only after 7 days. No modulation of abcc1 and abcc2 genes was observed. Waterborne TCDD exposure was able to induce CYP1A and abcb1 encoding for P-glycoprotein in juvenile of European sea bass. PMID:25016329

  15. Spectroscopic and thermal studies on charge-transfer complexes of perhydroisoquinoline with p-chloranil, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and 7,7',8,8'-tetracyanoquinodimethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Abou-Melha, Sraa

    2012-03-01

    Charge-transfer interactions of perhydroisoquinoline (PHIQ) with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4- benzoquinone (DDQ), p-chloranil (CHL), and 7,7',8,8'-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in chloroform as a solvent have resulted in stable complexes with a general formula [(PHIQ)(acceptor)] with a molar ratio of 1:1 (donor:acceptor). Elemental (C, H, N) and thermogravimetric (TGA/DTG) analyses, photometric titration, and electronic, infrared, and 1H NMR spectra were used to give an idea of the charge-transfer interaction between donating and accepting sites. The Benesi-Hildebrand method and its modification were used to determine an association constant (K) and a molar extinction coefficient (ɛ).

  16. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone, a citrus flavonoid, on protection against memory impairment and neuronal cell death in a global cerebral ischemia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Morita, Mayu; Miyoshi, Kazuhiro; Nishigawa, Yuki; Kaji, Miki; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Terugo, Tsukasa; Toyoda, Nobuki; Makihata, Nahomi; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of treatment with the citrus flavonoid, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) on protection against memory impairment and neuronal death in a global cerebral ischemia mouse model. The results showed that HMF, administrated for three days immediately after ischemic surgery, protected against ischemia-induced memory dysfunction, rescued neuronal cell death in the CA1 cell layer, increased the production of BDNF, stimulated the autophosphorylation of CaMK II and suppressed microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results suggest that HMF has a neuroprotective effect after brain ischemia by inducing BDNF production and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24657445

  17. 2 μm fluorescence of Ho3+:5I7 → 5I8 transition sensitized by Er3+ in tellurite germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Tian, Ying; Li, Bingpeng; Wang, Fengchao; Jing, Xufeng; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Shiqing

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigated the mid-infrared luminescence properties of Er3+/Ho3+ co-doped tellurite germanate glass at 2 μm pumped by 980 nm. Thermal stability of the system, absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra of the Er3+/Ho3+ co-doped glass sample were measured. Besides, the absorption spectra of the Ho3+ singly doped sample was measured. According to the measured absorption spectra and the Judd-Ofelt theory, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6), spontaneous radiative transition probability, branching ratio and lifetime of Ho3+ were calculated. And the upconversion emission in Er3+ doped and Er3+/Ho3+ co-doped tellurite germanate glasses pumped by 980 nm have been investigated. Then the spectroscopic properties and possible energy transfer mechanisms between Ho3+ and Er3+ ions were discussed in detail. Meanwhile, the FWHM (146 nm), σepeak × FWHM (659.92 cm3) and emission cross section (4.52 × 10-21 cm2) of 5I8 → 5I7 transition of Ho3+ were obtained, respectively. The results indicate that Er3+/Ho3+ co-doped tellurite germanate glass is a promising host material for 2 μm solid laser.

  18. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R)-2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7-tri-methyl-10-methylenetri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodecan-9-ol.

    PubMed

    Benzalim, Ahmed; Auhmani, Aziz; Bimoussa, Abdoullah; Ait Itto, My Youssef; Daran, Jean-Claude; Auhmani, Abdelwahed

    2016-08-01

    The title compound, C16H24Cl2O, was synthesized by treating (1S,3R,8S,9R,10S)-2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7,10-tetra-methyl-9,10-ep-oxy-tri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodecane with a concentrated solution of hydro-bromic acid. It is built up from three fused rings: a cyclo-heptane ring, a cyclo-hexyl ring bearing alkene and hy-droxy substituents, and a cyclo-propane ring bearing two chlorine atoms. The asymmetric unit contains two mol-ecules linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, further O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds build up an R 4 (4)(8) cyclic tetra-mer. One of the mol-ecules presents disorder that affects the seven-membered ring. In both mol-ecules, the six-membered rings display a chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display conformations inter-mediate between boat and twist-boat for the non-disordered mol-ecule and either a chair or boat and twist-boat for the disordered mol-ecule owing to the disorder. The absolute configuration for both mol-ecules is 1S,3R,8R,9R and was deduced from the chemical pathway and further confirmed by the X-ray structural analysis. PMID:27536404

  19. Altered regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-treated male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bookstaff, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) severely decreases plasma androgen concentrations, yet plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations remain unchanged. The mechanism by which TCDD prevents the expected compensatory increase in plasma LH was investigated. No effect on the plasma disappearance rate of LH or on pituitary capacity to synthesize or secrete LH was detected. Rather, TCDD altered the regulation of LH secretion by substantially increasing the potency of both androgens and estrogens as feedback inhibitors of LH secretion. The mechanism by which TCDD alters androgen-regulated LH secretion was further investigated. Seven days after dosing, TCDD decreased plasma testosterone concentrations but prevented the expected compensatory increases in pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, and plasma LH concentrations as seen in similarly hypoandrogenic vehicle dosed rats. Furthermore, the TCDD dose-response relationships for preventing the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number and plasma LH concentration were similar. However, in the absence of gonadal steroids (7 days after castration) TCDD did not affect the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, or plasma LH concentration. All of these parameters increased substantially relative to intact TCDD treated rats, and to levels virtually identical to those seen in castrated control rats. Treatment of castrated rats with testosterone restored the ability of TCDD to prevent these compensatory increases. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the presence of androgens is required for TCDD to alter the regulation of pituitary GnRH receptors.

  20. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the love canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Antrim, L; Houston, D; Tumasonis, C; Kaminsky, L S

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups. It was concluded that the OPL is teratogenic and that hydronephrosis is a sensitive measure of TCDD toxicity in a

  1. Adverse health effects in humans exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    PubMed

    Pelclová, Daniela; Urban, Pavel; Preiss, Jan; Lukás, Edgar; Fenclová, Zdenka; Navrátil, Tomás; Dubská, Zora; Senholdová, Zdenka

    2006-01-01

    The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) belongs to the category of highly toxic, persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in animal fat and plant tissues. Today, background TCDD levels in human fat are showing a decreasing trend. The food chain is the main source of exposure in the human population. TCDD regulates the expression of a wide range of drug-metabolizing enzymes and has an impact on a large number of biological systems. The most pronounced effects have occurred in occupational settings following the uncontrolled formation of TCDD after industrial accidents, as well as in rare intentional intoxications. Although the acute effects of TCDD exposure are well described in the literature, the long-term consequences have been underevaluated. The most well-known symptoms of severe acute intoxication are chloracne, porphyria, transient hepatotoxicity, and peripheral and central neurotoxicity. Because of the long-term persistence of TCDD in the human body, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, vascular ocular changes, and signs of neural system damage, including neuropsychological impairment, can be present several decades after massive exposure. Such chronic effects are nonspecific, multifactorial, and may be causally linked to TCDD only in heavily intoxicated subjects. This opinion is supported by the dose-dependent effect of TCDD found in exposed workers and by experimental animal studies. PMID:16898675

  2. Reproductive outcomes of mothers with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Stockbauer, J.W.; Hoffman, R.E.; Schramm, W.F.; Edmonds, L.D.

    1988-08-01

    Animal laboratory studies have demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has fetotoxic and teratogenic effects at low doses. TCDD contamination of soil in nine residential areas of eastern Missouri began in 1971 when several horse arenas and dirt roads were sprayed for dust control with a mixture that contained waste oil and dioxin. The authors conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine if adverse human reproductive outcomes are associated with exposure to soil contaminated with dioxin. The authors attempted to identify all births during the period of January 1, 1972 through December 31, 1982 that had potential exposure to dioxin, based on proximity of the maternal address to a location of known TCDD contamination. This group totaled 410 births. A matched set of 820 unexposed births was selected as a comparison group after being matched for maternal age and race, year of birth, hospital of birth, and plurality. The exposed group had increased risk ratios for infant, fetal, and perinatal death; low birth weight; and several subcategories of birth defects. None of these increased risk ratios for the exposed group were statistically significant. These results do not provide evidence that TCDD exposure has a substantial impact on the reproductive outcomes investigated. If TCDD does produce effects on reproductive health, a larger study and/or better measures of exposure may be needed to discover them.

  3. Serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in US Army Vietnam-era veterans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-02

    This study investigates whether military records can be used to identify US Army Vietnam veterans who were likely to be exposed to the herbicide Agent Orange. Serum levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a toxic contaminant in Agent Orange, were obtained for 646 ground combat troops who served in heavily sprayed areas of Vietnam and for 97 veterans who did not serve in Vietnam. The distributions of current TCDD levels in Vietnam and non-Vietnam veterans were nearly identical (mean in each group, approx. = 4 parts per trillion (ppt)). Only two men (both Vietnam veterans) had clearly elevated levels (> 20 ppt). Levels of TCDD did not tend to increase with greater likelihood of exposure to Agent Orange, as estimated from either military records of self-reported exposure. This study is consistent with other studies and suggests that most US Army ground troops who served in Vietnam were not heavily exposed to TCDD, except perhaps men whose jobs involved handling herbicides.

  4. Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gorski, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Toxic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were characterized in male Sprague-Dawley rats in order to elucidate the mechanism of acute toxicity of this potent halogenated hydrocarbon. Studies in TCDD-treated, pair-fed control and ad libitum-fed control rates, as well as in thyroidectomized, adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized, revealed differential hormonal, toxicologic and histophathologic responses suggesting that these manifestations of TCDD exposure are the results of an insult to intermediary metabolism. Tissue specific alterations in de novo fatty acid synthesis were directly related to differential changes observed in thyroid hormone homeostasis. The increased hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis provided a likely mechanism for the documented fact that TCDD-treated rats lose more body weight than corresponding pair-fed controls because de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an energy inefficient metabolic process. Experiments in adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized rats led to the hypothesis that severe hypoglycemia due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis is the cause of TCDD-induced death. A subsequent characterization of gluconeogenesis in TCDD-treated rats confirmed this hypothesis.

  5. Embryo toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the wood duck (Aix sponsa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Bursian, S.J.; Fitzgerald, S.D.; Hinton, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) embryo to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by injecting the toxicant into their eggs. Six groups of wood duck eggs (n = 35 to 211 per trial) were injected with 0 to 4600 pg TCDD/g egg between 2003 and 2005. Injections were made into yolk prior to incubation, and eggs were subsequently incubated and assessed weekly for mortality. Significant TCDD-induced mortality was not observed through day 25 (90% of incubation). Liver, heart, eye, and brain histology were generally unremarkable. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, a biomarker of dioxin-like compound exposure, was induced by 12-fold in the 4600 pg/g treatment relative to controls. The median lethal dose for chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs we dosed identically to wood duck eggs was about 100 pg/g, similar to other assessments of chickens. Among dioxin-like compound embryo lethality data for 15 avian genera, the wood duck 4600 pg/g no-observed-effect level ranks near the middle. Because no higher doses were tested, wood ducks may be like other waterfowl (order Anseriformes), which are comparatively tolerant to embryo mortality from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans when exposed by egg injection. ?? 2008 US Government.

  6. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk. PMID:26195119

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Human Keratinocyte Response to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qin; Rice, Robert H.; Qin, Qin; Phinney, Brett S.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Bao, Wenjun; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related polyhalogenated organic pollutants occurs as a consequence of modern life. Exploring the cellular basis for their action is anticipated to help understand the risk they pose and improve the foundation for their regulation. A basis for the striking change in human keratinocyte colony morphology due to TCDD exposure has been investigated by shotgun proteomics. Concentrating on changes in protein levels among three cell strains has revealed significant decreases in the differentiation markers filaggrin, keratin 1 and keratin 10. EGF treatment in concert with TCDD enhanced the changes in these markers and several other proteins while reducing the levels of certain other proteins. The only protein stimulated by TCDD in all three strains and reversed by EGF in them was vimentin, not previously observed to be in the Ah receptor response domain. Although TCDD is often proposed to enhance keratinocyte differentiation, proteomic analysis reveals it uncouples the differentiation program and suggests that reduced levels of differentiation marker proteins contribute to the observed excessive stratification it induces. PMID:23991859

  8. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    PubMed Central

    Saberi Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Boers, Daisy; Portengen, Lützen; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Few epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and contaminants including TCDD. Methods: Eighty-five workers who had been exposed to either high (n = 47) or low (n = 38) TCDD levels more than 30 years before serum collection were included in the current investigation. Plasma level of 16 cytokines, 10 chemokines, and 6 growth factors were measured. Current plasma levels of TCDD (TCDDcurrent) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. TCDD blood levels at the time of last exposure (TCDDmax) were estimated using a one-compartment first order kinetic model. Results: Blood levels of most analytes had a negative association with current and estimated past maximum TCDD levels. These decreases reached formal statistical significance for fractalkine, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) with increasing TCDD levels. Conclusion: Our study showed a general reduction in most analyte levels with the strongest effects for fractalkine, FGF2, and TGF-α. These findings suggest that TCDD exposure could suppress the immune system and that chemokine and growth factor-dependent cellular pathway changes by TCDD may play role in TCDD toxicity and associated health effects. PMID:22655272

  9. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.W.; Ankley, G.T.; Elonen, G.E.; Phipps, G.W.; Fernandez, J.D.; Libal, J.J.; Nessa, D.

    1994-12-31

    Invertebrate exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD is important, not necessarily because of their sensitivity (which appears to be less than that of fish) , but as a vector from chemical reservoirs in sediments, through the food chain, to sensitive species. Chironomus tentans and Lumbriculus variegatus are not only vectors for TCDD to fish species, but C. tentans may also be a direct vector to avian species which feed upon emergent insects. For this reason determination of the kinetics of TCDD uptake by invertebrates is important, especially for those with short life spans such as midges, or those that reproduce as rapidly as oligochaetes. In these experiments, these two species were fed contaminated food at three different TCDD levels spanning three orders of magnitude. Tissue residue levels were measured over a time period which included several different life stages and points in the reproductive cycle of the two species and uptake and deputation rates determined. As expected, no significant impacts of TCDD on growth, reproduction or biomass of the invertebrates were observed. From this information predictions can be made on bioaccumulation of TCDD from differing levels of contamination, and potential food chain transfer of the compound to more sensitive species.

  10. Trends in 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations in fish tissues downstream of pulp mills bleaching with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.D.; Hinton, S.W.

    1996-07-01

    Field measurements of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations in fish tissues from riverine environments impacted by treated pulp and paper industry effluent in the US were analyzed. Data from 39 sites in 14 states across the four major US paper-making regions were assembled and analyzed to determine the annual change in lipid-normalized concentrations of TCDD in fish tissue. The results provide strong evidence of a nationwide trend of decreasing lipid-normalized TCDD concentrations in fish tissue, with 84% of the examined sites showing a decrease. While the paucity of data currently limits any conclusions regarding the statistical significance at individual sites, the overall median rate calculated indicates a 0.36 annual fractional decrease in lipid-normalized concentrations of TCDD in fish tissue (0.18 to 0.51, 95% confidence interval); the average annual fractional decrease was 0.35 (0.23 to 0.47, 95% confidence interval). Subdividing fish into benthic and nonbenthic categories resulted in rates which were not significantly different from one another for both the median and mean statistics.

  11. Proteomic analysis of human keratinocyte response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin; Rice, Robert H; Qin, Qin; Phinney, Brett S; Eigenheer, Richard A; Bao, Wenjun; Zhao, Bin

    2013-11-01

    Chronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related polyhalogenated organic pollutants occurs as a consequence of modern life. Exploring the cellular basis for their action is anticipated to help understand the risk they pose and improve the foundation for their regulation. A basis for the striking change in human keratinocyte colony morphology due to TCDD exposure has been investigated by shotgun proteomics. Concentrating on changes in protein levels among three cell strains has revealed significant decreases in the differentiation markers filaggrin, keratin 1, and keratin 10. EGF treatment in concert with TCDD enhanced the changes in these markers and several other proteins while reducing the levels of certain other proteins. The only protein stimulated by TCDD in all three strains and reversed by EGF in them was vimentin, not previously observed to be in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor response domain. Although TCDD is often proposed to enhance keratinocyte differentiation, proteomic analysis reveals it uncouples the differentiation program and suggests that reduced levels of differentiation marker proteins contribute to the observed excessive stratification it induces. PMID:23991859

  12. Embryo toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the wood duck (Aix sponsa).

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Tillitt, D E; Bursian, S J; Fitzgerald, S D; Hinton, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We examined the sensitivity of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) embryo to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by injecting the toxicant into their eggs. Six groups of wood duck eggs (n = 35 to 211 per trial) were injected with 0 to 4600 pg TCDD/g egg between 2003 and 2005. Injections were made into yolk prior to incubation, and eggs were subsequently incubated and assessed weekly for mortality. Significant TCDD-induced mortality was not observed through day 25 (90% of incubation). Liver, heart, eye, and brain histology were generally unremarkable. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity, a biomarker of dioxin-like compound exposure, was induced by 12-fold in the 4600 pg/g treatment relative to controls. The median lethal dose for chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs we dosed identically to wood duck eggs was about 100 pg/g, similar to other assessments of chickens. Among dioxin-like compound embryo lethality data for 15 avian genera, the wood duck 4600 pg/g no-observed-effect level ranks near the middle. Because no higher doses were tested, wood ducks may be like other waterfowl (order Anseriformes), which are comparatively tolerant to embryo mortality from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans when exposed by egg injection. PMID:18704254

  13. Suppression of humoral immune responses by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin intercalated in smectite clay.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Stephen A; Johnston, Cliff T; Pinnavaia, Thomas J; Kaminski, Norbert E; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui; Khan, Bushra; Crawford, Robert B; Kovalova, Natalia; Kim, Seong-Su; Shao, Hua; Gu, Cheng; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2011-12-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic environmental contaminant found in soils and sediments. Because of its exceptionally low water solubility, this compound exists predominantly in the sorbed state in natural environments. Clay minerals, especially expandable smectite clays, are one of the major component geosorbents in soils and sediments that can function as an effective adsorbent for environmental dioxins, including TCDD. In this study, TCDD was intercalated in the smectite clay saponite by an incipient wetness method. The primary goal of this study was to intercalate TCDD in natural K-saponite clay and evaluate its immunotoxic effects in vivo. The relative bioavailability of TCDD was evaluated by comparing the metabolic activity of TCDD administered in the adsorbed state as an intercalate in saponite and freely dissolved in corn oil. This comparison revealed nearly identical TCDD-induced suppression of humoral immunity, a well-established and sensitive sequela, in a mammalian (mouse) model. This result suggests that TCDD adsorbed by clays is likely to be available for biouptake and biodistribution in mammals, consistent with previous observations of TCDD in livestock exposed to dioxin-contaminated ball clays that were used as feed additives. Adsorption of TCDD by clay minerals does not appear to mitigate risk associated with TCDD exposure substantially. PMID:21994089

  14. Use of polyurethane foam and 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline for determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Apyari, V V; Dmitrienko, S G; Ostrovskaya, V M; Anaev, E K; Zolotov, Y A

    2008-07-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) has been suggested as a solid polymeric reagent for determination of nitrite. The determination is based on the diazotization of end toluidine groups of PUF with nitrite in acidic medium followed by coupling of polymeric diazonium cation with 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline. The intensely colored polymeric azodye formed in this reaction can be used as a convenient analytic form for the determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (c (min) = 0.7 ng mL(-1)). The possibility of using a desktop scanner, digital camera, and computer data processing for the numerical evaluation of the color intensity of the polymeric azodye has been investigated. A scanner and digital camera can be used for determination of nitrite with the same sensitivity and reproducibility as with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The approach developed was applied for determination of nitrite in river water and human exhaled breath condensate. PMID:18431561

  15. Aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness-receptor agonists generated from indole-3-carbinol in vitro and in vivo: Comparisons with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bjeldanes, L.F.; Jinyoung Kim; Grose, K.R.; Bartholomew, J.C. ); Bradfield, C.A. )

    1991-11-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a secondary plant metabolite produced in vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, cauliflower, and brussels sprouts. I3C is both an anti-initiator and a promoter of carcinogenesis. Consumption of I3C by humans and rodents can lead to marked increases in activities of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases and in a variety of phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. The authors have reported previously that the enzyme-inducing activity of I3C is mediated through a mechanism requiring exposure of the compound to the low-pH environment of the stomach. They report here the aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness-receptor K{sub d} values (22 nM-90 nM), determined with C57BL/6J mouse liver cytosol and the in vitro- and in vivo-molar yields of the major acid condensation products of I3C. They also show that indolo (3,2-b)carbazole (ICZ) is produced form I3C in yields on the order of 0.01% in vitro and, after oral intubation, in vivo. ICZ has a K{sub d} of 190 pM for aromatic hydrocarbon responsiveness-receptor binding and an EC{sub 50} of 269 nM for induction of cytochrome P4501A1, as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells. The binding affinity of ICZ is only a factor of 3.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} lower than that of the highly toxic environmental contaminant and cancer promoter 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. ICZ and related condensation products appear responsible for the enzyme-inducing effects of dietary I3C.

  16. Decontamination of human skin exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weber, L W; Zesch, A; Rozman, K

    1992-01-01

    Human post-mortem skin was exposed in vitro to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at 32 degrees C, under controlled humidity. In one-half of the samples, damage to the surface of the skin was simulated by stripping of the stratum corneum. After incubation with TCDD for 100 min, four different decontamination protocols were performed: (1) the sample was wiped with dry, adsorbent material (cotton balls); (2) a 10-min topical treatment with mineral oil was followed by dry wiping with cotton balls; (3) a 10-min topical treatment with mineral oil was followed by wiping with acetone-soaked cotton balls; and (4) the sample was washed with water and soap. After decontamination, skin samples were incubated (up to 300 min) again at 32 degrees C. One set of both intact and stripped TCDD-exposed skin samples was incubated for 300 min--absent decontamination--and was used as a control. Mineral oil treatment and acetone wipes, or water and soap, were effective in reducing (i.e., about two-fold) the amount of TCDD in the stratum corneum of intact skin. Mineral oil plus dry wipes reduced the amount of TCDD in the stratum corneum by about one-third, whereas dry wiping alone was ineffective. All protocols, however, were similarly effective in reducing the amount of TCDD in the epidermis and upper dermis; TCDD concentrations were decreased locally by factors of up to ten. In the lower dermis, a minimal effect of the decontamination procedures was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1497385

  17. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

  18. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases human hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Wendy A; Jurgensen, Kimberly; Pu, Xinzhu; Lamb, Cheri L; Cornell, Kenneth A; Clark, Reilly J; Klocke, Carolyn; Mitchell, Kristen A

    2016-02-17

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon that elicits toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the liver, gross markers of TCDD toxicity are attributed to AhR activation in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, less is known regarding the consequences of TCDD treatment on non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are non-parenchymal cells that store vitamin A when quiescent. Upon liver injury, activated HSCs lose this storage ability and instead function in the development and maintenance of inflammation and fibrosis through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and collagen type I. Reports that TCDD exposure disrupts hepatic retinoid homeostasis and dysregulates extracellular matrix remodeling in the liver led us to speculate that TCDD treatment may disrupt HSC activity. The human HSC line LX-2 was used to test the hypothesis that TCDD treatment directly activates HSCs. Results indicate that exposure to 10nM TCDD almost completely inhibited lipid droplet storage in LX-2 cells cultured with retinol and palmitic acid. TCDD treatment also increased LX-2 cell proliferation, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all of which are characteristics of activated HSCs. However, TCDD treatment had no effect on Col1a1 mRNA levels in LX-2 cells stimulated with the potent profibrogenic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. The TCDD-mediated increase in LX-2 cell proliferation, but not MCP-1 production, was abolished when phosphoinositide 3-kinase was inhibited. These results indicate that HSCs are susceptible to direct modulation by TCDD and that TCDD likely increases HSC activation through a multi-faceted mechanism. PMID:26860701

  19. Potentiation and antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin effects in a complex environmental mixture.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; O'Keefe, P W; Lipinskas, T

    1993-04-01

    There is increasing need to understand the toxicity of complex environmental mixtures. The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site is a complex mixture that contains over 100 organic compounds, including 0.74 ppm 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Mice congenic at the Ah locus were used to evaluate several toxic effects of the OPL, including immune function and hepatic enzyme induction. OPL toxicity was compared with that of pure TCDD in both C57BL/6J Ahb/b and congenic C57BL/6 Ahd/d (B6.D2) mice. Mice were given single oral doses of up to 2 g OPL/kg or 100 micrograms TCDD/kg, immunized, and evaluated after 7 days. The TCDD equivalent of the OPL was determined to be 3.9 and 5.0 ppm in C57BL/6J and B6.D2 mice, respectively. This is six times the TCDD content. The Ah phenotype-dependent response ratio was calculated by dividing the dose required to cause an effect in the B6.D2 strain by the dose causing the same effect in the C57BL/6J strain. Ratios based on both ED50s and the lowest observed adverse effect levels were used to determine whether each adverse effect was Ah phenotype-dependent, the extent to which TCDD contributed to the effect, whether there were interactive effects between the AhR ligands and nonligands and if they were additive, antagonistic, or synergistic, and whether the response was predictable based on the known chemical composition of the mixture. It was concluded that the non-TCDD component potentiated TCDD immune suppression, and possibly thymic atrophy, through AhR mechanisms. In contrast, this analysis indicated that the non-TCDD component of the OPL antagonized the ability of the TCDD component to induce hepatic AHH activity whereas OPL hepatomegaly was caused primarily by the non-TCDD component of the OPL. This study demonstrates that the toxicity of mixtures containing TCDD may not be accurately predicted based on the TCDD content alone and that this approach could be useful in the toxicologic

  20. Versatile Coordination Mode of LiNaB8O13 and α- and β-LiKB8O13 via the Flexible Assembly of Four-Connected B5O10 and B3O7 Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Donghai; Kong, Qingrong; Zhang, Min; Yang, Yun; Li, Danni; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie; Chen, Huimin; Su, Zhi; Sun, Yi; Mutailipu, Miriding

    2016-01-19

    Three new alkali-metal mixed borates, LiNaB8O13, α-LiKB8O13, and β-LiKB8O13, containing a (3)∞[B8O13] three-dimensional network have been successfully synthesized. Their fundamental building block is [B8O16](8-) formed by the vertex-sharing [B5O10](5-) and [B3O7](5-) groups, which are topologically identical when they are considered as four-connected nodes. The viewpoints give us a feasible way to investigate the versatile structure assembly of borates with a complex network. PMID:26692328

  1. Inter-strain heterogeneity in rat hepatic transcriptomic responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Cindy Q.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Pang, Renee; P'ng, Christine; Chong, Lauren C.; Harding, Nicholas J.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Okey, Allan B.; Boutros, Paul C.

    2012-04-15

    The biochemical and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been the subject of intense study for decades. It is now clear that essentially all TCDD-induced toxicities are mediated by DNA–protein interactions involving the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR). Nevertheless, it remains unknown which AHR target genes cause TCDD toxicities. Several groups, including our own, have developed rodent model systems to probe these questions. mRNA expression profiling of these model systems has revealed significant inter-species heterogeneity in rodent hepatic responses to TCDD. It has remained unclear if this variability also exists within a species, amongst rodent strains. To resolve this question, we profiled the hepatic transcriptomic response to TCDD of diverse rat strains (L-E, H/W, F344 and Wistar rats) and two lines derived from L-E × H/W crosses, at consistent age, sex, and dosing (100 μg/kg TCDD for 19 h). Using this uniquely consistent dataset, we show that the majority of TCDD-induced alterations in mRNA abundance are strain/line-specific: only 11 genes were affected by TCDD across all strains, including well-known dioxin-responsive genes such as Cyp1a1 and Nqo1. Our analysis identified two novel universally dioxin-responsive genes as well as 4 genes induced by TCDD in dioxin-sensitive rats only. These 6 genes are strong candidates to explain TCDD-related toxicities, so we validated them using 152 animals in time-course (0 to 384 h) and dose–response (0 to 3000 μg/kg) experiments. This study reveals that different rat strains exhibit dramatic transcriptional heterogeneity in their hepatic responses to TCDD and that inter-strain comparisons can help identify candidate toxicity-related genes.

  2. Synergistic effects of tributyltin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Koskela, Antti; Viluksela, Matti; Keinänen, Meeri; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the persistent and accumulative environmental pollutants tributyltin (TBT) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) individually and in combination on differentiating bone cells. TBT and TCDD are chemically distinct compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity, but they typically have the same sources of exposure and both have been shown to affect bone development at low exposure levels. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from femurs and tibias of C57BL/6 J mice, differentiated in culture into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and exposed to 0.1–10 nM TBT, 0.01–1 nM TCDD or 10 nM TBT + 1 nM TCDD. In osteoblasts, the combined exposure to TBT and TCDD significantly decreased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin more than TBT or TCDD alone. PCR array showed different gene expression profiles for TBT and TCDD individually, and the combination evoked several additional alterations in gene expression. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) was increased by TCDD as expected, but simultaneous exposure to TBT prevented the increase thus potentially strengthening AHR-mediated effects of TCDD. The number of osteoclasts was reduced by TCDD alone and in combination with TBT, but TBT alone had no effect. However, the total area of resorbed bone was remarkably lower after combined exposure than after TBT or TCDD alone. In conclusion, very low concentrations of TBT and TCDD have synergistic deleterious effects on bone formation and additive effects on bone resorption. -- Highlights: ► Combined exposure to TCDD and TBT evoked a unique gene expression profile. ► Osteoblast differentiation was synergistically disturbed after combined exposure. ► Bone resorbing activity was additively decreased after combined exposure.

  3. 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD enhances the sensitivity of mice to concanavalin A immune-mediated liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Aaron M.; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in immune-mediated liver injury, and exposure to environmental pollutants such as 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter the inflammatory response as well as affect immune cell activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD pretreatment exacerbates hepatotoxicity in a murine model of immune-mediated liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration. Mice were pretreated with 30µg/kg TCDD or vehicle control on day zero and then given either Con A or saline intravenously on day four. Mice treated with TCDD did not develop liver injury; however, TCDD-pretreatment increased liver injury resulting from moderate doses of Con A (4–10 mg/kg). TCDD-pretreated mice had altered plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFNγ), and TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity was attenuated in IFNγ knockout mice. At various times after treatment, intrahepatic immune cells were isolated, and expression of cell activation markers as well as cytolytic proteins was determined. TCDD pretreatment increased the proportion of activated natural killer T (NKT) cells and the percent of cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) after Con A administration. In addition FasL knockout mice and mice treated with CD18 antiserum were both protected from TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity, suggesting a requirement for direct cell-cell interaction between effector immune cells and parenchymal cell targets in the development of liver injury from TCDD/Con A treatment. In summary, exposure to TCDD increased NKT cell activation and exacerbated immune-mediated liver injury induced by Con A through a mechanism involving IFNγ and FasL expression. PMID:23164664

  4. Analytical procedures to detect 2,3,7,8-TCDD at Seveso after the industrial accident of July 10, 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Cattabeni, F.; di Domenico, A.; Merli, F.

    1986-08-01

    The analytical procedures used at Seveso (Milan, Italy) for the determination of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and some isomers, in biological and environmental samples are reviewed in this paper. During the emergency period, up until the first 10 days of August, the extracts, mostly from soil or vegetation samples, were evaporated to dryness and then mixed with less than or equal to 10-ml solvent. Of these solutions, aliquots up to 10 microliter were injected into a low-resolution gas chromatograph (GC) combined with a low-resolution mass spectrometer (MS). Analytical sensitivity for vegetation and soil was less than 10 ppb and approximately 100 ppt, respectively. After the emergency period, the greatest improvement in environmental sample analysis was the introduction of cleanup procedure which greatly reduced the presence of unwanted material in samples. Cleanup was followed by the complete removal of the solvent. Dry samples could be taken up with rather small volumes (greater than or equal to 0.1 ml) of solvent, of which an aliquot was used for GC-MS analysis. The instrumental setup was kept as above. For animal samples, extraction entailed preliminary alkaline digestion followed by a number of cleanup steps. The final dry sample was taken to desired volume by adding solvent (greater than or equal to 0.1 ml), of which a few microliters were injected in GC-MS apparatuses. Detection thresholds improved markedly and were less than 10 ppt for agricultural soil and sediment, less than or equal to 0.05 ppt for water, in the range of 60 to 200 ppt for air dust, less than 10 ng/m2 and 10 ppt for wipe and scrape tests, respectively, less than 50 ppt for vegetation, and 250 ppt for biological substrata. Major later improvements in TCDD assay were the use of high-resolution gas chromatography (hrGC-MS), in some cases combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (hrGC-hrMS).

  5. Embryotoxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the ring-necked pheasant

    SciTech Connect

    Nosek, J.A.; Craven, S.R. . Dept. of Wildlife Ecology); Sullivan, J.R. . Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources); Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A. . Research Animal Veterinarian and Research Animal Resource Committee); Peterson, R.E. . School of Pharmacy and Environmental Toxicology Center)

    1993-07-01

    Fertilized eggs of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were injected into the albumin or yolk with vehicle or graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on day 0 of embryonic development and toxicity was assessed in 1-d-old hatchlings and 28-d-old chicks. The most sensitive effect of in ovo TCDD exposure was induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in 1-d-old hatchlings. The ED50 for this response was 312 pg TCDD/g egg. Embryo mortality was the most sensitive sign of toxicity. The TCDD dose that caused 50% mortality above control (LD50) when injected into the egg albumin or yolk was 1,354 and 2,182 pg TCDD/g egg, respectively. At egg TCDD doses up to and including 1,000 pg TCDD/g egg, no effect was detected in 1-d-old hatchlings and 28-d-old chicks in body growth, organ weights, carcass morphometrices, incidence of edema, or incidence of histological alterations in the liver, spleen, heart, Bursa of Fabricius, or thymus. Egg TCDD doses as high as 1,000 pg TCDD/g egg also had no effect on cardiac morphometrices or incidence of cardiac malformations in 1-d-old hatchlings, or on antibody-mediated immunity in 28-d-old chicks. The authors conclude that embryo mortality is the most sensitive sign of TCDD toxicity in the ring-necked pheasant following in ovo exposure.

  6. Bioaccumulation and MFO enzyme induction of di, tri- and tetrachlorodibenzofurans and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in juvenile rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.; Yarechewski, A.; Metner, D.; Lockhart, L.

    1994-12-31

    Juvenile rainbow trout (3--10 g) were exposed to dietary 2,8-di-, 2,3,8-tri-, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in separate experiments. Elimination was studied for up to 180 days following a 30 days exposure. The authors compared the MFO induction potency, assimilation efficiencies, biomagnification factors and elimination rates of di and trichlorofurans, which are the major PCDD/F congeners in bleached (partial ClO{sub 2} substitution) kraft pulp mill effluent, with those of TCDD/F. 2,8-D{sub 2}CDF and 2,3,8,-T{sub 3}CDF were rapidly eliminated with half-lives (t{sub 1/2}) of 6 to 1 0 days for both compounds. By contrast TCDF and TCDD were slowly eliminated by the trout (t{sub 1/2} = 70 and 80 d, respectively). Biomagnification factors for 2,8-D{sub 2}CDF and 2,3,8,-T{sub 3}CDF were < 0.1 and there was evidence of extensive transformation of T{sub 3}CDF to polar degradation products. P450 MFO (EROD) activities in fish exposed to 100 or 300 ng/g of 2,3,8,-T{sub 3}CDF were 5 to 15-fold elevated (over controls); 2,8-D{sub 2}CDF exposure had no effect. Exposure to 413 pg/g TCDD in food resulted in 4-fold elevation in EROD after 30 days corresponding to a concentration in muscle of 120 pg/g wet wt. MFO activity returned to control levels 24 days after cessation of exposure to 2,3,8,-T{sub 3}CDF and 120 days after exposure to TCDD.

  7. Determination of ( sup 3 H)-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in human feces to ascertain its relative metabolism in man

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, J.M.; Orth, R.G.; Poiger, H. )

    1990-04-15

    Human feces samples from a self-dosing experiment were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for ({sup 3}H)-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ({sup 3}H-2378-TCDD) to determine that 36-44% of the radioactivity was attributable to the parent compound. This method, using isotope dilution analysis, proved to be difficult due to the unexpectedly higher native 2378-TCDD background which created abnormally large precision ranges around the calculated feces concentrations of 0.1-0.2 pg/g. These results were supported by additional analyses involving the GC/MS chemical cleanup method combined with liquid scintillation counting which showed that at most, 50% of the radioactivity was due to 2378-TCDD metabolites resulting in a minimum metabolism of 50% for these samples.

  8. Temperature driven nano-domain evolution in lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-50(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui; Su, Shi; Zuo, Ruzhong

    2014-07-01

    Hierarchical micro- and nanoscale domain structures in Pb-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-50(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoceramics were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. In situ heating and cooling studies of domain structure evolution reveal an irreversible domain transformation from a wedge-shaped rhombohedral nanodomain structure to a lamellar tetragonal domain structure, which could be associated with strong piezoelectricity in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-50(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 piezoceramics.

  9. Eu3+/Sm3+ hybrids based with 8-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one organically modified mesoporous silica SBA-15/16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yan-Jing; Yan, Bing

    2015-12-01

    A series of organic-inorganic hybrid materials were prepared by linking lanthanide (Eu3+, Sm3+) complexes to mesoporous SBA-15/SBA-16 through 8-hydroxybenz[de]anthracen-7-one modified silane (HBA-Si) as linker. The physical characterizations of these hybrids revealed that they all have high surface area, uniformity in mesostructure. The luminescence properties of these covalently bonded materials (denoted as Ln(HBA-SBA-15)3phen and Ln(HBA-SBA-16)3phen) were compared with ternary complexes (Ln(HBA)3phen) (Ln = Eu, Sm). Eu(HBA-SBA-15(16))3phen hybrids display better thermal stability, whose luminescent lifetimes and quantum efficiencies were matchable with those of Eu(HBA)3phen complex in spite of its much lower effective condensation of Eu3+ species. In addition, the luminescent performance of functionalized SBA-15 hybrids was more favorable than that of functionalized SBA-16 hybrids, revealing that SBA-15 was a better host material for lanthanide complex than mesoporous silica SBA-16.

  10. Substituted 5,6-(Dihydropyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-yl)-methanones as P2X7 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ziff, Jeannie; Rudolph, Dale A; Stenne, Brice; Koudriakova, Tatiana; Lord, Brian; Bonaventure, Pascal; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Letavic, Michael A; Shireman, Brock T

    2016-04-20

    We describe the synthesis of a novel class of brain penetrating P2X7 antagonists with high potency at both the rat and human P2X7 receptors. Disclosed herein are druglike molecules with demonstrated target engagement of the rat P2X7 receptors after an oral dose. Specifically, compound 20 occupied the P2X7 receptors >80% over the 6 h time course as measured by an ex vivo radioligand binding experiment. In a dose-response assay, this molecule has a plasma EC50 of 8 ng/mL. Overall, 20 has suitable druglike properties and pharmacokinetics in rat and dog. This molecule and others disclosed herein will serve as additional tools to elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26754558

  11. Optical Temperature Sensor Through Upconversion Emission from the Er3+ Doped SrBi8Ti7O27 Ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hua; Wang, Xusheng; Hu, Yifeng; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Sui, Yongxing; Song, Zhitang

    2016-06-01

    Er doped SrBi8Ti7O27 (SBT) ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. By Er doping, the intensive green upconversion emissions were recorded under 980 nm diode laser excitation with 20 mW. The fluorescence spectrum was investigated in the temperature range of 150-580 K. By the fluorescence intensity ratio technique, the green emission band was studied as a function of temperature with a maximum sensing sensitivity of 0.0028 at 510 K. These results indicate that the Er doped SBT ferroelectric ceramics are promising multifunctional sensing materials.

  12. Synthesis and resolution of (+-)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro- 1H-3- benzazepine (TISCH): A high affinity and selective iodinated ligand for CNS D1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chumpradit, S.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.J.; Kung, H.F. )

    1991-03-01

    The synthesis and resolution of (+-)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3- benzazepine, (+/-)-TISCH (8) has been achieved by resolution of intermediate 4, the O-methoxyl, 3'-bromo derivative, as the diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salt. The final products, R-(+)-8 and S-(-)-8, were prepared by treatment of R-(+)- or S-(-)-7, the 3'-tributyltin intermediates, with iodine in chloroform, followed by O-demethylation. By using HPLC with a chiral column, the optical purity (greater than 99%) of the intermediates and the final compounds was determined. Radioiodination was achieved by an iodo-destannylation reaction with sodium (125I)iodide and hydrogen peroxide. As expected, the R-(+)-(125I)-8 (the active isomer) displayed high affinity and selectivity to the CNS D-1 receptor in rat striatum tissue preparation (Kd = 0.205 nM). The rank order of potency was as follows: SCH-23390 (1a) greater than (+/-)-8 greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than spiperone, WB4101 greater than dopamine, 5-HT. After an iv injection, the R-(+)-(125I)-8 penetrated the blood-brain barrier with ease and displayed specific regional distribution corresponding to the D-1 receptor density, while the S-(-)-(125I)-8 showed no specific uptake. The data suggest that the ligand may be useful as a pharmacological tool for characterizing the D-1 dopamine receptor. When labeled with I-123, this ligand is a potential agent for in vivo imaging of CNS D-1 dopamine receptor.

  13. Transformation stress induced metastable tetragonal phase in (93-92)%Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(7-8)%PbTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. S.; Lim, L. C.; Yang, P.; Ku, C.-S.; Lee, H.-Y.; Tu, C.-S.

    2010-08-01

    High-resolution synchrotron radiation diffraction results indicate that the room temperature tetragonal (T) phase in (93-92)%Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(7-8)%PbTiO3 [PZN-(7-8)%PT] single crystals is a metastable phase stabilized by the transformation-cum-cooling stress in the crystal. This is manifested by the "missing" (001)T diffractions when the diffractions were taken from (001) fractured surfaces. The stress relaxation in this case has caused the metastable (001)T domains in the surface layer to transform to the equilibrium rhombohedral phase. Temperature and particle size effects on the metastable domains have been examined and discussed. Based on the present finding, a new PZN-PT phase diagram showing extended rhombohedral+tetragonal region is proposed.

  14. 2,3,7,8-TCDD enhances the sensitivity of mice to concanavalin A immune-mediated liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, Aaron M.; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2013-01-15

    Inflammation plays a major role in immune-mediated liver injury, and exposure to environmental pollutants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter the inflammatory response as well as affect immune cell activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD pretreatment exacerbates hepatotoxicity in a murine model of immune-mediated liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration. Mice were pretreated with 30 μg/kg TCDD or vehicle control on day zero and then given either Con A or saline intravenously on day four. Mice treated with TCDD did not develop liver injury; however, TCDD pretreatment increased liver injury resulting from moderate doses of Con A (4–10 mg/kg). TCDD-pretreated mice had altered plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFNγ), and TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity was attenuated in IFNγ knockout mice. At various times after treatment, intrahepatic immune cells were isolated, and expression of cell activation markers as well as cytolytic proteins was determined. TCDD pretreatment increased the proportion of activated natural killer T (NKT) cells and the percent of cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) after Con A administration. In addition FasL knockout mice and mice treated with CD18 antiserum were both protected from TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity, suggesting a requirement for direct cell–cell interaction between effector immune cells and parenchymal cell targets in the development of liver injury from TCDD/Con A treatment. In summary, exposure to TCDD increased NKT cell activation and exacerbated immune-mediated liver injury induced by Con A through a mechanism involving IFNγ and FasL expression. -- Highlights: ► TCDD pretreatment sensitizes mice to Con A-induced hepatotoxicity. ► TCDD pretreatment increased concentration of IFNγ in plasma after Con A. ► Con A-induced activation of NKT cells was increased by TCDD pretreatment. ► Fas

  15. Fluctuation induced magneto-conductivity of Y3Ba5Cu8O18±x and YBa2Cu3O7-d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

    2015-12-01

    A comparative study of the fluctuation magneto-conductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-d (noted Y-123) and Y3Ba5Cu8O18±x (noted Y-358) polycrystalline samples was carried out. Samples were synthesized in oxygen atmosphere using a standard solid state reaction technique. Phases and microstructure have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The magneto-conductivity was measured in a magnetic field ranging from 0 T to 7 T applied perpendicular to the current path direction. The magneto-conductivity data were analyzed in terms of the temperature derivative of the resistivity and the logarithmic temperature derivative of the conductivity χσ = -d(ln Δσ) dT, where Δσ is the fluctuation conductivity. Analyses of the magneto-conductivity data reveal that Y-123 possesses a better quality of intrinsic Josephson junction compared to Y-358 one while in the former one the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced. The applied magnetic field narrowed substantially the three dimensions (3D) Gaussian regime and for Y-358 sample this regime is vanished for high magnetic field ( >1 T). Results are discussed in relation with the difference in the structure and microstructure Y-358 and Y-123. The upper critical and the irreversibility magnetic fields were estimated and were found to be higher in the Y-358 sample.

  16. Effects of chronic exposure to 2, 3, 7, 8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sister chromatid exchange levels in peripheral lymphocytes of the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, M.; Jacobson-Kram, D.; Bowman, R.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations were examined in peripheral lymphocytes of Rhesus monkeys that had been fed a diet containing 25 parts per trillion 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin for a period of 4 years. When compared to non-exposed control animals, no significant differences were noted for either of these cytogenetic end points. In addition, there was not a significant difference in sister chromatid exchange response to a challenge dose of mitomycin C in cells from 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposed animals compared to controls. The results confirm the lack of genotoxic effects associated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure.

  17. Current skin symptoms of Yusho patients exposed to high levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls in 1968.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Chikage; Mine, Yoshiko; Utani, Atsushi; Imafuku, Shinichi; Muto, Masahiko; Akimoto, Takamichi; Kanekura, Takuro; Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Yusho was a mass food poisoning event due to the ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. At its outbreak in 1968, Yusho patients suffered severe skin symptoms. Although the blood concentrations of PCBs and dioxins, especially highly toxic 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) remain high in these patients, extensive analysis has not been performed on their current skin symptoms. We categorized and evaluated the specific skin symptoms in Yusho in 2012 by grading their severity using an arbitrary scoring system, and analyzed their correlations with the blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCBs. A total of 352 Yusho patients underwent annual dermatological check-ups, in which five skin symptoms: black comedones, acneiform eruptions, scar formation, pigmentation and nail deformity, were evaluated for their distribution and severity. Approximately one-third of Yusho patients still presented with black comedones, acneiform eruptions and scar formation; the distributions of these symptoms were similar to those at the time of the Yusho outbreak. The mean blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and total PCBs in Yusho patients were still higher than those in controls. The prevalence and severity of black comedones were correlated with age. Severity scores of black comedones and scar formation were positively correlated with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF blood level, and those of black comedones, scar formation, and pigmentation were positively correlated with total PCBs blood level. This study suggests that 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCBs remaining in Yusho patients still play crucial roles in the development of skin symptoms in Yusho. PMID:25985428

  18. Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area habitability study. Volume 4. Soil assessment: 2,3,7,8-TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Environmental studies were conducted to provide data that could be used by the Commissioner of Health for the State of New York in determining whether the Emergency Declaration Area (EDA) surrounding the Love Canal hazardous-waste site is habitable. A soil assessment for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was conducted to determine whether the soil in the EDA contains 2,3,7,8-TCDD at levels above the level of concern set by the Centers for Disease Control: 1.0 ppb. Samples of surface soil were collected at 2,274 locations throughout the EDA.

  19. Evaluation of high-resolution gas for the determination of 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD in soil, sediment and water (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Sack, T.M.; Tondeur, Y.; Beckert, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical protocol for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and total TCDDs in soil, sediment, and aqueous samples using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was evaluated through replicate analyses of fortified and unspiked soil and aqueous samples. Lower levels of detection can be achieved through a slight modification of the method with respect to initial sample size and/or final extract volume. Instrumental parameters that affect data quality, specifically HRGC column performance, mass resolution, and mass-measurement accuracy are presented.

  20. 3β-Angeloyloxy-8β,10β-dihydroxyeremophila-7(11)-en-12,8α-lactone Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Jiang, Changyou; Ma, Lisha; Zhao, Xinxin; Chang, Juanjuan; Zheng, Beibei; Li, Lin; Xie, Weidong; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Farfugium japonicum (L.) KITAM, named "Lian-Peng-Cao" in China, has been traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine to treat sore throat, cold and cough due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of 3β-angeloyloxy-8β,10β-dihydroxyeremophila-7(11)-en-12,8α-lactone (FJ1) isolated from Farfugium japonicum and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells were investigated. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that FJ1 with or without 3 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had no significant cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was identified with a Griess reagent kit. The mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot was used to examine the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/p65, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)-α, phosphorylated IκB-α (p-IκB-α), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecules, iNOS, and TNF-α. We discovered that FJ1 possesses anti-inflammatory effects that inhibit the release of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, including NO and ROS. The molecular mechanism of FJ1-mediated anti-inflammation is associated with decreasing phosphorylation of MAPK molecules, including extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), FJ1 also reverses IκB degradation and attenuates the mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB-related downstream inducible enzymes and cytokines, such as iNOS, TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. The results suggest that FJ1 has anti-inflammatory properties, which indicates that F. japonicum can be utilized to treat inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanism is associated with the NF-κB and MAPK activation

  1. X-ray Mapping in Heterocyclic Design: XIV. Tricyclic Heterocycles Based on 2-Oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8-Hexahydroquinoline-3-Carbonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Mazina, O.S.; Rybakov, V.B.; Chernyshev, V.V.; Babaev, E.V.; Aslanov, L.A.

    2004-11-01

    The structures of four compounds are studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction: 1-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline -3-carbonitrile [a = 4.908(4) A, b = 11.644(10) A, c = 13.587(2) A, {beta} = 94.31(5) deg., Z = 2, space group P2{sub 1}]; 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethoxy]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline -3-carbonitrile [a = 7.6142(8) A, b = 14.778(2) A, c = 14.132(2) A, {beta} = 100.38(1) deg., Z = 4, space group P2{sub 1}/c]; 4-(aminocarbonyl)-2-(chlorophenyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro[1.3]oxazolo[3,2-a] quinolin-3-ium perchlorate [a = 5.589(7) A, b = 24.724(15) A, c = 13.727(5) A, {beta} = 97.66(9) deg., Z = 4, space group P2{sub 1}/n]; and (3-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b]quinolin-2-yl)-(4-chlorophenyl) methanone [a = 7.150(2) A, b = 7.4288(10) A, c = 15.314(3) A, {alpha} = 98.030(10) deg., {beta} = 99.21(2) deg., {gamma} = 105.34(2) deg., Z = 2, space group P1-bar]. The structures are solved by direct methods and refined by the full-matrix least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation to R = 0.0728, 0.0439, 0.1228, and 0.0541, respectively. The structure of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-piperidin-1-yl-8,9-dihydro-7H-pyrrolo[3.2.1-ij] quinoline-5-carboxamide [a = 23.9895(9) A, b = 5.1557(3) A, c = 17.0959(9) A, {beta} = 106.43 deg., Z = 4, space group P{sub 1}/c] is investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. This structure is solved using the grid search procedure and refined by the Rietveld method to R{sub wp} = 0.0773, R{sub exp} = 0.0540, R{sub p} = 0.0585, R{sub b} = 0.1107, and {chi}{sup 2} = 1.78.

  2. Novel methyl substituted 1-(5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl)methanones are P2X7 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Dale A; Alcazar, Jesus; Ameriks, Michael K; Anton, Ana Belen; Ao, Hong; Bonaventure, Pascal; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Chrovian, Christa C; De Angelis, Meri; Lord, Brian; Rech, Jason C; Wang, Qi; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Andres, Jose Ignacio; Letavic, Michael A

    2015-08-15

    The optimization efforts that led to a novel series of methyl substituted 1-(5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl)methanones that are potent rat and human P2X7 antagonists are described. These efforts resulted in the discovery of compounds with good drug-like properties that are capable of high P2X7 receptor occupancy in rat following oral administration, including compounds 7n (P2X7 IC50 = 7.7 nM) and 7u (P2X7 IC50 =7 .7 nM). These compounds are expected to be useful tools for characterizing the effects of P2X7 antagonism in models of depression and epilepsy, and several of the compounds prepared are candidates for effective P2X7 PET tracers. PMID:26099534

  3. 8-Methyl-2-oxo-4-(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,2,5,6,7,8-hexa­hydro­quinoline-3-carbonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Abdullah M.; Faidallah, Hassan M.; Saqer, Alaa Anwar Ahmad; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H14N2OS, the pyridinone ring in the fused-ring system is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å) and the cyclo­hexene ring has a twisted half-boat conformation with the methyl­ene C atom adjacent to the methine C atom deviating by 0.592 (7) Å from the plane defined by the remaining five atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.108 Å). The thienyl ring is disordered over two almost coplanar positions of opposite orientation in a 0.649 (4):0.351 (4) ratio, and forms dihedral angles of 51.4 (3) (major component) and 54.2 (3)°, respectively, with the pyridinone ring. In the crystal, inversion-related mol­ecules associate via an eight-membered {⋯HNCO}2 synthon and these are linked into a linear supra­molecular chain along the a axis by weak π–π inter­actions that occur between centrosymmetrically related pyridinone rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.889 (2) Å]. PMID:22798934

  4. Synthesis of 3,8-Dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl–BODIPY from an Asymmetric Dipyrroketone and Reactivity Studies at the 3,5,8-Positions**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric BODIPY 1a (BODIPY=4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene), containing two chloro substituents at the 3,8-positions and a reactive 5-methyl group, was synthesized from the asymmetric dipyrroketone 3, which was readily obtained from available pyrrole 2a. The reactivity of 3,8-dichloro-6-ethyl-1,2,5,7-tetramethyl-BODIPY 1a was investigated by using four types of reactions. This versatile BODIPY undergoes regioselective Pd0-catalyzed Stille coupling reactions and/or regioselective nucleophilic addition/elimination reactions, first at the 8-chloro and then at the 3-chloro group, using a variety of organostannanes and N-, O-, and S-centered nucleophiles. On the other hand, the more reactive 5-methyl group undergoes regioselective Knoevenagel condensation with an aryl aldehyde to produce a monostyryl-BODIPY, and oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) gives the corresponding 5-formyl-BODIPY. Investigation of the reactivity of asymmetric BODIPY 1a led to the preparation of a variety of functionalized BODIPYs with λmax of absorption and emission in the ranges 487–587 and 521–617 nm, respectively. The longest absorbing/emitting compound was the monostyryl-BODIPY 16, and the largest Stokes shift (49 nm) and fluorescence quantum yield (0.94) were measured for 5-thienyl-8-phenoxy-BODIPY 15. The structural properties (including 16 X-ray structures) of the new series of BODIPYs were investigated. PMID:25761150

  5. C,O-dialkylation of Meldrum's acid: synthesis and reactivity of 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-4H,10H-6,8,9-trioxa-2-thiabenz[f]azulen-5-one.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Chad A; Selegue, John P; Dosunmu, Eniolami; Tice, Nathan C; Parkin, Sean

    2003-09-19

    Reaction of Meldrum's acid with 3,4-bis(chloromethyl)-2,5-dimethylthiophene (1) or 3,4-bis(bromomethyl)-2,5-dimethylthiophene (2) produces the kinetically favored C,O-dialkylation product, 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-4H,10H-6,8,9-trioxa-2-thiabenz[f]azulen-5-one (4). Recrystallization of 4 from refluxing methanol results in the methanolysis product 5-(4-methoxymethyl-2,5-dimethylthiophen-3-ylmethyl)-2,2-dimethyl[1,3]dioxane-4,6-dione (5). Attempts to isomerize 4 to the thermodynamically favored C,C-dialkylation product, 1,3-dimethyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[c]thiophene(2-spiro-5)2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dione (8), result in the formation of 1,3-dimethyl-7,8-dihydro-4H-thieno[3,4-c]oxepin-6-one (6). The transformation occurs via a retro-Diels-Alder elimination of acetone followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation of the resulting ketene. The ketene is trapped by tert-butyl alcohol, furnishing 1,3-dimethyl-6-oxo-7,8-dihydro-4H,6H-thieno[3,4-c]oxepine-7-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (7). All compounds are characterized spectroscopically as well as by X-ray crystallography of products 4-7. PMID:12968900

  6. Environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid inhibit IL-7/STAT5 cytokine signaling pathways in mouse CD3+CD4-CD8- double negative thymus cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Lauer, Fredine T; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G; Burchiel, Scott W

    2016-04-15

    Environmental arsenic exposure is a public health issue. Immunotoxicity induced by arsenic has been reported in humans and animal models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanisms of As(+3) and MMA(+3) toxicity in mouse thymus cells. Because we know that MMA(+3) inhibits IL-7 signaling in mouse bone marrow pre-B cells, we studied the influence of As(+3) and MMA(+3) on T cell development in the thymus at the earliest stage of T cell development (CD4-CD8-, double negative, DN) which requires IL-7 dependent signaling. We found in a DN thymus cell line (D1) that a low concentration of MMA(+3) (50 nM) suppressed IL-7 dependent JAK1, 3 and STAT5 signaling. As(+3) suppressed STAT5 and JAK3 at higher concentrations (500 nM). Cell surface expression of the IL-7 receptor (CD127) was also suppressed by 50 nM MMA(+)3, but was increased by 500 NM As(+3), indicating possible differences in the mechanisms of action of these agents. A decrease in cyclin D1 protein expression was observed in D1 cells exposed to As(+3) at 500 nM and MMA(+3) starting at 50 nM, suggesting that arsenic at these environmentally-relevant doses suppresses early T cell development through the inhibition of IL-7 signaling pathway. PMID:26921788

  7. Ferromagnetic resonance characterization of greigite (Fe3S4), monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8), and non-interacting titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liao; Winklhofer, Michael; Roberts, Andrew P.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Horng, Chorng-Shern; Hu, Lei; Chen, Qianwang

    2012-05-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy has become an increasingly useful tool for studying the magnetic properties of natural samples. Magnetite (Fe3O4) is the only magnetic mineral that has been well characterized using FMR. This limits the wider use of FMR in rock magnetism and paleomagnetism. In this study, we applied FMR analysis to a range of magnetic minerals, including greigite (Fe3S4), monoclinic pyrrhotite (Fe7S8), magnetically non-interacting titanomagnetite (Fe3-xTixO4), and synthetic magnetite chains to constrain interpretation of FMR analysis of natural samples and to explore applications of FMR spectroscopy. We measured the FMR signatures of a wide range of well-characterized samples at the X- and Q-bands. FMR spectra were also simulated numerically to compare with experimental results. The effects of magnetic anisotropy, mineralogy, domain state, and magnetostatic interactions on the FMR spectra are discussed for all studied minerals. Our experimental and theoretical analyses of magnetically non-interacting tuff samples and magnetically interacting chains enable quantitative assessment of contributions of magnetostatic interactions and magnetic anisotropy to the FMR spectra. Our results also indicate that intact magnetosomes are a unique system with distinct FMR signatures. While FMR analysis is useful for characterizing magnetic properties of natural samples, care is needed when making interpretations because of overlaps in a range of FMR signatures of different magnetic minerals with different magnetic properties. Our analyses will help to constrain such interpretations in rock magnetic studies.

  8. In utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: Effects on fetal and adult cardiac gene expression and adult cardiac and renal morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mouse heart is a target of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during fetal development, and microarray analysis demonstrates significant changes in expression of cardiac genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that developmental TCDD exposure wo...

  9. SEVESO WOMEN'S HEALTH STUDY: A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH. (R824761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Although reproductive effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure have been reported in numerous investigations of animals, studies of this association in humans are limited. In 1976, an explosion in Seveso, Italy exposed the surround...

  10. CYP1A2 DOES NOT PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN 2, 3 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    CYP1A2 IS NOT REQUIRED FOR 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION Smialowicz, Ralph J1; Burgin, Deborah E2; Williams, Wanda C1; Diliberto, Janet J1; Birnbaum, Linda S1
    1 Experimental Toxicology Division, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2Curriculum in Toxicology, U...

  11. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) Dose-Response Studies: Preliminary Literature Search Results and Request for Additional Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA invited the public to comment on the preliminary list of in vivo mammalian dose-response citations for 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This list was compiled as a first step in the development of EPA’s response to the National Academy of Sciences comments (NAS, 2...

  12. CONTAMINATION OF FISH BY 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN: A SURVEY OF FISH FROM MAJOR WATERSHEDS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of contamination of fish from major watersheds in the United States by 2,3,7,8-TCDD has been conducted by the U.S. EPA. ottom feeding and predator fish were collected at 90 statically selected and 305 regionally selected sites and analyzed by Gc/MS. t was found that 19% ...

  13. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARTENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined, when dosed by maternal transfer.Effects were compared across six treatments, including a control.The experimental groups, based...

  14. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds: Science Advisory Board (External Review Draft) (2000)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dioxin Reassessment, SAB Review Draft

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) is progressing toward completion of its comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science entitled, "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibe...

  15. UTILIZATION OF A PBPK MODEL TO PREDICT THE DISTRIBUTION OF 2, 3, 7-8 TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) IN HUMANS DURING CRITICAL WINDOWS OF DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilization of A PBPK model to predict the distribution of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in humans during critical windows of development.
    C Emond1, MJ DeVito2 and LS Birnbaum2
    1National Research Council, US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD, PK), RTP, NC, 27711, USA 2 US...

  16. Hypertension, Cardiac Hypertrophy, and Impaired Vascular Relaxation Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin are Associated with Increased Superoxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases the incidence of human cardiovascular disease are not known. We investigated the degree to which cardiovascular disease develops in mice following subchronic TCDD exposure. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were dosed with vehicle o...

  17. PERSISTENT ABNORMALITIES IN THE RAT MAMMARY GLAND FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure during gestation has revealed reproductive anomalies in rat offspring, including inconclusive reports of stunted mammary development in females (Brown et al., 1998, Lewis et al., 2001). The current studies wer...

  18. DETERMINATION OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD TOXIC EQUIVALENT FACTORS (TEFS): SUPPORT FOR THE USE OF THE IN VITRO AHH INDUCTION ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in vitro induction of the cytochorm P1-450-dependent monooxygenases, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) or ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and related toxic halogenated aryl hydrocarbons in rat hepatoma H-4-II E cells has been developed as a short term qua...

  19. 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) DISRUPTS EARLY MORPHOGENETIC EVENTS THAT FORM THE LOWER REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN FEMALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rats, in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during critical periods of organogenesis causes a permanent thread of tissue across the vaginal opening, which consists of a core of mesenchyme surrounded by keratinized epithelia. The objective of t...

  20. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  1. Cytochrome P4501A1 is Required for Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show an association between hypertension and exposure to dioxin-like halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAH). Further, chronic exposure of mice to the prototypical HAH, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), induces reactive oxygen species (...

  2. Dissociative adsorption of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the surfaces of typical metal oxides: a first-principles density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuo; Ma, Xiaodong; Pang, Qin; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Guichang

    2014-03-28

    The initial dissociative adsorption step of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) molecule on the surfaces of MgO, CaO, and CuO has been studied by density functional theory (DFT) using periodic slab models. It is found that the 2,3,7,8-TCDD molecule undergoes a similar dissociative adsorption step during the decomposition over the three metal oxide surfaces. The adsorption configuration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD first converts from a parallel mode into a vertical one, then a nucleophilic substitution process takes place, where the surface oxygen atom attacks the aromatic carbon to form a surface phenolate with the chlorine atom moving to the top of the nearest surface metal atom. The calculated apparent activation energy of the dissociation increases in the order of CuO < CaO < MgO. The reaction heat is -0.67 eV, -0.75 eV, and 0.45 eV for CuO, CaO, and MgO, respectively, suggesting the thermodynamic tendency of MgO < CuO < CaO, which parallels the trend of the nucleophilicity of surface oxygen atoms. This study suggests that metal oxides with more nucleophilic and less tightly-bonded surface oxygen atoms might be more promising for the decomposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. PMID:24513975

  3. TEMPORAL CHANGES IN PURITY AND SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF TRITIUM-LABELED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN: RADIOPURITY MODEL FOR TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in the specific activity (S) and radiopurity (R) of tritiated 2,3,7,8-TCDD were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to accurately characterize TCDD doses received by invertebrates, fish, and fish embryos in several toxicology studies conducted over a...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF HOST RESISTANCE TO TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS IN MICE FOLLOWING PRE-INFECTION EXPOSURE TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to decrease host resistance to a variety of infectious agents when exposure occurs prior to infection. esistance to viral infection has been observed at doses as low as 0.1 ug TCDD/kg body weight, well below the thymoly...

  5. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT LIFE-STAGES OF MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The early life stages of fish are known to be more sensitive than the adults to the toxicological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxide (TCDD). TCDD concentrations in surface waters are sufficiently low that direct exposure of the developing embryo is unlikely to be o...

  6. PROTOCOL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN BY HIGH-RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical protocol for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and total TCDDs in soil, sediment and aqueous samples using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) was developed using the best features of several...

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS OF SOME STRUCTURAL ANALOGUES OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND OF RELATED AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have carried out an ab initio STO-5G computational analysis of the electrostatic potential of four structural analogues of the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and four related aromatic systems: benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and two isomeric benzofla...

  8. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a. PMID:11000042

  9. TERATOGENICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) IN MICE LACKING THE EXPRESSION OF EGF AND/OR TGFALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure produces hydronephrosis and cleft palate in mice. These responses are correlated with disruption of expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands, primarily EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha ...

  10. Recommended Toxicity Equivalence Factors (TEFs) for Human Health Risk Assessments of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Risk Assessment Forum (RAF) Human Health TEFs document describes EPA’s updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds. It recommends the use of consensus TEF values for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-...

  11. Defining the Borders of Dose Addition: Mixture Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibutyl phthalate on Male Rat Reproductive Tract Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to either dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) disrupts male rat reproductive tract differentiation. However, they act via different modes of toxicity and induce distinct postnatal phenotypes. DBP exposure decreases anogenital di...

  12. Intercalation Effect of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimetane Having Strong Electron Affinity in Self-Assembled Monolayers Composed of Charge Transfer Complex Prepared by Coadsorption and Layer-by-Layer Adsorption Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuge, Ryota; Miyazaki, Akira; Enoki, Toshiaki; Tamada, Kaoru; Nakamura, Fumio; Hara, Masahiko

    2002-12-01

    Charge transfer (CT) complex self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold substrate are prepared using layer-by-layer adsorption and coadsorption methods with mercapto-methyl-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF-CH2SH) and strong acceptor 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQF4), in comparison with TTF-CH2SH/TCNQ SAMs consisting of moderate acceptor TCNQ. The layer-by-layer method yields TTF-CH2SH/TCNQF4 SAMs with the coexistence of neutral TCNQF4 and anionic TCNQF4-, where the TCNQF4- anions are laid on the TTF layer with the TTF-CH2SH molecules standing perpendicular to the gold substrate. The neutral TCNQF4 molecules are stacked above the TCNQF4- anion layer. This is in contrast to the fact that TCNQ having intermediate strength of acceptor character does not yield any CT SAMs when using the layer-by-layer technique. In the coadsorption method, TTF-CH2SH/TCNQF4 SAMs are formed, where all the TCNQF4 molecules are completely reduced as TCNQF4- anions, similar to those in bulk TTF-TCNQF4 crystals. Taking into account that TTF-CH2SH/TCNQ SAMs have the same fractional value (0.6) of the degree of charge transfer to that of bulk TTF-TCNQ crystal, the coadsorption technique can reproduce the electronic structure of the bulk CT complex in the 2D SAMs. The coadsorbed SAMs have an intercalation structure, where acceptor molecules are intercalated into the interstitials of TTF-CH2SH/Au units with the molecular axes of both acceptor and donor molecules parallel to each other. Such a donor/acceptor molecular arrangement can provide a favorable situation in the charge transfer between the two ingredients, resulting in the similar electronic structure to that of bulk CT crystals.

  13. Synthesis of 2-arylamino substituted 5,6-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7(8H)-ones from arylguanidines.

    PubMed

    Galve, Iñaki; Puig de la Bellacasa, Raimon; Sánchez-García, David; Batllori, Xavier; Teixidó, Jordi; Borrell, José I

    2012-11-01

    A practical protocol was developed for the synthesis of 2-arylamino substituted 4-amino-5,6-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-ones from α,β-unsaturated esters, malononitrile, and an aryl substituted guanidine via the corresponding 3-aryl-3,4,5,6- tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-ones. Such compounds are formed upon treatment of 2-methoxy-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitriles with an aryl substituted guanidine in 1,4-dioxane and are converted to the desired 4-aminopyridopyrimidines with NaOMe/MeOH through a Dimroth rearrangement. The overall yields of this three-step protocol are, generally speaking, higher than the multicomponent reaction, previously developed by our group, between an α,β-unsaturated ester, malononitrile, and an aryl substituted guanidine. PMID:23054532

  14. 7 CFR 319.8-8 - Lint, linters, and waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lint, linters, and waste. 319.8-8 Section 319.8-8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers §...

  15. 33 CFR 8.7 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information. 8.7 Section 8.7... GUARD RESERVE § 8.7 Information. (a) Information concerning the Coast Guard Reserve may be obtained from Commandant (CG-13), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7801, Washington, DC 20593-7801. (b) Information and...

  16. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the...

  17. 33 CFR 8.7 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information. 8.7 Section 8.7... GUARD RESERVE § 8.7 Information. (a) Information concerning the Coast Guard Reserve may be obtained from Commandant (CG-13), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7801, Washington, DC 20593-7801. (b) Information and...

  18. 33 CFR 8.7 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information. 8.7 Section 8.7... GUARD RESERVE § 8.7 Information. (a) Information concerning the Coast Guard Reserve may be obtained from Commandant (CG-13), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7801, Washington, DC 20593-7801. (b) Information and...

  19. 33 CFR 8.7 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information. 8.7 Section 8.7... GUARD RESERVE § 8.7 Information. (a) Information concerning the Coast Guard Reserve may be obtained from Commandant (CG-13), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7801, Washington, DC 20593-7801. (b) Information and...

  20. 33 CFR 8.7 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information. 8.7 Section 8.7... GUARD RESERVE § 8.7 Information. (a) Information concerning the Coast Guard Reserve may be obtained from Commandant (CG-13), 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7801, Washington, DC 20593-7801. (b) Information and...

  1. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the...

  2. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  3. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  4. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  5. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  6. 1 CFR 8.7 - Agency cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Agency cooperation. 8.7 Section 8.7 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.7 Agency cooperation. Each agency shall cooperate in keeping publication of...

  7. 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines as novel class of potent and highly selective CaMKII inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shigehiro; Komiya, Masafumi; Koike, Nobuyuki; Koga, Erina; Nakatani, Shogo; Isobe, Yoshiaki

    2010-11-15

    A novel series of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines containing substituted phenyl sulfonamide are synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against CaMKII. Substituents on the phenyl group had significant impact on CaMKII inhibition, in particular, the inhibitory activity of 8p was 25-fold higher than that of KN-93, a known CaMKII inhibitor. Michaelis-Menten analysis of a representative compound suggested that the synthesized pyrimidines are calmodulin non-competitive inhibitors. Finally, 8p exhibited more than 100-fold higher selectivity for CaMKII over five types of off-target kinases. PMID:20875738

  8. Microbial Metabolism. Part 10. Metabolites of 7,8 Dimethoxyflavone and 5-Methoxyflavone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial transformation of 7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (1) by Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 9628) produced five metabolites: 7, 8-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxyflavone (2), 3', 4'-dihydroxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone (3), 7, 3'-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4), 7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (5) and 8-methoxy-7, 3', 4'-trihy...

  9. Synthesis, in vitro antimycobacterial evaluation and docking studies of some new 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Malothu, Narender; Bhandaru, Jaswanth S; Kulandaivelu, Umasankar; Jojula, Malathi; Adidala, Raghuram Reddy; K R, Umadevi; A V N, Dusthackeer; Kaki, Venkat Rao; Akkinepally, Raghuram R

    2016-02-01

    Development of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been considered as major health burden, globally. In order to develop novel, potential molecules against drug resistant TB, twenty two (22) new 3-substituted-7-benzyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (6a-k) and 3-substituted-7-benzyl-2-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4',3':4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (7a-k) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using appropriate synthetic protocols. Pantothenate synthetase (PS) was considered as the target for the molecular docking studies and evaluated the binding pattern at active site, as PS plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of pantothenate in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The preliminary in vitro antibacterial screening of test compounds was carried out against two strains of Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. The antimycobacterial screening was performed against MTB H37Rv and an isoniazid-resistant clinical isolate of MTB. The compounds 6b, 6c, 6d, 6k, 7b, 7c, 7d and 7k exhibited promising antibacterial activity MIC in the range of 15-73 μM against all bacterial strains used and compounds 6d and 7b showed antimycobacterial activity (IC50 <340 μM in LRP assay) and (MIC <9 μM in broth microdilution method). PMID:26755393

  10. Rapid and cost-effective analysis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using the ``Dioxin RISc{reg_sign}`` Test Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.L.; Stewart, T.N.; Reynolds, D.L.; Friedman, S.B.

    1994-12-31

    Current methods for detecting low levels of Dioxin are expensive and laborious. The authors have developed a rapid and sensitive enzyme immunoassay, DIOXIN RISc{reg_sign} Test Kit, for the detection of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in a variety of matrices. The immunoassay is designed to incorporate sample processing protocols which are routinely used in research and analytical laboratories. However, many of the steps used in processing dioxin samples can be eliminated because of the inherent specificity and affinity of the immunochemical reagents. The test easily detects ppt to ppq levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in samples which have been extracted and taken to dryness. The immunoassay shows less than 0.01% cross-reactivity with PCBs, PAHs, Chlorophenols and Chlorinated Aromatic Pesticides. The immunoassay recognizes 2,3,7-TriCDD (20%) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (5%) but does not significantly cross-react with other Dioxin and Furan Congeners. The DIOXIN RISc{reg_sign} Test Kit offers a simple, rapid, reliable and cost-effective alternative to current methods for dioxin analysis.

  11. Relationship between murine Ah phenotype and the hepatic metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, E.S.; Olson, J.R.

    1986-03-05

    The Ah receptor has been correlated with the toxic effects of TCDD in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice. The B6 strain, which has a high affinity cytosolic Ah receptor, is more sensitive to TCDD than the D2 strain, which lacks this receptor. The metabolism of TCDD was studied by incubating /sup 14/C-TCDD (2.2 ..mu..M) with hepatocytes from control and TCDD-pretreated B6 and D2 mice. Mice were pretreated with TCDD at doses that maximally induce ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a measure of Ah locus responsiveness to TCDD (B6, 3..mu..g/kg, ip;D2, 30..mu..g/kg, ip). Similar cytochrome P-450 content was detected in control B6 and D2 hepatocytes, however, TCDD pretreatment increased P-450 content 400% in B6 and 300% in D2 mice. No difference in hepatic EROD activity was found between control B6 and D2 mice (81.7 and 101.7 pmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively), but EROD activity was increased 17-fold in B6 and 10-fold in D2 mice after TCDD administration. The average rate of hepatic TCDD metabolism over two hours was similar in control B6 and D2 mice (1.103 and 0.945 pmol/hr/mg cell protein, respectively), although some qualitative differences in the metabolites were detected by HPLC. TCDD pretreatment produced no quantitative or qualitative changes in TCDD metabolism. These results suggest that the rate of hepatic TCDD metabolism does not correlate with genetic differences at the Ah locus.

  12. Performance assessment of Bi0.3Sr0.7Co0.3Fe0.7O3-δ-LSCF composite as cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaerudini, Deni S.; Guan, Guoqing; Zhang, Peng; Hao, Xiaogang; Wang, Zhongde; Xue, Chunfeng; Kasai, Yutaka; Abudula, Abuliti

    2015-12-01

    Perovskite-type Bi0.3Sr0.7Co0.3Fe0.7O3-δ (BiSCF3737) oxide with perfectly cubic structure based on the Pm-3m space group has been developed and investigated as cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). BiSCF3737 is incorporated into (La0.6Sr0.4)0.9Co0.2Fe0.8O3±δ (LSCF) to form a composite cathode called LSCF-BiSCF. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that BiSCF3737 has an extremely desirable chemical compatibility with LSCF as well as with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) electrolyte. The cells with LSGM electrolyte (0.5 mm thickness) and symmetrical electrodes are fabricated for electrocatalaytic activity test. Compared with the pure constituent (LSCF or BiSCF3737), the composite with optimum composition, i.e., LSCF50-BiSCF50, exhibits better electrochemical activity for oxygen reduction. The LSGM electrolyte-supported (∼300 μm thickness) cell with LSCF50-BiSCF50 composite cathode exhibits higher power densities of 0.617 and 0.802 W cm-2 at 650 and 700 °C, respectively, with humidified H2 (∼3% H2O) as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant. Over 78 h stability test at 600 °C indicates that a little performance decrease occurs but no interfacial damage happens, suggesting that LSCF50-BiSCF50 is a potential material for IT-SOFCs.

  13. U3O8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, P.; Cenzual, K.; Daams, J.; Gladyshevskii, R.; Shcherban, O.; Dubenskyy, V.; Melnichenko-Koblyuk, N.; Pavlyuk, O.; Savysyuk, I.; Stoyko, S.; Sysa, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A6 `Structure Types. Part 6: Space Groups (166) R-3m - (160) R3m' of Volume 43 `Crystal Structures of Inorganic Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'.

  14. Solid-phase synthesis of 2-substituted 4-amino-7-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Falcó, José L; Borrell, José I; Teixidó, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    An efficient solid-phase synthesis of 2-substituted 4-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines 15 is reported. The procedure started by solid supporting a p-hydroxybenzaldehyde 8 to the Wang resin by using the Mitsunobu protocol. The resulting aldehyde 17 was treated with a substituted acid methyl malonate 10 to afford the corresponding alpha, beta-unsaturated ester 18, which was converted to the Michael adduct 21 by reaction with malononitrile. Cyclization of 21 with an amidine system 13 yielded the solid supported pyridopyrimidine 22, which afforded the corresponding 2-substituted 4-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine 15 upon treatment with TFA:DCM. Compounds 15 present three diversity centers R1, R2 and R3. Having validated the chemistry on solid support, a 32-membered combinatorial library was obtained using this protocol. PMID:14761159

  15. Hepatic estrogen receptor and plasma 17{beta}-estradiol concentrations as biomarkers of 2,3,7,8-TCDD exposure in avian hatchlings

    SciTech Connect

    Janz, D.M.; Bellward, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have been investigating the sensitivity of various toxicologically relevant endpoints as environmental biomarkers in avian hatchlings exposed in ovo to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Potential biomarkers included various endocrine endpoints such as plasma 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), hepatic estrogen receptor (ER) affinities and concentrations, and plasma thyroid hormones, which were compared to hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. The animal models used were domestic chickens and pigeons, and great blue herons. An experiment conducted in pigeon hatchlings compared ``early`` (embryonic day 4; E4) vs. ``late`` (E14) in ovo exposure to 1 {micro}g/kg and 3 {micro}g/kg of TCDD, respectively. Birds were sacrificed on day of hatch (H) and day 7 after hatch (D7). In the late exposure experiment, plasma E{sub 2} concentrations were reduced at H and elevated at D7 in the TCDD-exposed birds (p < 0.05). Hepatic ER concentrations were elevated at H (p < 0.01). Although EROD was half-maximally induced at H and D7 in the early exposure experiment in pigeons, there was no effect of TCDD treatment on E, or ER levels. The nominal TCDD concentration in these pigeons (1 {micro}g/kg egg) was within the range observed in wild piscivorous bird eggs collected from aquatic systems contaminated with TCDD and related chemicals (approx. 0.5--2 ng TEQ/g egg). In herons exposed to 2 {micro}g/kg of TCDD at the midpoint of incubation, hepatic ER affinities (Kd) and concentrations (Bmax) were elevated in treated birds at H (p < 0.05); however there was no effect on plasma E, levels. Liver [{sup 3}H]-TCDD concentrations were 11.3 {+-} 0.8 ng/g at H, and 0.8 {+-} 0.1 ng/g at D7, representing 9.9% and 4.9% of the nominal TCDD dose, respectively.

  16. 7 CFR 718.8 - Administrative county.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative county. 718.8 Section 718.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... General Provisions § 718.8 Administrative county. (a) If all land on the farm is physically located in...

  17. 7 CFR 718.8 - Administrative county.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative county. 718.8 Section 718.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... General Provisions § 718.8 Administrative county. (a) If all land on the farm is physically located in...

  18. 7 CFR 718.8 - Administrative county.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative county. 718.8 Section 718.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... General Provisions § 718.8 Administrative county. (a) If all land on the farm is physically located in...

  19. 7 CFR 774.8 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations. 774.8 Section 774.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.8 Limitations. (a) The maximum...

  20. 7 CFR 774.8 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations. 774.8 Section 774.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.8 Limitations. (a) The maximum...

  1. 48 CFR 8.405-7 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment. 8.405-7 Section 8... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Federal Supply Schedules 8.405-7 Payment. Agencies may make payments for oral or written orders by any authorized means, including the Governmentwide...

  2. 48 CFR 8.405-7 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment. 8.405-7 Section 8... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Federal Supply Schedules 8.405-7 Payment. Agencies may make payments for oral or written orders by any authorized means, including the Governmentwide...

  3. 48 CFR 8.405-7 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 8.405-7 Section 8... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Federal Supply Schedules 8.405-7 Payment. Agencies may make payments for oral or written orders by any authorized means, including the Governmentwide...

  4. 48 CFR 8.405-7 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 8.405-7 Section 8... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Federal Supply Schedules 8.405-7 Payment. Agencies may make payments for oral or written orders by any authorized means, including the Governmentwide...

  5. 48 CFR 8.405-7 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 8.405-7 Section 8... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Federal Supply Schedules 8.405-7 Payment. Agencies may make payments for oral or written orders by any authorized means, including the Governmentwide...

  6. HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Tanushree; Antony, Jisha; Braithwaite, Antony W; Horsfield, Julia A

    2016-06-10

    Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles. PMID:27072133

  7. miR-93/106b and their host gene, MCM7, are differentially expressed in leiomyomas and functionally target F3 and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tsai-Der; Luo, Xiaoping; Panda, Harekrushna; Chegini, Nasser

    2012-06-01

    miR-93/106b and their host gene minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 (MCM7) reside at chr7q22, a region frequently rearranged in leiomyomas. We explored the expression of miR-93/106b in leiomyoma and paired myometrium (n = 63) from untreated and patients exposed to hormonal therapies (GnRH agonist, Depo-Provera, and oral contraceptives) from African-Americans and Caucasians and their regulatory functions in isolated paired (n = 15) leiomyoma and myometrial smooth muscle cells and the leiomyosarcoma cell line. At tissue level leiomyomas expressed significantly lower levels of miR-93 and elevated MCM7 as compared with myometrium with limited racial influence or hormonal exposure on their expression. Assessing the regulatory function of miR-93/106b through doxycycline-inducible lentiviral transduction in a microarray analysis, tissue factor (F3) and IL8 were identified as their possible targets. At the tissue level, leiomyomas expressed a significantly lower level of F3 and an elevated IL-8 level, which exhibited an inverse relationship with miR-93 but with limited racial or hormonal influences. The gain of function of miR-93/106b in leiomyoma smooth muscle cells, myometrial smooth muscle cells, and the leiomyosarcoma cell line dose dependently repressed F3 and IL8 through direct interactions with their respective 3'-untranslated region and indirectly through F3 repression inhibited IL8, CTGF, and PAI-1 expression, confirmed by using small interfering RNA silencing or factor Vlla (FVIIa) activation of F3, as well as reducing the rate of proliferation, while increasing caspase-3/7 activity. We concluded that differential expression of miR-93/106b and their direct and/or indirect regulatory functions on F3, IL8, CTGF, and PAI-1 expression, with key roles in inflammation and tissue turnover may be of significance in the outcome of leiomyoma growth and associated symptoms. PMID:22556343

  8. An Fe2+-dependent cyclic phosphodiesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate in methanopterin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Zahra; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H

    2009-10-13

    7,8-Dihydro-D-neopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate (H(2)N-cP) is the first intermediate in biosynthesis of the pterin portion of tetrahydromethanopterin (H(4)MPT), a C(1) carrier coenzyme first identified in the methanogenic archaea. This intermediate is produced from GTP by MptA (MJ0775 gene product), a new class of GTP cyclohydrolase I [Grochowski, L. L., Xu, H., Leung, K., and White, R. H. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 6658-6667]. Here we report the identification of a cyclic phosphodiesterase that hydrolyzes the cyclic phosphate of H(2)N-cP and converts it to a mixture of 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin 2'-monophosphate and 7,8-dihydro-d-neopterin 3'-monophosphate. The enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannachii is designated MptB (MJ0837 gene product) to indicate that it catalyzes the second step of the biosynthesis of methanopterin. MptB is a member of the HD domain superfamily of enzymes, which require divalent metals for activity. Direct metal analysis of the recombinant enzyme demonstrated that MptB contained 1.0 mol of zinc and 0.8 mol of iron per protomer. MptB requires Fe(2+) for activity, the same as observed for MptA. Thus the first two enzymes involved in H(4)MPT biosynthesis in the archaea are Fe(2+) dependent. PMID:19746965

  9. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. [Tetrahydropyrene and hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H[sub 2] hydrogenation reaction network.

  10. Effects of structure on binding to the 2,3,7,8-TCDD receptor protein and AHH induction-halogenated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Safe, S.; Bandiera, S.; Sawyer, T.; Zmudzka, B.; Mason, G.; Romkes, M.; Denomme, M.A.; Sparling, J.; Okey, A.B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-09-01

    The quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been determined by comparing the EC/sub 50/ values for three in vitro test systems, namely, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction in rat hepatoma H-4-II-E cells and competitive binding avidities to the rat cytosolic receptor protein (using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as a radioligand). For several PBC congeners that are in vivo inducers of rat hepatic microsomal AHH, there was a linear correlation between the -log EC/sub 50/ values for receptor and the -log EC/sub 50/ values for AHH (or EROD) induction; moreover, a comparable linear relationship was observed between the -log EC/sub 50/ values for AHH and EROD induction. Previous in vivo studies have shown that the most active PCB congeners 3,3',4,4'-tetra-, 3,4,4',5-tetra, 3,3',4,4',5-penta-, and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, cause many of the biologic and toxic effects reported for the highly toxic halogenated aryl hydrocarbon, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Moreover, the monoortho-substituted homologs of the four coplanar PCBs also elicit comparable in vivo biologic and toxic responses. It was evident from the QSARs for PCBs that there was an excellent correspondence between the in vivo and in vitro potencies of the individual PCB congeners. 81 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  12. Oxidization-Induced Tin Whisker Growth on the Surface of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu-1.0Er Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hu; Shi, Yaowu; Xia, Zhidong; Lei, Yongping; Guo, Fu

    2009-08-01

    Rapid tin whisker growth has been found in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu1.0Er solder joints. The morphology of the tin whiskers changes from rodlike to threadlike when the storage temperature increases from 25 °C to 150 °C. The compressive stress induced by the lattice expansion of the oxidized ErSn3 phase provides the driving force and the tin atoms released from the oxidization of the ErSn3 phase provide the material source for the tin whisker growth.

  13. A spiro[chroman-3,7'-isochromene]-4,6'(8'H)-dione from the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp.

    PubMed

    Li, Erwei; Zhang, Fan; Niu, Shubin; Liu, Xingzhong; Liu, Gang; Che, Yongsheng

    2012-07-01

    Fimetarone A (1), a metabolite with the new spiro[chroman-3,7'-isochromene]-4,6'(8'H)-dione skeleton, was isolated from cultures of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp. Compound 1 was a 1:1 atropdiastereomeric mixture in NMR data, and aS,9S and aR,9R enantiomers were found and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 could be derived from the hypothetical precursors 3,4,5-trihydroxy-2-(2-methylene-3,5-dioxohexanoyl)benzoic acid (5) and lapidosin (6). PMID:22726106

  14. 8-Prenylnaringenin inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Elisa; Pinton, Giulia; Chianale, Federica; Graziani, Andrea; Appendino, Giovanni; Moro, Laura

    2009-02-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8PN), one of the strongest plant-derived oestrogen receptors (ERs) ligand, has been suggested to have potential cancer chemo-preventive activities and anti-angiogenic properties. Because published data suggest that ERs serve as nodal point that allows interactions between hormones and growth factors mediated pathways, we decided to investigate the effects exerted by 8PN on Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-elicited pathways in breast cancer cells. Here we show that in ER positive MCF-7 cells, 8PN interferes with EGF induced cell proliferation by strongly inhibiting activation of PI(3)K/Akt pathway, without affecting EGFR expression or tyrosine phosphorylation, and exerting a synergistic activation of Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that 8PN is a direct inhibitor of PI(3)K activity as it is shown by in vitro experiments with the purified enzyme and by its inability to impair serine phosphorylation of a constitutive active form of Akt. These findings suggest that inhibition of PI(3)K is a novel mechanism which contributes to 8PN activity to inhibit cancer cell survival and EGF induced proliferation. PMID:19103290

  15. Stability of molybdenum nanoparticles in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder during multiple reflow and their influence on interfacial intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A. Arafat, M.M. Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2012-02-15

    This work investigates the effects of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder and copper substrate during multiple reflow. Molybdenum nanoparticles were mixed with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder paste by manual mixing. Solder samples were reflowed on a copper substrate in a 250 Degree-Sign C reflow oven up to six times. The molybdenum content of the bulk solder was determined by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. It is found that upon the addition of molybdenum nanoparticles to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, the interfacial intermetallic compound thickness and scallop diameter decreases under all reflow conditions. Molybdenum nanoparticles do not appear to dissolve or react with the solder. They tend to adsorb preferentially at the interface between solder and the intermetallic compound scallops. It is suggested that molybdenum nanoparticles impart their influence on the interfacial intermetallic compound as discrete particles. The intact, discrete nanoparticles, by absorbing preferentially at the interface, hinder the diffusion flux of the substrate and thereby suppress the intermetallic compound growth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles do not dissolve or react with the SAC solder during reflow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Mo nanoparticles results smaller IMC thickness and scallop diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles influence the interfacial IMC through discrete particle effect.

  16. Determination of 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFS): Support for the use of the in vitro AHH induction assay

    SciTech Connect

    Safe, S.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro induction of the cytochrome P1-450-dependent monooxygenases, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) or ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and related toxic halogenated aryl hydrocarbons in rat hepatoma H-4-II E cells has been developed as a short term quantitative bioassay for these toxic chemicals. There was a linear correlation between the -log EC50 (in vitro) AHH induction vs the -log ED50 (in vivo) for body weight loss, thymic atrophy, hepatic AHH and EROD induction in the rat for several polychlorinated biphenyl, dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners and mixtures. These data clearly support the utility of the in vitro AHH induction assay as a short term test system for quantitating the toxic or 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent in an extract containing toxic halogenated aromatics. The bioassay method is rapid, relatively accurate and much more cost effective than conventional analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from which it is difficult to determine the levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in specific analytes.

  17. 7 CFR 1131.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1131.8 Section 1131.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1131.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1007.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  19. 7 CFR 1126.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1126.8 Section 1126.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1126.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  20. 7 CFR 1001.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  1. 7 CFR 1001.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  2. 7 CFR 1007.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1007.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  3. 7 CFR 1126.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1126.8 Section 1126.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1126.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  4. 7 CFR 1126.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1126.8 Section 1126.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1126.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  5. 7 CFR 1124.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1124.8 Section 1124.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  6. 7 CFR 1005.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1005.8 Section 1005.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1005.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  7. 7 CFR 1131.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1131.8 Section 1131.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1131.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  8. 7 CFR 1006.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1006.8 Section 1006.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1006.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  9. 7 CFR 1124.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1124.8 Section 1124.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  10. 7 CFR 1030.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1030.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  11. 7 CFR 1030.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1030.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1032.8 Section 1032.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  13. 7 CFR 1006.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1006.8 Section 1006.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1006.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  14. 7 CFR 1033.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1033.8 Section 1033.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1033.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  15. 7 CFR 1032.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1032.8 Section 1032.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  16. 7 CFR 1033.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1033.8 Section 1033.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1033.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  17. 7 CFR 1007.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1007.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  18. 7 CFR 1006.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1006.8 Section 1006.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1006.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  19. 7 CFR 1126.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1126.8 Section 1126.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1126.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  20. 7 CFR 1030.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1030.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  1. 7 CFR 1126.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1126.8 Section 1126.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1126.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  2. 7 CFR 1005.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1005.8 Section 1005.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1005.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  3. 7 CFR 1005.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1005.8 Section 1005.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1005.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  4. 7 CFR 1032.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1032.8 Section 1032.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  5. 7 CFR 1033.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1033.8 Section 1033.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1033.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  6. 7 CFR 1032.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1032.8 Section 1032.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  7. 7 CFR 1001.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  8. 7 CFR 1131.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1131.8 Section 1131.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1131.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  9. 7 CFR 1124.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1124.8 Section 1124.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  10. 7 CFR 1124.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1124.8 Section 1124.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  11. 7 CFR 1124.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1124.8 Section 1124.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  12. 7 CFR 1005.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1005.8 Section 1005.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1005.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  13. 7 CFR 1033.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1033.8 Section 1033.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1033.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1032.8 Section 1032.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  15. 7 CFR 1030.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1030.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  16. 7 CFR 1131.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1131.8 Section 1131.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1131.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  17. 7 CFR 1033.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1033.8 Section 1033.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1033.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1007.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  19. 7 CFR 1001.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1001.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  20. 7 CFR 1005.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1005.8 Section 1005.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1005.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  1. 7 CFR 1030.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1030.8 Section 1030.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1030.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  2. 7 CFR 1131.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1131.8 Section 1131.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1131.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  3. 7 CFR 1006.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1006.8 Section 1006.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1006.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  4. 7 CFR 1006.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1006.8 Section 1006.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1006.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  5. 7 CFR 1007.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1007.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  6. 7 CFR 1001.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1001.8 Nonpool plant. See § 1000.8....

  7. 7 CFR 984.8 - Walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Walnuts. 984.8 Section 984.8 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.8 Walnuts. Walnuts means only walnuts of the “English” (Juglans regia)...

  8. 7 CFR 984.8 - Walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walnuts. 984.8 Section 984.8 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.8 Walnuts. Walnuts means only walnuts of the “English” (Juglans regia)...

  9. 7 CFR 984.8 - Walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Walnuts. 984.8 Section 984.8 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.8 Walnuts. Walnuts means only walnuts of the “English” (Juglans regia)...

  10. 7 CFR 984.8 - Walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Walnuts. 984.8 Section 984.8 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.8 Walnuts. Walnuts means only walnuts of the “English” (Juglans regia)...

  11. 7 CFR 984.8 - Walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Walnuts. 984.8 Section 984.8 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.8 Walnuts. Walnuts means only walnuts of the “English” (Juglans regia)...

  12. Signature of 3-4 day planetary waves in the equatorial ionospheric F layer height and medium frequency radar winds over Tirunelveli (8.7oN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Sathishkumar

    Signature of 3-4 day planetary waves in the equatorial ionospheric F layer height and medium frequency radar winds over Tirunelveli (8.7oN) S. Sathishkumar1, R. Dhanya1, K. Emperumal1, D. Tiwari2, S. Gurubaran1 and A. Bhattacharyya2 1. Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Tirunelveli, India 2. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai, India Email: sathishmaths@gmail.com Abstract The equatorial atmosphere-ionosphere system has been studied theoretically and observationally in the past. In the equatorial atmosphere, oscillations with periods of 3-4 days are often observed in the medium frequency (MF) radar over Tirunelveli (8.7oN, 77.8oE, 1.34oN geomag. lat.). Earlier observations show the clear evidence that these waves can propagate from the stratosphere to ionosphere. A digital ionosonde has been providing useful information on several ionospheric parameters from the same site. Simultaneous observations of mesospheric winds using medium frequency radar and F-layer height (h'F) from ionosonde reveal that the 3-4 day wave was evident in both the component during the 01 June 2007 and 31 July 2007. The 3-4 day wave could have an important role in the day to day variability of the equatorial ionosphere evening uplift. Results from an extensive analysis that is being carried out in the direction of 3-4 day wave present in the ionosphere will be presented.

  13. Species-specific relative AHR1 binding affinities of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran explain avian species differences in its relative potency.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Jones, Stephanie P; Crump, Doug; Hahn, Mark E; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-04-01

    Results of recent studies showed that 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are equipotent in domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) while PeCDF is more potent than TCDD in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). To elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying these differences in relative potency of PeCDF among avian species, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to species-specific differential binding affinity of PeCDF to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). Here, we modified a cell-based binding assay that allowed us to measure the binding affinity of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) to avian AHR1 expressed in COS-7 (fibroblast-like cells). The results of the binding assay show that PeCDF and TCDD bind with equal affinity to chicken AHR1, but PeCDF binds with greater affinity than TCDD to pheasant (3-fold) and Japanese quail (5-fold) AHR1. The current report introduces a COS-7 whole-cell binding assay and provides a mechanistic explanation for differential relative potencies of PeCDF among species of birds. PMID:24434118

  14. Review and update of the results of the NIOSH medical study of workers exposed to chemicals contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M H; Calvert, G M; Egeland, G A; Fingerhut, M A; Halperin, W E; Piacitelli, L A

    In 1987, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a cross-sectional medical study to examine the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to chemicals and materials contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This study compared living workers employed more than 15 years earlier in the production of sodium trichlorophenol (NaTCP), and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic ester (2,4,5-T ester) with an unexposed comparison group. Health status of the worker and comparison populations was collected through a comprehensive set of standardized interviews and medical examinations. Lipid adjusted serum TCDD levels were also measured. Workers had a statistically significantly elevated mean serum lipid-adjusted TCDD level (workers = 220 pg per g of lipid [range = not detected-3,400 pg per g of lipid], and referents 7 pg per g of lipid [range not detected-20 pg per g of lipid], P < 0.001). Compared to a community-based referent population, the prevalence of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral neuropathy, depression, cardiovascular outcomes (myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, and abnormal peripheral arterial flow), abnormal porphyrin levels, and abnormal ventilatory function parameters FEV1.0, FVC, or FEV1.0/FVC% in workers, was not statistically significantly different. In contrast, relationships were observed between serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD levels and the enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), the reproductive hormones serum testosterone, luteinizing, and follicle-stimulating hormones, and abnormal high-density lipoprotein concentration, counts of CD3/Ta1 cells (helper lymphocytes), and fasting serum glucose levels. Current diagnosis of chloracne was associated with the highest levels of serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Analysis of other endpoints continues. PMID:9508733

  15. High Dielectric, Piezoelectric, Upconversion Photoluminescence and Low-Temperature Sensing Properties in Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3-BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3:Ho/Yb Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Qianghui; Luo, Laihui; Yao, Yongjie

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we have synthesized pure and Ho/Yb-co-doped 0.5Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3-0.5BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ceramics using a solid-state reaction technique. The prepared pure 0.5Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3-0.5BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ceramics were found in the morphotropic phase boundary region, and exhibit high piezoelectric and dielectric properties. Under a 980-nm excitation, strong green, red and near-infrared (NIR) upconversion (UC) photoluminescence is observed in Ho/Yb-co-doped samples. It is found that the color of UC emission could be tuned by changing the concentration of sensitizer Yb ions in the host matrix. Furthermore, optical temperature sensing properties based on the green and NIR UC emissions of BSZT:0.005Ho/0.01Yb were investigated. Fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) between green (5F4,5S2) → 5I8 and NIR (5F4,5S2) → 5I7 UC emissions of Ho ions was studied as a function of temperature in the range of 78 K-373 K, and a maximum sensitivity 0.0206 K-1 at 97 K was obtained.

  16. Human herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vCCL2/vMIP-II is an agonist of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7.

    PubMed

    Szpakowska, Martyna; Dupuis, Nadine; Baragli, Alessandra; Counson, Manuel; Hanson, Julien; Piette, Jacques; Chevigné, Andy

    2016-08-15

    The atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7/ACKR3 binds two endogenous chemokines, CXCL12 and CXCL11, and is upregulated in many cancers or following infection by several cancer-inducing viruses, including HHV-8. ACKR3 is a ligand-scavenging receptor and does not activate the canonical G protein pathways but was proposed to trigger β-arrestin-dependent signaling. Here, we identified the human herpesvirus 8-encoded CC chemokine vCCL2/vMIP-II as a third high-affinity ligand for ACKR3. vCCL2 acted as partial ACKR3 agonist, inducing β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor, subsequent reduction of its surface levels and its delivery to endosomes. In addition, ACKR3 reduced vCCL2-triggered MAP kinase and PI3K/Akt signaling through other chemokine receptors. Our data suggest that ACKR3 acts as a scavenger receptor for vCCL2, regulating its availability and activity toward human receptors, thereby likely controlling its function in HHV-8 infection. Our study provides new insights into the complex crosstalk between viral chemokines and host receptors as well as into the biology of ACKR3, this atypical and still enigmatic receptor. PMID:27238288

  17. Novel TNS3-MAP3K3 and ZFPM2-ELF5 fusion genes identified by RNA sequencing in multicystic mesothelioma with t(7;17)(p12;q23) and t(8;11)(q23;p13).

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Davidson, Ben; Heim, Sverre

    2015-02-28

    Multicystic mesothelioma is a rare disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Nothing has been known about the cytogenetic and molecular genetic features of these tumors. Here we present the first cytogenetically analyzed multicystic mesothelioma with the karyotype 46,XX,t(7;17)(p13;q23),t(8;11)(q23;p13). RNA-sequencing showed that the t(7;17)(p13;q23) generated a chimeric TNS3-MAP3K3 gene, which codes for a chimeric protein kinase, as well as the reciprocal MAP3K3-TNS3 in which the region of TNS3 coding for the SH2_Tensin_like region and the tensin phosphotyrosine-binding domain is under the control of the MAP3K3 promoter. The other translocation, t(8;11)(q23;p13), generated a chimeric ZFPM2-ELF5 gene which codes for a chimeric transcription factor in which the first 40 amino acids of ELF5 are replaced by the first 100 amino acids of ZFPM2. RT-PCR together with Sanger sequencing verified the presence of the above-mentioned fusion transcripts. The finding of acquired clonal chromosome abnormalities in cells cultured from the lesion and the presence of the TNS3-MAP3K3 chimeric protein kinase and the ZFPM2-ELF5 chimeric transcription factor confirm the neoplastic nature of multicystic mesothelioma. PMID:25484136

  18. 7 CFR 7.8 - Conduct of community committee elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conduct of community committee elections. 7.8 Section... STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.8 Conduct of community committee elections. (a) The county committee serving at the time shall be responsible for the conduct of...

  19. 7 CFR 7.8 - Conduct of community committee elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of community committee elections. 7.8 Section... STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.8 Conduct of community committee elections. (a) The county committee serving at the time shall be responsible for the conduct of...

  20. 7 CFR 7.8 - Conduct of community committee elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conduct of community committee elections. 7.8 Section... STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.8 Conduct of community committee elections. (a) The county committee serving at the time shall be responsible for the conduct of...

  1. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel 4-morpholino-7,8-dihydro-5H-thiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives bearing chromone moiety.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengyu; Chen, Chen; Xu, Shan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhu, Yan; Kong, Dejia; Tao, Hong; Jin, Mengjia; Zheng, Pengwu; Zhu, Wufu

    2016-08-15

    Herein, we designed and synthesized of a novel series of 7,8-dihydro-5H-thiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives bearing chromone moiety (10a-j, 13a-j). All the compounds were evaluated for the IC50 values against five cancer cell lines (A549, PC-3, MCF-7, Hela and HepG2). Seven of the target compounds exhibited moderate to excellent cytotoxicity. For these compounds, we tested their inhibitory activities against mTOR kinase, and four of them were tested their inhibitory activities against PI3Kα kinase in further. The results indicated that the optimized compound 10j showed excellent inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against mTOR kinase, PI3Kα kinase and five cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 1.1μM, 0.92μM and 8.77-14.3μM. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that the thiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine scaffolds exerted little effect on antitumor activities of target compounds. Substitutions of chromone moiety at C-6 position with carboxyl were benefit to the antitumor activities. PMID:27353887

  2. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5288 Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted] -1... chemical substance identified generically as chromate(2-), -7- nitro-1-substituted] -1-substituted]-,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5288 Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted] -1... chemical substance identified generically as chromate(2-), -7- nitro-1-substituted] -1-substituted]-,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5288 Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted] -1... chemical substance identified generically as chromate(2-), -7- nitro-1-substituted] -1-substituted]-,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5288 Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted] -1... chemical substance identified generically as chromate(2-), -7- nitro-1-substituted] -1-substituted]-,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5288 Chromate(2-), -7-nitro-1-substituted] -1... chemical substance identified generically as chromate(2-), -7- nitro-1-substituted] -1-substituted]-,...

  7. Tourmaline in the 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland - A window to Boron Concentrations in the Eoarchean Eon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grew, E. S.; Dymek, R. F.; De Hoog, J. C.; Harley, S. L.; Hazen, R. M.; Yates, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    The distribution and mineralogical context of trace elements in Earth's oldest rocks provide insights on Earth's accretion, differentiation, and primordial evolution. One example is boron, which is highly concentrated in Earth's crust and oceans relative to primitive mantle, and, thus the amount of boron on Earth's surface should increase with increasing volume of crust. The earliest B mineral reported in the geological record is metamorphic tourmaline in the Isua Supracrustal Belt, where its abundance belies the notion of there being less boron in the Eoarchean than in more recent time. Chaussidon & Appel (1997, Chem. Geol., 136, 171-180) reported δ11B = --17.3 to --25.0‰ in tourmaline in Isua metachert ("conglomerate"), and δ11B = --12.6 to +5.8 ‰ on tourmaline in Isua metamorphosed mafic volcaniclastics. The large range in the latter rocks was attributed to fractionation during hydrothermal reworking, whereas the more negative values in the metacherts suggested metamorphic tourmaline formed from breakdown of clays with an average δ11B calculated to be about -8 × 7‰ deposited in an ocean having δ11B = +27×11‰, compared to +40 ‰ today, consistent with δ11B = +28‰ calculated from the Chaussidon & Albarède (1992, EPSL, 108, 229-241) model relating increase in sea-water δ11B to proportion of B extracted from Earth's mantle into the oceans and crust. This estimate of Eoarchean seawater δ11B is consistent with fractionation associated with illitization of smectite formed in a marine environment (estimated to be about --35‰) and with crystallization of metamorphic tourmaline from intergranular fluid having the same δ11B as the host metachert (another --2‰ at 500 °C based on tourmaline-water fractionation from Meyer et al. 2008, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 156, 259-267). However, this scenario does not adequately explain three rock types in the Isua supracrustals: (1) a tourmaline-quartz lens with ~50% modal tourmaline; (2) a dolomite

  8. Anti-parallel triplexes: Synthesis of 8-aza-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with a 3-aminopropynyl side-chain and its corresponding LNA analog.

    PubMed

    Kosbar, Tamer R; Sofan, Mamdouh A; Waly, Mohamed A; Pedersen, Erik B

    2015-05-15

    The phosphoramidites of DNA monomers of 7-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-8-aza-7-deazaadenine (Y) and 7-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-8-aza-7-deazaadenine LNA (Z) are synthesized, and the thermal stability at pH 7.2 and 8.2 of anti-parallel triplexes modified with these two monomers is determined. When, the anti-parallel TFO strand was modified with Y with one or two insertions at the end of the TFO strand, the thermal stability was increased 1.2°C and 3°C at pH 7.2, respectively, whereas one insertion in the middle of the TFO strand decreased the thermal stability 1.4°C compared to the wild type oligonucleotide. In order to be sure that the 3-aminopropyn-1-yl chain was contributing to the stability of the triplex, the nucleobase X without the aminopropynyl group was inserted in the same positions. In all cases the thermal stability was lower than the corresponding oligonucleotides carrying the 3-aminopropyn-1-yl chain, especially at the end of the TFO strand. On the other hand, the thermal stability of the anti-parallel triplex was dramatically decreased when the TFO strand was modified with the LNA monomer analog Z in the middle of the TFO strand (ΔTm=-9.1°C). Also the thermal stability decreased about 6.1°C when the TFO strand was modified with Z and the Watson-Crick strand with adenine-LNA (A(L)). The molecular modeling results showed that, in case of nucleobases Y and Z a hydrogen bond (1.69 and 1.72Ǻ, respectively) was formed between the protonated 3-aminopropyn-1-yl chain and one of the phosphate groups in Watson-Crick strand. Also, it was shown that the nucleobase Y made a good stacking and binding with the other nucleobases in the TFO and Watson-Crick duplex, respectively. In contrast, the nucleobase Z with LNA moiety was forced to twist out of plane of Watson-Crick base pair which is weakening the stacking interactions with the TFO nucleobases and the binding with the duplex part. PMID:25868748

  9. DISPOSITION AND EXCRETION OF INTRAVENOUS 2,3,7,8-TETRABROMODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TBDD) IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans are of toxicologic interest due to potential occupational and environmental exposure and because of their structural similarity to the highly toxic chlorinated analogues. he excretion and terminal tissue distribution of 3H-TBDD was ...

  10. 7-Methyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-1-benzo-thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine.

    PubMed

    Ziaulla, Mohamed; Banu, Afshan; Begum, Noor Shahina; Panchamukhi, Shridhar I; Khazi, I M

    2011-07-01

    In the title compound, C(11)H(13)N(3)S, two of the C atoms of the cyclo-hexene ring and the methyl group attached to it are disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.544 (2):0.456 (2) ratio. The benzothiene and pyrimidine rings are almost coplanar with an angular tilt of 2.371 (9)° between them. The thio-phene ring is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation 0.05 Å), while the cyclo-hexene ring in both the major- and minor-occupancy conformers adopts a half-chair conformation. In the crystal structure, pairs of intermolecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the amino groups result in centrosymmetric head-to-head dimers about inversion centres, corresponding to an R(2) (2)(8) graph-set motif. Further, N-H⋯N hydrogen bonding generates a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network perpendicular to the ac plane and running along the diagonal of the ac plane. PMID:21837042

  11. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS #3, 7, and 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since the United States of America is moving into an age of reusable space vehicles, both electronic and photographic materials will continue to be an integral part of the recording techniques available. Film as a scientifically viable recording technique in astronomy is well documented. There is a real need to expose various types of films to the Shuttle environment. Thus, the main objective was to look at the subtle densitometric changes of canisters of IIaO film that was placed aboard the Space Shuttle 3 (STS-3).

  12. 8‑bromo‑7‑methoxychrysin induces apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO3a pathway in cisplatin‑sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Qing; Guo, Yanling; Huang, Zhi; Dai, Liqing; Cao, Sudan

    2015-10-01

    8‑bromo‑7‑methoxychrysin (BrMC), a novel chrysin analog, was reported to have anti‑cancer activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of 8‑bromo‑7‑methoxychrysin (BrMC)‑induced apoptosis via the Akt/forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) pathway in cisplatin (DDP)‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and A2780/DDP were cultured in vitro. Various molecular techniques were used to assess the expression of FOXO3a and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) in cisplatin‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells. Different concentrations of BrMC induced apoptosis in cisplatin‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells. BrMC‑induced apoptotic cell death occurred mainly by the activation of Akt, which was accompanied by the overexpression of transcription factor FOXO3a, with a concomitant increase in the expression levels of Bim. Silencing Bim expression by using small interfering RNA, attenuated the induction of apoptosis by BrMC treatment. The results indicated that BrMC‑induced apoptosis in cisplatin‑sensitive and ‑resistant ovarian cancer cells may occur via the regulation of Akt/FOXO3a, leading to Bim transcription. PMID:26151347

  13. Production of 7, 10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from triolein via lipase induction by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained important attentions because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The new bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids f...

  14. Lipase-induced Production of 7, 10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic Acid from Triolein by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids have gained attention because of their special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared with other non-hydroxy fatty acids. The bacterial isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) had been reported to produce mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids from different f...

  15. 7 CFR 1709.8 - Electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic submission. 1709.8 Section 1709.8... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.8 Electronic submission... announcement and grant agreements or if other regulations provide for electronic submission. Any...

  16. 7 CFR 1709.8 - Electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electronic submission. 1709.8 Section 1709.8... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.8 Electronic submission... announcement and grant agreements or if other regulations provide for electronic submission. Any...

  17. 7 CFR 1709.8 - Electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic submission. 1709.8 Section 1709.8... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.8 Electronic submission... announcement and grant agreements or if other regulations provide for electronic submission. Any...

  18. 7 CFR 1709.8 - Electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic submission. 1709.8 Section 1709.8... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.8 Electronic submission... announcement and grant agreements or if other regulations provide for electronic submission. Any...

  19. 7 CFR 1709.8 - Electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic submission. 1709.8 Section 1709.8... AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.8 Electronic submission... announcement and grant agreements or if other regulations provide for electronic submission. Any...

  20. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  1. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  2. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  3. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  4. 7 CFR 275.8 - Review coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review coverage. 275.8 Section 275.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Reviews § 275.8 Review coverage. (a) During each review period, State agencies shall review the...

  5. 7 CFR 624.8 - Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance. 624.8 Section 624.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WATERSHED PROTECTION § 624.8 Assistance. (a) Sponsors must submit a formal request to the State...

  6. 7 CFR 1290.8 - Grant agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1290.8 Section 1290.8 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROP BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM § 1290.8 Grant agreements. (a) After review and approval of a grant application, AMS will enter into...

  7. 7 CFR 1291.8 - Grant agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1291.8 Section 1291.8 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROP BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM-FARM BILL § 1291.8 Grant agreements. (a) After approval of a grant application, AMS will enter into...

  8. 7 CFR 1290.8 - Grant agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1290.8 Section 1290.8 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROP BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM § 1290.8 Grant agreements. (a) After review and approval of a grant application, AMS will enter into...

  9. 7 CFR 1291.8 - Grant agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1291.8 Section 1291.8 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROP BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM-FARM BILL § 1291.8 Grant agreements. (a) After approval of a grant application, AMS will enter into...

  10. 7 CFR 1290.8 - Grant agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1290.8 Section 1290.8 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROP BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM § 1290.8 Grant agreements. (a) After review and approval of a grant application, AMS will enter into...

  11. 7 CFR 1291.8 - Grant agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant agreements. 1291.8 Section 1291.8 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIALTY CROP BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM-FARM BILL § 1291.8 Grant agreements. (a) After approval of a grant application, AMS will enter into...

  12. 7 CFR 3200.8 - Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Costs. 3200.8 Section 3200.8 Agriculture Regulations... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.8 Costs. Excess personal property obtained under this part is provided free of charge. However, the institution must pay all costs associated with packaging and transportation....

  13. 7 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.1 Policy. The Cooperative Extension Service, of which the 4-H Club program is a part, invites and appreciates the cooperation of all organizations,...

  14. 7 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.1 Policy. The Cooperative Extension Service, of which the 4-H Club program is a part, invites and appreciates the cooperation of all organizations,...

  15. 7 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.1 Policy. The Cooperative Extension Service, of which the 4-H Club program is a part, invites and appreciates the cooperation of all organizations,...

  16. 7 CFR 8.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 8.1 Section 8.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.1 Policy. The Cooperative Extension Service, of which the 4-H Club program is a part, invites and appreciates the cooperation of all organizations,...

  17. 7 CFR 27.8 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Director. 27.8 Section 27.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Administration § 27.8 Director. The Director...

  18. 7 CFR 27.8 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Director. 27.8 Section 27.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Administration § 27.8 Director. The Director...

  19. 7 CFR 27.8 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director. 27.8 Section 27.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Administration § 27.8 Director. The Director...

  20. 7 CFR 27.8 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Director. 27.8 Section 27.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Administration § 27.8 Director. The Director...

  1. 7 CFR 27.8 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Director. 27.8 Section 27.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Administration § 27.8 Director. The Director...

  2. 7 CFR 3402.8 - Fellowship activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fellowship activities. 3402.8 Section 3402.8... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.8 Fellowship activities. A USDA Graduate Fellow shall be enrolled as a...

  3. 7 CFR 3402.8 - Fellowship activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fellowship activities. 3402.8 Section 3402.8... GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.8 Fellowship activities. A..., at all times during the tenure of the Fellowship in the national need area and at the degree...

  4. 7 CFR 3402.8 - Fellowship activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fellowship activities. 3402.8 Section 3402.8... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.8 Fellowship activities. A USDA Graduate Fellow shall be enrolled as a...

  5. 7 CFR 3402.8 - Fellowship activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fellowship activities. 3402.8 Section 3402.8... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.8 Fellowship activities. A USDA Graduate Fellow shall be enrolled as a...

  6. 7 CFR 3402.8 - Fellowship activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fellowship activities. 3402.8 Section 3402.8... AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE FELLOWSHIP GRANTS PROGRAM Program Description § 3402.8 Fellowship activities. A USDA Graduate Fellow shall be enrolled as a...

  7. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.8 Easement value. NRCS offers...

  8. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.8 Easement value. NRCS offers for easements will be based on the fair market value, as determined by the NRCS State Conservationist, of...

  9. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.8 Easement value. NRCS offers for easements will be based on the fair market value, as determined by the NRCS State Conservationist, of...

  10. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.8 Easement value. NRCS offers for easements will be based on the fair market value, as determined by the NRCS State Conservationist, of...

  11. 7 CFR 319.8-23 - Treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment. 319.8-23 Section 319.8-23 Agriculture....8-23 Treatment. (a)(1) Vacuum fumigation as required in this subpart shall consist of fumigation, in.... (4) Prompt vacuum fumigation of cotton and covers (other than high density cotton free of...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1000.8 Section 1000.8 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.8 Nonpool plant. Nonpool plant means any milk receiving, manufacturing, or processing plant other than a pool plant. The following categories of nonpool plants are further defined as follows:...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1000.8 Section 1000.8 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.8 Nonpool plant. Nonpool plant means any milk receiving, manufacturing, or processing plant other than a pool plant. The following categories of nonpool plants are further defined as follows:...

  14. 7 CFR 1000.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nonpool plant. 1000.8 Section 1000.8 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.8 Nonpool plant. Nonpool plant means any milk receiving, manufacturing, or processing plant other than a pool plant. The following categories of nonpool plants are further defined as follows:...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1000.8 Section 1000.8 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.8 Nonpool plant. Nonpool plant means any milk receiving, manufacturing, or processing plant other than a pool plant. The following categories of nonpool plants are further defined as follows:...

  16. 7 CFR 1000.8 - Nonpool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonpool plant. 1000.8 Section 1000.8 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.8 Nonpool plant. Nonpool plant means any milk receiving, manufacturing, or processing plant other than a pool plant. The following categories of nonpool plants are further defined as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 1.8 - Multitrack processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multitrack processing. 1.8 Section 1.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.8 Multitrack processing. (a) When an agency has a significant number of requests, the nature of which precludes...

  18. 7 CFR 356.8 - Return procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Return procedure. 356.8 Section 356.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.8 Return procedure. If, at the conclusion...

  19. 7 CFR 1.8 - Multitrack processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Multitrack processing. 1.8 Section 1.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.8 Multitrack processing. (a) When an agency has a significant number of requests, the nature of which precludes...

  20. 7 CFR 1782.8 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payments. 1782.8 Section 1782.8 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.8 Payments. Payments will be applied in accordance with the terms of the debt instrument. Information on nontypical payments can be obtained from...

  1. 7 CFR 1782.8 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payments. 1782.8 Section 1782.8 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.8 Payments. Payments will be applied in accordance with the terms of the debt instrument. Information on nontypical payments can be obtained from...

  2. 7 CFR 947.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 947.8 Section 947.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND...

  3. 7 CFR 947.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Producer. 947.8 Section 947.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND...

  4. 7 CFR 947.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Producer. 947.8 Section 947.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND...

  5. 7 CFR 947.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Producer. 947.8 Section 947.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND...

  6. 7 CFR 947.8 - Producer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Producer. 947.8 Section 947.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN MODOC AND...

  7. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reimbursement payments. 215.8 Section 215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b)(1) The rate of reimbursement...

  8. 7 CFR 958.8 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grading. 958.8 Section 958.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON...

  9. 7 CFR 1782.8 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Payments. 1782.8 Section 1782.8 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.8 Payments. Payments will be applied in accordance with the terms of the debt instrument. Information on nontypical payments can be obtained from...

  10. 7 CFR 926.8 - Handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler. 926.8 Section 926.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND...

  11. 7 CFR 8.4 - Basic premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic premises. 8.4 Section 8.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.4 Basic premises. (a) The 4-H Club Name and Emblem are held in trust by the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States Department of...

  12. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  13. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  14. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The answer. 47.8 Section 47.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT Rules Applicable to Reparation Proceedings § 47.8...

  15. 7 CFR 2901.8 - Judicial review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Judicial review. 2901.8 Section 2901.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.8...

  16. 7 CFR 983.8 - Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Committee. 983.8 Section 983.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  17. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.8 Easement value. NRCS offers...

  18. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  19. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  20. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  1. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  2. 7 CFR 12.8 - Affiliated persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Affiliated persons. 12.8 Section 12.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.8 Affiliated persons. (a) Ineligibility of affiliated persons. Ineligibility of an individual...

  3. 7 CFR 215.8 - Reimbursement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reimbursement payments. 215.8 Section 215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.8 Reimbursement payments. (a) (b)(1) The rate of reimbursement...

  4. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity....

  5. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity....

  6. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity....

  7. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity....

  8. 7 CFR 1400.8 - Equitable treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equitable treatment. 1400.8 Section 1400.8... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS General Provisions § 1400.8 Equitable treatment. (a... Administrator deems necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such person or legal entity....

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Covers. 319.8-10 Section 319.8-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-10 Covers....

  10. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ocean transportation. 17.8 Section 17.8 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... in this section. (2) The supplier of ocean transportation must be engaged in the business...

  11. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ocean transportation. 17.8 Section 17.8 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... in this section. (2) The supplier of ocean transportation must be engaged in the business...

  12. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ocean transportation. 17.8 Section 17.8 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... in this section. (2) The supplier of ocean transportation must be engaged in the business...

  13. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ocean transportation. 17.8 Section 17.8 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... in this section. (2) The supplier of ocean transportation must be engaged in the business...

  14. 7 CFR 17.8 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ocean transportation. 17.8 Section 17.8 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.8 Ocean transportation... in this section. (2) The supplier of ocean transportation must be engaged in the business...

  15. Mechanism of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on intermediary metabolism in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshman, M.R.; Ghosh, P.; Chirtel, S.J. )

    1991-03-11

    The effects of three days of exposure to a single 20 {mu}g/kg dosage of TCDD on fat mobilization and the fates of the mobilized fatty acids and glycerol were determined. It was found that TCDD caused a significant mobilization of depot fat into the plasma compartment resulting in 1.5-2.8 fold increase in plasma free-fatty acid concentrations. The same treatment of TCDD caused a 32% inhibition of the rate of hepatic oleate oxidation to CO{sub 2} without significantly affecting the rate of fatty acid esterification to triglycerides. In contrast, hepatic ketogenic rate from oleate and octanoate was markedly stimulated by 85% and 69% respectively. These results support the concept that although the translocation of long chain fatty acids from the outer mitochondrial membrane into the inner mitochondrial membrane via the carnitine pathway and their subsequent beta-oxidation of the fatty acids must be working normally, their complete oxidation to CO{sub 2}via the TCA cycle is impaired. At the same time, TCDD seems to preferentially divert the acetyl CoA generated from the beta-oxidation of fatty acids to the ketogenic pathway. Surprisingly, TCDD treatment inhibited the hepatic ketogenic rate from glycerol by 21% and its oxidation by 31% without affecting its esterification.

  16. 8 CFR 286.7 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Penalties. 286.7 Section 286.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.7 Penalties. Failure of any air or sea carrier to comply with the provisions of section 286 of the Act and this...

  17. 8 CFR 286.7 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penalties. 286.7 Section 286.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.7 Penalties. Failure of any air or sea carrier to comply with the provisions of section 286 of the Act and this...

  18. 8 CFR 286.7 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Penalties. 286.7 Section 286.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.7 Penalties. Failure of any air or sea carrier to comply with the provisions of section 286 of the Act and this...

  19. 8 CFR 286.7 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Penalties. 286.7 Section 286.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.7 Penalties. Failure of any air or sea carrier to comply with the provisions of section 286 of the Act and this...

  20. 8 CFR 286.7 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Penalties. 286.7 Section 286.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRATION USER FEE § 286.7 Penalties. Failure of any air or sea carrier to comply with the provisions of section 286 of the Act and this...

  1. Measurement of galaxy clustering at z ∼ 7.2 and the evolution of galaxy bias from 3.8 < z < 8 in the XDF, GOODS-S, and GOODS-N

    SciTech Connect

    Barone-Nugent, R. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Trenti, M.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbe, I.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Su, J.; Stiavelli, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.

    2014-09-20

    Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) samples observed during reionization (z ≳ 6) with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 are reaching sizes sufficient to characterize their clustering properties. Using a combined catalog from the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field and CANDELS surveys, containing N = 743 LBG candidates at z ≥ 6.5 at a mean redshift of z-bar =7.2, we detect a clear clustering signal in the angular correlation function (ACF) at ≳ 4σ, corresponding to a real-space correlation length r{sub 0}=6.7{sub −1.0}{sup +0.9}h{sup −1}cMpc. The derived galaxy bias b=8.6{sub −1.0}{sup +0.9} is that of dark matter halos of M=10{sup 11.1{sub −}{sub 0}{sub .}{sub 3}{sup +{sup 0{sup .{sup 2}}}}} M{sub ⊙} at z = 7.2, and highlights that galaxies below the current detection limit (M{sub AB} ∼ –17.7) are expected in lower-mass halos (M ∼ 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ⊙} ). We compute the ACF of LBGs at z ∼ 3.8 – z ∼ 5.9 in the same surveys. A trend of increasing bias is found from z-bar =3.8 (b ∼ 3.0) to z-bar =7.2 (b ∼ 8.6), broadly consistent with galaxies at fixed luminosity being hosted in dark matter halos of similar mass at 4 ≲ z ≲ 6, followed by a slight rise in halo masses at z ≳ 7 (∼2σ confidence). Separating the data at the median luminosity of the z-bar =7.2 sample (M {sub UV} = –19.4) shows higher clustering at z-bar =5.9 for bright galaxies (r{sub 0}=5.5{sub −1.6}{sup +1.4}h{sup −1}cMpc, b=6.2{sub −1.5}{sup +1.2}) compared to faint galaxies (r{sub 0}=1.9{sub −1.0}{sup +1.1}h{sup −1}cMpc, b=2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +1.2}) implying a constant mass-to-light ratio (dlogM/dlogL)∼1.2{sub −0.8}{sup +1.8}. A similar trend is present in the z-bar =7.2 sample with larger uncertainty. Finally, our bias measurements allow us to investigate the fraction of dark matter halos hosting UV-bright galaxies (the duty cycle, ε{sub DC}). At z-bar =7.2 values near unity are preferred, which may be explained by the shortened halo

  2. Decreased Dengue Replication and an Increased Anti-viral Humoral Response with the use of Combined Toll-Like Receptor 3 and 7/8 Agonists in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sariol, Carlos A.; Martínez, Melween I.; Rivera, Francheska; Rodríguez, Idia Vanessa; Pantoja, Petraleigh; Abel, Kristina; Arana, Teresa; Giavedoni, Luis; Hodara, Vida; White, Laura J.; Angleró, Yesseinia I.; Montaner, Luis J.; Kraiselburd, Edmundo N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pathogenic versus protective outcomes to Dengue virus (DENV) infection are associated with innate immune function. This study aimed to determine the role of increased TLR3- and TLR7/8-mediated innate signaling after Dengue infection of rhesus macaques in vivo to evaluate its impact on disease and anti-DENV immune responses. Methodology/Principal Findings TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists (emulsified in Montanide) were administered subcutaneously to rhesus macaques at 48 hours and 7 days after DENV infection. The Frequency and activation of myeloid dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and B cells were measured by flow cytometry while the serum levels of 14 different cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Adaptive immune responses were measured by DENV-specific antibody subtype measurements. Results showed that the combined TLR agonists reduced viral replication and induced the development of a proinflammatory reaction, otherwise absent in Dengue infection alone, without any clear signs of exacerbated disease. Specifically, the TLR-induced response was characterized by activation changes in mDC subsets concurrent with higher serum levels of CXCL-10 and IL-1Ra. TLR stimulation also induced higher titers of anti-DENV antibodies and acted to increase the IgG2/IgG1 ratio of anti-DENV to favor the subtype associated with DENV control. We also observed an effect of DENV-mediated suppression of mDC activation consistent with prior in vitro studies. Conclusions/Significance These data show that concurrent TLR3/7/8 activation of the innate immune response after DENV infection in vivo acts to increase antiviral mechanisms via increased inflammatory and humoral responses in rhesus macaques, resulting in decreased viremia and melioration of the infection. These findings underscore an in vivo protective rather than a pathogenic role for combined TLR3/7/8-mediated activation in Dengue infection of rhesus macaques. Our study provides definitive proof-of-concept into

  3. Analysis of the ν 8+ ν 9Band of HNO 3, Line Positions and Intensities, and Resonances Involving the v6= v7= 1 Dark State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Keller, F.; Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1999-03-01

    Using a high-resolution (R= 0.0025 cm-1) Fourier transform spectrum of nitric acid recorded at room temperature in the 1100-1240 cm-1region, it has been possible to perform a more extended analysis of the ν8+ ν9band of HNO3centered at 1205.7075 cm-1. As in a recent analysis of this band [W. F. Wang, P. P. Ong, T. L. Tan, E. C. Looi, and H. H. Teo,J. Mol. Spectrosc.183, 407-413 (1997)], the Hamiltonian used for the line positions calculation takes into account, for the upper state, the ΔK= ±2 anharmonic resonance linking the rotational levels of thev8=v9= 1 "bright" vibrational state and those of the "dark"v6=v7= 1 vibrational state. More than 4800 lines were assigned in the ν8+ ν9band, which involve significantly higher rotational quantum numbers than in previous works. On the other hand, and surprisingly as compared to previous studies, the ν8+ ν9band appears to be a hybrid band. In fact, nonnegligibleB-type transitions could be clearly identified among the much strongerA-type lines. Accordingly, a set of individual line intensities were measured for lines of both types and were introduced in a least-squares fit to get theA- andB-type components of the transition moment operator. Finally, a synthetic spectrum of the 8.3-μm region of HNO3has been generated, using for the line positions and line intensities the Hamiltonian constants and the expansion of the transition moment operator which were determined in this work. In this way, theB-type and theA-type components of the ν8+ ν9band appear to contribute for about {1}/{4} and {3}/{4}, respectively, to the total band intensity.

  4. Cytochrome P4501A induction by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two chlorinated dibenzofurans in primary hepatocyte cultures of three avian species.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Jessica C; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P; Mundy, Lukas J; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve B; Wan, Yi; Kennedy, Sean W

    2010-02-01

    Relative potencies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) were determined in vitro in primary hepatocyte cultures of chicken (Gallus gallus), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryos. Concentration-dependent effects on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and expression of cytochrome P4501A4 and cytochrome P4501A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) messenger RNA (mRNA) were determined in hepatocytes exposed to serial dilutions of TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF for 24 h. In chicken hepatocytes, the three compounds were equipotent inducers of EROD activity and CYP1A4/CYP1A5 mRNA expression. However, in ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail hepatocytes, PeCDF was more potent than TCDD (3- to 5-fold in ring-necked pheasant and 13- to 30-fold in Japanese quail). Among species, the rank order of sensitivity (most to least) to EROD and CYP1A4/CYP1A5 mRNA induction for TCDD and TCDF was chicken > ring-necked pheasant > Japanese quail. In contrast, the three species were approximately equisensitive to EROD and CYP1A4/CYP1A5 mRNA induction by PeCDF. It has generally been assumed that TCDD is the most potent "dioxin-like compound" (DLC) and that the chicken is the most sensitive avian species to CYP1A induction by all DLCs. This study indicates that PeCDF is more potent than TCDD in ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail hepatocytes and that ring-necked pheasant, Japanese quail, and chicken hepatocytes are equally sensitive to CYP1A induction by PeCDF. PMID:19884122

  5. Potency of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), alone and in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), to produce lake trout early life-stage mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Cook, P.M.

    1995-12-01

    Newly fertilized lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), or their combination, and sac fry mortality was used to determine toxic potencies. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) for PCB 126 was 0.0030. The dose-response curve for the PCB 126/TCDD mixture based on TCDD toxic equivalents was not significantly different from that for TCDD alone, suggesting additivity between the two congeners in causing sac fry mortality.

  6. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin (TCDD) in vitro on RNA synthesis in rat thymocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Olnes, M.; Abraham, M.; Kurl, R.N. )

    1991-03-11

    TCDD, a potent inducer of cytochrome P-450, augments synthesis of specific liver constituents while simultaneously causing marked involution of the thymus. To elucidate the mechanism by which TCDD induces thymic atrophy, initial experiments were performed to establish the kinetics of uptake of TCDD in vitro by thymocytes. The latter were incubated with either {sup 3}H-TCDD or TCDD for various time intervals. Measurement of radio-activity and gel mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts and a dioxin-responsive element (DRE-3) of the cytochrome P-450 (Cyplal) gene revealed maximum uptake of TCDD by thymocyte nuclei at 30-60 min post incubation. RNA synthesis was increased as early as 30 min. The increase in RNA synthesis could be inhibited by actinomycin D. At these time points degradation of DNA was visible. Whether newly formed RNA is translated into a protein(s) which in turn is (are) responsible for degradation of DNA leading to cell death needs to be established.

  7. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity at three stages of lake trout egg development

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Although injection of newly fertilized eggs has proven useful for exposure of rainbow trout early life stages to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), it has been unsuccessful in lake trout due to injection-related egg mortality. Waterborne exposure of lake trout eggs to vehicle or graded doses of TCDD within 48 hours after fertilization and injection of vehicle or graded doses of TCDD 3 weeks and < 1 week pre-hatch were used to determine the success of egg injection after eye-up and characterize the toxicity of TCDD at later egg stages. A smaller percentage of mortality in later injection groups was associated with signs of TCDD toxicity that have been seen previously (yolk sac edema, hemorrhages, craniofacial malformations and hatching mortality) and the lethal potency of TCDD was reduced. LD50s calculated using probit analysis were 75 pg/g for exposure as newly fertilized eggs and 196 pg/g for injection 3 weeks pre-hatch. The highest dose of 269 pg/g resulted in 30% mortality when injected < 1 week pre-hatch. Because injection-related mortality was very low, with an average of 1% of eggs lost before hatch, injection of eggs after eye-up may be useful for determining the relative potencies of PHAH congeners in lake trout early life stages.

  8. Crystal structure of 1-butyl-2,3-di-methyl-imidazolium dicarba-7,8-nido-undeca-borate.

    PubMed

    Klemes, M J; Soderstrom, L; Hunting, J L; Larsen, A S

    2015-03-01

    In the title mol-ecular salt, C9H17N2 (+)·C2H12B9 (-), the carborane cage has a bridging B-H-B bond on the open B3C2 face. The butyl side chain of the cation adopts an extended conformation [C-C-C-C = 179.6 (1)°]. In the crystal, the imidazolium ring is almost coplanar with the open face of the carborane anion. The cations stack in the [010] direction and the dihedral angle between the imidazolium rings of adjacent cations is 68.45 (6)°. The butyl chains extend into the space between carborane anions. PMID:25844238

  9. Ethyl 2,7,7-trimethyl-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-quinoline-3-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Oztürk Yildirim, Sema; Butcher, Ray J; Gündüz, Miyase Gözde; El-Khouly, Ahmed; Simşek, Rahime; Safak, Cihat

    2013-01-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C24H28N2O3, the cyclo-hexene ring is in a sofa conformation and the 1,4-dihydro-pyridine ring is in a slight boat conformation. In the indole ring system, the pyrrole and benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 2.63 (7)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules into C(6) chains parallel to the b axis and pairs of weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link inversion-related chains into a ladder motif through R2(2)(18) rings. A weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also observed. PMID:23476426

  10. Data on AHR-dependent changes in the mitochondrial proteome in response to ,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Jin; Dornbos, Peter; LaPres, John J

    2016-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is the principal regulator of a cell׳s response to many polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). To gain a better understanding of the impact of TCDD on the mitochondrial proteome, a stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomic analysis was performed. We used two mouse hepatoma cell lines that differ in AHR expression levels, hepa1c1c7 (AHR-expressing) and hepac12 (AHR-deficient). The cell lines were exposed to TCDD (10 nM) for 72 h; each treatment was assayed in triplicate and were analyzed as separate runs on the mass-spectrometer. Mitochondria were then isolated and mitochondrial proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and subject to mass spectrometry. The data presented were collected from four independent SILAC experiments. Within each experiment, three isotopes were employed to compare protein ratios via mass-spectrometry: (1) light l-arginine/l-lysine HCl (Arg0, Lys0), (2) medium (15)N4-l-arginin/(13)C6l-lysine HCl (Arg4, Lys6), and (3) heavy (13)C6 (15)N4l-arginine/(13)C6 (15)N2l-lysine HCl (Arg10, Lys8). The raw data includes approximately 2500 annotated proteins. The datasets provided by this study can be a reference to other toxicologists investigating TCDD-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The data presented here are associated with the research article, "Mitochondrial-targeted Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and the Impact of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin on Cellular Respiration and the Mitochondrial Proteome" (Hwang et al. (2016) [1]). PMID:27331086

  11. Transport Studies on Nanometer Thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ Multilayers Using Y0.4Pr0.6Cu3O7 and PrBa2(Cu0.8Ga0.2)3O7 as Buffer Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke; Tipparach, Udom.; Chen, Tar-Pin; Li, Qi; Zeng, X. H.; Wert, E.; Wagner, John. L.; Chen, Quark Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er

    We have fabricated PrBa2[Cu1-xGax]3O7 (PBGCO) ceramic samples for x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20. The electrical resistivities of these samples are many orders of magnitude higher than that of PrBa2Cu3O7 (Pr123) while the other physical properties remain much the same. PBGCO therefore may be a possible buffer layer for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) superlattices/multilayers. For this reason YBa2Cu3O7-δ/PrBa2(Cu0.8Ga0.2)3O7 (Y123/PBCGO) and YBa2Cu3O7-δ/Y0.4Pr0.6Ba2Cu3O7 (Y123/YPBCO) superlattices were fabricated and their transport properties were studied. It is found that although PBGCO is better for insulating Y123 films in trilayers, inter-Y123 layer coupling exists between separated Y123 layer.

  12. Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Hornung, M.W.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    TCDD and related compounds cause toxicity in fish early life stages, characterized by edema, regional ischemia, craniofacial malformations, growth retardation and mortality. Determining the mechanism of these effects requires understanding normal early life stage development, which has been studied extensively in the zebrafish. Establishing zebrafish as a model for TCDD developmental toxicity requires demonstration that TCDD adversely affects zebrafish early life stages. Toxicity of TCDD to zebrafish early life stages was characterized by exposing newly fertilized eggs for 1 hr to water containing acetone or graded concentrations of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD and observed for signs of toxicity at 12 hr intervals for 240 hr post fertilization (hpf). TCDD did not increase embryo mortality during the egg stage (0--48 hpf) nor did it affect the time to hatching (48--96 hpf). At the highest TCDD egg doses (4.5--6.5 ng/g) the earliest sign of toxicity was pericardial edema (72 hpf) followed by the onset of yolk sac edema (96 hpf) onset of mortality (132 hpf). At lower egg doses the same effects were seen but after a longer delay period. Other signs of toxicity included craniofacial malformations, cranial edema and loss of swimming activity prior to death. To determine the dose-response relationship for pericardial and yolk sac edema and larval mortality the cumulative incidence of each effect was determined at 240 hpf. The ED{sub 50}s (95% fiducial limits) for pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were 2.1 6 (1.82--2.48) and 2.43 (2.12--2.72) ng TCDD/g egg, respectively. The LD{sub 50} was 2.45 (1.94--2.89) ng TCDD/g egg. In conclusion, the signs of TCDD early life stage toxicity in zebrafish are essentially identical to those in other fish species, however, larger egg doses of TCDD are required to elicit the effects.

  13. Nrf2 protects against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced oxidative injury and steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Cui, Wei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidative responses, is essential in mediating induction of many antioxidative enzymes by acute activation of the AhR. However, the role of Nrf2 in protecting against oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by sustained activation of the AhR remains unknown and was investigated herein. Tissue and blood samples were collected from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-null mice 21 days after administration of a low-toxic dose (10 µg/kg ip) of TCDD. Only Nrf2-null mice lost body weight after TCDD treatment; however, blood levels of ALT were not markedly changed in either genotype, indicating a lack of extensive necrosis. Compared to livers of TCDD-treated WT mice, livers of TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice had: 1) degenerated hepatocytes, lobular inflammation, marked fat accumulation, and higher mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrotic genes; 2) depletion of glutathione, elevation in lipid peroxidation and marker of DNA damage; 3) attenuated induction of phase-II enzymes Nqo1, Gsta1/2, and Ugt2b35 mRNAs, but higher induction of cytoprotective Ho-1, Prdx1, Trxr1, Gclc, and Epxh1 mRNAs; 4) higher mRNA expression of Fgf21 and triglyceride-synthesis genes, but down-regulation of bile-acid-synthesis genes and cholesterol-efflux transporters; and 5) trend of induction/activation of c-jun and NF-kB. Additionally, TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice had impaired adipogenesis in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, Nrf2 protects livers of mice against oxidative stress, DNA damage, and steatohepatitis induced by TCDD-mediated sustained activation of the AhR. The aggravated hepatosteatosis in TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice is due to increased lipogenesis in liver and impaired lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. PMID:21846477

  14. Crystal structure of (1R,3S,8R,11R)-11-acetyl-3,7,7-trimethyl-10-oxatri­cyclo­[6.4.0.01,3]dodecan-9-one

    PubMed Central

    Bismoussa, Abdoullah; Ait Itto, My Youssef; Daran, Jean-Claude; Auhmani, Abdelwahed; Auhmani, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C16H24O3, is built up from three fused rings, a six-membered, a seven-membered and a three-membered ring. The absolute configuration of the title compound was determined as (1R,3S,8R,11R) based on the synthetic pathway. The six-membered ring has an half-chair conformation whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. In the cyrstal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds build up a two-dimensional network parallel to (0 0 1). The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a minor twin component of 34%. PMID:26870471

  15. Nrf2 protects against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced oxidative injury and steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Hong; Cui Wei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2011-10-15

    Previous studies demonstrate that Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidative responses, is essential in mediating induction of many antioxidative enzymes by acute activation of the AhR. However, the role of Nrf2 in protecting against oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by sustained activation of the AhR remains unknown and was investigated herein. Tissue and blood samples were collected from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-null mice 21 days after administration of a low-toxic dose (10 {mu}g/kg ip) of TCDD. Only Nrf2-null mice lost body weight after TCDD treatment; however, blood levels of ALT were not markedly changed in either genotype, indicating a lack of extensive necrosis. Compared to livers of TCDD-treated WT mice, livers of TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice had: 1) degenerated hepatocytes, lobular inflammation, marked fat accumulation, and higher mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrotic genes; 2) depletion of glutathione, elevation in lipid peroxidation and marker of DNA damage; 3) attenuated induction of phase-II enzymes Nqo1, Gsta1/2, and Ugt2b35 mRNAs, but higher induction of cytoprotective Ho-1, Prdx1, Trxr1, Gclc, and Epxh1 mRNAs; 4) higher mRNA expression of Fgf21 and triglyceride-synthesis genes, but down-regulation of bile-acid-synthesis genes and cholesterol-efflux transporters; and 5) trend of induction/activation of c-jun and NF-kB. Additionally, TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice had impaired adipogenesis in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, Nrf2 protects livers of mice against oxidative stress, DNA damage, and steatohepatitis induced by TCDD-mediated sustained activation of the AhR. The aggravated hepatosteatosis in TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice is due to increased lipogenesis in liver and impaired lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. - Highlights: > TCDD causes hepatosteatosis and induction of Nrf2-target genes in wild-type mice. > TCDD causes weight loss, oxidative injury, and steatohepatitis in Nrf2-null mice. > Livers of TCDD-treated Nrf2-null mice have

  16. Photolytic method for destruction of dioxins in liquid laboratory waste and identification of the photoproducts from 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, A.D.; Johnston, A.M.; Cox, B.J.; Petrulis, J.R.; Orzechowski, M.T.; Bunce, N.J.; Tashiro, C.H.M.; Chittim, B.G.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical and other research laboratories that generate small volumes of dioxin-containing wastes have no convenient method for their disposal. The authors have used ultraviolet photolysis with a low-pressure mercury lamp to destroy dioxin-like compounds, both as individual congeners and in actual waste analytical samples, down to nondetect levels. Photolysis promises to be an efficient, safe, and inexpensive method for on-site treatment of liquid laboratory wastes that are contaminated by dioxin-like compounds, allowing the treated materials to be discarded as regular organic solvent waste. Experiments with 1,6-[{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-TCDD revealed that the principal photolytic pathway involves cleavage of C-O bonds rather than C-Cl bonds, giving chlorinated hydroxydiphenyl ethers as the initial products and accounting for the low material balances of reductive dechlorination products previously found upon photolysis of PCDDs. The photolysis products from 2,3,7,8-TCDD do not bind to either the Ah receptor or the estrogen receptor in vitro, making it unlikely that the products from UV treatment of PCDD/PCDF in laboratory waste will show either Ah or estrogen receptor-mediated toxicological effects.

  17. Orientation-dependent energy level alignment and film growth of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on HOPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Lu; Niu, Dongmei; Xie, Haipeng; Cao, Ningtong; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuhe; Liu, Peng; Gao, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Combining ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements, we performed a systematic investigation on the correlation of energy level alignment, film growth, and molecular orientation of 2,7-diocty[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The molecules lie down in the first layer and then stand up from the second layer. The ionization potential shows a sharp decrease from the lying down region to the standing up region. When C8-BTBT molecules start standing up, unconventional energy level band-bending-like shifts are observed as the film thickness increases. These shifts are ascribed to gradual decreasing of the molecular tilt angle about the substrate normal with the increasing film thickness.

  18. Laser action from 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl-8-n-propyl pyrromethene-BF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Heping; Liang, Feng; Sun, Zhenrong; Yuan, Yizhong; Yao, Zuguang; Xu, Zhizhan

    2002-06-01

    We measured spectroscopic and laser action properties of a novel 8-position substituted pyrromethene-BF2, namely 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl-8-n-propyl pyrromethene-BF2 complex. The laser action was performed with the corresponding dye solution in ethanol, which was placed in a Littman-type laser cavity pumped by the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The spectroscopic measurements clearly indicated that the corresponding dye solution in ethanol exhibited intense absorption in the visible spectral region with large fluorescence quantum yield. It possesses rather low triplet-triplet absorption in the spectral region 460-550 nm and almost negligible triplet-triplet absorption in the lasing spectral region. As a consequence, it lases nearly as efficiently as commercially available benchmark laser dyes such as Rhodamine-6G and outperformed them in wavelength tunability in our laser cavity and pump geometry.

  19. Discovery of novel 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine derivatives as γ-secretase modulators (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Takai, Takafumi; Koike, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Minoru; Kajita, Yuichi; Yamashita, Toshiro; Taya, Naohiro; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tomomichi; Murakami, Koji; Igari, Tomoko; Kamata, Makoto

    2016-07-15

    γ-Secretase modulators (GSMs), which lower pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) without affecting the production of total Aβ or Notch signal, have emerged as a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A novel series of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine derivatives was discovered and characterized as GSMs. Optimization of substituents at the 8-position of the core scaffold using ligand-lipophilicity efficiency (LLE) as a drug-likeness guideline led to identification of various types of high-LLE GSMs. Phenoxy compound (R)-17 exhibited especially high LLE as well as potent in vivo Aβ42-lowering effect by single administration. Furthermore, multiple oral administration of (R)-17 significantly reduced soluble and insoluble brain Aβ42, and ameliorated cognitive deficit in novel object recognition test (NORT) using Tg2576 mice as an AD model. PMID:27255179

  20. Toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Elwell, M.R.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-04-01

    The toxicity and disposition of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF), a ubiquitous and acutely toxic environmental contaminant, was examined in three adult male Rhesus monkeys administered a single iv dose of 34 micrograms (0.1 mumol)/kg. Within 20 min, 4PeCDF was eliminated from the blood and was distributed to the liver, skin, adipose, and muscle tissues. Excretion occurred primarily via the feces with a minimum whole body half-life approximately 38 days. Within 7-14 days after administration, the packed cell volume and serum triglyceride and bile acid concentrations were significantly increased while serum cholesterol, protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased relative to pretreatment levels. Thyroid hormone levels were also altered with an increase in TSH and a decrease in T3 and T4 concentrations. After 28 days, two monkeys began exhibiting alopecia, hyperkeratinization of the toe and finger nails, facial chloracne-like lesions, and loss of body weight. They subsequently died 40 and 48 days after treatment. Similar symptoms of toxicity were observed in the third animal 58 days after 4PeCDF administration, but this animal appeared to fully recover and was administered 4PeCDF orally and (3H)1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-dibenzofuran (1PeCDF) dermally 238 days after the initial iv dose. In this animal, approximately 2% of an oral dose of (14C)-4PeCDF was absorbed from the stomach and small intestine in 6 hr and was distributed mainly to the muscle and skin and less than 99% of a dermal dose of 1PeCDF remained at the site of application. Pathological findings in the monkeys that died indicated hyperplastic and metaplastic changes in the gastric mucosa, the Meibomian glands of the eyelid, and the ceruminous glands of the ear. Regression of these lesions was present in the surviving animal.

  1. Microwave microstrip resonator measurements of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O(8-y) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Christopher L.; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Davis, Matthew; Wolfe, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) surface resistance measurement experiments on high T(sub c) thin films were performed. The method uses a microstrip resonator comprising a top gold conductor strip, an alumina dielectric layer, and a separate superconductivity ground plane. The surface resistance of the superconducting ground plane can be determined, with reference to a gold calibration standard, from the measured quality factor of the half-wave resonator. Initial results near 7 GHz over the temperature range from 25 to 300 K are presented for YBa2Cu3O(7-x) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8-y) thin film samples deposited by an electron beam flash evaporation process. The RF surface resistance at 25 K for both materials in these samples was found to be near 25 milliohms.

  2. Structurally Similar Triphenylphosphine-Stabilized Undecagolds, Au11(PPh3)7Cl3 and [Au11(PPh3)8Cl2]Cl, Exhibit Distinct Ligand Exchange Pathways with Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ligand exchange is frequently used to introduce new functional groups on the surface of inorganic nanoparticles or clusters while preserving the core size. For one of the smallest clusters, triphenylphosphine (TPP)-stabilized undecagold, there are conflicting reports in the literature regarding whether core size is retained or significant growth occurs during exchange with thiol ligands. During an investigation of these differences in reactivity, two distinct forms of undecagold were isolated. The X-ray structures of the two forms, Au11(PPh3)7Cl3 and [Au11(PPh3)8Cl2]Cl, differ only in the number of TPP ligands bound to the core. Syntheses were developed to produce each of the two forms, and their spectroscopic features correlated with the structures. Ligand exchange on [Au11(PPh3)8Cl2]Cl yields only small clusters, whereas exchange on Au11(PPh3)7Cl3 (or mixtures of the two forms) yields the larger Au25 cluster. The distinctive features in the optical spectra of the two forms made it possible to evaluate which of the cluster forms were used in the previously published papers and clarify the origin of the differences in reactivity that had been reported. The results confirm that reactions of clusters and nanoparticles may be influenced by small variations in the arrangement of ligands and suggest that the role of the ligand shell in stabilizing intermediates during ligand exchange may be essential to preventing particle growth or coalescence. PMID:25171178

  3. Two mononuclear single molecule magnets derived from dysprosium(III) and tmphen (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline).

    PubMed

    Tong, Yu-Zhang; Gao, Chen; Wang, Qing-Lun; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Song; Cheng, Peng; Liao, Dai-Zheng

    2015-05-21

    Two mononuclear Dy(III) complexes, [Dy(III)(hfac)3(tmphen)] (1) and [Dy(III)(acac)3(tmphen)]·2H2O (2) (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetone, acac = acetylacetone) have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Magnetic properties indicate that both of the complexes exhibit SMM behavior, and complex 1 is the first typical derivative of phenanthroline containing D2d-Dy(III) based mononuclear single molecule magnets. The energy barrier (Ueff/kB) of complex 2 (130.42 K) is much higher than that of complex 1 (35.09 K), indicating that the local symmetry of Dy(III) ions (D2d for 1, D4d for 2) plays an important role in magnetic behaviors. PMID:25882824

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of an orange peel polymethoxylated flavone, 3’,4’,3,5,6,7,8,-heptamethoxyflavone, in the rat carrageenan/paw edema and mouse LPS-challenge assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-inflammatory properties of 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, were studied in the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenge/tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) response in mice, and in the carrageenan/paw edema assay in rats. In each of these trials,...

  5. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (CAS No. 1746-01-6) in Swiss-Webster Mice (Dermal Study).

    PubMed

    1982-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin occurs as a highly toxic impurity found in herbicides containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-T- derivatives, as well as in other chemicals synthesized using 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The herbicide 2,4,5-T has been marketed in the United States since 1948. Production increased sharply between 1960 and 1970 when a 1:1 mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a defoliant in Vietnam under the names of "herbicide agent orange, herbicide orange, agent orange, and orange". During this 10-year period, about 106 million pounds of 2,4,5-T were sprayed. A carcinogenesis bioassay was conducted by applying an acetone suspension of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the clipped backs of 30 male and female Swiss-Webster mice 3 days per week for 99 or 104 weeks. Similar groups were pretreated with 1 application of 50 &mgr;g dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in 0.1 ml acetone 1 week before TCDD administration began. Female mice received 0.005 &mgr;g TCDD per application, and the male mice received 0.001 &mgr;g TCDD. As vehicle controls, 45 mice of each sex received 0.1 ml acetone three times per week. Thirty animals of each sex were used as untreated controls. Throughout the bioassay, mean body weights of the male and female mice administered TCDD, or TCDD following DMBA, were essentially the same as those of the corresponding vehicle control group. Mean body weights of dosed and vehicle control groups of males were less thanthose of the untreated control group throughout the study; for the females, mean body weights were less than the untreated controls during the first 80 weeks. In female mice, the incidences of fibrosarcoma in the integumentary system in dosed groups with TCDD were significantly (P=0.007) higher than that in the corresponding controls (2/41, 5%; 8/27, 30%). An increase in the same tumor type, although not statistically significant (P=0.084), was also observed in

  6. 7 CFR 29.1114 - Rule 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rule 8. 29.1114 Section 29.1114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1114 Rule 8. A lot of tobacco meets the specifications of a grade when it...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 8. 29.2399 Section 29.2399 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2399 Rule 8. A lot of tobacco meets the specifications of a grade when it...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 8. 29.1114 Section 29.1114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1114 Rule 8. A lot of tobacco meets the specifications of a grade when it...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry,...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 246.8 Section 246.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Eligibility §...

  13. 7 CFR 246.8 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nondiscrimination. 246.8 Section 246.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Eligibility §...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Industry information. 1215.8 Section 1215.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... of new markets, new marketing strategies, or increased efficiency for the popcorn industry,...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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  16. 7 CFR 1230.8 - Delegate Body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delegate Body. 1230.8 Section 1230.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Body. Delegate Body means the National Pork Producers Delegate Body established pursuant to § 1230.30....

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delegate Body. 1230.8 Section 1230.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Body. Delegate Body means the National Pork Producers Delegate Body established pursuant to § 1230.30....

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delegate Body. 1230.8 Section 1230.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Body. Delegate Body means the National Pork Producers Delegate Body established pursuant to § 1230.30....

  19. 7 CFR 47.8 - The answer.

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    2010-01-01

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