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Sample records for 3-4 3-5 3-6

  1. Ca2+ sensitization in idiopathic dilated human myocardium. Differential in vitro effects of (+)-(5-methyl-6-phenyl)-1,3,5,6-tetrahydro-3,6-methano-1,5-benzodiazoci ne-2,4-dione, a novel purely Ca2+sensitizing agent, and (+)-5-(1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-6-meth yl-3, 6-dihydro-2H-1,3,4-thiadiazin-2-one on skinned fibres and isolated ventricular strips.

    PubMed

    Herzig, J W; Chiesi, M; Depersin, H; Grüninger, S; Hasenfuss, G; Kubalek, R; Leutert, T; Pieske, B; Pioch, K; Wenk, P; Holubarsch, C

    1996-06-01

    (+)-(5-Methyl-6-phenyl)-1,3,5,6-tetrahydro-3,6-methano-1, 5-benzodiazocine-2,4-dione (CAS 165755-40-8, CGP 48506) is a novel Ca2+ sensitizing agent devoid of any other positive inotropic mechanism, particularly phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibition. 5-(1-(3,4-Dimethoxybenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-6-met hyl-3, 6-dihydro-2H-1,3,4-thiadiazin-2-one (CAS 120223-04-3, EMD 53998) is a PDE III inhibitor with a Ca2+ sensitizing activity residing in its (+)-enantiomer, EMD 57033 (CAS 147527-31-9). In skinned fibres and electrically stimulated left ventricular strips from idiopathic dilated human hearts, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV, the Ca2+ sensitizing and inotropic effects of the benzodiazocine CGP 48506 and the thiadiazinones EMD 53998 or EMD 57033 were compared. Both CGP 48506 and EMD 53998 induce a left shift of the Ca2+ activation curve of force towards lower Ca2+ concentrations in skinned fibres, which indicates Ca2+ sensitization. Only EMD 53998, but not CGP 48506, increases skinned fibre force at both minimum (resting) and maximally activating Ca2+ concentrations. This is taken as an argument for a principal difference in the mechanisms of the Ca2+ sensitizing actions of the two compounds. CGP 48506 is shown not to influence the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient in rat cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, both CGP 48506 and EMD 57033 show comparable, though quantitatively different, positive inotropic effects in electrically stimulated left ventricular strip preparations. It is unclear whether the PDE III inhibitory component of the profile of actions of EMD 57033 may play a role in preventing the increase in diastolic tension as expected from the skinned fibre experiments. It is noteworthy that both Ca2+ sensitizing agents act as positive inotropic compounds in the end-stage failing human heart where other inotropic agents like beta 1-adrenergic agonists or PDE inhibitors have been described to fail.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of the First Binary Titanium Azides, Ti(N3)4, P(C6H5)4Ti(N3)5 and P(C6H5)42Ti(N3)6 and on Linear Ti-N-NN Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 and is the first structurally characterized binary titanium azide. Figure 4 depicts the structure of the [Ti(N3)6...vibrationally stable, exhibiting tetrahedral structures with unique linear M-N-NN bond angles (see Figure 1). All previously characterized covalent binary...N3)4 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Th) were predicted[8] to be vibrationally stable, exhibiting tetrahedral structures with unique linear M-N-NN bond angles (see

  3. Microstructural examination of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-09-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for four heats of V-(3-6%)Cr-(3-5%)Ti irradiated in the ATR-A1 experiment to {approximately}4 dpa at {approximately}200 and 300 C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment or composition.

  4. Construction of two novel indium phosphites with (3,6)- and (3,5)-connected frameworks: Synthesis, structure and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huiduan; Zhang Lirong; Huo Qisheng; Liu Yunling

    2013-01-15

    Two novel anionic indium phosphites, formulated as [H{sub 3}O][In(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (1) and [C{sub 4}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}][In{sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 3}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})] (2), were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using piperazine (PIP) as a structure-directing agent (SDA). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}mc (No. 186) and orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), respectively. Compound 1, constructed from InO{sub 6} octahedra and HPO{sub 3} pseudo-pyramids, exhibits a rare (3,6)-connected layer structure with kgd (Kagome dual) topology. Compound 2, on the other hand, features a 3D phosphite-oxalate hybrid structure with intersecting 8- and 12-MRs channels. From a topological perspective 2 can be regarded as a (3, 5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two novel indium phosphite and indium phosphite-oxalate hybrid compounds are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3, 6)-connected layer structure with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (3,5)-connected binodal net with the Schlaefli symbol (4{sup 2}.6)(4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3}).

  5. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  6. 2,3,6-/3,4,5-Trimethyl substituted diaryl carotenoid derivatives (Chlorobiaceae) in petroleums of the Belarussian Pripyat River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, D.J.; Clayton, J.L.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Degradation products of the 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substituted analog of isorenieratene were characterized in Belarussian petroleums. Devonian oils of low maturity were found to contain high concentrations (e.g., 35 mg/g) of C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) along with an abundance of maturation-related compounds. A maturation scheme for diaryl carotenoid (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) precursors was proposed. Diaryl isoprenoids and aryl isoprenoid (2,3,6- and 3,4,5-trimethyl substitutions) contents were found to decrease as a function of maturity. Maturity parameters based on (i) the ratio of two specific C15 aryl isoprenoids and (ii) the ratio of C15 (2,3,6) aryl isoprenoids to C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5) were proposed.Degradation products of the 2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substituted analog of isorenieratene were characterized in Belarussian petroleums. Devonian oils of low maturity were found to contain high concentrations (e.g., 35 mg/g) of C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) along with an abundance of maturation-related compounds. A maturation scheme for diaryl carotenoid (2,3,6-/3,4,5-trimethyl substitution) precursors was proposed. Diaryl isoprenoids and aryl isoprenoid (2,3,6- and 3,4,5-trimethyl substitutions) contents were found to decrease as a function of maturity. Maturity parameters based on (i) the ratio of two specific C15 aryl isoprenoids and (ii) the ratio of C15 (2,3,6) aryl isoprenoids to C40 diaryl isoprenoids (2,3,6-/3,4,5) were proposed.

  7. Propellant Containing 3, 6bis(1h-1,2,3,4-Tetrazol-5-Ylamino)-1,2,4,5- Tetrazine Or Salt Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2003-12-02

    The compound 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and its salts are provided together with a propellant composition including an oxidizer, a binder and 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine or its salts.

  8. Vibrational analysis of trans, Trans, trans-2,3,4,5-tetrachlorohexa-1,3,5-trienes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakacs, L.; Csakvari, B.; Panchenko, Yu. N.; Pentin, Yu. A.; Aroca, R.

    Infrared and Raman spectra of t, T, t-2,3,4,5-tetrachlorohexa-1,3,5-triene were measured in liquid and crystalline phases. It is suggested that the non-planar structure of this compound may be due to the 1-3 effect. In the liquid state a mixture of rotational isomers, of C2 and Ci symmetry, was confirmed by the freezing-out of some characteristic bands in the 1600 cm -1 region in the IR and Raman spectra of the t, T, t-compound. Normal coordinate analysis was carried out using force constant values from the force field previously determined for chloroderivatives of buta-1,3-diene. A complete assignment of observed frequencies is proposed.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,6-diamino-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives as protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chioua, Mourad; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Soriano, Elena; Lozach, Olivier; Meijer, Laurent; Marco-Contelles, José

    2009-08-15

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a number of differently substituted 3,6-diamino-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives are reported. From the inhibition results on a selection of disease-relevant protein kinases [IC(50) (microM) DYRK1A=11; CDK5=0.41; GSK-3=1.5] we have observed that 3,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (4) constitutes a potential new and simple lead compound in the search of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Rotational Spectrum and Large Amplitude Motions of 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-DIMETHYL-BENZALDEHYDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, I.; Tudorie, M.; Jahn, M.; Grabow, J.-U.; Goubet, M.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of the 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-Dimethyl-Benzaldehyde (DMBA) molecules have been recorded for the first time in the 2-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the COBRA-FTMW spectrometer in Hannover, with an instrumental uncertainty of 0.5 kHz for unblended lines. The experimental assignments and fits are supplemented by ab initio quantum chemical calculations,conformational energy landscape, and dipole moment components. The analysis of the spectra for the three isomers are in progress. The latest results, including spectroscopic constants and large amplitude motion parameters, will be presented. This investigation follows the study of the spectra of the 4-Methyl-Benzaldehyde molecule. The DMBA isomers belong to a similar series of molecules formally obtained by adding a second methyl group at the aromatic ring. These molecules serve as prototype systems for the development of the theoretical model of asymmetric top molecules having Cs symmetry while containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), exhibiting different barrier heights and coupling terms to methyl internal rotation. Thus, the DMBA isomers represent benchmark species for testing the two-top internal rotors BELGI program written recently. Supported by the ANR-08-BLAN-0054 contract (France), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Land Niedersachsen (Germany). H. Saal, W. Caminati, I. Kleiner, A. R. Hight-Walker, J. T. Hougen, J.-U. Grabow, to be published. M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 269 (2011), 211-225

  11. Modelling of crystal structure of cis-1,2,3,6 and 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydrides using lattice energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Fredj, A Ben; Day, G M

    2015-08-01

    Lattice energy calculations using a model potential were performed to model the crystal structures of cis-1,2,3,6- and 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic (THP) anhydrides. The optimized molecular models using the DFT method at the B3LYP/6-31G** level were found consistent with the available experimental evidence and allowed all differences observed in crystal packing between cis-1,2,3,6- and 3,4,5,6-THP anhydrides to be reproduced. Calculations provide evidence for the presence of dipole-dipole C=O⋯C=O intermolecular interactions and support the idea that the molecules distort from their ideal geometries, improving packing in both crystals. The search for minima in the lattice energy of both crystals amongst the more common space groups with Z' = 1, using a simulated annealing crystal structure prediction procedure followed by lattice energy minimization showed that the observed structure of 3,4,5,6-THP anhydride (Z' = 2) is the thermodynamically most stable, and allowed us to justify why 3,4,5,6-THP anhydride crystallizes in such a complex structure with 16 molecules in the unit cell. The computational model was successful in predicting the second observed form at 173 K for cis-1,2,3,6-THP anhydride as a polymorph, and could predict several hypothetical structures with Z' = 1 that appear competitive with the observed structures. The results of phonon estimates of zero point intermolecular vibrational energy and entropy suggest that crystal structures of cis-1,2,3,6-THP anhydride cannot be predicted solely on the basis of lattice energy; factors other than thermodynamics favor the observed structures.

  12. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD{sub 30/50} values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  13. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD[sub 30/50] values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  14. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  15. Structure-activity study for (bis)ureidopropyl- and (bis)thioureidopropyldiamine LSD1 inhibitors with 3-5-3 and 3-6-3 carbon backbone architectures.

    PubMed

    Nowotarski, Shannon L; Pachaiyappan, Boobalan; Holshouser, Steven L; Kutz, Craig J; Li, Youxuan; Huang, Yi; Sharma, Shiv K; Casero, Robert A; Woster, Patrick M

    2015-04-01

    Methylation at specific histone lysine residues is a critical post-translational modification that alters chromatin architecture, and dysregulated lysine methylation/demethylation is associated with the silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complexed to specific transcription factors catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of mono- and dimethyllysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me and H3K4me2, respectively). We have previously reported potent (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea LSD1 inhibitors that increase cellular levels of H3K4me and H3K4me2, promote the re-expression of silenced tumor suppressor genes and suppress tumor growth in vitro. Here we report the design additional (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea LSD1 inhibitors that feature 3-5-3 or 3-6-3 carbon backbone architectures. Three of these compounds displayed single-digit IC50 values in a recombinant LSD1 assay. In addition, compound 6d exhibited an IC50 of 4.2μM against the Calu-6 human lung adenocarcinoma line, and 4.8μM against the MCF7 breast tumor cell line, in an MTS cell viability assay. Following treatment with 6b-6d, Calu-6 cells exhibited a significant increase in the mRNA expression for the silenced tumor suppressor genes SFRP2, HCAD and p16, and modest increases in GATA4 message. The compounds described in this paper represent the most potent epigenetic modulators in this series, and have potential for use as antitumor agents.

  16. Structure-activity study for (bis)ureidopropyl- and (bis)thioureidopropyldiamine LSD1 inhibitors with 3-5-3 and 3-6-3 carbon backbone architectures

    PubMed Central

    Nowotarski, Shannon L.; Pachaiyappan, Boobalan; Holshouser, Steven L.; Kutz, Craig J.; Li, Youxuan; Huang, Yi; Sharma, Shiv K.; Casero, Robert A.; Woster, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Methylation at specific histone lysine residues is a critical post-translational modification that alters chromatin architecture, and dysregulated lysine methylation/demethylation is associated with the silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) complexed to specific transcription factors catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of mono- and dimethyllysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me and H3K4me2 respectively). We have previously reported potent (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea LSD1 inhibitors that increase cellular levels of H3K4me and H3K4me2, promote the re-expression of silenced tumor suppressor genes and suppress tumor growth in vitro. Here we report the design additional (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea LSD1 inhibitors that feature 3-5-3 or 3-6-3 carbon backbone architectures. Three of these compounds displayed single-digit IC50 values in a recombinant LSD1 assay. In addition, compound 6d exhibited an IC50 of 4.2 μM against the Calu-6 human lung adenocarcinoma line, and 4.8 μM against the MCF7 breast tumor cell line, in an MTS cell viability assay. Following treatment with 6b–6d, Calu-6 cells exhibited a significant increase in the mRNA expression for the silenced tumor suppressor genes SFRP2, HCAD and p16, and modest increases in GATA4 message. The compounds described in this paper represent the most potent epigenetic modulators in this series, and have potential for use as antitumor agents. PMID:25725609

  17. Novel 3,4-Methylenedioxybenzene Scaffold Incorporated 1,3,5-Trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation for Chemotherapeutic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, S. R.; Nagrale, S. N.; Patil, M. V.; Chavan, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel 3, 4-methylenedioxybenzene scaffold incorporated 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazoline derivatives was synthesised as potent antitubercular agents via chalcone intermediates by reaction with hydrazines. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral data. The novel pyrazolines were screened for in vitro antitubercular activity by almar blue dye method against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. All the compounds exhibited excellent activity that could be due to the presence of 3,4-methylenedioxybenzene frame work in the molecules. Some of the compounds also showed in vitro cytotoxicity on EAC cell lines in tryphan blue exclusion assay suggesting their safety. PMID:25767315

  18. N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions: a facile synthesis of 3,5-di- and 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles.

    PubMed

    Kankala, Shravankumar; Vadde, Ravinder; Vasam, Chandra Sekhar

    2011-10-26

    A first example of organo-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed click-type fast 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrile oxides with alkynes was developed for the regioselective synthesis of 3,5-di- and 3,4,5-trisubstituted isoxazoles. Triethylamine (Et(3)N) was employed as an effective base to generate both nitrile oxide and the organo-NHC catalyst in situ. This catalytic approach was used to attach a variety of substituents, including other biologically active fragments, onto the isoxazole ring to selectively design multinucleus structures. Further, we have also optimized the conditions for Cu(I)-free Sonogashira cross-coupling to obtain internal alkynes in high yields, which were subsequently used in cycloaddition. A catalytic cycle is proposed and the remarkable regiocontrol in the formation of isoxazoles was ascribed to a beneficial zwitterion intermediate developed by the interaction of the strongly nucleophilic organo-NHC catalyst with alkyne followed by nitrile oxide.

  19. Anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan from Myristica fragrans.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Won; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2013-11-01

    Platelets play a critical role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders and strokes. The inhibition of platelet function is beneficial for the treatment and prevention of these diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-platelet activity of erythro-(7S,8R)-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (EATN), a neolignan isolated from Myristica fragrans, using human platelets. EATN preferentially inhibited thrombin- and platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation without affecting platelet damage in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 3.2 ± 0.4 and 3.4 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. However, much higher concentrations of EATN were required to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid. EATN also inhibited thrombin-induced serotonin and ATP release, and thromboxane B2 formation in human platelets. Moreover, EATN caused an increase in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and attenuated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in thrombin-activated human platelets. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory mechanism of EATN on platelet aggregation may increase cAMP levels and subsequently inhibit intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization by interfering with a common signaling pathway rather than by directly inhibiting the binding of thrombin or PAF to their receptors. This is the first report of the anti-platelet activity of EATN isolated from M. fragrans.

  20. S-substituted 3,5-dinitrophenyl 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols and tetrazole-5-thiols as highly efficient antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Karabanovich, Galina; Němeček, Jan; Valášková, Lenka; Carazo, Alejandro; Konečná, Klára; Stolaříková, Jiřina; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Pavliš, Oto; Pávek, Petr; Vávrová, Kateřina; Roh, Jaroslav; Klimešová, Věra

    2017-01-27

    Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0.03 μM. Furthermore, these compounds had a highly selective antimycobacterial effect because they were completely inactive against 4 gram positive and 4 gram negative bacteria and eight fungal strains and had low in vitro toxicity for four mammalian cell lines, including hepatic cell lines HepG2 and HuH7. Although the structure-activity relationship study showed that the presence of two nitro groups is highly beneficial for antimycobacterial activity, the analogues with a trifluoromethyl group instead of one of the nitro groups maintained a high antimycobacterial activity, which indicates the possibility for further structural optimization of this class of antitubercular agents.

  1. The Syntheses and Structure of the First Vanadium(IV) and Vanadium(V) Binary Azides, V(N3)4, [V(N3)6]2- and [V(N3)6]- (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-17

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Syntheses and Structure of the First...ANSI Std. 239.18 This page is Distribution A: approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The Syntheses and Structure of the First...temperature Raman spectrum, and by its conversion with Ph4P + N3 - into the [Ph4P + ]2[V(N3)6] 2- salt which was characterized by its crystal structure . The

  2. 3',5-dihydroxy-3,4',7-trimethoxyflavone-induces ER-stress-associated HCT-116 programmed cell death via redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahendra Pal; Han, Jaehong; Kang, Sun Chul

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin, a well cognized bioactive flavone possessing great medicinal value, has limited usage. The rapid gastrointestinal digestion of quercetin is also a major obstacle for its clinical implementation due to low bioavailability and poor aqueous solubility. 3',5-dihydroxy-3,4',7-trimethoxyflavone (DTMF), a novel semi-synthetic derivative of quercetin, is known to modulate several biological activities. Therefore, in the present study we examined the cytotoxic mechanism of DTMF in concentration-dependent manner (25, 50, and 100μM; 24h) against HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. The cytotoxic potential of DTMF was characterized based on deformed cell morphology, increased ROS accumulation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔѰm), increased mitochondrial mass, chromatin condensation, and typical DNA-fragmentation in HCT-116 cells. The results showed that DTMF-induced enhanced ROS production at higher concentration (100μM) as evidenced by upregulated expression of ER stress and apoptotic proteins with concomitant increase in PERK, CHOP, and JNK levels, when compared to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, ROS inhibitor) treated HCT-116 cells, which depicts that DTMF might act as a crucial mediator of apoptosis signaling. Collectively, our results suggest that DTMF stimulates ROS-mediated oxidative stress, which in turn induces PERK-CHOP and JNK pathway of apoptosis to promote HCT-116 cell death.

  3. 1,3,5-Tri- and 1,3,4,5-tetra-substituted 1,4-diazepin-2-one solid-phase synthesis.

    PubMed

    Iden, Hassan S; Lubell, William D

    2008-01-01

    Solid-phase syntheses of 1,3,5-tri-substituted and 1,3,4,5-tetra-substituted 1,4-diazepin-2-ones 15-18 have been accomplished by employing inexpensive commercially available alpha- and beta-amino acids on Wang resin. Reductive amination of the imine formed by condensation of Wang aldehyde resin respectively with beta-alaninate 2 and beta-homophenylalaninate 3, followed by aminoacylation with a set of alpha-N-Boc amino acids (Phe epsilon-( Z)-Lys, and Leu) gave tertiary amide resins 7 and 8. Exposure of resins 7 and 8 to an excess of vinyl magnesium bromide in the presence of copper cyanide gave the corresponding gamma,delta-unsaturated ketone resins 9 and 10 by way of a cascade addition. Diazepinones were made by Boc deprotection and intramolecular reductive amination. To diversify the heterocycle, N-alkylation was performed using a series of alkyl halides. Alternatively, diazepinones 15e-g were obtained from treatment of methyl beta-alaninate resins 4 and 20 under similar copper-catalyzed cascade conditions to afford the gamma,delta-unsaturated ketone 21, which was acylated using alpha-N-Fmoc-amino acids (Phe, Trp, gamma-(t-Bu)-Glu). Formation of diazepinones 15 followed a similar protocol, after Fmoc removal with piperidine. Cleavage of the heterocycles with TFA/TES 95:5 gave the N1-p-hydroxybenzyl diazepinones 15-18 in overall isolated yields from 6 to 24% after purification in purities ranging from 81 to 100% according to LCMS analysis.

  4. Polyazide Chemistry. Preparation and Characterization of the First Binary Group 6 Azides, Mo(N3)6, W(N3)6, Mo(N3)7- and W(N3)7- and the NW(N3)4- and NMo(N3)4- Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    group P3̄ and contains isolated W(N3)6 molecules (Figure 1), as shown by the closest W··· N and N ··· N contacts between neighboring molecules of 4.02...symmetry operations y+ 1,xy+ 1,z and x+ y,x+ 1,z). The observed W N bonds of 1.949(2) and 2.006(2) are significantly longer than that of 1.85(2...2025(0.5) (nasN3); 1331(0.7), 1319(0.7), 1285(0.5), 1259(0.3) (nsN3); 1034(2.2) (nMo N ); 657(0.6), 639(0.6), 626(0.5), 596(0.4), 589(0.4), 568(0.3

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of some 3-{[5-(6-methyl-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-imino}-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    George, Sonia; Parameswaran, Manoj Kumar; Chakraborty, Acharjee Raja; Ravi, Thengungal Kochupappy

    2008-03-01

    Reaction of ethyl-6-methyl-2-oxo-4-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-carboxylates (1a-i) with hydrazine hydrate yielded 6-methyl-2-oxo-4-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-carbohydrazides (2a-i). These products, on reaction with cyanogen bromide, gave 5-(5-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-4-aryl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2 (1H)-ones (3a-i). The resultant aminooxadiazolylpyrimidinones were condensed with isatin to obtain various 3-{[5-(6-methyl-4-aryl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]-imino}-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ones (4a-i). These products were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis. Products (4a-i) revealed promising antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity.

  6. Synthesis of Some New 3, 5-Bis (substituted) Pyrazoles and Isoxazoles Based on (N’1E, N’3E)- N’1, N’3-Bis (3, 4, 5-substitutedbenzlidene) Malonohydrazide under Solvothermal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Abdu Musad, Ebraheem; Lokanatha Rai, Kuriya Madavu; Byrappa, Kullaiah

    2010-01-01

    The new 3,5-(substituted) pyrazoles and isoxazoles were prepared by reaction of (N’1E, N’3E)- N’1, N’3-bis (3,4,5-substitutedbenzylidene)malonohydrazide with hydrazine hydrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride respectively under solvothermal conditions involving an ecofriendly method without any environmental pollution, the yield are in the range of 75–96%. The structure of the new compounds were established using elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. PMID:23675175

  7. Uptake of triclopyr (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) from the apical membranes of the human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu; Tsukagoshi, Kensuke; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Endo, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether the uptake of triclopyr (3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid) and dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) across the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells was mediated via proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCTs). The uptake of triclopyr from the apical membranes was fast, pH-, temperature-, and concentration dependent, required metabolic energy to proceed, and was competitively inhibited by monocarboxylic acids such as benzoic acid and ferulic acid (substrates of L-lactic acid-insensitive MCTs), but not by L-lactic acid. Thus, the uptake of triclopyr in Caco-2 cells appears to be mediated mainly via L-lactic acid-insensitive MCTs. In contrast, the uptake of dicamba (a benzoic acid derivative) was slow, and it was both pH- and temperature dependent. Coincubation with ferulic acid did not decrease the uptake of dicamba, although coincubation with benzoic acid moderately decreased it. The uptake of dicamba appears to be mediated mainly via passive diffusion, which is in contrast to the uptake of benzoic acid via MCTs. We speculate that the substituted groups in dicamba may inhibit uptake via MCTs.

  8. Optimization of a Novel Binding Motif to (E)-3-(3,5-Difluoro-4-((1R,3R)-2-(2-fluoro-2-methylpropyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl)acrylic Acid (AZD9496), a Potent and Orally Bioavailable Selective Estrogen Receptor Downregulator and Antagonist.

    PubMed

    De Savi, Chris; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred A; Norman, Richard A; de Almeida, Camila; Andrews, David M; Ballard, Peter; Buttar, David; Callis, Rowena J; Currie, Gordon S; Curwen, Jon O; Davies, Chris D; Donald, Craig S; Feron, Lyman J L; Gingell, Helen; Glossop, Steven C; Hayter, Barry R; Hussain, Syeed; Karoutchi, Galith; Lamont, Scott G; MacFaul, Philip; Moss, Thomas A; Pearson, Stuart E; Tonge, Michael; Walker, Graeme E; Weir, Hazel M; Wilson, Zena

    2015-10-22

    The discovery of an orally bioavailable selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD) with equivalent potency and preclinical pharmacology to the intramuscular SERD fulvestrant is described. A directed screen identified the 1-aryl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole motif as a novel, druglike ER ligand. Aided by crystal structures of novel ligands bound to an ER construct, medicinal chemistry iterations led to (E)-3-(3,5-difluoro-4-((1R,3R)-2-(2-fluoro-2-methylpropyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)phenyl)acrylic acid (30b, AZD9496), a clinical candidate with high oral bioavailability across preclinical species that is currently being evaluated in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of advanced estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer.

  9. Stereochemistry of Pd(II)-Catalyzed THF Ring Formation of ε-Hydroxy Allylic Alcohols and Synthesis of 2,3,5-Trisubstituted and 2,3,4,5-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yuki; Uenishi, Jun'ichi

    2016-09-02

    Pd(II)-catalyzed ring formation of 2,3,5-trisubstituted and 2,3,4,5-tetrasubstituted tetrahydrofurans is described. Oxypalladation of a chiral ε-hydroxy allylic alcohol provides a 5-alkenyltetrahydrofuran ring in excellent yields via a 5-exo-trigonal process. Nine substrates including six secondary allylic alcohols and three primary allylic alcohols with or without an additional secondary hydroxy substituent at the γ-position have been examined. Their structures are restricted by a 2,2,4,4-tetraisopropyl-1,3,5,2,4-trioxadisilocane ring. The stereochemistry of the resulting tetrahydrofuran products was determined by chemical transformation. The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the stereochemical results. The steps in the chiral allylic alcohol directed or the nucleophilic alcohol directed facial selection for the formation of the alkene-Pd(II)-π-complex, the cis-oxypalladation, and a syn-elimination mechanism account for the observed stereochemistry of the reaction.

  10. MM5 v3.6.1 and WRF v3.5.1 model comparison of standard and surface energy variables in the development of the planetary boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmot, C.-S. M.; Rappenglück, B.; Li, X.; Cuchiara, G.

    2014-11-01

    Air quality forecasting requires atmospheric weather models to generate accurate meteorological conditions, one of which is the development of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). An important contributor to the development of the PBL is the land-air exchange captured in the energy budget as well as turbulence parameters. Standard and surface energy variables were modeled using the fifth-generation Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model (MM5), version 3.6.1, and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.5.1, and compared to measurements for a southeastern Texas coastal region. The study period was 28 August-1 September 2006. It also included a frontal passage. The results of the study are ambiguous. Although WRF does not perform as well as MM5 in predicting PBL heights, it better simulates energy budget and most of the general variables. Both models overestimate incoming solar radiation, which implies a surplus of energy that could be redistributed in either the partitioning of the surface energy variables or in some other aspect of the meteorological modeling not examined here. The MM5 model consistently had much drier conditions than the WRF model, which could lead to more energy available to other parts of the meteorological system. On the clearest day of the study period, MM5 had increased latent heat flux, which could lead to higher evaporation rates and lower moisture in the model. However, this latent heat disparity between the two models is not visible during any other part of the study. The observed frontal passage affected the performance of most of the variables, including the radiation, flux, and turbulence variables, at times creating dramatic differences in the r2 values.

  11. Use of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition to minimize L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned macaque.

    PubMed

    Huot, Philippe; Johnston, Tom H; Snoeren, Tessa; Koprich, James B; Hill, Michael P; Fox, Susan H; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2013-03-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia is a complication of dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson's disease. Lowering the L-DOPA dose reduces dyskinesia but also reduces the antiparkinsonian benefit. A therapy that could enhance the antiparkinsonian action of low-dose L-DOPA (LDl) without exacerbating dyskinesia would thus be of considerable therapeutic benefit. This study assessed whether catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition, as an add-on to LDl, might be a means to achieve this goal. Cynomolgus macaques were administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Dyskinesia was established by chronic treatment with L-DOPA. Two doses of L-DOPA were identified - high-dose L-DOPA (LDh), which provided good antiparkinsonian benefit but was compromised by disabling dyskinesia, and LDl, which was sub-threshold for providing significant antiparkinsonian benefit, without dyskinesia. LDh and LDl were administered in acute challenges in combination with vehicle and, for LDl, with the COMT inhibitor entacapone (5, 15 and 45 mg/kg). The duration of antiparkinsonian benefit (ON-time), parkinsonism and dyskinesia were determined. The ON-time after LDh was ∼170 min and the ON-time after LDl alone (∼98 min) was not significantly different to vehicle (∼37 min). In combination with LDl, entacapone significantly increased the ON-time (5, 15 and 45 mg/kg being ∼123, ∼148 and ∼180 min, respectively). The ON-time after LDl/entacapone 45 mg/kg was not different to that after LDh. However, whereas the percentage ON-time that was compromised by disabling dyskinesia was ∼56% with LDh, it was only ∼31% with LDl/entacapone 45 mg/kg. In addition to the well-recognized action of COMT inhibition to reduce wearing-OFF, the data presented suggest that COMT inhibition in combination with low doses of L-DOPA has potential as a strategy to alleviate dyskinesia.

  12. Inter-hydrogen bond coupling in crystals with molecular chains in their lattices investigated by polarized IR spectroscopy: 4-Bromo-3,5-dimethylpyrazole and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Hachuła, Barbara; Flakus, Henryk T; Polasz, Anna

    2014-05-21

    We report the results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the polarized IR crystalline spectra of 4-bromo-3,5-dimethylpyrazole (4Br35DMPz) and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid (34DMPAA) as well as the spectra of their deuterium-bonded analogues. The results of model calculations of the temperature impact exerted on to the band shapes measured in the X-H- and X-D bond stretching vibration regions, performed on the basis of the "strong-coupling" model, are also shown. These studies confirm a direct relationship between the spectral properties in IR and the electronic structure of the associating molecules in the crystals. Two different competing exciton coupling mechanisms involving hydrogen bonds, the "tail-to-head" (TH) in 4Br35DMPz and the "side-to-side" coupling in 34DMPAA, were recognized. The molecular electronic structure determines the relative contribution of each individual vibrational exciton coupling mechanism in the spectra generation. It also strongly influences the temperature-induced evolution of the Davydov-splitting effects in the crystalline spectra. Dynamical co-operative interactions responsible for a non-random distribution of protons and deuterons in the crystal hydrogen bonds can also be identified in the investigated systems.

  13. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone, a Citrus Flavonoid, Ameliorates Corticosterone-Induced Depression-like Behavior and Restores Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression, Neurogenesis, and Neuroplasticity in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, Atsushi; Okuyama, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kana; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-04-23

    We previously reported that the citrus flavonoid 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF) increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of a transient global ischemia mouse model. Since the BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a reduction in BDNF is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression, we evaluated the anti-depressive effects of HMF in mice with subcutaneously administered corticosterone at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 25 days. We demonstrated that the HMF treatment ameliorated (1) corticosterone-induced body weight loss, (2) corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior, and (3) corticosterone-induced reductions in BDNF production in the hippocampus. We also showed that the HMF treatment restored (4) corticosterone-induced reductions in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone and (5) corticosterone-induced reductions in the expression levels of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2. These results suggest that HMF exerts its effects as an anti-depressant drug by inducing the expression of BDNF.

  14. Facile synthesis of SSR180575 and discovery of 7-chloro-N,N,5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3(6-[18F]fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole-1-acetamide, a potent pyridazinoindole ligand for PET imaging of TSPO in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yiu-Yin; Nickels, Michael L.; Tang, Dewei; Buck, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    A novel synthesis of the translocator protein (TSPO) ligand 7-chloro-N,N,5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole-1-acetamide (SSR180575, 3) was achieved in four steps from commercially available starting materials. Focused structure−activity relationship development about the pyridazinoindole ring at the N3 position led to the discovery of 7-chloro-N,N,5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3(6-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole-1-acetamide (14), a novel ligand of comparable affinity. Radiolabeling with fluorine-18 (18F) yielded 7-chloro-N,N,5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3(6-[18F]fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole-1-acetamide (18F-14) in high radiochemical yield and specific activity. In vivo studies of [18F]-14 revealed this agent as a promising probe for molecular imaging of glioma. PMID:25172419

  15. Tetra­phenyl­phospho­nium iodide–1,3,5-tri­fluoro-2,4,6-tri­iodo­benzene–methanol (3/4/1)

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,3,5-tri­fluoro-2,4,6-di­iodo­benzene (TFTIB) and tetra­phenyl­phosponium iodide (TPPI) from methanol produced tetra­gonal needles of pure TPPI and tabular pseudo-hexa­gonal truncated bipyramids of the title compound, 3C24H20P+·3I−·4C6F3I3·CH4O or (TPPI)3(TFTIB)4·MeOH. The asymmetric unit is composed of six TPPI mol­ecules, eight TFTIB mol­ecules and two methanol mol­ecules, overall 16 constituents. The formation of the architecture is essentially guided by a number of C—I⋯I− halogen bonds (XB), whose lengths are in the range 3.276 (1)–3.625 (1) Å. Layers of supra­molecular polyanions are formed parallel to (10-1) wherein iodide anions function as penta-, tetra- or bidentate XB acceptors. The structure is not far from being P21/n, but the centrosymmetry is lost due to a different conformation of a single couple of cations and the small asymmetry in the formed supra­molecular anion. One methanol mol­ecule is hydrogen bonded to an iodide anion, while the second is linked to the first one via an O—H⋯O contact. This second methanol mol­ecule is more loosely pinned in its position than the first and presents very high anisotropic displacement parameters and a seeming shortening of the C—O bond length. The crystal studied was refined as a perfect inversion twin. PMID:23795046

  16. Mechanochemical synthesis and crystal structure of a 1:2 co-crystal of 1,3,6,8-tetra­aza­tri­cyclo[4.3.1.13,8]undecane (TATU) and 4-chloro-3,5-dimethyl­phenol

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Augusto; Rojas, Jicli José; Sadat-Bernal, John; Ríos-Motta, Jaime; Bolte, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Solvent-free treatment of 1,3,6,8-tetra­aza­tri­cyclo­[4.3.1.13,8]undecano (TATU) with 4-chloro-3,5-di­methyl­phenol led to the formation of the title co-crystal, C7H14N4·2C8H9ClO. The asymmetric unit contains one aminal cage mol­ecule and two phenol mol­ecules linked via two O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. In the aminal cage, the N–CH2–CH2–N unit is slightly distorted from a syn periplanar geometry. Aromatic π–π stacking between the benzene rings from two different neighbouring phenol mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 4.0570 (11) Å] consolidates the crystal packing. PMID:27840729

  17. Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Fe(II) metal complexes containing N,N'-(3,4-diaminobenzophenon)-3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldimine ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal properties, electrochemistry, and spectroelectrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, E.; Kilic, A.; Durgun, M.; Küpecik, L.; Yilmaz, I.; Arslan, S.

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and electro-spectrochemical properties of steric hindered Schiff-base ligand [ N,N'-(3,4-benzophenon)-3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldimine (LH 2)] and its mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) and Fe(II) complexes are described in this work. The new dissymmetric steric hindered Schiff-base ligand containing a donor set of NONO was prepared through reaction of 3,4-diaminobenzophenon with 3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldehyde. Certain metal complexes of this ligand were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the ligand with an equimolar amount of metal salts. The ligand and its complexes were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, molar conductivity and thermal analysis methods in addition to magnetic susceptibility, electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry techniques. The tetradentate and mononuclear metal complexes were obtained by reacting N,N'-(3,4-benzophenon)-3,5-Bu t2-salicylaldimine (LH 2) with some metal acetate in a 1:1 mole ratio. The molar conductance data suggest metal complexes to be non-electrolytes.

  18. The synthesis and characterization of the 'research chemical' N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA) and differentiation from its 5,3-regioisomer.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Gavin; Morris, Noreen; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D; Twamley, Brendan; O'Brien, John; Talbot, Brian; Dowling, Geraldine; Brandt, Simon D

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the identification of N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide that was termed 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA. This compound was obtained from a UK-based Internet vendor, who erroneously advertised this 'research chemical' as AZ-037 and which would have been associated with (S)-N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide. The presence of the pyrazole core indicates a bioisosteric replacement of an indazole ring that is frequently associated with synthetic cannabinoids of the PINACA, FUBINACA, and CHMINACA series. The pyrazole ring system present in 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA gives rise to the regioisomer N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (named 5,3-AB-CHMFUPPYCA) and both isomers were synthesized using two specific routes which supported the correct identification of the 'research chemical' as 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA. Both isomers could be conveniently differentiated. Interestingly, a route specific chlorine-containing by-product also was observed during the synthesis of 3,5-AB-CHMFUPPYCA and identified as N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-4-chloro-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide. An extensive analytical characterization included chromatographic, spectroscopic, mass spectrometric platforms as well as crystal structure analysis. The syntheses and analytical characterizations of both AB-CHMFUPPYCA isomers are reported for the first time and serves as a reminder that the possibility of mislabeling of 'research chemicals' cannot be excluded. The pharmacological activities of both AB-CHMFUPPYCA isomers remain to be explored. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Crystal structures of (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole and (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Yadlapalli, Jaishankar K B; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    (Z)-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-2-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide via a [3 + 2]cyclo-addition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole, C20H18N4O3S, (II), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide. Crystals of (I) have two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2), whereas crystals of (II) have Z' = 1. The benzo-thio-phene rings in (I) and (II) are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I) and 0.0084 Å in (II). The tetra-zole rings of (I) and (II) make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzo-thio-phene rings of 88.81 (13) and 88.92 (13)° in (I), and 60.94 (6)° in (II). The di-meth-oxy-phenyl and tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzo-thio-phene rings of 23.91 (8) and 24.99 (8)° in (I) and 84.47 (3)° in (II). In both structures, mol-ecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I), these chains involve both tetra-zole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II), mol-ecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetra-zole rings.

  20. Crystal structure of the charge-transfer complex 2-(1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­naph­thal­en-1-yl­idene)hydrazinecarbo­thio­amide–pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carbo­nitrile (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Johannes; Daniels, Jörg; Krieger-Beck, Petra; Dittmann, Gertrud; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 2-(1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­napthalen-1-yl­idene)hydrazinecarbo­thio­amide (TTSC) with pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carbo­nitrile (tetra­cyano­pyrazine, TCNP) yields the title 2:1 charge-transfer adduct, 2C11H12N3S·C6N8. The complete TCNP mol­ecule is generated by a crystallographic inversion centre and the non-aromatic ring in the TTSC mol­ecule adopts an envelope conformation with a methyl­ene C atom as the flap. In the crystal, the thio­semicarbazone mol­ecules are connected through inversion-related pairs of N—H⋯S inter­actions, building a polymeric chain along the b-axis direction. The TCNP mol­ecules are embedded in the structure, forming TTSC–TCNP–TTSC stacks with the aromatic rings of TTSC and the mol­ecular plane of TCNP in a parallel arrangement [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5558 (14) Å]. Charge-transfer (CT) via π-stacking is indicated by a CT band around 550 cm−1 in the single-crystal absorption spectrum. PMID:25484688

  1. Application of a deuterium replacement strategy to modulate the pharmacokinetics of 7-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,6-dimethylpyrazolo[5,1-b]oxazole, a novel CRF1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Rowan A; Williams, Gareth; Picard, Franck; Sohal, Bindi; Kretz, Olivier; McKenna, Jeff; Krauser, Joel A

    2014-05-01

    Deuterium isotope effects were evaluated as a strategy to optimize the pharmacokinetics of 7-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,6-dimethylpyrazolo[5,1-b]oxazole (NVS-CRF38), a novel corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist. In an attempt to suppress O-demethylation of NVS-CRF38 without losing activity against the CRF1 receptor, the protons at the site of metabolism were replaced with deuterium. For in vitro and in vivo studies, intrinsic primary isotope effects (KH/KD) were determined by the ratio of intrinsic clearance (CLint) obtained for NVS-CRF38 and deuterated NVS-CRF38. In vitro kinetic isotope effects (KH/KD) were more pronounced when CLint values were calculated based on the rate of formation of the O-desmethyl metabolite (KH/KD ∼7) compared with the substrate depletion method (KH/KD ∼2). In vivo isotope effects were measured in rats after intravenous (1 mg/kg) and oral (10 mg/kg) administration. For both administration routes, isotope effects calculated from in vivo CLint corresponding to all biotransformation pathways were lower (KH/KD ∼2) compared with CLint values calculated from the O-demethylation reaction alone (KH/KD ∼7). Comparative metabolite identification studies were undertaken using rat and human microsomes to explore the potential for metabolic switching. As expected, a marked reduction of the O-demethylated metabolite was observed for NVS-CRF38; however, levels of NVS-CRF38's other metabolites increased, compensating to some extent for the isotope effect.

  2. A hydrophilic cation-binding protein of Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPCaP1, is localized to plasma membrane via N-myristoylation and interacts with calmodulin and the phosphatidylinositol phosphates PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and PtdIns(3,5)P(2).

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Nahoko; Tomioka, Rie; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    A hydrophilic cation-binding protein, PCaP1, was found to be stably bound to the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana. PCaP1 was quantified to account for 0.03-0.08% of the crude membrane fractions from roots and shoots. Its homologous protein was detected in several plant species. We investigated the mechanism of membrane association of PCaP1 by transient expression of fusion protein with green fluorescent protein. The amino-terminal sequence of 27 residues of PCaP1 had a potential to localize the fusion protein with green fluorescent protein to the plasma membrane, and the substitution of Gly at position 2 with Ala resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of PCaP1. When PCaP1 was expressed in the in vitro transcription/translation system with [(3)H]myristic acid, the label was incorporated into PCaP1, but not into a mutant PCaP1 with Gly2 replaced by Ala. These results indicate that PCaP1 tightly binds to the plasma membrane via N-myristoylation at Gly2. We examined the binding capacity with phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs), and found that PCaP1 selectively interacts with phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Competition assay with the N-terminal peptide and mutational analysis revealed that PCaP1 interacts with these two PtdInsPs at the N-terminal part. Interaction of PCaP1 with the membrane and PtdInsPs was not altered in the presence of Ca(2+) at physiological concentrations. Furthermore, calmodulin associated with PCaP1 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and its association weakened the interaction of PCaP1 with PtdInsPs. These results indicate that the N-terminal part is essential for both N-myristoylation and interaction with PtdInsPs, and that PCaP1 may be involved in intracellular signalling through interaction with PtdInsPs and calmodulin.

  3. Crystal structure of 9-(3-bromo-5-chloro-2-hydroxy­phen­yl)-10-(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)-3,3,6,6-tetra­methyl-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexa­hydro­acridine-1,8(2H,5H)-dione

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Antar A.; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Simpson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The title compound C25H29BrClNO4, comprises a 3,3,6,6-tetra­methyl­tetra­hydro­acridine-1,8-dione ring system that carries a hy­droxy­ethyl substituent on the acridine N atom and a 3-bromo-5-chloro-2-hy­droxy­phenyl ring on the central methine C atom of the di­hydro­pyridine ring. The benzene ring is inclined to the acridine ring system at an angle of 89.84 (6)° and this conformation is stabilized by an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond between the hy­droxy substituent on the benzene ring and one of the carbonyl groups of the acridinedione unit. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds combine to stack mol­ecules in inter­connected columns propagating along the a-axis direction. PMID:25249850

  4. In vitro, molecular modeling and behavioral studies of 3-{[4-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-yl]methyl}-1,2-dihydroquinolin-2-one (D2AAK1) as a potential antipsychotic.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Budzyńska, Barbara; Biała, Grażyna; Silva, Andrea G; Castro, Marián

    2016-06-01

    Antipsychotics currently available to treat schizophrenia suffer several limitations: (1) they are efficient against positive but not negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease; (2) they help only a half of patients; (3) they have severe side effects including neurological and metabolic side effects. Thus, novel drugs to treat schizophrenia are highly demanded. We identified a novel dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, D2AAK1, with Ki of 58 nM using structure-based virtual screening. D2AAK1 possesses additional nanomolar or low micromolar affinity to D1, D3, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, making it an ideal candidate for a multi-target drug. Here we present homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics of D2AAK1 and its molecular targets and animal studies of D2AAK1 as a potential antipsychotic. The main contact of D2AAK1 and all the receptors studied is the electrostatic interaction between the protonable nitrogen atom of the ligand and the conserved Asp(3.32) as typical for orthosteric ligands of aminergic GPCRs. We confirmed antagonistic/partial agonistic properties of D2AAK1 towards all the receptors in in vitro essays and in in silico studies as the ligand stabilizes the ionic lock interaction. We also demonstrated neuroleptic, anxiolytic and, importantly, procognitive properties of D2AAK1 in mouse models.

  5. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  6. Crystal structures of (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio­phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetra­zole and (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio­phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetra­zole

    PubMed Central

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Yadlapalli, Jaishankar K. B.; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    (Z)-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thio­phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio­phen-2-yl)-2-(3,5-di­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acrylo­nitrile with tri­butyl­tin azide via a [3 + 2]cyclo­addition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio­phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)ethen­yl]-1H-tetra­zole, C20H18N4O3S, (II), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio­phen-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri­meth­oxy­phen­yl)acrylo­nitrile with tri­butyl­tin azide. Crystals of (I) have two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2), whereas crystals of (II) have Z′ = 1. The benzo­thio­phene rings in (I) and (II) are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I) and 0.0084 Å in (II). The tetra­zole rings of (I) and (II) make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzo­thio­phene rings of 88.81 (13) and 88.92 (13)° in (I), and 60.94 (6)° in (II). The di­meth­oxy­phenyl and tri­meth­oxy­phenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzo­thio­phene rings of 23.91 (8) and 24.99 (8)° in (I) and 84.47 (3)° in (II). In both structures, mol­ecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I), these chains involve both tetra­zole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II), mol­ecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetra­zole rings. PMID:27308011

  7. Modeling, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Potential Retinoid-X-Receptor (RXR) Selective Agonists: Novel Analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic Acid (Bexarotene) and (E)-3-(3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4,6-pentamethylnaphthalen-7-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (CD3254)

    PubMed Central

    Jurutka, Peter W.; Kaneko, Ichiro; Yang, Joanna; Bhogal, Jaskaran S.; Swierski, Johnathon C.; Tabacaru, Christa R.; Montano, Luis A.; Huynh, Chanh C.; Jama, Rabia A.; Mahelona, Ryan D.; Sarnowski, Joseph T.; Marcus, Lisa M.; Quezada, Alexis; Lemming, Brittney; Tedesco, Maria A.; Fischer, Audra J.; Mohamed, Said A.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Ma, Ning; Gray, Geoffrey M.; van der Vaart, Arjan; Marshall, Pamela A.; Wagner, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Three unreported analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5-6-7-8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), otherwise known as bexarotene, as well as four novel analogs of (E)-3-(3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4,6-pentamethylnaphthalen-7-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (CD3254) are described, and evaluated for their retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-selective agonism. Compound 1 has FDA approval as a treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); though, treatment with 1 can elicit side-effects by disrupting other RXR-heterodimer receptor pathways. Of the 7 modeled novel compounds, all analogs stimulate RXR-regulated transcription in mammalian-2-hybrid and RXRE-mediated assays, possess comparable or elevated biological activity based on EC50 profiles, and retain similar or improved apoptotic activity in CTCL assays compared to 1. All novel compounds demonstrate selectivity for RXR and minimal crossover onto the retinoic-acid-receptor (RAR) compared to all-trans-retinoic acid, with select analogs also reducing inhibition of other RXR-dependent pathways (e.g., VDR-RXR). Our results demonstrate that further improvements in biological potency and selectivity of bexarotene can be achieved through rational drug design. PMID:24180745

  8. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology: Topical report No. 3, Task 3.2: Scale-up testing; Topical report No. 4, Task 3.3: Advanced configurations; Topical report No. 5, Task 3.4: Process controls; Topical report No. 6, Task 3.5: Failure modes; Task 3.6: Waste characterization, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, L.G.; Gooch, J.P.; Merritt, R.L.; Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G.; Hunt, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    This document is the third interim report on tests that were conducted at the Duct Injection Test Facility (DITF) operated for the Department of Energy at Unit 5 of the Ohio Power Company`s Muskingum River station in Beverly, Ohio. At the DITF dry calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), an aqueous slurry of Ca(OH){sub 2} (prepared by slaking quicklime), or a mixture of one of these sorbents with waste ash from earlier tests was injected into a slipstream of flue gas from the Unit 5 boiler to achieve partial removal of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas. Up to 50,000 acfm of flue gas was taken from the inlet to the Unit 5 electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for these tests. Water was injected separately with the dry sorbent or as part of the slurry to cool the flue gas and increase the water vapor content of the flue gas. The addition of water, either as a separate spray or in the slurry makes the reaction between the sorbent and the SO{sub 2} more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state when it can physically wet the sorbent particles, and not especially effective in the vapor state. Higher values of calcium utilization were obtained with slurry injection than with dry sorbent injection and humidification. Slurries made from reagent slaked lime, mixtures of reagent slaked lime and recycle ash, and from recycle ash alone were injected through the same nozzles used for humidification. The focus of most of these tests was on the constant addition of recycle ash to reduce the amount of slaked lime required for SO{sub 2} removal (for best economics). Testing was continued until the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the recycle ash equaled that predicted for equilibrium Two test cases were evaluated: a low Ca/S ratio (1.0 reagent, 44{degrees}/F approach) for 50% SO{sub 2} removal and a high Ca/S ratio (1.7 reagent, 24{degrees}F approach) for 88% SO{sub 2} removal.

  9. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology: Topical report No. 3, Task 3. 2: Scale-up testing; Topical report No. 4, Task 3. 3: Advanced configurations; Topical report No. 5, Task 3. 4: Process controls; Topical report No. 6, Task 3. 5: Failure modes; Task 3. 6: Waste characterization, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, L.G.; Gooch, J.P.; Merritt, R.L. ); Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G.; Hunt, J.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This document is the third interim report on tests that were conducted at the Duct Injection Test Facility (DITF) operated for the Department of Energy at Unit 5 of the Ohio Power Company's Muskingum River station in Beverly, Ohio. At the DITF dry calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), an aqueous slurry of Ca(OH)[sub 2] (prepared by slaking quicklime), or a mixture of one of these sorbents with waste ash from earlier tests was injected into a slipstream of flue gas from the Unit 5 boiler to achieve partial removal of SO[sub 2] in the flue gas. Up to 50,000 acfm of flue gas was taken from the inlet to the Unit 5 electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for these tests. Water was injected separately with the dry sorbent or as part of the slurry to cool the flue gas and increase the water vapor content of the flue gas. The addition of water, either as a separate spray or in the slurry makes the reaction between the sorbent and the SO[sub 2] more complete; the presumption is that water is effective in the liquid state when it can physically wet the sorbent particles, and not especially effective in the vapor state. Higher values of calcium utilization were obtained with slurry injection than with dry sorbent injection and humidification. Slurries made from reagent slaked lime, mixtures of reagent slaked lime and recycle ash, and from recycle ash alone were injected through the same nozzles used for humidification. The focus of most of these tests was on the constant addition of recycle ash to reduce the amount of slaked lime required for SO[sub 2] removal (for best economics). Testing was continued until the amount of Ca(OH)[sub 2] in the recycle ash equaled that predicted for equilibrium Two test cases were evaluated: a low Ca/S ratio (1.0 reagent, 44[degrees]/F approach) for 50% SO[sub 2] removal and a high Ca/S ratio (1.7 reagent, 24[degrees]F approach) for 88% SO[sub 2] removal.

  10. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  11. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  12. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  13. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  14. 45 CFR 3.6 - Nondiscrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nondiscrimination. 3.6 Section 3.6 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.6 Nondiscrimination. A person may not discriminate...

  15. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.6

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.6. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and BEIS v3.6 in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observati...

  17. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  18. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  19. 9 CFR 3.6 - Primary enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.6 Primary enclosures. Primary enclosures for dogs and cats must meet the following minimum requirements: (a) General requirements. (1) Primary enclosures... they: (i) Have no sharp points or edges that could injure the dogs and cats; (ii) Protect the dogs...

  20. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  1. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  2. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days A A A Though only ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  3. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  4. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  5. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 3.4 Section 3.4 National Defense..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC... organization reporting directly to a home office, usually identified with responsibility for profit...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  11. Tuning the formations of metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate frameworks via the assistance of amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Xiao-Ping; Lian, Ting-Ting; Chen, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-03-15

    Seven new metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers have been synthesized by modification of auxiliary components during the assembly reactions. Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by XRD and TGA. Interestingly, they show fascinating topological structures. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the undulating layer structure with 3-connected hcb network and (3,6)-connected kgd network. Compound 3 possesses three-dimensional (3D) pillared-layer structure with 3-connected 2-fold interpenetrating srs net. Compound 4 also has the 3D 2-fold interpenetrating pillared-layer structure; however, it has (3,5)-connected hms topology because the Cd(II) center is 5-connected. Compound 5 possess 3D structure through hydrogen bonding interactions between ladder-like layers. Compounds 6 and 7 have the similar 3D frameworks with 4-connected umc net and (3,7)-connected (3.4.5)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 6}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 8}) topology, respectively. The photoluminescent properties of compounds 2–7 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Presented here are seven new metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers with diverse structures from 2D layers to 3D open frameworks. The synthesis and structural diversity of these compounds are determined by the additional amino acids as unusual buffering agents. - Highlights: • Structural diversity of metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate frameworks. • Tuning structural topologies of MOFs via the assistance of amino acids. • Amino acids as unusual buffering agents for the synthesis of MOFs.

  12. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'5')arabinonucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.H.; Ainsworth, C.F.; Bell, C.L.; Danyluk, S.S.; MacCoss, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two different synthetic routes using phosphotriester methodology have been utilized to prepare deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'-5)arabinonucleosides containing 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A vidarabine) and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C, cytarabine) at the 3'-terminus in amounts and purity (greater than 95%) suitable for NMR analysis.

  13. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  14. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  15. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  16. 45 CFR 1210.3-6 - Appeal of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeal of termination. 1210.3-6 Section 1210.3-6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-6 Appeal of termination....

  17. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.6 Minimum capital ratios. (a) Risk-based capital ratio....

  18. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  19. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  20. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  1. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  2. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  3. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in cold marine sediment under anaerobic and oligotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Greer, Charles W; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    The in situ degradation of the two nitramine explosives, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), was evaluated using a mixture of RDX and HMX, incubated anaerobically at 10 degrees C with marine sediment from a previous military dumping site of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada. The RDX concentration (14.7 mg.L-1) in the aqueous phase was reduced by half in 4 days, while reduction of HMX concentration (1.2 mg.L-1) by half required 50 days. Supplementation with the carbon sources glucose, acetate, or citrate did not affect the removal rate of RDX but improved removal of HMX. Optimal mineralization of RDX and HMX was obtained in the presence of glucose. Using universally labeled (UL)-[14C]RDX, we obtained a carbon mass balance distributed as follows: CO2, 48%-58%; water soluble products, 27%-31%; acetonitrile extractable products, 2.0%-3.4%; and products covalently bound to the sediments and biomass, 8.9% (in the presence of glucose). The disappearance of RDX was accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and formaldehyde (HCHO) that subsequently disappeared. In the case of HMX, mineralization reached only 13%-27% after 115 days of incubation in the presence or absence of the carbon sources. The disappearance of HMX was also accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative. The total population of psychrotrophic anaerobes that grew at 10 degrees C was 2.6 x 10(3) colony-forming units.(g sediment dry mass)-1, and some psychrotrophic sediment isolates were capable of degrading RDX under conditions similar to those used for sediments. Based on the distribution of products, we suggest that the sediment microorganisms degrade RDX and HMX via an initial reduction to the corresponding mononitroso derivative, followed by denitration and ring cleavage.

  4. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  5. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  6. Dermal Sensitization of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    tetrazocine (SEX) in guinea pigs MATERIALS Test Substance Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-I,3,5,7- Tetrazocine (SEX) Chemical Abstract Service...exist as a contaminant in P.DX/HMX manufacturing process. The characteristics of SEX are as follows: Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2

  7. Biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, N.G.; Cornell, J.H.; Kaplan, A.M.

    1981-11-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is poposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed.

  8. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  9. 43 CFR 3.6 - Time limit of permits granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ANTIQUITIES § 3.6 Time limit of permits granted. No permit will be granted for a period of more than 3 years, but if the work has been diligently prosecuted under the permit, the time may be extended for proper... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time limit of permits granted. 3.6...

  10. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks... maintain Tier 1 capital in an amount equal to at least 3.0 percent of adjusted total assets. (c) Additional... banks meeting the conditions set forth in this paragraph (c), the minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio is...

  11. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks... maintain Tier 1 capital in an amount equal to at least 3.0 percent of adjusted total assets. (c) Additional... banks meeting the conditions set forth in this paragraph (c), the minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio is...

  12. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks... national banks must have and maintain the minimum risk-based capital ratio as set forth in appendix A (and, for certain banks, in appendix B). (b) Total assets leverage ratio. All national banks must have...

  13. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  15. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... the performance of the OT agreement may not include costs that were incurred before the date on...

  16. 32 CFR 3.6 - Limitations on cost-sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.6 Limitations on cost... the performance of the OT agreement may not include costs that were incurred before the date on...

  17. LiHo(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zarkouna, Emna; Driss, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Lithium holmium(III) polyphosphate(V), LiHo(PO3)4, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO3)4, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetra­hedra and 21 inter­nal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetra­hedral and dodeca­hedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho⋯Ho distance being 5.570 (1) Å. PMID:21581738

  18. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  19. Biodegradation of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yih; Brodman, Bruce W

    2004-01-01

    Two bacteria were isolated from 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These organisms were subsequently identified as Rhiziobium rhizogenes BL and Burkholderia sp.BL by the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures). In addition a fungus, identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides by DSMZ, was found to be growing on water wet RDX. All of these organisms were found to degrade RDX. The two bacteria were found to represent new species that have not been reported before. It was found that these organisms along with an added carbon source could degrade RDX to simple gaseous products. Data are presented that elucidate the mechanisms of RDX biodegradation for these organisms.

  20. LiDy(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Chehimi-Moumen, Fathia; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO3)4, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy⋯Li distances of 3.54 (1) and 3.48 (1) Å. The DyO8 dodeca­hedra and LiO4 tetra­hedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2). PMID:21202729

  1. STARS Proceedings (3-4 December 1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-04

    SUBTITLE S FUNDING NUMBERS STARS 󈨟 Proceedings 3-4 December, 1991 F19628-88-D-0031 6. AUTHOR (S) Paramax Corporation 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...See authorities . Block 4. Title and Subtitle. A title is taken from NASA - See Handbook NH8 2200.2. ,he part of the report that provides the most NTIS...numbers shown in the Authors Index found at the back of these proceedings include a coded prefix (P, 1, 2, 3, or 4) to indicate the part of the

  2. 3,6-Bis(2-pyridyl)di-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a:4',3'-c]phthalazine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Fu; Wen, Yuh-Sheng; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2004-09-01

    The title compound, C20H12N8, (I), has been prepared by the reaction of 1,4-dihydrazinophthalazine and pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, followed by an oxidative cyclization by treatment with bromine. In the solid state, the molecules of (I) are discrete, comprising a fused and twisted four-ring system with an overall helical appearance. The distance between the two intramolecular pyridyl N atoms is 3.075 (2) A, this short contact distance suggesting a pi-pi interaction.

  3. Classroom Museums: Touchable Tables for Kids Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Pamela

    This book provides ideas for table exhibits for grades 3-6 in nine different subject areas. These areas are: marine life; nature in the backyard; the history and uses of flags; impressionist painters and art; winter festivals around the world; fibers and fabrics; Native Americans in touch with the land; sugar and chocolate; and keeping the earth,…

  4. RTI Strategies That Work in the 3-6 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eli; Karns, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This is a must-have resource for educators committed to meeting the needs of their struggling students in Grades 3-6. Teachers get a whole toolbox filled with research-based, easy to implement RTI interventions that really work! Get strategies in five core areas--plus correlations to the Common Core State Standards and effective scaffolding tips…

  5. Developing Career Education; Grades 3-6 Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The guide presents instructional units aimed at developing career education for grades 3-6. Each unit provides detailed objectives, activities, resources, and evaluations, and in some units the objectives are further detailed in relationship to the following subjects: mathematics, language arts, social studies, guidance, music, physical education,…

  6. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  7. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  8. Electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jeffrey F; Miller, Thomas M; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K; Viggiano, A A; Rekha, G K; Stevens, Amy E

    2008-03-14

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4) using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) is 1.9 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39+/-5 meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF(3))(4) is 5.4 x 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84+/-8 meV. For both complexes, a PF(3) ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF(3))(3)(-) ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF(3))(4) and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  9. Electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K.; Viggiano, A. A.; Rekha, G. K.; Stevens, Amy E.

    2008-03-01

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4 using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 is 1.9×10-7cm3s-1 at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39±5meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF3)4 is 5.4×10-8cm3s-1 at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84±8meV. For both complexes, a PF3 ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF3)3- ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF3)4 and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  10. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  11. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  12. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  13. Separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazacyclohexane by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Meng, Zi-Hui; Xue, Min; Qiu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chen-Fan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by the Bachmann process leads to a mixture of both. The separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane from their mixture is difficult because the sizes and physical properties of these homologous compounds are similar. For this purpose, seven molecularly imprinted polymers have been synthesized for each explosive, and a selective solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed. A molecularly imprinted polymer, synthesized with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane as the template, methacrylic acid as the monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent in a molar ratio of 1:8:8 showed the best separation capability. A packed cartridge containing this polymer can be reused for 23 solid-phase extraction cycles without repacking, and the total separation capability toward 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane reached 6.81 mg per gram of polymer. 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane was not detected in the separated 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane by high-performance liquid chromatography and vice versa. This newly developed method had the advantages of high recovery (100%) and purity, environmental friendliness, and room temperature operability. This study showed that some molecularly imprinted polymers that cannot absorb target analytes well in the solvent in which the polymers were polymerized might have high-binding capacity for the analytes and show imprinting effects in other solvents.

  14. KPr(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; Daoud, Mohamed; Tanouti, Boumediene; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, potassium praseodymium(III) polyphosphate, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The monoclinic non-centrosymmetric structure is isotypic with all other KLn(PO3)4 analogues from Ln = La to Er, inclusive. The crystal structure of these long-chain polyphosphates is built up from infinite crenelated polyphosphate chains of corner-sharing PO4 tetra­hedra with a repeating unit of four tetra­hedra. These chains, running along [100], are arranged in a pseudo-tetra­gonal rod packing and are further linked by isolated PrO8 square anti­prisms [Pr—O = 2.3787 (9)–2.5091 (8) Å], forming a three-dimensional framework. The K+ ions reside in channels parallel to [010] and exhibit a highly distorted coordination sphere by eight O atoms at distances ranging from 2.7908 (9) to 3.1924 (11) Å. PMID:21588081

  15. 1,3,6,8-Tetranitrocarbazole (TNC) Synthesis and Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Specification MIL-T-13 11 Distribution List 25 FIGURES 1 Carbazole added to sulphuric acid , heated till carbazole becomes sulfonated 1 2 Three-stage...1,3,6,8-TETRANITROCABAZOLE The TNC has traditionally been synthesized with a mixed acid system of sulphuric acid and nitric acid . The carbazole...is added to the sulphuric acid and heated until the carbazole becomes fully sulfonated (fig. 1). Then nitric acid is added to the mixture and

  16. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  17. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  18. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  19. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  20. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  1. Design, synthesis and photobiological properties of 3,4-cyclopentenepsoralens.

    PubMed

    Gia, Ornella; Marciani Magno, Sebastiano; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Quezada, Elias; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Dalla Via, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    The QSAR directed synthesis of tetracyclic psoralen derivatives (3-5) characterised by the condensation of a cyclopentane ring at the level of the 3,4 double bond of the tricyclic psoralen moiety is reported. The new compounds present a methoxy (3), a hydroxy (4) or a dimethylaminopropoxy (5) side chain inserted in position 8 of the lead chromophore. The evaluation of photoantiproliferative activity on human tumour cell lines reveals for 5 an ability to inhibit cell growth significantly higher with respect to that of the reference drug, 8-MOP. Interestingly, the enhancement in antiproliferative activity is accompanied by the disappearance of skin phototoxicity. On the other hand, no significant photobiological activity was scored for 3 and 4. The ability to photoreact with DNA, evaluated by isolating the 4',5' monoadduct and by estimating the ability to form interstrand cross-links, appeared to be significant for 5, practically negligible for 3 and 4. Furthermore, a back-projection of the more active compound identifies structural features suitable for further synthetic modifications.

  2. Synthesis of fluoro analogues of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine (MDA) and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Daniel; Hadorn, Marcel; Baumberger, Franz

    2006-03-01

    The role of the metabolism of the entactogen 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methamphetamine (MDMA; 1b) in neurotoxic or psychopharmacologic action is widely discussed, but not yet fully understood. To prompt further investigation into the role of MDMA metabolism, six new 3,4-(difluoromethylenedioxy) analogues of MDMA (1b) were prepared and characterized. Although electronically very different, the fluoro analogues 3-5 should be sterically very similar to the non-fluorinated parent compounds. The F-atoms may prevent the formation of toxic metabolites produced via a radical pathway (Scheme 1). Different theories regarding MDMA-induced neurotoxicity are briefly reviewed and discussed. The novel compounds 3-5 may help to verify the hypothesis that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is the result of the formation of metabolites lacking the methylenedioxy bridge.

  3. Poly[3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) –co– 1,3,5-tri[2-(3,4-ethylene dioxythienyl)]-benzene (EPh)] copolymers (PEDOT-co-EPh): optical, electrochemical and mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Kuo, Chin-chen; Farrell, Brendan; Pathak, Sheevangi; Wei, Bin; Qu, Jing; Martin, David C.

    2015-01-01

    PEDOT-co-EPh copolymers with systematic variations in composition were prepared by electrochemical polymerization from mixed monomer solutions in acetonitrile. The EPh monomer is a trifunctional crosslinking agent with three EDOTs around a central benzene ring. With increasing EPh content, the color of the copolymers changed from blue to yellow to red due to decreased absorption in the near infrared (IR) spectrum and increased absorption in the visible spectrum. The surface morphology changed from rough and nanofibrillar to more smooth with rounded bumps. The electrical transport properties dramatically decreased with increasing EPh content, resulting in coatings that either substantially lowered the impedance of the electrode (at the lowest EPh content), leave the impedance nearly unchanged (near 1% EPh), or significantly increase the impedance (at 1% and above). The mechanical properties of the films were substantially improved with EPh content, with the 0.5% EPh films showing an estimated 5x improvement in modulus measured by AFM nanoindentation. The PEDOT-co-EPh copolymer films were all shown to be non-cytotoxic toward and promote the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Given these results, we expect that the films of most interest for neural interface applications will be those with improved mechanical properties that maintain the improved charge transport performance (with 1% EPh and below). PMID:26413299

  4. 75 FR 79368 - Tetrahydro-3, 5-dimethyl-2H-1, 3, 4-thiadiazine-2-thione; Amendment To Terminate and or Delete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... registrant and accepted by the Agency, of the products, listed in Table 1, pursuant to section 6(f)(1) of the... Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001; telephone number: (703) 305- 5259; e-mail address: downs.abigail... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. II. What action is the agency taking? This notice announces...

  5. Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,4,5,6-tetra-phenyl-cyclo-hexa-3,5-diene-1,2-di-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Fred H; Nazarenko, Alexander Y

    2016-07-01

    In the title compound, C34H28O4, the cyclo-hexa-diene ring has a screw-boat conformation with a torsion angle between the double bonds being on average ca 15° [15.2 (3) and -15.3 (3) in the two independent mol-ecules]. All four phenyl rings in both mol-ecules are arranged in a propeller-like conformation. The two mol-ecules exhibit S,R- and R,S- chirality, respectively, and are connected via C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions. In turn, these weakly bound dimers form the mol-ecular crystal.

  6. 5-(3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl)-7-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazepane-2,6-dione acetonitrile solvate refined using a multipolar atom model.

    PubMed

    Ejsmont, Krzysztof; Boeglin, Joel; Didierjean, Claude; Guichard, Gilles; Jelsch, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C(16)H(23)N(3)O(4).CH(3)CN, was refined using a multipolar atom model transferred from an experimental electron-density database. The refinement showed some improvement in crystallographic statistical indices compared with the independent atom model. The triazepane ring adopts a twist-boat conformation. In the crystal structure, the molecule forms intermolecular contacts with 14 different neighbours. There are two N-H...O and one C-H...O intermolecular hydrogen bond.

  7. Synthesis and conformation of 3,6-connected cyclohexadiene chains.

    PubMed

    Golling, Florian E; Koch, Amelie H R; Fytas, George; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-05-01

    3,6-Connected cyclohexadienes as precursors for polyphenylenes are synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Pure fractions of trimers, hexamers, and nonamers are collected after separation of the product mixture by recycling GPC. The anticipated formation of rigid linear structures, due to the trans-configuration of the monomeric units, is supported by density functional theory and experimentally confirmed by dynamic light scattering from dilute solution at low scattering angles. The obtained translational diffusion coefficients are represented by rigid rod-like or prolate ellipsoid-like molecular shapes. The measurements of diffusion coefficients reveal a length-dependent ratio of 1:2:3 between the three oligomers, which directly correlates to the expected length extension from trimer to nonamer.

  8. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration.

  9. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  10. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  11. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  12. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  16. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  17. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  20. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  1. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  2. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-4 Trust protection lands. The regulations in this group do not apply to the leasing...

  3. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initiation of termination. 1210.3-4 Section 1210.3-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation...

  4. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or organization outside of the Department may be made only with the Department's prior written approval....

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  8. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  9. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  10. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  12. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  15. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  17. Primary Dermal Irritation of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Tetrazine Chemical Abstract 3ervice F ;istry V" 139800-00-2 Lewis--2 Structural formula: C-CH3 H C N-NO2 02 N-N H2 H4X-N Empirical formula: C6H11N7...CHEMICAL DATA Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 139800-00-2 Structural formula

  18. Comet Brorsen-Metcalf in the 3.5 micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrs, A. D.; Mumma, M. J.; Hoban, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Comet Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on UT 21 to 24 Aug. 1989 using the CRSP spectrometer and the 1.3 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The cometary continuum was detected on all nights. The data are very noisy, due to the short observation window and the untried nature of the instrument. Low resolution (0.0227 micron) spectra show the 3.4 micron C-H stretch feature having a contrast of at most a factor of two to the neighboring continuum. High resolution (0.0031 micron) spectra between 3.4 and 3.6 microns show 1 sigma features that might be attributed to the nu 5 band of formaldehyde (H2CO). Similar spectra of the region between 3.2 and 3.4 microns show one 3 sigma line at 3.34 microns, which is as yet unidentified. Although the cometary spectra were more spatially extended than the spectra of standard stars, no extension of the line emission beyond the continuum was observed.

  19. A Systematic Survey of Protoclusters at z ~ 3-6 in the CFHTLS Deep Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshikawa, Jun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Overzier, Roderik; Malkan, Matthew A.; Furusawa, Hisanori; Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Ota, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-08-01

    We present the discovery of three protoclusters at z ˜ 3-4 with spectroscopic confirmation in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Deep Fields. In these fields, we investigate the large-scale projected sky distribution of z ˜ 3-6 Lyman-break galaxies and identify 21 protocluster candidates from regions that are overdense at more than 4σ overdensity significance. Based on cosmological simulations, it is expected that more than 76% of these candidates will evolve into a galaxy cluster of at least a halo mass of 1014 M ⊙ at z = 0. We perform follow-up spectroscopy for eight of the candidates using Subaru/FOCAS, Keck II/DEIMOS, and Gemini-N/GMOS. In total we target 462 dropout candidates and obtain 138 spectroscopic redshifts. We confirm three real protoclusters at z = 3-4 with more than five members spectroscopically identified and find one to be an incidental overdense region by mere chance alignment. The other four candidate regions at z ˜ 5-6 require more spectroscopic follow-up in order to be conclusive. A z = 3.67 protocluster, which has 11 spectroscopically confirmed members, shows a remarkable core-like structure composed of a central small region (<0.5 physical Mpc) and an outskirts region (˜1.0 physical Mpc). The Lyα equivalent widths of members of the protocluster are significantly smaller than those of field galaxies at the same redshift, while there is no difference in the UV luminosity distributions. These results imply that some environmental effects start operating as early as at z ˜ 4 along with the growth of the protocluster structure. This study provides an important benchmark for our analysis of protoclusters in the upcoming Subaru/HSC imaging survey and its spectroscopic follow-up with the Subaru/PFS that will detect thousands of protoclusters up to z ˜ 6.

  20. PbnI4n+2(2n+2)- ribbons (n = 3, 5) as dimensional reductions of 2D perovskite layers in cystamine cation based hybrids, also incorporating iodine molecules or reversible guest water molecules.

    PubMed

    Louvain, Nicolas; Bi, Wenhua; Mercier, Nicolas; Buzaré, Jean-Yves; Legein, Christophe; Corbel, Gwenaël

    2007-03-07

    Pb(n)I(4n+2)((2n+2)-) (n = 3, 5) ribbons, which can be regarded as dimensional reductions of 2D perovskite layers, are stabilized by diprotonated cystamine cations in (NH(3)(CH(2))(2)SS(CH(2))(2)NH(3))(4)Pb(3)I(14),I(2) (1) and (NH(3)(CH(2))(2)SS(CH(2))(2)NH(3))(6)Pb(5)I(22).4H(2)O (2). Both 1 and 2 have interesting structural characteristics; it is unprecedented that the ribbons are linked via I(2) molecules incorporated in the lattice of 1, while tetrameric water clusters are trapped in the structure of 2. 2 undergoes a (reversible) water desorption process at 310 K leading to (NH(3)(CH(2))(2)SS(CH(2))(2)NH(3))(6)Pb(5)I(22).2H(2)O (3). The electrical behavior of 2 and 3 has been investigated in the ranges 293-310 K and 310-358 K respectively. Above 310 K, the electronic contribution remains constant while the ionic transference number tends towards unity showing almost pure ionic transport at 360 K (6 x 10(-7) S cm(-1) at 330 K) originating probably from the migration of protons through the hydrogen bonds connecting the water molecules to the cystamine counter cations.

  1. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  2. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  3. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  4. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  5. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  6. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  7. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  8. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  9. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  10. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  11. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  12. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  13. Non-Enzymatic Oligomerization of 3', 5' Cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Timperio, Anna Maria; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Nováková, Olga; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate that short oligonucleotide sequences can be easily produced from nucleotide precursors in a template-free non-enzymatic way under dehydrating conditions, i.e. using essentially dry materials. Here we report that 3',5' cyclic AMP may also serve as a substrate of the reaction, which proceeds under moderate conditions yet with a lower efficiency than the previously reported oligomerization of 3',5' cyclic GMP. Optimally the oligomerization requires (i) a temperature of 80°C, (ii) a neutral to alkaline environment and (iii) a time on the order of weeks. Differences in the yield and required reaction conditions of the oligomerizations utilizing 3',5' cGMP and cAMP are discussed in terms of the crystal structures of the compounds. Polymerization of 3',5' cyclic nucleotides, whose paramount relevance in a prebiotic chemistry context has been widely accepted for decades, supports the possibility that the origin of extant genetic materials might have followed a direct uninterrupted path since its very beginning, starting from non-elaborately pre-activated monomer compounds and simple reactions.

  14. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  15. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  16. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  17. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  18. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our continuing effort to discover natural product-based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Of these, compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 14.7 and 16.2 ppm, respectively). In fur...

  20. [3,5-dimethoxyfenol--marker intoxication with Taxus baccata].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Dogosi, M; Snupárek, Z; Toupalík, P; Baláz, P; Bartos, P

    2010-07-01

    Autopsy findings of fatal intoxication with yew (Taxus baccata) are nonspecific. A presence of plant residues in the digestive tract can signalize yew intoxication. If yew decoction is consumed, plant residues are not found. In such a case the intoxication can be signalized by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material. Authors of this article describe the proof and quantification of the 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in two cases of fatal intoxication with yew. In both cases the liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction was used. Extracts obtained from the acidic and basic environment were analysed. Extracts from the acidic environment were methylated and the extracts from the basic environment were acetylated. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the blood of both intoxicated persons the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was proved and its concentration 82 ng/ml and 417 ng/ml was quantificated. In both cases the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was also proved in the gastric contents and urine.

  1. Examining Core Curricula in Writing for Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Jill; McCurdy, Merilee; Roehling, Julia V.

    2015-01-01

    Within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, Tier 1 instruction requires the selection of research-based core curricula. However, many educators and administrators are not aware of high-quality core writing curricula. The authors assembled a rubric to assist schools in evaluating core writing curricula for Grades 3-5. Rubric components…

  2. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  3. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  4. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  5. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  6. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  7. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  8. Degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene by Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71

    SciTech Connect

    Potrawfke, T.; Timmis, K.N.; Wittich, R.M.

    1998-10-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis RW71 mineralized 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, a highly recalcitrant pollutant hitherto not known to be degraded by pure cultures, as a sole source of carbon and energy, thereby releasing stoichiometric amounts of chloride. The transient excretion of tetrachlorocatechol in the early growth phase suggests an initial attack by a dioxygenase to form the corresponding dihydrodiol which rearomatizes to the catechol. The activity of chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase in crude cell extracts was found to be extraordinarily high towards 3-chlorocatechol (ratio of 2.6 compared to catechol) and other chlorocatechols, including tetrachlorocatechol, which was transformed at a low but significant rate. Further identification of tetrachloromuconic acid, 2,3,5-trichlorodienelactone, 2,3,5-trichloromaleyl acetic acid, and 2,4-dichloro-3-oxoadipic acid as their methyl esters, together with high specific enzyme activities for chlorinated substrates, implicated a functioning chlorocatechol pathway to be induced during growth.

  9. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  10. Site Investigation Report Fort Devens Groups 3,5, and 6. Volume 1 of 2: Report Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Department of the Army and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed a Federal Facility Agreement under Section 120 of the Comprehensive Environmental...Health Risk-Based Guidelines for Organic Compounds 3-4 Health Risk-Based Guidelines for Inorganic Compounds 3-5 Surface Soil Ecological Protective ...Master Environmental Plan and are included as part of the Federal Facility Agreement between U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the U.S

  11. Synthesis and pharmacological properties of benzothiazole, 1,3-4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Santagati, M; Modica, M; Santagati, A; Russo, F; Caruso, A; Cutuli, V; Di Pietro, E; Amico-Roxas, M

    1994-12-01

    The reaction of the 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles 9, 10 and the benzothiazoles 11, 12 with ethyl cyanoacetate is described. The obtained cyanoacetamide derivatives 13-16 gave the benzylidene derivatives 18-21 by condensation with benzaldehyde. 2-Phenyl-5-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-7-one (17) was also obtained. Moreover, the preparation of 6,7,8,9-tetraydro-5H-1,3,4-thiadiazolo[2,3-b]quinazolin++ +-5-thio-derivatives 22-25 and N-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-5-substituted)-3,4-5,6-tetrahydro-anthran ilic acids 26-29 is also described. All above compounds and compounds, related to them, 1-8 were tested for their analgesic and antiinflammatory activities and the pharmacological screening results are reported and discussed.

  12. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors.

  13. Surfactant media to grow new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Bai, Linlu; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Li, Peizhou; Ding, Junfeng; Zhang, Guodong; Wu, Tom; Zhao, Yanli; Lee, Jong-Min; Yang, Yanhui; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Qichun

    2014-08-18

    In this report, three new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co3(μ3-OH)(HBTC)(BTC)2Co(HBTC)]·(HTEA)3·H2O (NTU-Z30), [Co(BTC)]·HTEA·H2O (NTU-Z31), [Co3(BTC)4]·(HTEA)4 (NTU-Z32), where H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA = triethylamine, and NTU = Nanyang Technological University, have been successfully synthesized under surfactant media and have been carefully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and IR spectromtry. NTU-Z30 has an unusual trimeric [Co3(μ3-OH)(COO)7] secondary building unit (SBU), which is different from the well-known trimeric [Co3O(COO)6] SBU. The topology studies indicate that NTU-Z30 and NTU-Z32 possess two new topologies, 3,3,6,7-c net and 2,8-c net, respectively, while NTU-Z31 has a known topology rtl type (3,6-c net). Magnetic analyses show that all three materials have weak antiferromagnetic behavior. Furthermore, NTU-Z30 has been selected as the heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of alkene, and our results show that this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity as well as good stability. Our success in growing new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOFs under surfactant media could pave a new road to preparing new diverse crystalline inorganic materials through a surfactant-thermal method.

  14. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -3 8 Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation G eo te ch ni ca l a nd...Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program ERDC/GSL TR-14-38 September 2014 AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation Timothy W. Rushing, Lyan...brickwork pattern. Therefore, the 3-4 alternate lay pattern was designed to allow Marines to use any mats on hand to fill in designated portions of the

  15. Bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective is to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. The attained benefits are obtained by first providing the bis (exocyclodiene) bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane, which is a novel material formed from the monomer N-phenyl-3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidine. This compound undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide, without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane.

  16. Optimization of Bulk Thermoelectrics: Influence of Cu Insertion in Ag3.6Mo9Se11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Malika; Zhou, Tong; Lenoir, Bertrand; Dauscher, Anne; Al Rahal Al Orabi, Rabih; Gougeon, Patrick; Potel, Michel; Baranek, Philippe; Semprimoschnig, Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Currently, there is a resurgence of interest in thermoelectric materials with enhanced efficiency. Among investigated classes of bulk thermoelectrics such as partially filled skutterudites, Zn4Sb3-based materials, and clathrates, novel polycrystalline Mo9 cluster-based chalcogenides were reported recently. Among those, Chevrel phase-derived Ag y Mo9Se11 (with 3.4 ≤ y ≤ 3.9) compounds have shown interesting thermoelectric properties, in particular extremely low thermal conductivity allowing improved thermoelectric efficiency compared with reported Chevrel phases. They also possess a complex crystallographic structure where stacked Mo9Se11 units leave channels occupied by Ag atoms. Analysis of the structural determinants of the thermoelectric properties of Ag y Mo9Se11 suggested that performance improvements could result from further Cu insertion. In this paper, we describe the synthesis route we used for preparing quaternary Ag-Cu-Mo-Se compositions by a combination of powder metallurgy and spark plasma sintering techniques. Characterization by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electrical and thermal measurements has been performed. The results obtained for two compounds (Ag3.6Cu0.2Mo9Se11 and Ag3.6Cu0.4Mo9Se11) are discussed and compared with those of the parent ternary compound Ag3.6Mo9Se11.

  17. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10-15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann-Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  18. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  19. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  20. Seeing experiments with the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Sawyer, David G.

    2000-08-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope uses active thermal control of the primary mirror and both active and passive ventilation of the observatory enclosure. These features have proven effective for delivering consistently excellent images, and make the WIYN facility an ideal test bed for quantitative measurements of the effects of temperature and ventilation on mirror and dome seeing. We describe the results of seeing experiments conducted over the first four years of operations at the WIYN Observatory.

  1. 17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  2. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40–70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:26039360

  3. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40-70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain.

  4. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  5. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  6. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a biologically active scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khalilullah, H; Ahsan, M J; Hedaitullah, Md; Khan, S; Ahmed, B

    2012-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, antimycobecterial, antitumour, antiviral and antitubercular activities. 1,3,4-oxadiazoles constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations led to the development of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. This review article describes the various biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system and is useful in guiding the researchers across the world working on this moiety and consequently have been instrumental in the advancement of 1,3,4-oxadiazole chemistry.

  7. Spatiotemporal control of endocytosis by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Posor, York; Eichhorn-Gruenig, Marielle; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schöneberg, Johannes; Ullrich, Alexander; Lampe, André; Müller, Rainer; Zarbakhsh, Sirus; Gulluni, Federico; Hirsch, Emilio; Krauss, Michael; Schultz, Carsten; Schmoranzer, Jan; Noé, Frank; Haucke, Volker

    2013-07-11

    Phosphoinositides serve crucial roles in cell physiology, ranging from cell signalling to membrane traffic. Among the seven eukaryotic phosphoinositides the best studied species is phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is concentrated at the plasma membrane where, among other functions, it is required for the nucleation of endocytic clathrin-coated pits. No phosphatidylinositol other than PI(4,5)P2 has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas the subsequent endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway are dominated by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphates(PI(3)P). How phosphatidylinositol conversion from PI(4,5)P2-positive endocytic intermediates to PI(3)P-containing endosomes is achieved is unclear. Here we show that formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) by class II phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase C2α (PI(3)K C2α) spatiotemporally controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of PI(3,4)P2 or PI(3)K C2α impairs the maturation of late-stage clathrin-coated pits before fission. Timed formation of PI(3,4)P2 by PI(3)K C2α is required for selective enrichment of the BAR domain protein SNX9 at late-stage endocytic intermediates. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for the role of PI(3,4)P2 in endocytosis and unravel a novel discrete function of PI(3,4)P2 in a central cell physiological process.

  8. Cataclysmic Rock Avalanche from El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, circa 3.6 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    El Capitan in Yosemite Valley is one of the largest and most iconic granite faces in the world. Despite glacially steepened walls exceeding 90 degrees, a historic database shows relatively few rock falls from El Capitan in the past 150 years. However, a massive bouldery deposit beneath the southeast face suggests an earlier rock avalanche of unusually large size. Spatial analysis of airborne LiDAR data indicate that the rock avalanche deposit has a volume of ~2.70 x 106 m3, a maximum thickness of 18 m, and a runout distance of 660 m, roughly twice the horizontal extent of the adjacent talus. The deposit is very coarse on its distal edge, with individual boulder volumes up to 2500 m3. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dates from boulders distributed across the deposit confirm this interpretation. Four 10Be samples are tightly clustered between 3.5 and 3.8 ka, with a mean age of 3.6 +/- 0.6 ka. A fifth sample gives a much older age of 22.0 ka, but a glacier occupied Yosemite Valley at this time, prohibiting deposition; thus, the older age likely results from exposure on the cliff face prior to failure. The similarity of ages and overall morphology suggest that the entire deposit formed during a single event. The mean exposure age coincides with inferred Holocene rupture of the northern Owens Valley and/or White Mountain fault(s) between 3.3 and 3.8 ka (Lee et al., 2001; Bacon and Pezzopane, 2007). This time coincidence, combined with the fact that historic rupture of the Owens Valley fault in A.D. 1872 generated numerous large rock falls in Yosemite Valley, strongly suggests that the El Capitan rock avalanche was triggered by a seismic event along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada circa 3.6 ka. As there is not an obvious "scar" on the expansive southeast face, the exact source area of the rock avalanche is not yet known. Detrital apatite U-Th/(He) thermochronometry can determine the elevation(s) from which rock fall boulders originate, but significant inter-sample age

  9. Widespread Plains Volcanism on Mercury Ended by 3.6 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Fassett, C.; Chapman, C. R.; Evans, A. J.; Klimczak, C.; Banks, M. E.; Head, J. W., III; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury are situated in its northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern smooth plains and the Caloris interior plains. Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that both deposits were emplaced around 3.8 Ga, for any of the published model production function (MPF) chronologies for impact crater formation on Mercury. The largest volcanic deposit in the southern hemisphere, the Rembrandt interior plains, has a model age of ~3.7 Ga. To test the hypothesis that all major volcanic smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced at about the same time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for nine additional deposits (see Table 1). The diameters of craters that superpose the smooth plains at each site were measured with CraterTools, yielding crater areal densities in terms of N(10), the number of craters ≥10 km in diameter per 106 km2 area (Table 1). Our crater density measurements span N(10) values of 29-146, a range that encompasses corresponding values for the larger areas of smooth plains. With CraterStats, we fit our data (for craters ≥4 km in diameter) to the MPF chronologies of Le Feuvre and Wieczorek. For porous scaling, the model ages of all nine sites span a narrow window (Table 1). Non-porous scaling fails to match the crater size-frequency distributions. We show that widespread plains volcanism, likely the primary process by which Mercury's crust developed, had ended by 3.6 Ga. Younger volcanic deposits have been identified on the planet, but only within impact structures and at volumes much less than the smallest deposit considered here. Superposition relations between shortening landforms and craters on Mercury indicate that global contraction in response to interior cooling was underway by ~3.6 Ga. The cessation of widespread plains volcanism on Mercury may therefore reflect the onset of a stress state within the planet's lithosphere that inhibited magma ascent. Conversely, mantle thermochemical

  10. The longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites – pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal – have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology. This work reviews the previous and current techniques used to crystallize RDX at a submicrometer scale or smaller. Several key points are highlighted then discussed, such as the smallest particle size and its morphology, and the scale-up capacity and the versatility of the process. PMID:28326236

  11. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  12. Heterologous expression of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene of Vinca major alters flower color in transgenic Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Mori, S; Kobayashi, H; Hoshi, Y; Kondo, M; Nakano, M

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is the key enzyme for the expression of blue or purple flower color. A full-length cDNA for the F3'5'H gene was cloned from petals of Vinca major, and its genomic clone, designated VmFH1 (accession number AB078781 in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases), was isolated from leaves by a PCR-based strategy. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that VmFH1 contains one intron and an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 506 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows between 51% and 83% identity with those of previously reported F3'5'H genes. Southern blot analysis showed that there are 3-4 copies of the F3'5'H gene in the genome of V. major. Transcripts of the F3'5'H gene were detected in young flower petals but not in leaves as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. When VmFH1 was expressed in transgenic Petunia hybrida under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, some transgenic plants showed drastic flower color alteration from red to deep red with deep purple sectors. These transgenic plants accumulated 3',5'-hydroxylated anthocyanins in their petals, which were never detected in non-transgenic plants by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicate that VmFH1 isolated from V. major encodes F3'5'H and is active in a heterologous plant species.

  13. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  14. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  15. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  16. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of Eu 3+-doped KLa(PO 3) 4 and LiLa(PO 3) 4 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhi, M.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2011-11-01

    KLa(PO 3) 4 (KLP) and LiLa(PO 3) 4 (LLP) doped with different concentrations of Eu 3+ are grown by solid state reaction. The obtained powders are identified by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. These polyphosphates KLa(PO 3) 4 and LiLa(PO 3) 4 crystallize in the monoclinic system but with different space groups respectively P2 1 and C2/c. The evolution of crystal lattice parameters as function of Eu 3+ concentration in these host lattices was studied. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu 3+-doped KLa(PO 3) 4 and LiLa(PO 3) 4 at room temperature (RT) are presented. The excitation spectra of the Eu 3+ ion in condensed polyphosphates along the UV-Visible domain are registered. They show that the position of the charge transfer band (CTB) depends on the host lattices. The effect of structural characteristics of condensed polyphosphates on their optical and colorimetric properties was investigated for the first time. Colorimetric parameters of the Eu 3+ ions red emission in KLP and LLP are determined and compared with other host matrices. Evolution of colorimetric properties as function of Eu 3+concentration was discussed.

  18. Synthesis and reactivity of coumarin 3,4-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Born, S L; Rodriguez, P A; Eddy, C L; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1997-11-01

    Coumarin is used widely as a fragrance constituent and is administered clinically in the treatment of certain lymphedemas and malignancies. Although toxicity occurs only rarely in humans treated clinically with high-dose coumarin, it is well established that coumarin is hepatotoxic in the rat. This species difference in susceptibility to toxicity reflects the disparate metabolic processes occurring in humans and rodents. In humans, coumarin is converted extensively via cytochrome P450 2A6 to the nontoxic 7-hydroxycoumarin metabolite. In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxidation is thought to predominate in rodent species, resulting in the formation of several potentially toxic metabolites. Coumarin epoxide is thought to be highly unstable and has not been isolated synthetically or as a microsomal product. To address this issue, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was synthesized, and its stability and fate have been determined. Coumarin 3,4-epoxide was prepared by reacting coumarin with dimethyldioxirane. The epoxide was stable in organic solvents and survived conditions required for analysis by gas chromotography. Its structure was confirmed via 1H-NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-infrared spectroscopy (GC-MS-IR). In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was unstable in aqueous solution, converting within 20 sec to a ring-opened compound. Using GC-MS-IR analysis, the single coumarin 3,4-epoxide product was identified as o-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (o-HPA). Although other investigators have suggested that 3-hydroxycoumarin is an intermediate in o-HPA formation from coumarin 3,4-epoxide, we have demonstrated that 3-hydroxycoumarin, incubated in an aqueous system or with liver microsomal proteins, does not form o-HPA. Thus, the results of the present work establish that coumarin 3,4-epoxide can be synthesized and that o-HPA, which has previously been shown to be a prominent coumarin metabolite in rat liver microsomal incubations, is formed directly from coumarin 3,4-epoxide. These

  19. PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Nancy Scardua; Porto Petruceli Carayon, Charles; Agostini, Rafael Mourão; do Nascimento Pinheiro, Ana Cristina; Nascimento Cordeiro, Marta; Romano Silva, Marco Aurélio; Figueira Silva, Juliana; Rita Pereira, Elizete Maria; da Silva Junior, Claudio Antonio; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Sena Guimarães, Andre Luiz; Gomez, Marcus Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo neuroprotective effect of PhTx3-4, a spider toxin N-P/Q calcium channel blocker, was studied in a rat model of NMDA-induced injury of the retina. NMDA (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate)-induced retinal injury in rats reduced the b-wave amplitude by 62% ± 3.6%, indicating the severity of the insult. PhTx3-4 treatment increased the amplitude of the b-wave, which was almost equivalent to the control retinas that were not submitted to injury. The PhTx3-4 functional protection of the retinas recorded on the ERG also was observed in the neuroprotection of retinal cells. NMDA-induced injury reduced live cells in the retina layers and the highest reduction, 84%, was in the ganglion cell layer. Notably, PhTx3-4 treatment caused a remarkable reduction of dead cells in the retina layers, and the highest neuroprotective effect was in the ganglion cells layer. NMDA-induced cytotoxicity of the retina increased the release of glutamate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. PhTx3-4 treatment reduced glutamate release, ROS production and oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde. Thus, we presented for the first time evidence of in vivo neuroprotection from NMDA-induced retinal injury by PhTx3-4 (-ctenitoxin-Pn3a), a spider toxin that blocks N-P/Q calcium channels. PMID:26978403

  20. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  1. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  2. 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential biological agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Makawana, Jigar A; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of novel compound libraries along with screening is a rapid and effective approach for the discovery of potential chemical agents, and it becomes an important method in pharmaceutical chemistry research. 1,3,4- oxadiazole derivatives as the typical heterocyclic compounds, exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities and vital leading compounds for the development of chemical drugs. Herein, we focus on the synthesis and screening of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives with antimicrobial, antitumor or antiviral activities during the past decade. In this review, we discussed the synthetic development of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives, and also the relevant bioactivity and their prospects as the potential chemical drugs.

  3. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  4. Bis(4-(3,4-dimethylenepyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    It is the primary object of the present invention to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. According to the present invention, this object is achieved, and the attending benefits are obtained, by first providing the bis(exocyclodiene) bis(4-(3,4-dinethylene pyrrolidyl) phenyl) methane, which is formed from the monomer N-phenyl 3,4-dimethylene pyrrolidine. This bis-(exocyclodiene) undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide.

  5. ANIMO 3.5: User`s guide for the ANIMO version 3.5 nutrient leaching model

    SciTech Connect

    Kroes, J.; Roelsma, J.

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a description of the use of the nutrient leaching model ANIMO (Agricultural Nutrient Model) version 3.5 with special emphasis for input instructions. Each input parameter is characterized by its unit, range, data type, variable name in computer code and symbol in theoretical description, Program outputs and program execution are briefly given. An example is presented with values of input parameters and model results. A technical program description is given as a brief description of program structure, nomenclature, and source code.

  6. 3'-5' tRNAHis Guanylyltransferase in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Ilka; Randau, Lennart; Tomko, Robert J.; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the histidine specific transfer RNA (tRNAHis) is largely determined by a unique guanosine residue at position −1. In eukaryotes and archaea, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3'-5' addition of G to the 5'-terminus of tRNAHis. Here, we show that Thg1 also occurs in bacteria. We demonstrate in vitro Thg1 activity for recombinant enzymes from the two bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Myxococcus xanthus and provide a closer investigation of several archaeal Thg1. The reaction mechanism of prokaryotic Thg1 differs from eukaryotic enzymes, as it does not require ATP. Complementation of a yeast thg1 knockout strain with bacterial Thg1 verified in vivo activity and suggests a relaxed recognition of the discriminator base in bacteria. PMID:20650272

  7. Source of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanglu, Jia; Ping'an, Peng; Chiling, Yu; Zhongyao, Xiao

    2007-07-01

    1-Alkyl-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes and a high relative amount of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene (TTMB) have been previously detected in the marine oils and asphaltenes in the oils from the Tarim Basin. In the present study, the stable carbon isotopic compositions of TTMB and n-alkanes in the pyrolysates of asphaltenes in the marine oils from the northern Tarim Basin and Silurian tar sands from the Tarim Basin were determined. TTMB has stable carbon isotopic compositions in the range from -23‰ to -24‰ and are about 12‰ more enriched in 13C than concomitant n-alkanes (-35‰ to -37‰) in the pyrolysates. The results indicate a contribution from green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiaceae) to TTMB. Thus, the depositional environments of the source rocks for the marine oils and the bitumen in tar sands from the Tarim Basin are characterized by periods of euxinic conditions within the photic zone.

  8. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions.

  9. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  10. High band gap 2-6 and 3-5 tunneling junctions for silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher (Inventor); Kachare, Akaram H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multijunction silicon solar cell of high efficiency is provided by providing a tunnel junction between the solar cell junctions to connect them in series. The tunnel junction is comprised of p+ and n+ layers of high band gap 3-5 or 2-6 semiconductor materials that match the lattice structure of silicon, such as GaP (band gap 2.24 eV) or ZnS (band gap 3.6 eV). Each of which has a perfect lattice match with silicon to avoid defects normally associated with lattice mismatch.

  11. Year 3/4 Children's Forms of Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in justifying, forming conjectures and generalising is critical to develop their mathematical reasoning. Previous studies have revealed limited opportunities for primary school children to justify their thinking, form conjectures and generalise in mathematics lessons. Forms of justification of Year 3/4 children from three schools…

  12. Accidental ingestion of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine).

    PubMed Central

    Bedford Russell, A R; Schwartz, R H; Dawling, S

    1992-01-01

    There is no report of the effects of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) poisoning in childhood. The case of a 13 month old boy who ingested one capsule of Ecstasy is reported. Neurological and cardiovascular side effects predominated, which responded well to treatment with a chlormethiazole infusion. PMID:1358033

  13. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  14. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards, design and stipulations....

  15. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  16. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... records or other information which will disclose the impact which its tests and other selection procedures... selection rates. The “bottom line.” If the information called for by sections 4A and B of this section...

  17. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  18. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  19. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards, design and stipulations. 4120.3... ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and...

  1. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  2. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  3. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  4. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  5. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  6. Bacterial Sugar 3,4-Ketoisomerases: Structural Insight into Product Stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Thoden, James B; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gilbert, Michel; Salinger, Ari J; Holden, Hazel M

    2015-07-28

    3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (Fuc3NAc) and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (Qui3NAc) are unusual sugars found on the lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria and on the S-layers of Gram-positive bacteria. The 3,4-ketoisomerases, referred to as FdtA and QdtA, catalyze the third steps in the respective biosynthetic pathways for these sugars. Whereas both enzymes utilize the same substrate, the stereochemistries of their products are different. Specifically, the hydroxyl groups at the hexose C-4' positions assume the "galactose" and "glucose" configurations in the FdtA and QdtA products, respectively. In 2007 we reported the structure of the apoform of FdtA from Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus, which was followed in 2014 by the X-ray analysis of QdtA from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum as a binary complex. Both of these enzymes belong to the cupin superfamily. Here we report a combined structural and enzymological study to explore the manner in which these enzymes control the stereochemistry of their products. Various site-directed mutant proteins of each enzyme were constructed, and their dTDP-sugar products were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the kinetic parameters for these protein variants were measured, and the structure of one, namely, the QdtA Y17R/R97H double mutant form, was determined to 2.3-Å resolution. Finally, in an attempt to obtain a model of FdtA with a bound dTDP-linked sugar, the 3,4-ketoisomerase domain of a bifunctional enzyme from Shewanella denitrificans was cloned, purified, and crystallized in the presence of a dTDP-linked sugar analogue. Taken together, the results from this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to convert a "galacto" enzyme into a "gluco" enzyme and vice versa.

  7. Recyclization of 1-amino-3,5-diaryl-2,6,6-tricyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes to pyridine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Yu.T.; Ivashchenko, A.V.; Nogaeva, K.A.; Sharanin, Yu.A.

    1986-11-01

    The base-catalyzed recyclization of 1-amino-3,5-diaryl-2,6,6-tricyanocyclohexa-1,3-dienes to 2,4-diaryl-5-cyano-6-dicyanomethylene-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines, 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-dicyanomethylene-1,2-dihydropyridines, and 4,6-diaryl-3-cyano-2-dicyanomethylpyridines has been investigated. The intermediate products of this reaction - cis,trans-2-amino,4,6-diaryl-1,1,3-tricyanohexa-1,3,5-trienes - have been isolated; on heating these are transformed reversibly into the initial cyclohexadienes or they isomerize irreversibly into trans,trans-hexatrienes, while in the presence of a base (piperidine, diethylamine, triethylamine, KOH), they cyclize to form the above-mentioned pyridine derivatives.

  8. Temperature-time induced changes in magnetic properties of multi-component Fe78Si3.6C13.4Mn0.65B4.35 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, S. N.; Modak, S. S.; Shah, M.; Satalkar, M.; Gehlot, K.; Ghodke, N.; Araujo, J. P.; Varga, L. K.

    2016-10-01

    Influence of thermal annealing as a function of temperature and time, on magnetic and structural properties of Fe78Si3.6Cl3.4Mn0.65B4.35 (Fe78Si3.6Cl3.4Mn0.65 = Ci) alloy has been reported. Information on structure, formed nano-crystalline phases and their correlation with magnetic properties has been studied using, magnetic measurements, differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermal annealing treatment leads to rather coarse grain microstructure (∼31 nm) accompanied by surface crystallization that appears to deteriorate the magnetic properties with annealing temperature.

  9. Metallicity evolution, metallicity gradients, and gas fractions at z ~ 3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso, P.; Maiolino, R.; Sommariva, V.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Grazian, A.; Cimatti, A.; Fontana, A.; Nagao, T.; Pentericci, L.

    2014-03-01

    We used near-infrared integral field spectroscopic observations from the AMAZE and LSD ESO programs to constrain the metallicity in a sample of 40 star-forming galaxies at 3 < z < 5 (most of which are at z ~ 3.4). We measured metallicities by exploiting strong emission-line diagnostics. We found that a significant fraction of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 3.4 deviate from the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR), with a metallicity of up to a factor of ten lower than expected according to the FMR. This deviation does not correlate with the dynamical properties of the galaxy or with the presence of interactions. To investigate the origin of the metallicity deviation in more detail, we also inferred information on the gas content by inverting the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, assuming that the latter does not evolve out to z ~ 3.4. In agreement with recent CO observational data, we found that in contrast with the steeply rising trend at 0 < z < 2, the gas fraction in massive galaxies remains constant, with an indication of a marginal decline at 2 < z < 3.5. When combined with the metallicity information, we infer that to explain the low metallicity and gas content in z ~ 3.4 galaxies, both prominent outflows and massive pristine gas inflows are needed. In ten galaxies we can also spatially resolve the metallicity distribution. We found that the metallicity generally anticorrelates with the distribution of star formation and with the gas surface density. We discuss these findings in terms of pristine gas inflows toward the center, and outflows of metal-rich gas from the center toward the external regions. Based on data obtained at the VLT through the ESO programs 178.B-0838, 075.A-0300 and 076.A-0711.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  11. New thallium iodates—Synthesis, characterization, and calculations of Tl(IO 3) 3 and Tl 4(IO 3) 6, [Tl +3Tl 3+(IO 3) 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, Jeongho; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Halasyamani, P. Shiv

    2009-12-01

    Two new thallium iodates have been synthesized, Tl(IO 3) 3 and Tl 4(IO 3) 6 [Tl +3Tl 3+(IO 3) 6], and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both materials were synthesized as phase-pure compounds through hydrothermal techniques using Tl 2CO 3 and HIO 3 as reagents. The materials crystallize in space groups R-3 (Tl(IO 3) 3) and P-1 (Tl 4(IO 3) 6). Although lone-pairs are observed for both I 5+ and Tl +, electronic structure calculations indicate the lone-pair on I 5+ is stereo-active, whereas the lone-pair on Tl + is inert.

  12. Barium aluminides BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2009-05-01

    Three aluminides of the series BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba7Al10 was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3¯m, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12) pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagomé (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al5. The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ( 27Al-NMR chemical shift δ=660 pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagomé net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(δ=490 ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba3Al5 and Ba4Al5, the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P63/mmc; Ba3Al5: a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba4Al5: a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba7Al10.

  13. On the 3-5 μm variability of young variables in Vela-D through Spitzer-WISE observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Antoniucci, S.; Li Causi, G.; Elia, D.; Strafella, F.

    2014-08-01

    Flux variability is a common feature of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), which is often related to intermittent events of disk accretion (EXors events in case of 3-4 magnitudes variations). Recently, thanks to the surveys carried out by the space missions Spitzer and WISE, it has become possible to perform statistical studies on the mid-IR variability on large samples of YSOs. As a follow-up of our recent statistical study on five star forming regions (Antoniucci et al., Astrophys. J. 782:51, 2014), we present the 3-5 μm variability study of the YSOs population of the Vela-D star forming region. We have compared the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm Spitzer-IRAC fluxes of 181 YSOs in Vela-D with their WISE fluxes at 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm and selected those objects simultaneously varying in both bands. We have identified a robust sample of 34 variables. On the base of the infrared excess of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) and the magnitude vs. color variations, we select 5 EXors candidates, which will be systematically monitored to firmly ascertain their nature. The selected 34 variables represent ˜18 % of the YSOs detected with Spitzer and WISE, a percentage higher than that of other young star forming regions. Conversely, the percentage of candidate EXors (2.7 %) is quite similar to that measured in Perseus, Ophiuchus and Serpens, and also equals that found in Vela-D on the base of Spitzer variability (Giannini et al., Astrophys. J. 704:606, 2009). Consistently with our finding presented in Antoniucci et al. (2014), this fraction equals the probability of observing the source once in burst and once in quiescence, under the hypothesis that the time elapsed between the two events is of about 0.5-1 year. Of the 5 selected EXors candidates, 3 are Class I sources, and 2 are flat-spectrum sources, a circumstance that suggests that accretion-driven variability is a common phenomenon during the earlier phases of the protostellar evolution. In the light of the new WISE data, we also

  14. [Interaction of adenosin-3',5'-cyclosulfate with adenosine-3'5'-cyclophosphate dependent protein kinase and phosphodiesterase].

    PubMed

    Severin, E S; Tkachuk, V A; Guliaev, N N

    1976-02-01

    Interaction of adenosine-3',5'-cyclosulphate (cAMS) cAMP analogue, having sulphur atom instead of phosphorus in a six-term cyclic system with pig brain proteinkinase and rabbit skeletal muscle phosphodiesterase is studied. The affinity of proteinkinase to cAMS was found to be in 25000 times lower than the affinity of cAMP, the affinity of cAMS to the active site of phosphodiesterase being high enough. It is suggested that in the regulatory subunit of proteinkinase positive kationic group participates in nucleotide binding by interacting with negative oxygen atom of six-term cyclophosphate system. There is no such a group in the active site of phospodiesterase, because the absence of negative charge in case of cAMS only slightly affects the constant of cAMS binding by phosphodiesterase.

  15. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron attachment to hydrated oligonucleotide dimers: guanylyl-3',5'-cytidine and cytidylyl-3',5'-guanosine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-05-03

    The dinucleoside phosphate deoxycytidylyl-3',5'-deoxyguanosine (dCpdG) and deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine (dGpdC) systems are among the largest to be studied by reliable theoretical methods. Exploring electron attachment to these subunits of DNA single strands provides significant progress toward definitive predictions of the electron affinities of DNA single strands. The adiabatic electron affinities of the oligonucleotides are found to be sequence dependent. Deoxycytidine (dC) on the 5' end, dCpdG, has larger adiabatic electron affinity (AEA, 0.90 eV) than dC on the 3' end of the oligomer (dGpdC, 0.66 eV). The geometric features, molecular orbital analyses, and charge distribution studies for the radical anions of the cytidine-containing oligonucleotides demonstrate that the excess electron in these anionic systems is dominantly located on the cytosine nucleobase moiety. The pi-stacking interaction between nucleobases G and C seems unlikely to improve the electron-capturing ability of the oligonucleotide dimers. The influence of the neighboring base on the electron-capturing ability of cytosine should be attributed to the intensified proton accepting-donating interaction between the bases. The present investigation demonstrates that the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the radical anions of the oligonucleotides dGpdC and dCpdG are significantly larger than those of the corresponding nucleotides. Consequently, reactions with low activation barriers, such as those for O-C sigma bond and N-glycosidic bond breakage, might be expected for the radical anions of the guanosine-cytosine mixed oligonucleotides.

  17. Generating technique for U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2008-09-15

    We develop a generating technique for solutions of U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity via dimensional reduction to three dimensions. This theory, which recently attracted attention in connection with black rings, can be viewed as a consistent truncation of the T{sup 6} compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Its further reduction to three dimensions accompanied by dualization of the vector fields leads to a 3D gravity coupled sigma model on the homogeneous space SO(4,4)/SO(4)xSO(4) or SO(4,4)/SO(2,2)xSO(2,2) depending on the signature of the three-space. We construct a 8x8 matrix representation of these cosets in terms of lower-dimensional blocks. Using it we express a solution generating transformations in terms of potentials and identify those preserving asymptotic conditions relevant to black holes and black rings. As an application we derive the doubly rotating black hole solution with three independent charges. A suitable contraction of the above cosets is used to construct a new representation of the coset G{sub 2(2)}/(SL(2,R)xSL(2,R)) relevant for minimal five-dimensional supergravity.

  18. Staphylococcus epidermidis Csm1 is a 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Tang, Li; Cocozaki, Alexis I; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) offer an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from nucleic acid invaders through an RNA-mediated nucleic acid cleavage mechanism. Our knowledge of nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms is limited to three examples of widely different ribonucleoprotein particles that target either DNA or RNA. Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the Type III-A CRISPR system and has been shown to interfere with invading DNA in vivo. The Type III-A CRISPR system is characterized by the presence of Csm1, a member of Cas10 family of proteins, that has a permuted histidine-aspartate domain and a nucleotidyl cyclase-like domain, both of which contain sequence features characteristic of nucleases. In this work, we show in vitro that a recombinant S. epidermidis Csm1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and RNA exonucleolytically in the 3'-5' direction. We further showed that both cleavage activities are divalent-metal-dependent and reside in the GGDD motif of the cyclase-like domain. Our data suggest that Csm1 may work in the context of an effector complex to degrade invading DNA and participate in CRISPR RNA maturation.

  19. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3. 4, Aging Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6].

  20. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers.

  1. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-05-17

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO(3))(4), was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO(4) tetra-hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c.

  2. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO3)4, was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO4 tetra­hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c. PMID:21202436

  3. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... power driven vessel? (a) To operate a power-driven vessel on park waters, a person must be either:...

  4. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... power driven vessel? (a) To operate a power-driven vessel on park waters, a person must be either:...

  5. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... power driven vessel? (a) To operate a power-driven vessel on park waters, a person must be either:...

  6. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... power driven vessel? (a) To operate a power-driven vessel on park waters, a person must be either:...

  7. 36 CFR 3.6 - What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements to operate a power driven vessel? 3.6 Section 3.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... power driven vessel? (a) To operate a power-driven vessel on park waters, a person must be either:...

  8. 41 CFR 60-3.6 - Use of selection procedures which have not been validated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use of selection procedures which have not been validated. 60-3.6 Section 60-3.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS,...

  9. 29 CFR 3.6 - Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible with the approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.6 Section 3.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES §...

  10. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  11. Vibrational spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and deuterated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Orza, J M; García, M V; Alkorta, I; Elguero, J

    2000-07-01

    The infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole have been recorded in the vapor, liquid (melt and solution) and solid states. Two deuterated derivatives, C5H7N-ND and C5D7N-NH, were also studied in solid state and in solutions. Instrumental resolution was relatively low, 2.0 cm(-1) in the IR and approximately 2.7 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. The solids are made of cyclic hydrogen-bonded trimers. These trimers, present also in chloroform and acetone solutions, give rise to characteristic high absorption IR spectra in the 3200-2500 cm(-1) region, related to Fermi resonance involving nu(NH) vibrations. Bands from trimers are not present in water solutions but these solutions show spectral features similar in several ways to those of the trimer, attributable to solvent-bonded complexes. Evidence of H-bonding interactions with the other solvents is also visible in the high-frequency region. The two very intense bands in the Raman spectra of the solids appearing at 115 and 82 cm(-1) in the parent compound are also connected with a trimer formation. To interpret the experimental data, ab initio computations of the harmonic vibrational frequencies and IR and Raman intensities were carried out using the Gaussian 94 program package after full optimization at the RHF/6-31G* level for the three monomeric compounds as well as for three models of the trimer, with C3h, C3 and C1 symmetry. The combined use of experiments and computations allow a firm assignment of most of the observed bands for all the systems. In general, the agreement between theory and experiment is very good, with the exception of the IR and Raman intensities of some transitions. Particularly noticeable is the failure of the theoretical calculation in accounting for the high intensity of the Raman bands of the solid about 115 and 82 cm(-1).

  12. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  13. Effective separation of dopamine from bananas on 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Luliński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2012-04-01

    A 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer (MIP(pt) ) was prepared via the precipitation polymerization together with a nonimprinted polymer (NIP). The morphology of particles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the specific surface areas were estimated by methylene blue adsorption (60.5 ± 3.5 and 36.9 ± 1.2 m(2)/g for MIP(pt) and NIP, respectively). The binding experiments were performed to determine the binding capacity of MIP(pt)/NIP particles toward dopamine. Next, the effects of solvents on loading, washing, and eluting steps were examined on solid-phase extraction (SPE). Methanol-water 85:15 v/v (loading step), methanol (washing step), and 0.04 M aqueous ammonium acetate-methanol 30:70 v/v (eluting step) were selected as the most effective systems. Described SPE protocol was successfully applied for separation of dopamine on 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted particles. Finally, the molecularly imprinted polymer was used for determination of dopamine in spiked banana extract. The total recovery of dopamine from MIP(pt) was equal to 88.5 ± 4.6%, but from NIP was only 12.8 ± 2.3%. The developed material and method were demonstrated to be applicable for the separation of dopamine from bananas. The commercial sorbent C18 was not suitable to such application.

  14. 0.4-3.5-micrometer Observations of 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. S.; Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Binzel, R. P.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtained nearly simultaneous observations of 4179 Toutatis over a 0.3-3.5 micrometer wavelength range on 4 January 1993 UT. Howell obtained a 1.2-2.5 micrometer spectrophotometry using the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Britt and Bell obtained narrowband photometry in the 3-micrometer region as well as broadband JHK photometry from the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. Binzel measured the visible spectrum using a CCD spectrograph at the McGraw-Hill Observatory in Arizona. Using V photometry reported by Pravec in the Czech Republic on adjacent nights [1], we were able to combine all these spectral regions. The rotation period of this object is approximately 10 days, so the time differences between the measurements of different spectral regions are negligible. Tholen has classified 4179 Toutatis as an S-type asteroid based on visible photometry. We measure a pyroxene absorption band near 2 micrometers, present in most S-type asteroid spectra. Unfortunately, a gap in spectral coverage prevents us from determining the characteristics of the 1-micrometer absorption band accurately. The spectral slope as measured from 1.25 to 2.2 micrometers is 6-10%, which is modest compared to other S-type asteroids. The spectrum of this asteroid is similar to other near-Earth S-type asteroids that have been observed in the near-infrared wavelength region. On 4 January 1993, 4179 Toutatis was 0.182 AU from the Earth, and 1.158 AU from the Sun. At this solar distance, the thermal emission contributes substantially to the flux at 3 micrometers. The determination of thermal emission is complicated by the slow rotation rate and the irregular shape of this object that was revealed by radar observations [2]. Preliminary results suggest that no 3-micrometer absorption feature is present, indicating that this object is anhydrous. Using these spectral data, we will compare 4179 Toutatis to other S-type asteroids, both in the main belt and the near-Earth environment. References

  15. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  16. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  17. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  18. PI(3,4)P2 plays critical roles in the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Miki; Ijuin, Takeshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2017-03-01

    Phosphoinositides play pivotal roles in the regulation of cancer cell phenotypes. Among them, phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2 ) localizes to the invadopodia, and positively regulates tumor cell invasion. In this study, we examined the effect of PI(3,4)P2 on focal adhesion dynamics in MDA-MB-231 basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SHIP2, a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphatase (PIP3 ) 5-phosphatase that generates PI(3,4)P2 , in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, induced the development of focal adhesions and cell spreading, leading to the suppression of invasion. In contrast, knockdown of PTEN, a 3-phosphatase that de-phosphorylates PIP3 and PI(3,4)P2 , induced cell shrinkage and increased cell invasion. Interestingly, additional knockdown of SHIP2 rescued these phenotypes. Overexpression of the TAPP1 PH domain, which binds to PI(3,4)P2 , and knockdown of Lpd, a downstream effector of PI(3,4)P2 , resulted in similar phenotypes to those induced by SHIP2 knockdown. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of PI(3,4)P2 generation and/or downstream signaling could be useful for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Anticancer Evaluation of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Salahuddin; Mazumder, Avijit; Shaharyar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this series, we have synthesised a new 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole in search of potential therapeutics for cancer. The anticancer activities were evaluated on a panel of 60 cell lines by the National Cancer Institute according to its own screening protocol. Out of the 24 compounds, 11 were selected and evaluated via single high dose (10−5 M). In the next phase, two compounds have been selected for five-dose assay. The compounds 3-(5-benzyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)quinolin-2(1H)-one 18 (NSC-776965) and 3-[5-(2-phenoxymethyl-benzoimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl]-2-p-tolyloxy-quinoline 27 (NSC-776971) showed mean growth percentage of 66.23 and 46.61, respectively, in one-dose assay and their GI50 values ranging between 1.41–15.8 μM and 0.40–14.9 μM, respectively, in 5-dose assay. PMID:25177693

  1. Early diet affects the development of 3-6 Hz EEG activity in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study investigated whether diet affects brain physiological functions during infancy. Power spectra (3-6 Hz) of electroencephalographic signals (high density recordings) in the bilateral prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, occipital, anterior temporal, mid-temporal, and posteri...

  2. Complex brecciation and shock effects in the Buck Mountain Wash (H3-5) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Melinda; Ruzicka, Alex; Pugh, Richard; Sloan, Larry; Thompson, Edwin

    2007-06-01

    Buck Mountain Wash (BMW) is a new genomict breccia (H3-5) found in the Franconia (H5) strewn field in Arizona that shows complex brecciation and shock effects. It contains three distinct chondritic lithologies in sharp contact: a) a main lithology that consists primarily of petrographic type 5 material but which has finely intermixed type 3 and 4 material, b) a shock-blackened (shock stage S5) type 3 lithology (lithology A), and c) a shock-blackened type 3/4 lithology (lithology B). Buck Mountain Wash was lithified after impact-mixing and impact-melting of weakly and strongly metamorphosed materials, possibly at depth in the regolith of the parent body. Shock effects included brecciation on a fine scale, localized impact-melting of silicates, partial melting, and mobilization of metal-sulfide, and chemical fractionations that produced non-H-group composition kamacite by two disequilibrium mechanisms. Shock heating did not cause significant thermal metamorphism in the shock-blackened lithologies of BMW, except possibly in areas adjacent to whole-rock shock melt. During lithification, cooling must have been rapid at high temperatures to preserve glass and inhomogeneous silicate compositions, but not so fast at lower temperatures as to produce dendritic metal-sulfide globules or martensite.

  3. Novel dinuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato and tetranuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato-polyoxo zirconium(IV) complexes. Synthesis and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martial; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2009-04-14

    The dinuclear dimethylamido-tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)-zirconium(IV) complex [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 1 is prepared by treatment of [Zr(NMe2)4] with 3 equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me2PzH) with elimination of dimethylamine. When [Zr(NMe2)4] reacted with 2 equivalents of 3,5-Me2PzH, the bis(dimethylamido)-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)zirconium(IV) compound [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)2(NMe2)2]2 2 is obtained. Hydrolysis of [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 in wet toluene affords the tetranuclear oxo compound [Zr4(eta2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(NMe2)2(mu3-O)2(mu2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(mu2-NMe2)2] . All synthesised compounds are characterised by NMR spectroscopic and analytical methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has established the molecular structures of 1 and 4.

  4. Initiation of GnRH agonist treatment on 3-5 days postoperatively in endometriosis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lili; Zhang, Shaofen; Han, Yi; Long, Qiqi; Zou, Shien; Cao, Yuankui

    2015-08-01

    Seventy patients with stage III or IV endometriosis were randomly assigned to 2 groups after conservative surgery. Group O (n = 35) received 3 cycles of a 28-day gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment (goserelin, 3.6 mg) starting 3-5 days postoperatively. Group M (n = 35) received the same treatment starting on days 1-5 of menstruation. Groups were further subdivided according to add-back treatment. Pre- and posttreated levels of estradiol (E2 ), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) and visual analog scale (VAS), Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) scores were recorded. The incidence of uterine bleeding was assessed. In both groups, serum levels of E2 , FSH, and LH and VAS scores decreased significantly after treatment. Spotting was the most frequent bleeding pattern. During cycle 1, the bleeding time in group M was much longer that than that in group O (P =.001), and the bleeding rate in group M was significantly higher than that in group O (P =.024, RR = 1.185). In patients with stage III or IV endometriosis, the efficacy of GnRH-a initiated 3-5 days postoperatively was equivalent to that of GnRH-a initiated on days 1-5 of menstruation. Female patients who initiated GnRH-a treatment 3-5 days postoperatively experienced less uterine bleeding during the first cycle of treatment.

  5. Quantitative Measurements of Daytime Near Infrared Sky Brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative measurements of daytime near infrared sky brightness at the AEOS 3.6 m telescope Michael Hart, Stuart Jefferies Douglas Hope, James...HI 96753 ABSTRACT We report daytime sky brightness measurements recorded in the near infrared from the 3.6 m AEOS telescope . Measurements were made...techniques for high-resolution imaging of satellites from the AEOS telescope . 1 MOTIVATION At first glance it would appear that imaging in the near

  6. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-07-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  7. 3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (ecstasy) use reduces cognition.

    PubMed

    Chummun, Harry; Tilley, Victoria; Ibe, Jude

    3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) use reduces cognition by reducing levels of dopamine and serotonin in the central nervous system. This results in dose-related cognition impairment, particularly in complex cognitive skills, as well as causing disorders such as mood changes, hallucinations, altered perception amd memory loss. MDMA reduces the level of these neurotransmitters within the neural synapses by reducing the number of intraneural transporters to the synaptic clefts, increasing deactivation with the synapse and/ or increasing degradation with the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Users may have varied reasons for MDMA use and therefore require help and support from their families or friends, and knowledgeable and well-skilled healthcare professionals for successful abstinence, avoidance of further psychological damage and a reversal of adverse health effects or reduction in their severity.

  8. Identification of Toxoplasma TgPH1, a pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein that binds to the phosphoinositide PI(3,5)P2.

    PubMed

    Daher, Wassim; Morlon-Guyot, Juliette; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Tomavo, Stan; Wengelnik, Kai; Lebrun, Maryse

    2016-05-01

    The phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) plays crucial roles in the maintenance of lysosome/vacuole morphology, membrane trafficking and regulation of endolysosome-localized membrane channel activity. In Toxoplasma gondii, we previously reported that PI(3,5)P2 is essential for parasite survival by controlling homeostasis of the apicoplast, a particular organelle of algal origin. Here, by using a phosphoinositide pull-down assay, we identified TgPH1 in Toxoplasma a protein conserved in many apicomplexan parasites. TgPH1 binds specifically to PI(3,5)P2, shows punctate intracellular localization, but plays no vital role for tachyzoite growth in vitro. TgPH1 is a protein predominantly formed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. So far, PH domains have been described to bind preferentially to bis- or trisphosphate phosphoinositides containing two adjacent phosphates (i.e. PI(3,4)P2, PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4,5)P3). Therefore, our study reveals an unusual feature of TgPH1 which binds preferentially to PI(3,5)P2.

  9. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl amines and styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines.

    PubMed

    Sravya, G; Yamini, G; Padmavathi, V; Padmaja, A

    2016-10-21

    A new class of mono and bis heterocycles - styryl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines, pyrrolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines and pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines were prepared from the synthetic intermediate Z-styrylsulfonylacetic acid adopting simple and well versed synthetic methodologies and studied their antimicrobial activity. Amongst all the tested compounds styryl thiadiazole 5c exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium chrysogenum.

  10. A convenient synthesis of 6-amino-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one and related 4,6-disubstituted pyrazolopyrimidine nucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Cottam, H B; Revankar, G R; Robins, R K

    1983-01-01

    The glycosylation of 4,6-dichloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine and 4-chloro-6-methylthiopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine via the corresponding trimethylsilyl intermediate and tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranose in the presence of trimethylsilyl triflate as a catalyst, gave selective glycosylation at N1 as the only nucleoside product. The intermediates 4,6-dichloro-1-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine 7 and 4-chloro-6-methylthio-1-(2,3,5-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine 13 gave new and convenient synthetic routes to the inosine analog 1, the guanosine analog 2, the adenosine analog 3, and the isoguanosine analog 16. Glycosylation of the trimethylsilyl derivative of 6-chloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-one unexpectedly gave the N2-glycosyl isomer 20 as the major product. A number of new 4,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine nucleosides were prepared from these glycosyl intermediates. PMID:6835838

  11. IGARSS '91; Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, June 3-6, 1991. Vols. 1, 2, 3, & 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium focus on global monitoring of the earth with emphasis on the solution of environmental problems and utilization of natural resources. Topics discussed include radar forestry modeling, hydrological remote sensing, polarimetric SAR observations of sea ice, optical and IR oceanography, and satellite remote sensing of precipitation and related phenomena. Other subject areas covered are microwave sensing of trace gases; atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity; spaceborne sensor technology; geodynamic and geophysical remote sensing; space radar missions; remote sensing of vegetation and crops; and remote sensing of weather systems.

  12. Effect of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on the reworking behavior of Lumbriculus variegatus exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The reworking response (bioturbation) of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was measured by following the burial rate and spread of a 137Cs marker layer translating worm activity into a biological burial rate (Wb) and a biological diffusion rate constant (Db) for surficial sediment mixing. Reworking was measured at 10 and 22 degrees C in two sediments: a reference site sediment dosed with 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) and a field-collected sediment from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site in Dicks Creek (DCC, Middletown, OH, USA). The body residue associated with response to TCBP also was determined. Reduction in the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C reduced both Wb and Db by a factor of approximately two. The internal TCBP concentration to reduce the Wb by 50% was 96 nmol/g (95% CI 45-225 nmol/g) and 124 nmol/g (40-547 nmol/g) (28 and 36 microg/g) wet weight at 22 and 10 degrees C, respectively, and was independent of temperature. The Wb for the DCC sediment was lower than observed for the highest TCBP treatment. The internal body residue for total PCB for worms exposed to DCC sediment was 20-fold lower than TCBP in worms exposed to the lowest TCBP treatment on a molar basis. Comparing body residues of total PCB to TCBP assumes that the PCB congeners act additively on a molar basis. The DCC site contained a higher proportion of coarse material and a lower organic carbon concentration. The difference in sediment characteristics was assumed to be responsible for differences in the Wb.

  13. Enhanced antioxidant activity of gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone: a combinational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medhe, Sharad; Bansal, Prachi; Srivastava, Man Mohan

    2012-12-01

    The antioxidative effect of selected dietary compounds (3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine) was determined in single and combination using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl), OH (hydroxyl), H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and NO (nitric oxide) radical scavenging assays. Radical scavenging effect of the dietary phytochemicals individually are found to be in the order: ascorbic acid (standard) > lutein > 3,6-dihydroxyflavone > selenium methyl selenocysteine, at concentration 100 μg/ml, confirmed by all the four bioassays (p < 0.05). Among the various combinations studied, the triplet combination of 3,6-dihydroxyflavone, lutein and selenium methyl selenocysteine (1:1:1), exhibited enhancement in the target activity at same concentration level. Synthesized gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone further enhanced the target antioxidant activity. The combinational study including gold nanoparticle embedded 3,6-dihydroxyflavone with other native dietary nutrients showed remarkable increase in antioxidant activity at the same concentration level. The present in vitro study on combinational and nanotech enforcement of dietary phytochemicals shows the utility in the architecture of nanoparticle embedded phytoproducts having a wide range of applications in medical science.

  14. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, natural bond orbital and thermodynamic analysis of 3,6-dichloro-4-methylpyridazine and 3,6-dichloropyridazine-4-carboxylic acid by dft approach.

    PubMed

    Prabavathi, N; Senthil Nayaki, N; Venkatram Reddy, B

    2015-02-05

    Vibrational spectral analysis of the molecules 3,6-dichloro-4-methylpyridazine (DMP) and 3,6-dichloropyridazine-4-carboxylic acid (DPC) was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques. The molecular structure and vibrational spectra of DMP and DPC were obtained by the density functional theory (DFT) method, using B3LYP functional, with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. A detailed interpretation of the Infrared and Raman spectra of the two molecules were reported based on potential energy distribution (PED). The theoretically predicted FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the titled molecules have been simulated and were compared with the experimental spectra. Determination of electric dipole moment (μ) and hyperpolarizability β0 helps to study the non-linear optical (NLO) behavior of DMP and DPC. Stability of the molecules arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra were recorded and (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the molecules were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-visible spectrum of the compounds was also recorded in the region 200-1100 nm and electronic properties, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbitals) and LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbitals) energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Charge density distribution and site of chemical reactivity of the molecule have been studied by mapping electron density isosurface with molecular electrostatic potential (MESP).

  15. Chemical modification of spiramycins. IV. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activities of 3'',4''-diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spriamycin I.

    PubMed

    Sano, H; Sunazuka, T; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, K; Okachi, R; Omura, S

    1984-07-01

    3'',4''-Diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by the four parameters, MIC against bacteria, affinity to ribosomes, retention time in HPLC and therapeutic effect. Among them, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyryl-spiramycin I were the most active in vivo, which were superior to acetylspiramycin.

  16. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fonsart, Julien; Menet, Marie-Claude; Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier

    2009-12-15

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC{sub last} and C{sub max} were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC{sub last} and t{sub 1/2} were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC{sub last} of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  17. 75 FR 55327 - Tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (Dazomet); Notice of Receipt of Request to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... withdraws its request. If this request is granted, any sale, distribution, or use of products listed in this... voluntarily amend two tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione product registrations to terminate...- thione products registered for use in the United States. EPA intends to grant this request at the...

  18. Trinuclear rare earth metal complexes based on 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis inositol as catalysts for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Calatayud Sala, José Miguel; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2011-02-14

    Trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [M₃(taciH₋₃)₂](3+) (M = La(3+), Y(3+)), based on a rigid polyamino-polyalcohol ligand 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci), are proven to be efficient catalysts for the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phophate (HPNP), a commonly used RNA model system.

  19. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  20. Acute Oral Toxicity of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (Sex) in Male and Female Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    flame proof cabinet at room temperature. %.. White--2 Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Chemical Abstract Service...Trinitrocyclotetramethylenetetramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2 Structural formula: 0 11 C-CH 0 2 N-N CH2 HC-N NO 2 , Empirical formula: C6H1

  1. Drug interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Insong J

    2009-07-24

    Alcohol (ethanol) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are frequently co-abused, but recent findings indicate a harmful drug interaction between these two agents. In our previous study, we showed that MDMA exposure inhibits the activity of the acetaldehyde (ACH) metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the co-administration of MDMA and ethanol would reduce the metabolism of ACH and result in increased accumulation of ACH. Rats were treated with MDMA or vehicle and then administered a single dose of ethanol. Liver ALDH2 activity decreased by 35% in the MDMA-treated rats compared to control rats. The peak concentration and the area under the concentration versus time curve of plasma ACH were 31% and 59% higher, respectively, in the MDMA-ethanol group compared to the ethanol-only group. In addition, the MDMA-ethanol group had 80% higher plasma transaminase levels than the ethanol-only group, indicating greater hepatocellular damage. Our results not only support a drug interaction between MDMA and ethanol but a novel underlying mechanism for the interaction.

  2. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  3. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to MDMA results in learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze, a task known to be sensitive to hippocampal disruption, when the animals are tested as adults. Developmental MDMA exposure leads to hypoactivity in the offspring as adults but does not affect outcome on tests of anxiety. MDMA administration decreases pup weight, increases corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during treatment while decreasing brain levels of serotonin; a decrease that initially dissipates and then reappears in adulthood. Neonatal MDMA exposure increases the sensitivity of the serotonin 1A receptor, a possible mechanism underlying the learning and memory deficits seen. Taken together, the evidence shows that MDMA exposure has adverse effects on the developing brain and behavior. The animal and human data on developmental MDMA exposure are reviewed and their public health implications discussed. PMID:18332674

  4. Interactions between antiplasmodial 3,6-diamino-1'-dimethyl-9-anilinoacridine and hematin and concanamycin A.

    PubMed

    Auparakkitanon, Saranya; Poonchareon, Kritchai; Sopitthummakhun, Kittipat; Wilairat, Prapon

    2007-11-01

    Antiplasmodial 9-anilinoacridine derivatives exert their effects either by inhibiting DNA topoisomerase (topo) II or by interfering with heme crystallization within the parasite acidic food vacuole. Previous studies have shown that analogs of 9-anilinoacridine containing 3,6-diamino substitutions (in the acridine ring) inhibit Plasmodium falciparum DNA topo II in situ, whereas those with a 3,6-diCl substitution act by inhibiting beta-hematin formation, a property also seen with 3,6-diamino-1'-dimethyl-9-anilinoacridine (DDAA). To understand this seemingly anomalous property of DDAA, studies of its interaction with hematin and localization within the parasite food vacuole were undertaken. A weak interaction with hematin was demonstrated spectroscopically. Antagonism of DDAA inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture by concanamycin A, a macrolide antibiotic inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase derived from Streptomyces sp, was equivocal.

  5. Multicomponent synthesis of 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones.

    PubMed

    Kruithof, Art; Ploeger, Marten L; Janssen, Elwin; Helliwell, Madeleine; de Kanter, Frans J J; Ruijter, Eelco; Orru, Romano V A

    2012-02-08

    Non-fused 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones constitute a so far rather unexplored class of compounds, with the latest report dating back more than two decades. Thiazine-2-thiones contain an endocyclic dithiocarbamate group, which is often found in pesticides, in substrates for radical chemistry and in synthetic intermediates towards thioureas and amidines. We now report the multicomponent reaction (MCR) of in situ-generated 1-azadienes with carbon disulfide. With this reaction, a one-step protocol towards the potentially interesting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3-thiazine-2-thiones was established and a small library was synthesized.

  6. Parent and teacher ratings of temperamental disposition to social anxiety: the BIS 3-6.

    PubMed

    Ballespí, Sergi; Jané, M Claustre; Riba, M Dolors

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) discourages children from interacting, predisposing them to isolation, social anxiety, and depression. We have created the Behavioral Inhibition Scale for Children Aged 3 to 6 (BIS 3-6) to detect this trait early. Parents and teachers of 365 preschoolers completed different versions of the BIS 3-6 and provided measures of psychopathology. Both versions are structured into 1 factor that explains over 40% of total variability and displays excellent internal consistency (α = .95). The moderate correlations with measures of internalizing symptoms (r = .50) and nonexistent correlations with externalizing measures suggest adequate convergent and discriminant validity. A new scoring system is proposed.

  7. Phenylated polyimides prepared from 3,6-diarylpyromellitic dianhydride and aromatic diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A new class of soluble phenylated polyimides made from 3,6-diarypyromellitic dianhydride and process for the manufacture of the 3,6-diarypyromellitic dianhydride starting material. The polyimides obtained with said dianhydride are readily soluble in appropriate organic solvents and are distinguished by excellent thermal, electrical and/or mechanical properties making the polyimides ideally suited as coating materials for microelectronic apparatii, as membranes for selective molecular separation or permeation or selective gas separation or permeation, or as reinforcing fibers in molecular composites, or as high modulus, high tensile strength fibers.

  8. The 3.2-3.6 micron spectra of monoceros R2/IRS-3 and Elias 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Smith, R. G.; Brooke, T. Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained 3.2-3.6 micron spectra, with a resolution lambda/delta-lambda approximately 750, of the protostar Mon R2/IRS-3 and of Elias 16, a background K giant behind the Taurus molecular cloud. A feature at 3,482 microns (2872/cm), with a full width at half-maximum of 0.09 microns (76/cm), is clearly seen in Mon R2/IRS-3. This feature is not detected in Elias 16. The 3.482 micron feature in Mon R2/IRS-3 is similar to a feature at 3.466-3.478 microns (2875-2885/cm) detected by Allamandola et al. in four protostars and attributed by these authors to a CH stretch in hydrocarbons dominated by sp3-bonded carbon. Neither Mon R2/IRS-3 nor Elias 16 shows absorption at 3.540 microns (2825/cm), which has been detected in two of the four protostars observed by Allamandola et al. and attributed by them to CH3OH ice. Our limit on CH3OH ice toward Elias 16 is compared to models of gas-grain chemistry in dark clouds. Our results confirm those of Allamandola et al. that at this resolution the 3.4 micron absorption due to dust in molecular clouds has very different spectral structure than that due to dust in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  9. Epidemiologic survey of functional conditions of the masticatory system in Belgian children aged 3-6 years.

    PubMed

    de Vis, H; De Boever, J A; van Cauwenberghe, P

    1984-06-01

    In this epidemiologic survey 510 children aged 3-6 yr were investigated. Several occlusal and functional parameters were measured: the maximal interincisal distance, the frequency of lateral and frontal crossbite, open bite, the number of tooth contacts on lateral excursions of 3 mm, the wear facets, deviations in opening, pain in muscles and in the TM-joints, TMJ sounds, parafunctional habits. The interincisal distance varied between 25 and 55 mm. This distance increased with age. Only five children had a hypermobility of the mandible (opening more than 55 mm) and 11 a restricted opening movement (less than 30 mm). 7.2% showed a lateral crossbite on the right, and 8.9% on the left, side. The percentage of an open bite decreased with age from 66.7% in the 3-yr-olds to 20.0% in the 6-yr-olds. 33% of the children had only one contact on the working side. As reported by the parents 7.7% had regularly bruxism but 21.8% showed wear facets on the molars and 40.7% on the front teeth. Only in three girls were the TMJ painful to palpation. Dysfunction only occurred in 3.5% of the sample.

  10. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  11. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  12. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  13. Rapid, Microwave Accelerated Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from 4-Acylamino-1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Stesphanie L; Olson, Margaret E; Harki, Daniel A

    2016-09-07

    1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.

  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg−1) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1  μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  15. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  16. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

    2014-10-03

    Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50μM) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release.

  17. A novel dilithiation approach to 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines, 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Jain, Ritu

    2002-11-15

    3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines 4, 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines 9, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines 6 were synthesized by directed ortho-lithiation of thiophenols and phenols and by side-chain lithiation of substituted thiophenols, respectively, in one-pot by reacting with N,N-bis[(benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amines 3 as 1,3-biselectrophile synthons.

  18. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Yahyawi, Amjad M; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Al-Blewi, Fawzia F; Aouad, Mohamed R

    2015-09-02

    In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  19. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  20. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  1. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  2. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  3. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  4. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  5. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  6. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  7. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  8. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  10. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  11. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  17. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  18. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  19. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 43 CFR 4120.3-6 - Removal and compensation for loss of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Removal and compensation for loss of range...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-6 Removal and compensation for loss of range...

  2. 43 CFR 4120.3-6 - Removal and compensation for loss of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Removal and compensation for loss of range...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-6 Removal and compensation for loss of range...

  3. 43 CFR 4120.3-6 - Removal and compensation for loss of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Removal and compensation for loss of range...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-6 Removal and compensation for loss of range...

  4. 43 CFR 4120.3-6 - Removal and compensation for loss of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Removal and compensation for loss of range...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-6 Removal and compensation for loss of range...

  5. Prices Paid by Colleges Rise 3.6 Percent, Trailing Consumer Price Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI), a widely used measure of colleges' costs, rose by 3.6 percent for the 2008 fiscal year, which ended on June 30. But even as they reported the good news of that moderate increase, experts at the Commonfund Institute who maintain the index noted that broader economic trends could…

  6. Rainbows: Stories and Customs from Around the World. Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Naseem

    This book, appropriate for use in grades 3-6, presents information about nine regions of the world: Malaysia; Costa Rica; Taiwan; New Mexico, United States; Japan; India; Nigeria; Thailand; and China. Each region is presented in a three part format: (1) Background information provides a look at the geographical location, the flag, and the social…

  7. Toolkit for Professional Developers: Training Targets 3?6 Grade Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMunn, Nancy; Dunnivant, Michael; Williamson, Jan; Reagan, Hope

    2004-01-01

    The professional development CAR Toolkit is focused on the assessment of reading process at the text level, rather than at the word level. Most students in grades 3-6 generally need support in comprehending text, not just decoding words. While the assessment of reading methods in the CAR Toolkit will help teachers pinpoint difficulties at the word…

  8. Celebrating Our Diversity: Using Multicultural Literature to Promote Cultural Awareness Grades 3-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Marti; Polk, Betty Jane

    This book enables teachers to provide students in grades 3-6 with a look into the diversity of the United States, as well as around the world, through multicultural literature. The book is divided into three general sections: Diversity in Common Experiences; Diversity in America; and Diversity around the World. For each story from a different…

  9. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development…

  10. The Renaissance Culture and the Arts. Grades 3-6, The Time Traveler Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pofahl, Jane

    This resource guide encourages grade 3-6 students to explore the social structure, government, culture and art forms, scientific discoveries, and historic personalities of the European Renaissance. The work is organized into 10 topics: (1) The Renaissance; (2) Art; (3) Leonardo da Vinci; (4) The Medicis; (5) Michelangelo; (6) Printing; (7) Music;…

  11. Scholastic Guide to Balanced Reading 3-6: Making It Work for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltas, Joyce, Ed.; Shafer, Susan, Ed.

    Suggesting the need for a balance between literature and intentional skills instruction, this book provides grade 3-6 teachers and administrators with a theoretical base for creating a balanced reading program and gives educators a chance to step into actual classrooms where teachers have successfully implemented effective programs. Each chapter…

  12. Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athans, Sandra K.; Devine, Denise Ashe

    2010-01-01

    "Motivating Every Student in Literacy (Including the Highly Unmotivated!), Grades 3-6" provides an effective model for improving reading levels and increasing motivation. Under the guidance of Athans and Devine, classroom leaders develop their own Motivation Improvement Action Plans, where small-group instruction, end-of-unit assessments, and…

  13. Excited State Processes for Aqueous Rh(NH3)5Cl(2+) and Rh(NH3)5Br(2+).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-10

    white precipitate of Rh(NH3)5(H20)) Br3 was collected and dried overnight at 110-0 C. The resulting yellow product was recrystallized from water/HClO4 to...aquation. In all cases, product concentrations were corrected for the usually small degree of dark or thermal reaction. Pulsed Laser Experiments. The...direct photochemical production . According to Palmer and Harris [16] the reaction Rh(NH 3)5(OH) 2+ + C02(aq) = Rh(NH 3)5(Co3) + + H+ occurs with a rate

  14. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  15. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 6-(2,6-Dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-substituted-1H-indazoles as Potent Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Dongmei; Dai, Yang; Cheng, Maosheng; Geng, Meiyu; Shen, Jingkang; Ma, Yuchi; Ai, Jing; Xiong, Bing

    2016-10-23

    Tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), which is aberrant in various cancer types, is a promising target for cancer therapy. Here we reported the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a new series of 6-(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-substituted-1H-indazole derivatives as potent FGFR inhibitors. The compound 6-(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-phenyl-1H-indazole-4-carboxamide (10a) was identified as a potent FGFR1 inhibitor, with good enzymatic inhibition. Further structure-based optimization revealed that 6-(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1H-indazole-4-carboxamide (13a) is the most potent FGFR1 inhibitor in this series, with an enzyme inhibitory activity IC50 value of about 30.2 nM.

  16. Detection of methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine in spiked plasma by HPLC and TLC.

    PubMed

    Oztunç, Aysel; Onal, Armağan; Toker, Sidika Ertürk

    2010-01-01

    HPLC and TLC methods were developed for separation and detection of some amphetamine analogs: methamphetamine (MA); 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy"); and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in spiked plasma samples. The methods are based on purple chromogens formed by displacement reaction of these secondary aliphatic amine-bearing drugs with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane at 80 degrees C for 25 min. For HPLC, both normal phase (silica gel) and RP (C18) columns were used. With the former, good detection limits in plasma were obtained with a 6 min run: 70, 100, and 500 ng/mL for MDMA, MA, and MDEA, respectively. For TLC, hexane-chloroform (1 + 9) and benzene-diethyl ether-petroleum ether (40-60 degrees)-acetonitrile-ethyl methyl ketone (2 + 3.5 + 3.5 + 0.5 + 0.5) were used as mobile phases for silica gel 60 TLC and cyano-bonded silica gel HPTLC plates, respectively. The former offered more sensitive results than the latter. Influence of evaporation steps on recovery and interferences for the HPLC and TLC methods were investigated. The developed methods are selective, simple, and easily applicable.

  17. Emerging evidence of signalling roles for PI(3,4)P2 in Class I and II PI3K-regulated pathways.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Phillip T; Stephens, Len R

    2016-02-01

    There are eight members of the phosphoinositide family of phospholipids in eukaryotes; PI, PI3P, PI4P, PI5P, PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, PI(3,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3. Receptor activation of Class I PI3Ks stimulates the phosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 to form PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(3,4,5)P3 is an important messenger molecule that is part of a complex signalling network controlling cell growth and division. PI(3,4,5)P3 can be dephosphorylated by both 3- and 5-phosphatases, producing PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4)P2, respectively. There is now strong evidence that PI(3,4)P2 generated by this route does not merely represent another pathway for removal of PI(3,4,5)P3, but can act as a signalling molecule in its own right, regulating macropinocytosis, fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME), membrane ruffling, lamellipodia and invadopodia. PI(3,4)P2 can also be synthesized directly from PI4P by Class II PI3Ks and this is important for the maturation of clathrin-coated pits [clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME)] and signalling in early endosomes. Thus PI(3,4)P2 is emerging as an important signalling molecule involved in the coordination of several specific membrane and cytoskeletal responses. Further, its inappropriate accumulation contributes to pathology caused by mutations in genes encoding enzymes responsible for its degradation, e.g. Inpp4B.

  18. 4-Hy­droxy-3-[(4-hy­droxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl)(3-thien­yl)meth­yl]-6-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Mohammad; Oo, Chuan-Wei; Osman, Hasnah; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C17H14O6S, contains four crystallographically independent mol­ecules in which the pyran­one units are essentially planar, with maximum deviations of 0.016 (2), 0.019 (2), 0.025 (2), 0.014 (2), 0.020 (2), 0.010 (2), 0.003 (2) and 0.012 (2) Å. One of the thio­phene rings is disordered over two positions, with an occupancy ratio of 0.739 (4):0.261 (4). The dihedral angles between the two pyran­one rings in the independent mol­ecules are 59.42 (8), 48.67 (8), 60.62 (9) and 51.60 (8)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked through inter­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21523150

  19. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation.

  20. Identification of the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre main sequence star HD 97048

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.

  1. Mononuclear copper(II) complexes with 3,5-substituted-4-salicylidene-amino-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole: synthesis, structure and potent inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ling; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Wang, Qingming; Li, Ying; Xing, Shu; Fu, Xueqi; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui

    2011-06-28

    Six copper complexes of Schiff base ligands containing 3,5-substituted-4-salicylideneamino-3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized and well characterized. The structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by X-ray crystal analysis. Fluorescence and potentiometric study indicated that in the physiological pH range, one ligand was dissociated from the complexes to form 1:1 mononucleus copper complexes. The complexes potently inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), megakaryocyte protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (PTP-MEG2) and Src homology phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) with 3-4 fold selectivity against PTP1B over TCPTP and PTP-MEG2, and 3-9 fold over SHP-1, but display almost no inhibition against Src homology phosphatase 2 (SHP-2). Complex 1 inhibits PTP1B with a competitive model with K(i) of 30 nM. Substitution with small groups at the phenyl of the ligand does not obviously influence the inhibitory ability of the complexes.

  2. Enclosure design for the ARIES 3.6m optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. K.; Shukla, Vishal; Bangia, Tarun; Raskar, R. D.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Ghanti, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6-m, f/9 optical telescope is planned to be installed at Devasthal, India (Latitude:29° 21' 40'' N, Longitude: 79° 41' 04'' E, Altitude: 2450 m above msl). The telescope has Cassegrain focus and alt-azimuth mount. The design of the telescope enclosure and the auxiliary building includes a fixed base enclosure, a telescope pier, a rotating dome structure, an auxiliary building, ventilation and component handling systems. The design is optimized for thermal, mechanical, structural, as well as for telescope installation and maintenance requirements. The design aims to provide seeing limited images within the telescope enclosure. This paper presents design of the 3.6m telescope enclosure.

  3. Factory verification results and status of 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Brijesh

    Considering the need and potential of establishing a moderate size optical telescope with spectroscopic capability at the geographical longitude of India, a 3.6m optical telescope with active optics technology is being installed at Devasthal, Nainital. This telescope will have instruments providing high resolution spectral and seeing-limited imaging capabilities at visible and near-infrared bands. The 3.6m DOT can be used to optical studies of a wide variety of astronomical topics including follow-up studies of sources identified in the radio region by GMRT and UV/X-ray by ASTROSAT. In this contribution, we present telescope performance verification results obtained from the sky tests which were carried out at the Factory in May 2012. The status of telescope will also be presented.

  4. The EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling: Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E.; Knauss, K.G.; Delany, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    EQ3/6 is a software package for modeling chemical and mineralogic interactions in aqueous geochemical systems. The major components of the package are EQ3NR (a speciation-solubility code), EQ6 (a reaction path code), EQLIB (a supporting library), and a supporting thermodynamic data base. EQ3NR calculates aqueous speciation and saturation indices from analytical data. It can also be used to calculate compositions of buffer solutions for use in laboratory experiments. EQ6 computes reaction path models of both equilibrium step processes and kinetic reaction processes. These models can be computed for closed systems and relatively simple open systems. EQ3/6 is useful in making purely theoretical calculations, in designing, interpreting, and extrapolating laboratory experiments, and in testing and developing submodels and supporting data used in these codes. The thermodynamic data base supports calculations over the range 0-300{degree}C. 60 refs., 2 figs.

  5. A rationale for the shift in colour towards blue in transgenic carnation flowers expressing the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yuko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Iwashita, Takashi; Nomoto, Kyosuke

    2003-05-01

    Recently marketed genetically modified violet carnations cv. Moondust and Moonshadow (Dianthus caryophyllus) produce a delphinidin type anthocyanin that native carnations cannot produce and this was achieved by heterologous flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression. Since wild type carnations lack a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene, they cannot produce delphinidin, and instead accumulate pelargonidin or cyanidin type anthocyanins, such as pelargonidin or cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4, 6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester. On the other hand, the anthocyanins in the transgenic flowers were revealed to be delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4, 6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester (main pigment), delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-malyl ester, and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6",6"'- dimalyl ester. These are delphinidin derivatives analogous to the natural carnation anthocyanins. This observation indicates that carnation anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes are versatile enough to modify delphinidin. Additionally, the petals contained flavonol and flavone glycosides. Three of them were identified by spectroscopic methods to be kaempferol 3-(6"'-rhamnosyl-2"'-glucosyl-glucoside), kaempferol 3-(6"'-rhamnosyl-2"'-(6-malyl-glucosyl)-glucoside), and apigenin 6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside-6"'-malyl ester. Among these flavonoids, the apigenin derivative exhibited the strongest co-pigment effect. When two equivalents of the apigenin derivative were added to 1 mM of the main pigment (delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside-6"-O-4,6"'-O-1-cyclic-malyl diester) dissolved in pH 5.0 buffer solution, the lambda(max) shifted to a wavelength 28 nm longer. The vacuolar pH of the Moonshadow flower was estimated to be around 5.5 by measuring the pH of petal. We conclude that the following reasons account for the bluish hue of the transgenic carnation flowers: (1). accumulation of the delphinidin type anthocyanins as a result of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene expression, (2). the presence of the flavone derivative strong co

  6. Metabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in carrageenan-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Bok; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lim, Hyun Seung

    2016-05-01

    Complete hydrolysis of κ-carrageenan produces two sugars, D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose (D-AnG). At present, however, we do not know how carrageenan-degrading microorganisms metabolize D-AnG. In this study, we investigated the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation by comparative genomic analysis of Cellulophaga lytica LIM-21, Pseudoalteromonas atlantica T6c, and Epulopiscium sp. N.t. morphotype B, which represent the classes Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Clostridia, respectively. In this bioinformatic analysis, we found candidate common genes that were believed to be involved in D-AnG metabolism. We then experimentally confirmed the enzymatic function of each gene product in the D-AnG cluster. In all three microorganisms, D-AnG metabolizing genes were clustered and organized in operon-like arrangements, which we named as the dan operon (3,6-d-anhydro-galactose). Combining bioinformatic analysis and experimental data, we showed that D-AnG is metabolized to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate via four enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the following route: 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose → 3,6-anhydro-D-galactonate → 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-galactonate (D-KDGal) → 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate → pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The pathway of D-AnG degradation is composed of two parts: transformation of D-AnG to D-KDGal using two D-AnG specific enzymes and breakdown of D-KDGal to two glycolysis intermediates using two DeLey-Doudoroff pathway enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolic pathway of D-AnG degradation.

  7. Differentiation of CD3-4-8- human fetal thymocytes in vivo: characterization of a CD3-4+8- intermediate

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Human thymocyte differentiation was examined by injecting fetal thymic progenitor populations into human thymic xenografts in SCID-hu mice. Thymic progenitors were fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye PKH2. The phenotypes of their progeny could be identified by flow cytometric analysis of cells with a very high fluorescent PKH2 signal. Intrathymic injection of purified triple negative (TN) CD3-4-8- thymocytes resulted in the sequential appearance of CD3-4+8-, CD3-4+8+, and CD3+4+8+ cells, with the subsequent appearance of small numbers of phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ cells over a 4-d period. Sorted CD3-4+8- thymocytes injected intrathymically rapidly differentiated to CD4+8+ cells. CD4+8+ fetal thymocytes in cell cycle differentiated into phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ populations, whereas nondividing CD4+8+ cells failed to differentiate after intrathymic transfer. The number of cell divisions that occurred between the injection of TN thymocytes and their progeny at different time points was estimated based on the decrease in the intensity of the PKH2 label. The average length of the cell cycle for the TN population was calculated to be 24 h. The SCID-hu model thus provides a useful tool for studying the kinetics of cell division and differentiation of human thymocytes in vivo. PMID:8315382

  8. Construction of 3.6m ARIES telescope enclosure with eccentric pier at Devasthal, Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangia, Tarun

    Space optimized enclosure with eccentric pier for 3.6m ARIES telescope presents construction challenges at the unique observing site of Devasthal, Nainital, India. Enclosure comprises of about 16.5m diameter and 14m high insulated steel framed cylindrical dome rotating on a 14m high stationery dome supporting structure and a 24m × 12m extension structure building for accommodating aluminizing plant and ventilation system etc. Great deal of manual and mechanical excavation was carried out at the rocky site using rock breaking and JCB machines. Foundation bolts for columns of dome supporting structure and extension structure building were grouted after alignment with total station. A 7m diameter hollow cylindrical pier isolated from other structures and 1.85m eccentric with dome center designed due to space limitation at site is being casted for mounting 150 MT mass of the largest 3.6m telescope in the country. A 7m diameter template was fabricated for 3.6m pier top. Most of enclosure components are manufactured and tested in works before assembly/erection at site. Dome drive was tested with dummy loads using VVVF drive with 6 drive and 12 idler wheel assemblies at works to simulate dome weight and smooth operation before erection at site. A 4.2m wide motorized windscreen is being manufactured with a special grade synthetic fabric to withstand wind speed up to 15m/s.

  9. Modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions with the EQ3/6 chemical speciation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F.; Ebinger, M.H.

    1995-01-13

    One of the more important uncertainties of using chemical speciation codes to study dissolution and precipitation of compounds is the results of modeling which depends on the particular thermodynamic database being used. The authors goal is to investigate the effects of different thermodynamic databases on modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions. They used the EQ3/6 codes and the supplied databases to model precipitation in this paper. One aspect of this goal is to compare predictions of precipitation from ideal solutions to similar predictions from nonideal solutions. The largest thermodynamic databases available for use by EQ3/6 assume that solutions behave ideally. However, two databases exist that allow modeling nonideal solutions. The two databases are much less extensive than the ideal solution data, and they investigated the comparability of modeling ideal solutions and nonideal solutions. They defined four fundamental problems to test the EQ3/6 codes in concentrated solutions. Two problems precipitate Ca(OH){sub 2} from solutions concentrated in Ca{sup ++}. One problem tests the precipitation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from high ionic strength (high concentration) solutions that are low in the concentrations of precipitating species (Ca{sup ++} in this case). The fourth problem evaporates the supernatant of the problem with low concentrations of precipitating species. The specific problems are discussed.

  10. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  11. CHRNA3/5, IREB2, and ADCY2 Are Associated with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Jan; Wan, Emily S.; Hersh, Craig P.; Castaldi, Peter J.; Schwinder, Eric; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or lung function with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes in a novel cohort of patients with severe to very severe COPD. We examined 315 cases of COPD and 330 Caucasian control smokers from Poland. We included three SNPs previously associated with COPD: rs7671167 (FAM13A), rs13180 (IREB2), and rs8034191 (CHRNA 3/5), and four SNPs associated with lung function in a genome-wide association study of general population samples: rs2070600 (AGER), rs11134242 (ADCY2), rs4316710 (THSD4), and rs17096090 (INTS12). We tested for associations with severe COPD and COPD-related phenotypes, including lung function, smoking behavior, and body mass index. Subjects with COPD were older (average age 62 versus 58 years, P < 0.01), with more pack-years of smoking (45 versus 33 pack-years, P < 0.01). CHRNA3/5 (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.4; P = 7.4 × 10−7), IREB2 (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9; P = 3.4 × 10−3), and ADCY2 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7; P = 0.01) demonstrated significant associations with COPD. FAM13A (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7–1.0; P = 0.11) approached statistical significance. FAM13A and ADCY2 also demonstrated a significant association with lung function. Thus, in severe to very severe COPD, we demonstrate a replication of association between two SNPs previously associated with COPD (CHRNA3/5 and IREB2), as well as an association with COPD of one locus initially associated with lung function (ADCY2). PMID:22461431

  12. An Extraordinary Group of 3.6micron Galaxies with Extremely Bright, Extended Far-IR Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lin

    2013-08-01

    Based on WISE, Spitzer and recent Herschel far-IR data, we have discovered W0010+32, a remarkable object with extremely bright (detected by IRAS) and extended far-IR emission, coinciding with a group of 3.6micron sources with very faint optical magnitudes. The bright 70micron emission was resolved into two peaks, separated by 10arcseconds. The photo-z estimates based on optical and IR data are largely uncertain, ranging from 0.7 to >2. The bright far-IR emission from W0010+32 could either be magnified by the gravitational lensing of a foreground cluster of galaxies or is a rare case of a cluster of intrinsically luminous hyperLIRGs. Either case offers a rare window on the rapid transformation of galaxies and clusters during a short episode of the most energetic activity. To unravel the mystery of W0010+32, we request 0.5 nights of Keck I time to obtain J, H & K-band multi-object near-IR spectra using MOSFIRE. The proposed near-IR spectra will detect emission lines ! from galaxies with SFR as low as 0.4-3.4Msun/yr at z 1-2.3. This data will enable the following critical measurements: (1) redshifts of galaxies, and determine if it is indeed a group/cluster, (2) metallicities and AGN content based on emission line ratios and widths, (3) unobscured SFR based on Halpha line fluxes as well as dust extinctions based on spectral lines and continuum slopes, (4) kinematic velocity measurements with spatially and spectrally resolved emission lines (gas outflows) commonly seen among extreme starbursts.

  13. 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid: the forgotten detection substrate for ligand-binding assay-based bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gregor; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Heinrich, Julia; Staack, Roland F

    2017-02-01

    Ligand-binding assays are ideal for routine bioanalysis, but we reason that the straightforward replacement of the conventional chromogenic horseradish peroxidase substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, of a routinely used preclinical immunoassay to detect hIgG, with the fluorogenic 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid would broaden the narrow dynamic range. The replacement leads to a sensitivity of 0.47 (minimum required dilution [MRD] 10) and 1.02 (MRD 50) ng/ml, and dynamic ranges of 3.3 (MRD 10) and 3.6 (MRD 50) orders of magnitude, and thereby had improved sensitivity and dynamic range compared with other conventional colorimetric ELISAs, other ligand-binding assay technologies or LC-MS assays. Improvements in sensitivity and dynamic range were achieved for the sera of horse, mice and monkeys without assay optimization.

  14. Dimethyl 4-[3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydro­pyridine-3,5-dicarboxyl­ate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Ooi, Chin Wei; Garudachari, B.; Shivananda, Kammasandra Nanjunda; Isloor, Arun M.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C27H27N3O5·2H2O, the dihydro­pyridine ring adopts a flattened boat conformation. The central pyrazole ring is essentially planar [maximum deviation of 0.003 (1) Å] and makes dihedral angles of 50.42 (6) and 26.44 (6)° with the benzene rings. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into two-dimensional networks parallel to the bc plane. The crystal structure is further consolidated by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22798871

  15. Crystal structure of 3-{5-[3-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)-1-isopropyl-1H-indol-2-yl]-1H-pyrazol-1-yl}indolin-2-one ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Kulkarni, Ajaykumar D.; Mohd. Yusoff, Mashitah; Kwong, Huey Chong; Quah, Ching Kheng

    2016-01-01

    The title indolin-2-one compound, C28H23FN4O·C2H6O, crystallizes as a 1:1 ethanol solvate. The ethanol mol­ecule is disordered over two positions with refined site occupancies of 0.560 (14) and 0.440 (14). The pyrazole ring makes dihedral angles of 84.16 (10) and 85.33 (9)° with the indolin-2-one and indole rings, respectively, whereas the dihedral angle between indolin-2-one and indole rings is 57.30 (7)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an inversion mol­ecule–solvate 2:2 dimer with R 4 4(12) ring motifs. The crystal structure is consolidated by π–π inter­action between pairs of inversion-related indolin-2-one rings [inter­planar spacing = 3.599 (2) Å]. PMID:27006787

  16. 2,6-Bis[(S)-1-phenyl­eth­yl]-1H,5H-pyrrolo­[3,4-f]isoindole-1,3,5,7(2H,6H)-tetrone

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A.-M.; El-Azab, Adel S.; Alanazi, Amer M.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H20N2O4, the central isoindole core is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.043 Å). The phenyl rings lie to either side of the plane [dihedral angles = 88.64 (5) and 67.74 (6)°] and the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 63.39 (7)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O inter­actions; notably, one carbonyl O atom accepts three such bonds. PMID:22412753

  17. Crystal structure of dimethyl 3,4,5,6-tetra­phenyl­cyclo­hexa-3,5-diene-1,2-di­carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Fred H.; Nazarenko, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C34H28O4, the cyclo­hexa­diene ring has a screw-boat conformation with a torsion angle between the double bonds being on average ca 15° [15.2 (3) and −15.3 (3) in the two independent mol­ecules]. All four phenyl rings in both mol­ecules are arranged in a propeller-like conformation. The two mol­ecules exhibit S,R- and R,S- chirality, respectively, and are connected via C—H⋯O inter­molecular inter­actions. In turn, these weakly bound dimers form the mol­ecular crystal. PMID:27555937

  18. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  19. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors prevent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced 5-HT deficits in the rat.

    PubMed

    Puerta, Elena; Hervias, Isabel; Goñi-Allo, Beatriz; Lasheras, Berta; Jordan, Joaquin; Aguirre, Norberto

    2009-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are often used in combination with club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy). We investigated the consequences of such combination in the serotonergic system of the rat. Oral administration of sildenafil citrate (1.5 or 8 mg/kg) increased brain cGMP levels and protected in a dose-dependent manner against 5-hydroxytryptamine depletions caused by MDMA (3 x 5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) in the striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus without altering the acute hyperthermic response to MDMA. Intrastriatal administration of the protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor, KT5823 [(9S, 10R, 12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid, methyl ester)], suppressed sildenafil-mediated protection. By contrast, the cell permeable cGMP analogue, 8-bromoguanosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate, mimicked sildenafil effects further suggesting the involvement of the PKG pathway in mediating sildenafil protection. Because mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels are a target for PKG, we next administered the specific mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker, 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, 30 min before sildenafil. 5-hydroxydecanoic acid completely reversed the protection afforded by sildenafil, thereby implicating the involvement of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Sildenafil also increased Akt phosphorylation, and so the possible involvement of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/sGC signalling pathway was analysed. Neither the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, nor the selective eNOS inhibitor, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride, reversed the protection afforded by sildenafil, suggesting that Akt/eNOS/sGC cascade does not participate in the protective mechanisms. Our data also show that the protective effect of sildenafil can be extended to vardenafil, another PDE5

  20. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  1. 3' Phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] by voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP).

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sakata, Souhei; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Horie, Shigeo; Homma, Koichi J; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-06-19

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) consist of a voltage-sensor domain and a cytoplasmic region with remarkable sequence similarity to phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor phosphatase. VSPs dephosphorylate the 5' position of the inositol ring of both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] upon voltage depolarization. However, it is unclear whether VSPs also have 3' phosphatase activity. To gain insights into this question, we performed in vitro assays of phosphatase activities of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP) and transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology (TPTE) and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase (TPIP; one human ortholog of VSP) with radiolabeled PI(3,4,5)P(3). TLC assay showed that the 3' phosphate of PI(3,4,5)P(3) was not dephosphorylated, whereas that of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)] was removed by VSPs. Monitoring of PI(3,4)P(2) levels with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain from tandem PH domain-containing protein (TAPP1) fused with GFP (PH(TAPP1)-GFP) by confocal microscopy in amphibian oocytes showed an increase of fluorescence intensity during depolarization to 0 mV, consistent with 5' phosphatase activity of VSP toward PI(3,4,5)P(3). However, depolarization to 60 mV showed a transient increase of GFP fluorescence followed by a decrease, indicating that, after PI(3,4,5)P(3) is dephosphorylated at the 5' position, PI(3,4)P(2) is then dephosphorylated at the 3' position. These results suggest that substrate specificity of the VSP changes with membrane potential.

  2. Formaldehyde: the 5.7μm and 3.6μm Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemart, D.; Lacome, N.; Perrin, A.; Tchana, F. Kwabia; Laraia, A.; Gamache, R. R.

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to achieve absolute line intensities and reliable line broadening parameters for the strong 5.7 μm and 3.6 μm bands of formaldehyde (H_2CO) and to generate, for both spectral regions, a complete linelist for atmospheric applications. High-resolution Fourier transform spectra were recorded at LADIR for the whole 1600 - 3200 cm-1 spectral range and for different path-length-pressure products conditions. Using these spectra, a large set of H_2CO individual line intensities and of self- and N_2-broadening linewidths were measured. The calculated band intensities derived for the 5.7 μm and 3.6 μm bands are in excellent agreement with the values achieved recently by medium resolution band intensity measurements. It has to be mentioned that intensities in the 3.6 μm achieved in this work are, on the average, about 28 % stronger than those quoted in the HITRAN 2004 database. The linelist of positions and intensities based on this worka has been included in the HITRAN 2008 database. Concerning the linewidths, empirical expansions and theoretical calculations (semi-classical Robert-Bonamy formalism) have been performed and compared to the measurements. Rotational dependences have been studied, and the temperature dependence of the N_2-broadening coefficients has been calculated. A. Perrin, D. Jacquemart, F. Kwabia-Tchana, and N. Lacome, JQSRT 110,700-716,2009. D. Jacquemart, A. Laraia F. Kwabia-Tchana, R.R. Gamache A. Perrin and N. Lacome, JQSRT in press.

  3. Studies on the photochemistry of 1,7-diphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione, a non-phenolic curcuminoid model.

    PubMed

    Sundaryono, Agus; Nourmamode, Aziz; Gardrat, Christian; Grelier, Stéphane; Bravic, Georges; Chasseau, Daniel; Castellan, Alain

    2003-09-01

    The comparative photostability of curcumin 1, and two non-phenolic curcuminoids: 1,7-diphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione 2 (unsubstituted curcumin) and dimethylcurcumin 3 in non-degassed dilute solutions (approximately 3-5 x 10(-5) mol l(-1)) has been established by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy; disappearance quantum yields were measured. The similar behavior of the three studied curcuminoids is indicative of only a moderate role of phenol groups in the photodegradation process. Structural analysis of the photodegradation products of compound 2 in more concentrated solution (approximately 3.6 x 10(-3) mol l(-1)) shows formation of benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, 2'-hydroxy-5',6'-benzochalcone 4, flavanone 5 and some other unidentified photoproducts. Flavanone 5 is formed by irradiation of chalcone 4. It represents a unique example of photochemical conversion of a diarylheptanoid molecule into a flavonoid, another very important class of natural products.

  4. Photometry of Scattered Disk Objects at 3.6 and 4.5 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Chad A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Mommert, Michael; Lejoly, Cassandra; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    Scattered disk objects (SDO) are some of the most intriguing of the estimated 100,000 icy bodies located in the outer Solar System. SDOs have been gravitationally disturbed and scattered by the orbital migration of Neptune. The surface compositions of these objects provide a window into formation conditions and dynamics of the outer Solar System. Characterization of volatiles and organic materials, in particular, provide important constraints on formation conditions and subsequent surface processing of these objects. We measured fluxes of 38 SDOs at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) aboard the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope in order to characterize volatiles, silicates, and complex organics on their surfaces. Albedos calculated from these fluxes are combined with broadband albedos from ground-based observations at shorter wavelengths (spanning 0.55 - 2.22 μm) to provide spectrophotometry from 0.5 to 4.5 μm. Much of those ground-based data are from previously published literature. However, we have also conducted new ground-based Y, J, H, K observations of several of the targets. Sizes and visible geometric albedos, which are required to convert IRAC fluxes to geometric albedos, were extracted from published literature when available and computed from absolute magnitudes otherwise. Data were available to construct complete 0.55 to 4.5 μm spectrophotometric curves for 14 SDOs and partial curves for the remaining 24 SDOs. The resulting spectrophotometry of these 38 SDOs indicates a wide range of surface compositions. Several of the SDOs we observed show red visible and near-infrared spectral slopes and strong absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. These absorption features suggest the presence of complex organics. Other SDOs appear red as well, but show only moderate absorptions at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Moderate absorption features at these wavelengths may indicate a mixture of H2O ice and refractory material on the surface. Finally, some objects show no

  5. Identification of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fauber, Benjamin P; Dragovich, Peter S; Chen, Jinhua; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; Eigenbrot, Charles; Labadie, Sharada; Malek, Shiva; Peterson, David; Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhou, Aihe

    2014-12-15

    A series of 3,6-disubstituted dihydropyrones were identified as inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Structure activity relationships were explored and a series of 6,6-spiro analogs led to improvements in LDHA potency (IC50 <350 nM). An X-ray crystal structure of an improved compound bound to human LDHA was obtained and it illustrated additional opportunities to enhance the potency of these compounds, resulting in the identification of 51 (IC50=30 nM).

  6. Study of new optical transients using 3.6m DOT at Devasthal Nainital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Longitudinal advantage of Indian sub-continent makes the recently installed 3.6m telescope as a novel facility for astronomical observations, specially, to study time critical events, i.g. transients. This telescope along with the first generation back-end instruments could be efficiently used to study new transients discovered using a global network of robotic survey telescopes. Study of new transients as a part of time domain astronomy will play a key role in near future along with the upcoming multi-wavelength facilities to explore the underlying physics behind these sources.

  7. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as a Micro-Neural Interface Material for Electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Seth J; Richardson-Burns, Sarah M; Hendricks, Jeffrey L; Martin, David C; Otto, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    Chronic microstimulation-based devices are being investigated to treat conditions such as blindness, deafness, pain, paralysis, and epilepsy. Small-area electrodes are desired to achieve high selectivity. However, a major trade-off with electrode miniaturization is an increase in impedance and charge density requirements. Thus, the development of novel materials with lower interfacial impedance and enhanced charge storage capacity is essential for the development of micro-neural interface-based neuroprostheses. In this report, we study the use of conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a neural interface material for microstimulation of small-area iridium electrodes on silicon-substrate arrays. Characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrodeposition of PEDOT results in lower interfacial impedance at physiologically relevant frequencies, with the 1 kHz impedance magnitude being 23.3 +/- 0.7 kOmega, compared to 113.6 +/- 3.5 kOmega for iridium oxide (IrOx) on 177 mum(2) sites. Further, PEDOT exhibits enhanced charge storage capacity at 75.6 +/- 5.4 mC/cm(2) compared to 28.8 +/- 0.3 mC/cm(2) for IrOx, characterized by cyclic voltammetry (50 mV/s). These improvements at the electrode interface were corroborated by observation of the voltage excursions that result from constant current pulsing. The PEDOT coatings provide both a lower amplitude voltage and a more ohmic representation of the applied current compared to IrOx. During repetitive pulsing, PEDOT-coated electrodes show stable performance and little change in electrical properties, even at relatively high current densities which cause IrOx instability. These findings support the potential of PEDOT coatings as a micro-neural interface material for electrostimulation.

  8. Synthesis of some novel azo derivatives of 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrazole as potent analgesic agents.

    PubMed

    Oruç, E E; Koçyigit-Kaymakçioglu, B; Oral, B; Altunbas-Toklu, H Z; Kabasakal, L; Rollas, S

    2006-05-01

    A series of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazolylazo derivatives, incorporating thiosemicarbazide 2a-c, 1,3,4-thiadiazole 3a-c, and 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione 4a-c were synthesized. The structure of these novel synthesized compounds 2a-c, 3a-c, and 4a-c was confirmed by spectral analysis. All these compounds were screened for their analgesic activity. Hot-plate and tail-immersion tests were used for the determination of the analgesic activity. Morphine, an analgesic through both spinal and supraspinal pathways, was used as a standard test drug. All compounds were administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg i.p. Among the compounds, 2-(butylamino)-5-[((1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazole-4-yl)azo)phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole 3a and 4-[((1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,5-dimethylpyrazole-4-yl)azo)phenyl]-4-(2-phenethyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione 4c showed analgesic effects in both tests. Especially 4c exerted strong analgesia starting at 30 min after injection.

  9. Interspecific effects of 4A-DNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene) and RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in Japanese quail, Northern bobwhite, and Zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael J; Hanna, Terry L; Shiflett, Alicia A; McFarland, Craig A; Cook, Michelle E; Johnson, Mark S; Gust, Kurt A; Perkins, Edward J

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the toxicological effects of two munition compounds, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A-DNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), on three different bird species: two common toxicological model species-the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica), and a representative passerine-the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Bobwhite were exposed to 4A-DNT at 0, 8, 15, 30, 60, or 150 mg/kg body weight (bw) d by oral gavage for seven days; because the high dose of 4A-DNT was lethal to bobwhite, the maximum dose was changed to 100 mg/kg bw d for Japanese quail and finches to ensure tissue could be used for future toxicogenomic work. RDX was similarly administered at 0, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg bw d. Blood was drawn prior to euthanasia for blood cellularity and chemistry analyses. Finches were clearly least affected by 4A-DNT as evidenced by a lack of observable effects. Bobwhite appeared to be the most sensitive species to 4A-DNT as observed through changes in blood cellularity and plasma chemistry effects. Bobwhite appeared to be more sensitive to RDX than Japanese Quail due to increased effects on measures of plasma chemistries. Finches exhibited the greatest sensitivity to RDX through increased mortality and seizure activity. This study suggests that sensitivity among species is chemical-specific and provides data that could be used to refine current avian sensitivity models used in ecological risk assessments.

  10. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  11. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  12. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  13. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  14. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  15. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., environmental analysis and scheduling. 3420.3-4 Section 3420.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis.... Three major categories of consideration shall be used in tract ranking: coal economics; impacts on...

  16. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid.

  17. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  18. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  19. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  20. Regioselective synthesis of 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via reagent-based cyclization of thiosemicarbazide intermediate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Lee, Seok-Hyeong; Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Gong, Young-Dae

    2013-01-18

    A regioselective, reagent-based method for the cyclization reaction of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeletons is described. The thiosemicarbazide intermediate 3 was reacted with EDC·HCl in DMSO or p-TsCl, triethylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to give the corresponding 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 4 and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5 through regioselcective cyclization processes. The regioselectivity was affected by both R(1) and R(2) in p-TsCl mediated cyclization. It is shown in select sets of thiosemicarbazide 3 with R(1)(benzyl) and R(2)(phenyl). 2-Amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4 was also shown in the reaction of p-TsCl mediated cyclization. The resulting 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeleton are functionalized with various electrophiles such as alkyl halide, acid halides, and sulfornyl chloride in high yields.

  1. Detection of a novel neurotoxic metabolite of Parkinson's disease-related neurotoxin, 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4- tetrahydroisoquinoline.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yaichiro; Sekiya, Yoko; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring low-molecular weight compounds with a chemical structure like that of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, such as 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline(1BnTIQ), are candidates for the endogenous neurotoxins that cause Parkinson's disease (PD). 1BnTIQ is an endogenous amine in human CSF and increases in the CSF of patients with PD. It inhibits complex Iand elicits PD-like behavioral abnormalities in monkey and mouse. In this study, we searched metabolites of 1BnTIQ by rat liver S9 using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and identified a dehydrated metabolite, 1-benzyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1BnDIQ). 1BnDIQ was identified by corresponding mass spectra and precursor ion scans in authentic and complete enzyme samples. Multiple reaction monitoring analysis showed microsome-dependent 1BnDIQ production. We previously reported that 1BnDIQ is more toxic than 1BnTIQ in cytotoxicity study in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In addition, 1BnTIQ is reported to pass through the blood-brain barrier of the rat brain, and 1BnDIQ is supposed to be more lipophilic than 1BnTIQ. 1BnDIQ may easily reach the brain, and it might contribute to PD-related neurotoxicity.

  2. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  3. EQ3/6 geochemical modeling task plan for Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Wolery, T.

    1984-04-10

    This task plan outlines work needed to upgrade the EQ3/6 geochemical code and expand the supporting data bases to allow the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) to model chemical processes important to the storage of nuclear waste in a tuff repository in the unsaturated zone. The plan covers the fiscal years 1984 to 1988. The scope of work includes the development of sub-models in the EQ3/6 code package for studying the effects of sorption, precipitation kinetics, redox disequilibrium, and radiolysis on radionuclide speciation and solubility. The work also includes a glass/water interactions model and a geochemical flow model which will allow us to study waste form leaching and reactions involving the waste package. A special emphasis is placed on verification of new capabilities as they are developed and code documentation to meet NRC requirements. Data base expansion includes the addition of elements and associated aqueous species and solid phases that are specific to nuclear waste (e.g., actinides and fission products) and the upgrading and documentation of the thermodynamic data for other species of interest.

  4. Dimorphic forms of 3,6-dinitrodurene in a single space group.

    PubMed

    Galicia Aguilar, José Alberto; Bernès, Sylvain

    2009-04-01

    3,6-Dinitrodurene (1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-dinitrobenzene), C(10)H(12)N(2)O(4), has been crystallized in two polymorphic forms which may be distinguished by their colours in the solid state. Polymorph I gives clear colourless prismatic crystals, while polymorph II crystallizes in the dark and under an inert atmosphere as irregular purple blocks. Both forms belong to the space group C2/c, with both asymmetric units containing two half-molecules. One molecule is located on an inversion centre and the other lies on a twofold axis. The polymorphism arises from different orientations of the twofold axis: in form I, this axis passes through the mid-points of two C-C bonds of the benzene ring and, as a consequence, all atoms in the asymmetric unit are in general positions. In form II, the N atoms of the nitro groups and the C(ipso) atoms are located on the binary axis. Comparing phases I and II, slightly different conformations are observed for the nitro substituents, while the stacking structures are very similar.

  5. Crystal structure of [Co(NH3)6][Co(CO)4]2

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas G.; Kraus, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Hexaamminecobalt(II) bis­[tetra­carbonyl­cobaltate(-I)], [Co(NH3)6][Co(CO)4]2, was synthesized by reaction of liquid ammonia with Co2(CO)8. The CoII atom is coordinated by six ammine ligands. The resulting polyhedron, the hexa­amminecobalt(II) cation, exhibits point group symmetry -3. The Co-I atom is coordinated by four carbonyl ligands, leading to a tetra­carbonyl­cobaltate(−I) anion in the shape of a slightly distorted tetra­hedron, with point group symmetry 3. The crystal structure is related to that of high-pressure BaC2 (space group R-3m), with the [Co(NH3)6]2+ cations replacing the Ba sites and the [Co(CO)4]− anions replacing the C sites. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between cations and anions stabilize the structural set-up in the title compound. PMID:26594524

  6. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  7. 3,6-diHydroxyflavone/bovine serum albumin interaction in cyclodextrin medium: Absorption and emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Bandula, Rodica

    2015-03-01

    Photophysical properties of a bioactive flavonol which can be used as a model for polyhydroxylated natural flavonols, 3,6-diHydroxyflavone (3,6-diHF) in cyclodextrins (CDs)/bovine serum albumin (BSA) systems have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of CDs nature and of the different molar ratios BSA/CDs on the fluorescent characteristics of 3,6-diHF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process were studied. Quantitative information on the interaction between 3,6-diHF and BSA in CDs medium, were estimated. The influence of temperature (25-60 °C range) on the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in 3,6-diHF/BSA/CDs systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3,6-diHF as a potential sensitive fluorescence probe in the systems of biological interest.

  8. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2004-12-01

    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  9. The marine polyketide myriaporone 3/4 stalls translation by targeting the elongation phase.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Yazh; Roy, Myriam; Raja, Aruna; Taylor, Richard E; Sasse, Florenz

    2013-01-21

    Myriaporone 3/4, a cytotoxic polyketide, has been reported as an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits translation was unknown. Here we show that myriaporone 3/4 stalls protein synthesis in the elongation phase by inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The phosphorylation results from direct binding of myriaporone 3/4 to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Our study also shows that myriaporone 3/4 in the nanomolar range inhibits in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells without being cytotoxic. In general, myriaporone 3/4 was at least 300 times less toxic to primary cells than to tumor cells.

  10. Nonsymmetrical 3,4-dithienylmaleimides by cross-coupling reactions with indium organometallics: synthesis and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Angeles; Férnandez, M Isabel; Canle Lopez, Moisés; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A

    2014-10-27

    The synthesis and photochemical study of novel nonsymmetrical 1,2-dithienylethenes (DTEs) with a maleimide bridge have been carried out. The synthetic approach to the DTEs was based on successive selective palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 5-susbtituted-2-methyl-3-thiophenyl indium reagents with 3,4-dichloromaleimides. The required organoindium reagents were prepared from 2-methyl-3,5-dibromothiophene by a selective (C-5) coupling reaction with triorganoindium compounds (R3 In) and subsequent metal-halogen exchange. The coupling reactions usually gave good yields and have a high atom economy with substoichiometric amounts of R3 In. The results of photochemical studies show that these novel dithienylmaleimides undergo a photocyclization reaction upon irradiation in the UV region and a photocycloreversion after excitation in the visible region, thus they can be used as photochemical switches. ON-OFF operations can be repeated in successive cycles without appreciable loss of effectiveness in the process.

  11. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  12. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohammad F.; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  13. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad F; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-15

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  14. Relaxation dynamics of 2,7- and 3,6-distyrylcarbazoles in solutions and in solid films: mechanism for efficient nonradiative deactivation in the 3,6-linked carbazole.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsai-Te; Chung, Szu-Min; Wu, Fang-Iy; Shu, Ching-Fong; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2005-12-22

    We performed time-resolved spectral investigations of two distyrylcarbazole derivatives, 2,7- and 3,6-distyrylcarbazole (2,7-DPVTCz and 3,6-DPVTCz, respectively), in dilute toluene solution and in solid films mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The lifetime of 2,7-DPVTCz in its excited state in solution is approximately 100 times as great as that of 3,6-DPVTCz, consistent with their photophysical nature. The former shows intense emission, but the latter is nearly nonfluorescent in a free environment. Moreover, the lifetime of 3,6-DPVTCz in its excited state increased also approximately 100 times when the molecule was encapsulated in a 3,6-DPVTCz/PMMA solid film, indicating that intramolecular motion of the molecule significantly affects the observed relaxation dynamics in a confined environment. Calculations on the excited states indicate that an efficient intersystem crossing is activated upon twisting of the bridged C-C single bond in a free 3,6-linked carbazole; such efficient deactivation is impractical in 2,7-linked carbazole or for 3,6-linked carbazole in a PMMA matrix. Information obtained from experiments on femtosecond fluorescence enables us to distinguish crucial relaxation processes in the excited state for a profound understanding of the details of vibrational and electronic relaxations of 3,6-DPVTCz in solution.

  15. Gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,7-enyne esters to structurally diverse cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketones.

    PubMed

    Rao, Weidong; Sally; Koh, Ming Joo; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2013-04-05

    A synthetic method that relies on gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,7-enyne esters to prepare highly functionalized cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketone derivatives in good to excellent yields and as a single regio-, diastereo-, and enantiomer is described. By taking advantage of the distinctive differences in the electronic and steric properties between an NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) and phosphine ligand in the respective gold(I) complexes, a divergence in product selectivity was observed. In the presence of [PhCNAuIPr](+)SbF6(-) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidine) as the catalyst, tandem 1,3-acyloxy migration/6-exo-trig cyclization/1,5-acyl migration of the substrate was found to selectively occur to give the δ-diketone-substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine adduct. In contrast, reactions with the gold(I) phosphine complex [MeCNAu(JohnPhos)](+)SbF6(-) (JohnPhos = (1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-di-tert-butylphosphine) as the catalyst was discovered to result in preferential 1,3-acyloxy migration/6-exo-trig cyclization/hydrolysis of the 1,7-enyne ester and formation of the cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketone derivative. The utility of this piperidine forming strategy as a synthetic tool that makes use of 1,7-enyne esters was exemplified by its application to the synthesis of an enantiopure analogue of the bioactive 2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydroindeno[1,2-c]pyridine family of compounds.

  16. Microwave spectrum and structure of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dioxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Mitsutoshi; Kondo, Toshihiko

    1994-07-01

    The microwave spectrum of 3,6-dihydro-1,2-dioxin, a cyclic peroxide derived from buta-1,3-diene, was measured in the frequency range 10-26 GHz. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were determined from a least-squares fit to the observed b-type rotational transition frequencies. The molecular structure is inferred on the basis of the rotational constants. The molecule is found to have a skewed boat form as found in cyclohexene. The NMR spectrum of the molecule was observed at temperatures down to -100°C and analyzed in terms of interchanging conformations. The activation energy and entropy of the puckering motion were derived.

  17. Pluto-Charon: Infrared Reflectance from 3.6 to 8.0 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Stansberry, John A.; VanCleve, Jeffrey E.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the spectral reflectance of the Pluto-Charon pair at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micrometers with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) (G. G. Fazzio et al. Ap.J.Supp. 154, 10-17, 2004) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (STS), at eight different longitudes that cover a full rotation of the planet. STS does not have sufficient resolution to separate the light from the planet and the satellite. The image of the Pluto-Charon pair is clearly visible at each of the four wavelengths. We will discuss the spectral reflectance in terms of models that include the known components of Pluto and Charon s surfaces, and evidence for diurnal variations.

  18. The 3.6m Indo-Belgian Devasthal Optical Telescope: performance results on site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninane, Nathalie; Bastin, Christian; Flebus, Carlo; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-07-01

    AMOS SA has been awarded of the contract for the design, manufacturing, assembly, tests and on site installation (Devasthal, Nainital in central Himalayan region) of the 3.6 m Indo-Belgian Devasthal Optical Telescope (IDOT). The telescope has Ritchey-Chrétien optical configuration with one axial and two side Cassegrain ports. The meniscus primary mirror is active and it is supported by pneumatic actuators. The azimuth axis system is equipped with hydrostatic bearing. After successful factory acceptance at AMOS SA, the telescope has been dismounted, packed, transported, and remounted on site. This paper provides the final performances (i.e. image quality, pointing and tracking) measured during sky tests at Devasthal Observatory.

  19. Solution-processed photovoltaics with a 3,6-bis(diarylamino)fluoren-9-ylidene malononitrile.

    PubMed

    Karak, Supravat; Homnick, Paul J; Renna, Lawrence A; Venkataraman, D; Mague, Joel T; Lahti, Paul M

    2014-10-08

    3,6-Bis(N,N-dianisylamino)-fluoren-9-ylidene malononitrile (FMBDAA36) was used as an electron donor material in solution-processed organic photovoltaic devices with configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS/(1:3[w/w] FMBDAA36:PC71BM)/LiF/Al to give power conversion efficiencies up to 4.1% with open circuit voltage VOC = 0.89 V, short circuit current JSC = 10.35 mA cm(-2), and fill factor FF = 44.8%. Conductive atomic force microscopy of the active layer showed granular separation of regions exhibiting easy versus difficult hole transport, consistent with bulk heterojunction type phase separation of FMBDAA36 and PC71BM, respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis showed pure FMBDAA36 to form columnar π-stacks with a 3.3 Å intermolecular spacing.

  20. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  1. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  2. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  3. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  4. Simulation of electrical discharge in a 3.6 Joule miniature plasma focus device using SIMULINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Hossein; Habibi, Morteza

    2014-08-01

    A novel technique has been developed and studied in this paper to simulate the electrical discharge circuit of a 3.6 J miniature plasma focus device (PFD) and investigate the effect of inductance variation on voltage spike and current dip. The technique is based on a correlation between the electrical discharge circuit and plasma dynamics in a very small PFD that operates at the energy of 3.6 J. The simulation inputs include the charging voltage, capacitor bank capacitance, current limiter resistance, by-pass resistance as well as the time-dependent inductance and resistance of the plasma sheath which are calculated by assuming the plasma dynamics as transit times in going from one phase to the next. The variations of the most important elements in the circuit (i.e. the constant and breakdown inductances) and their effects on the current dip are studied in PFDs with low and high constant inductance. The model demonstrated for achieving a good pinch in the PFD, although the total inductance of the system should be low; however there is always an optimum inductance which causes an appropriate pinch. Furthermore, the electrical power produced by the pulsed power supply, the mechanical energy as well as the magnetic energy which are transferred into the plasma tube were obtained from simulation. The graph of electrical power demonstrated a high instantaneous increment in the power transferred into the plasma as one of the greatest advantages of the pulsed power supply. The simulation was performed using software tools within the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation environment.

  5. Cosubstrate independent mineralization of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a Desulfovibrio species under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Clint M; Adrian, Neal R

    2009-02-01

    Past handling practices associated with the manufacturing and processing of the high explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has resulted in extensive environmental contamination. In-situ biodegradation is a promising technology for remediating RDX contaminated sites but often relies on the addition of a cosubstrate. A sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an RDX-degrading enrichment culture was studied for its ability to grow on RDX as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen and for its ability to mineralize RDX in the absence of a cosubstrate. The results showed the isolate degraded 140 muM RDX in 63 days when grown on RDX as a carbon source. Biomass within the carbon limited culture increased 9-fold compared to the RDX unamended controls. When the isolate was incubated with RDX as sole source of nitrogen it degraded 160 muM RDX in 41 days and exhibited a 4-fold increase in biomass compared to RDX unamended controls. Radiolabeled studies under carbon limiting conditions with (14)C-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine confirmed mineralization of the cyclic nitramine. After 60 days incubation 26% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2), while in the control bottles less than 1% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2). Additionally, approximately 2% of the radiolabeled carbon was found to be associated with the biomass. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced and identified the isolate as a novel species of Desulfovibrio, having a 95.1% sequence similarity to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. This is the first known anaerobic bacterium capable of mineralizing RDX when using it as a carbon and energy source for growth.

  6. 2,2′-(1,3,5,7-Tetra­oxo-1,2,3,5,6,7-hexa­hydro­pyrrolo[3,4-f]isoindole-2,6-di­yl)diacetic acid N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Chunhua; Li, Xiangqian; Zhang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Rui

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H8N2O8·2C3H7NO or L·2DMF (DMF = N,N-dimethyl­formamide), contains one half of the centrosymmetric mol­ecule L and one solvent mol­ecule, which is disordered between two orientations in a 0.555 (4):0.445 (4) ratio. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link one L and two DMF mol­ecules into a centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded cluster. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21577863

  7. The NEWFIRM HETDEX Survey - Studying Galaxy Growth with 400,000 Galaxies at 2 < z < 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Jogee, S.; Papovich, C. J.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Acquaviva, V.; Weinzirl, T.; HETDEX

    2014-01-01

    We present the NEWFIRM HETDEX survey - a K-band survey with NEWFIRM on the KPNO 4m Mayall telescope of a 28 deg^2 region of the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) equatorial field. Here we provide the survey plan, as well as results from the first year (out of four) of our survey. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, deep 3.6 and 4.5 micron images from Spitzer/IRAC, deep far-IR imaging at 250, 350, and 500 microns from HERSCHEL-SPIRE, and R ~ 800 integral-field spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's VIRUS spectrographs (filling factor 1:1), our observations will allow extinction-corrected star-formation rates (SFRs) to be obtained for ~400,000 galaxies at 2 < z < 3.5. Our survey covers a co-moving volume of 0.5 Gpc^3 and is sensitive to SFRs down to 10 Msol/yr, covering a 10-100 times larger volume and going three times deeper than previous surveys. Our very large volume will allow us to explore galaxy growth as a function of stellar mass, halo mass, and local environment, in addition to providing K-band legacy data for the field.

  8. Monoclinic modification of 1,1,3,3,5,5-hexa­methyl-cyclo-1,3,5-tris­tannathiane

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nanhai; Kumar, Abhinav; Molloy, Kieran C.; Kociok-Köhn, G.

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Sn3(CH3)6S3], contains two molecules with twist-boat conformations. There are intermolecular S⋯H (2.929 Å), S⋯S (3.433 Å), S⋯C (3.465 Å) and C⋯H (2.898 Å) inter­actions in addition to prominent intermolecular Sn⋯S inter­actions of 3.692 and 3.769 Å. PMID:21200475

  9. Tetrahydrophthalic Anhydrides as Addition Curing Polyimide End Caps: Thermal Isomerization of Methylendianiline 3,6-Diphenyltetrahydrophthalic Bisimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Gilinsky-Sharon, Pessia; Gottlieb, Hugo E.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Johnston, J. Christopher

    2005-01-01

    In depth NMR studies confirm that heating a 1:2 mixture of cis, cis, cis 3,6-diphenyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (end cap 9c) with methylenedianiline at 316 C initially yields the corresponding highly congested cis, cis, cis 3,6-diphenyltetrahydrophthalic bisimide 11, which is converted at this temperature to the observed product, the less hindered trans, cis, trans isomer 12.

  10. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    PubMed Central

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  11. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  12. G3.5 PAMAM Dendrimers Enhance Transepithelial Transport of SN38 while minimizing Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Deborah S.; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC50 values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 hours, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21115079

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ones as a New Class of Topoisomerase II Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Baraldi, Stefania; Prencipe, Filippo; Preti, Delia; Saponaro, Giulia; Romagnoli, Romeo; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Stefanelli, Angela; Fazzi, Debora; Borea, Pier Andrea; Maia, Rodolfo Couto; Romeiro, Nelilma C; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2015-01-01

    A series of 1,3,6-triphenylpyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-one derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity in A375 human melanoma and human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. The new pyrazolopyridones displayed comparable activities to the antitumor compound etoposide. The inhibitory effect of compounds 17, 18, 27 and 32 against topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage activities was measured finding good correlation with the results obtained from MTS assay. Docking studies into bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA Gyrase), topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ binding sites in the DNA binding interface were performed.

  14. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  15. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  16. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Yong; Park, Seon Kyeong; Guo, Tian Jiao; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae Ok

    2016-01-01

    The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT) (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection) was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM) test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH) ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404). PMID:28105250

  17. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole)s and poly(arylene ether 1,2,4-triazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Wolf, P.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing l,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole units were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisphenol oxadiazole and bisphenol triazole compounds with activated aromatic dihalides. The polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 182 to 242 C, and several polymers exhibited melting transitions (Tm) ranging from 265 to 390 C. Inherent viscosities ranged from 1.02 to 3.40 dl/g, indicating relatively high molecular weights. Thin films exhibited tensile strengths, moduli, and elongations at 23 C of 90-110 MPa, 2.7-3.6 GPa, and 4-7 percent, respectively. Titanium-to-titanium tensile shear specimens of a poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole) exhibited tensile shear strengths at 23 and 150 C of 22.1 and 17.9 MPa, respectively.

  18. Thin layer chromatography/fluorescence detection of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriyuki; Fujita, Susumu; Ohta, Hikoto; Fukuba, Makoto; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2008-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of six methylenedioxylatedphenethylamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3-butamine; and 3,4-methylenedioxydimethylamphetamine, by thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection is proposed. These compounds form fluorophores on the developing plate following spraying with a reagent consisting of sodium hypochlorite, potassium hexacyanoferrate (III), and sodium hydroxide, and heating for 3 min at 100 degrees C. Blue fluorescent spots were observed under ultraviolet light in a wavelength range of 250-400 nm. The detection limits for MDMA and the above related compounds were 50 ng. The proposed method was effectively applied to the detection of MDMA in urine samples.

  19. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  20. Crystal structure of (E)-13-{4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]phen-yl}parthenolide methanol hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Janganati, Venumadhav; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The title compound, C33H35NO6 [systematic name: (Z)-3-(4-{(E)-[(E)-1a,5-dimethyl-9-oxo-2,3,7,7a-tetra-hydro-oxireno[2',3':9,10]cyclo-deca-[1,2-b]furan-8(1aH,6H,9H,10aH,10bH)-yl-idene]meth-yl}phen-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-ni-trile methanol hemisolvate], C33H35NO6·0.5CH3OH, was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(4-iodo-phen-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with parthenolide [systematic name: (E)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-methyl-ene-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octa-hy-dro-oxireno[2',3':9,10]cyclo-deca-[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH)-one] under Heck reaction conditions. The mol-ecule is built up from fused ten-, five- (lactone) and three-membered (epoxide) rings with a {4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]phen-yl}methyl-idene group as a substituent. The 4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]phenyl group on the parthenolide exocyclic double bond is oriented in a trans position to the lactone ring to form the E isomer. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring of the phenyl moiety and the lactone ring mean plane is 21.93 (4)°.

  1. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  2. Characterization of a 3;6 Translocation Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Rebecca E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Morris, Mark R.; Prigmore, Elena; Gribble, Susan; Ng, Beeling; Gentle, Dean; Ready, Steven; Weston, Phil M. T.; Wiesener, Michael S.; Kishida, Takeshi; Yao, Masahiro; Davison, Val; Barbero, Jose Luis; Chu, Carol; Carter, Nigel P.; Latif, Farida; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2009-01-01

    The most frequent cause of familial clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is von Hippel–Lindau disease and the VHL tumor suppressor gene (TSG) is inactivated in most sporadic clear cell RCC. Although there is relatively little information on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis of clear cell RCC without VHL inactivation, a subset of familial cases harbors a balanced constitutional chromosome 3 translocation. To date nine different chromosome 3 translocations have been associated with familial or multicentric clear cell RCC; and in three cases chromosome 6 was also involved. To identify candidate genes for renal tumorigenesis we characterized a constitutional translocation, t(3;6)(q22;q16.1) associated with multicentric RCC without evidence of VHL target gene dysregulation. Analysis of breakpoint sequences revealed a 1.3-kb deletion on chromosome 6 within the intron of a 2 exon predicted gene (NT_007299.434). However, RT-PCR analysis failed to detect the expression of this gene in lymphoblast, fibroblast, or kidney tumor cell lines. No known genes were disrupted by the translocation breakpoints but several candidate TSGs (e.g., EPHB1, EPHA7, PPP2R3A RNF184, and STAG1) map within close proximity to the breakpoints. PMID:17205537

  3. 3.6 YEARS OF DIRBE NEAR-INFRARED STELLAR LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Stephan D.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Kuchar, Thomas A.; Mizuno, Donald R. E-mail: smithbj@etsu.ed

    2010-10-15

    The weekly averaged near-infrared fluxes for 2652 stars were extracted from the cold and warm era all-sky maps of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE). Since the DIRBE program only archived the individual Calibrated Infrared Observations for the 10 month cold era mission, the weekly averaged fluxes were all that were available for the warm era. The steps required to extract stellar fluxes are described as are the adjustments that were necessary to correct the results for several systematic effects. The observations are at a cadence of once a week for 3.6 years ({approx}1300 days), providing continuous sampling on variable stars that span the entire period for the longest fundamental pulsators. The stars are divided into three categories: those with large amplitude of variability, smaller amplitude variables, and sources whose near-infrared brightness do not vary according to our classification criteria. We show examples of the results and the value of the added baseline in determining the phase lag between the visible and infrared.

  4. Synthesis of polyamide oligomers based on 14-amino-3,6,9, 12-tetraoxatetradecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, R; Kadijk, M G; Joikinen, T J; Feng, M; Ansell, S M

    2000-01-01

    A series of oligomers of polyamides based on 14-amino-3,6,9, 12-tetraoxatetradecanoic acid monomers (ATTAn) was synthesized. These materials were designed as monodisperse analogues of poly(ethylene glycol) for use in biomedical applications where reproducible behavior is important. Synthesis of the monomer was evaluated using two routes. For small-scale preparations, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) was monoprotected with dihydropyran, converted to an alkoxide, and alkylated with ethyl bromoacetate. On larger scales, TEG was alkylated directly by treatment with sodium, followed by ethyl bromoacetate. The amine function was introduced by mesylation followed by treatment with sodium azide. Reduction of the azide to amino groups was performed over Pd/C using either hydrogen or formic acid as proton sources. Assembly of the oligomers was accomplished using standard DCC/NHS chemistry and an iterative dimerization sequence after appropriate deprotection of a pair of monomers. The amino group was protected by retaining the azido group as a latent amine. A series of ATTAn oligomers was prepared (n = 1-8). A lipid conjugate of the octamer, ATTA8-DSPE, was synthesized.

  5. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Z<-1) is one of the malnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). Receiving a cooked meal significantly decreased wasting (15.2-13.2%) in all children (p < 0.05). Nutritional intervention with cooked meal for 175 days had significant reduction in wasting in all children.

  6. Characterization of friction in the 3.6m Devasthal optical telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, T. S.; Bastin, Christian; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work on characterization of friction in the 3.6 m Devasthal optical telescope axes. The telescope azimuth axis is supported on a hydrostatic bearing while the altitude and rotator axes are supported on hydrodynamic bearings. Both altitude and azimuth axes are driven directly by high power BLDC motors and the rotator is driven by BLDC motor via a gearbox. This system is designed by AMOS, Belgium and tuned to achieve a tracking accuracy better than 0.1 arcsec RMS. Friction poses control related problems at such low speeds hence it is important to periodically characterize the behaviour at each axes. Compensation is necessary if the friction behaviour changes over the time and starts dominating the overall system response. For identifying friction each axis of telescope is rotated at different constant speeds and speed versus torque maps are generated. The LuGre model for friction is employed and nonlinear optimization is performed to identify the four static parameters of friction. The behaviour of friction for each axis is presented and the results are discussed.

  7. Mitochondria targeted peptides protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H; Beal, M Flint

    2009-09-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD.

  8. Mitochondria Targeted Peptides Protect Against 1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichuan; Zhao, Kesheng; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Luo, Guoxiong; Szeto, Hazel H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A number of antioxidants have been effective in animal models of PD. We have developed a family of mitochondria-targeted peptides that can protect against mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis (SS peptides). In this study, we examined the ability of two peptides, SS-31 and SS-20, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in mice. SS-31 produced dose-dependent complete protection against loss of dopamine and its metabolites in striatum, as well as loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta. SS-20, which does not possess intrinsic ability in scavenging reactive oxygen species, also demonstrated significant neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons of MPTP-treated mice. Both SS-31 and SS-20 were very potent (nM) in preventing MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium)-induced cell death in cultured dopamine cells (SN4741). Studies with isolated mitochondria showed that both SS-31 and SS-20 prevented MPP+-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and ATP production, and mitochondrial swelling. These findings provide strong evidence that these neuroprotective peptides, which target both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, are a promising approach for the treatment of PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2095–2104. PMID:19203217

  9. Observations of the microwave emission of Venus from 1.3 to 3.6 cm.

    PubMed

    Steffes, P G; Klein, M J; Jenkins, J M

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of Steffes (1986) have suggested that the intensity and shape of the microwave spectrum of Venus might be especially sensitive to the subcloud abundance of constituents such as SO2 and gaseous H2SO4. It was likewise suggested that some variations of the shape of the emission spectrum might occur between 1.5 and 3 cm (10 to 20 GHz), a wavelength range which had previously only been sparsely observed. As a result, coordinated observations of Venus emission were conducted at four wavelengths between 1.35 cm (22.2 GHz) and 3.6 cm (8.42 GHz) using the 43-m NRAO antenna at Green Bank, West Virginia, and the 64-m antenna at NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California. In this paper, we report the methodology and results of these observations, and compare the results with other observations and with calculated emission spectra. We conclude that the observed emission spectrum is consistent with an average subcloud abundance of gaseous H2SO4 in equatorial and midlatitude regions which is approximately 5 ppm. It is suggested that additional measurements of atmospheric microwave opacity be made with the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation experiment to search for temporal and spatial variations in gaseous H2SO4 abundance in the Venus atmosphere. An upper limit for the subcloud abundance of SO2 is also determined.

  10. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  11. The intracellular distribution and secretion of endopeptidases 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15) and 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16).

    PubMed

    Ferro, Emer S; Carreno, Flávia R; Goni, Camila; Garrido, Paula A G; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Castro, Leandro M; Oliveira, Vitor; Araujo, Maurício C; Rioli, Vanessa; Gomes, Marcelo D; Fontenele-Neto, José Domingues; Hyslop, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and endopeptidase 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are enzymes involved in general peptide metabolism in mammalian cells and tissues. This review will focus on morphological and biochemical aspects related to the subcellular distribution and secretion of these homologous enzymes in the central nervous system. These are important issues for a better understanding of the functions of EP24.15 and EP24.16 within neuroendocrine systems.

  12. A feasibility study for the analysis of reparative dentinogenesis in pOBCol3.6GFPtpz transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Frozoni, M.; Balic, A.; Sagomonyants, K.; Zaia, A. A.; Line, S. R. P.; Mina, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To examine the feasibility of using the pOBCol3.6GFPtpz (3.6-GFP) transgenic mice as an in vivo model for studying the biological sequence of events during pulp healing and reparative dentinogenesis. Methodology Pulp exposures were created in the first maxillary molar of 12-16 week old 3.6-GFP transgenic mice with CD1 and C57/Bl6 genetic background. Direct pulp capping on exposed teeth were performed using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) followed by restoration with a light-cured adhesive system (AS) and composite resin. In control teeth, the AS was placed in direct contact with the pulp. Animals were euthanized at various time points after pulp exposure and capping. The maxillary arch was isolated, fixed and processed for histological and epifluorescence analysis to examine reparative dentinogenesis. Results Analysis of teeth immediately after pulp exposure revealed absence of odontoblasts expressing 3.6-GFP at the injury site. Evidence of reparative dentinogenesis was apparent at 4 weeks in 3.6-GFP mice in CD1 background and at 8 weeks in 3.6-GFP mice with C57/Bl6 background. The reparative dentine with both groups contained newly formed atubular-mineralized tissue resembling a dentine bridge and/or osteodentine that was lined by cells expressing 3.6-GFP as well as 3.6-GFP expressing cells embedded within the atubular matrix. Conclusion This study was conducted in a few animals and did not allow statistical analysis. The results revealed that the 3.6-GFP transgenic animals provide a unique model for direct analysis of cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulp repair and tertiary dentinogenesis in vivo. The study also shows the effects of the capping material and the genetic background of the mice in the sequence and timing of reparative dentinogenesis. PMID:22551423

  13. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-Bisphosphate and Its Binding Protein Lamellipodin Regulate Chemotaxis of Malignant B Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhao; Wu, Xun; Hou, Sen; Malek, Mouhannad; Kielkowska, Anna; Noh, Edward; Makondo, Kennedy J; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Lin, Francis; Marshall, Aaron J

    2016-01-15

    Cell migration is controlled by PI3Ks, which generate lipid messengers phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and consequently recruit pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing signaling proteins. PI3K inhibition impairs migration of normal and transformed B cells, an effect thought to partly underlie the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in treatment of B cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Although a number of studies have implicated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cell migration, it remains unknown whether PI(3,4)P2 plays a distinct role. Using the PI(3,4)P2-specific phosphatase inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase, we investigate the impact of depleting PI(3,4)P2 on migration behavior of malignant B cells. We find that cells expressing wild-type, but not phosphatase dead, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase show impaired SDF-induced PI(3,4)P2 responses and reduced migration in Transwell chamber assays. Moreover, PI(3,4)P2 depletion in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells significantly impaired their migration capacity. PI(3,4)P2 depletion reduced both overall motility and migration directionality in the presence of a stable chemokine gradient. Within chemotaxing B cells, the PI(3,4)P2-binding cytoskeletal regulator lamellipodin (Lpd) was found to colocalize with PI(3,4)P2 on the plasma membrane via its PH domain. Overexpression and knockdown studies indicated that Lpd levels significantly impact migration capacity. Moreover, the ability of Lpd to promote directional migration of B cells in an SDF-1 gradient was dependent on its PI(3,4)P2-binding PH domain. These results demonstrate that PI(3,4)P2 plays a significant role in cell migration via binding to specific cytoskeletal regulators such as Lpd, and they suggest that impairment of PI(3,4)P2-dependent processes may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in B cell malignancies.

  14. Growth changes of eighteen herbaceous angiosperms induced by Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Frank L; Koeser, Andrew K; Dawson, Jeffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Study objectives were to describe and quantify growth responses (tolerance as shoot and root biomass accumulation) to soil-applied Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) treatments of eighteen terrestrial, herbaceous, angiospermous species and also; to determine how much of RDX, RDX transformation products, total N and RDX-derived N accumulated in the foliage. RDX altered growth of eighteen plant species or cultivars at levels of 100, 500, and 1,000 mg kg(-1)dry soil in a 75-d greenhouse study. Sixteen species or cultivars exhibited growth inhibition while two were stimulated in growth by RDX. A maximum amount of foliar RDX in a subset of three plant species was 36.0 mg per plant in Coronilla varia. Foliar concentrations of transformation products of RDX were low relative to RDX in the subset of three species. The proportion of RDX-N with respect to total N was constant, suggesting that foliar RDX transformation did not explain differences in tolerance. There was a δ (15)N shift towards that of synthetic RDX in foliage of the three species at a level of 1,000 mg kg(-1) RDX, proportional in magnitude to uptake of N from RDX and tolerance ranking.Reddened leaf margins for treated Sida spinosa indicate the potential of this species as a biosensor for RDX.

  15. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  16. In Silico Alkaline Hydrolysis of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: Density Functional Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Shukla, Manoj K; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-09-20

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), an energetic material used in military applications, may be released to the environment during manufacturing, transportation, storage, training, and disposal. A detailed investigation of a possible mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the most promising methods for HMX remediation, was performed by computational study at PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. Obtained results suggest that HMX hydrolysis at pH 10 represents a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, hydroxide attachment accompanied by cycle cleavage, and further decomposition of cycle-opened intermediate to the products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of HMX hydrolysis such as nitrite, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed species. Based on computed reaction pathways for HMX decomposition by alkaline hydrolysis, the kinetics of the entire process was modeled. Very low efficiency of this reaction at pH 10 was observed. Computations predict significant increases (orders of magnitude) of the hydrolysis rate for hydrolysis reactions undertaken at pH 11, 12, and 13.

  17. Evaluation of the Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) at a Tibetan grassland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Lim, Hee-Jeong; Ichii, Kazuhito; Li, Yingnian

    2013-11-01

    The Tibetan plateau plays an important role in energy and carbon cycles by providing an elevated heat source and by storing a large amount of soil carbon due to low temperature. The main vegetation of the plateau is alpine grassland. This study evaluates performance of Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) over a alpine grassland in the Tibetan plateau in terms of energy and carbon fluxes in conditions of reasonable phenology and initial carbon pool comparable to observations. Comparison between model and observation shows following features. The model captures the magnitude of maximum leaf area index (LAI) but underestimats leaf mass. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is significantly underestimated during the growing season and soil temperature is also underestimated throughout a year with higher negative bias in winter than in other seasons. In order to examine the cause of the model deficiencies, we design four sensitivity tests: seasonal mulch; shallow rooting depth; reduction of critical soil moisture to limit the decomposition rate; smaller specific leaf area (SLA). Considering seasonal mulch improves the negative bias of soil temperature during dormant season has little effect on the NEE during the growing seasson. Underestimation of NEE during the growing season is partly due to underestimated decomposition rate which results from underestimated soil temperature and deep root placement in the soil column. Underestimation of latent heat flux during summer is partly due to use of large SLA in the model. Other deficiencies are also discussed.

  18. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes.

  19. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using a combined Sorescu-Rice-Thompson AMBER force field.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Paras M; Rice, Betsy M; Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L

    2006-12-28

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using the SRT-AMBER force field (P. M. Agrawal et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 5721), which combines the rigid-molecule force field developed by Sorescu-Rice-Thompson (D. C. Sorescu, B. M. Rice, and D. L. Thompson, J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 798) with the intramolecular interactions obtained from the Generalized AMBER Force Field (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157). The calculated crystal density at room conditions is about 10% lower than the measured value, while the lattice parameters and thermodynamic melting point are within about 5% at ambient pressure. The chair and inverted chair conformation, bond lengths, and bond angles of the RDX molecule are accurately predicted; however, there are some inaccuracies in the calculated orientations of the NO2 groups. The SRT-AMBER force field predicts overall reasonable results, but modifications, probably in the torsional parameters, are needed for a more accurate force field.

  1. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-06

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  2. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Pseudomonas and Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, L S; Hylemon, P B; Phibbs, P V

    1977-01-01

    A modified Gilman assay was used to determine the concentrations of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in rapidly filtered cells and in the culture filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli K-12, and Bacteroides fragilis. In P. aeruginosa cultures, levels of cAMP in the filtrate increased with the culture absorbance (3.5 to 19.8 X 10(-9) M) but did not vary significantly with the carbon source used to support growth. Intracellular concentrations (0.8 to 3.2 X 10(-5) M) were substantially higher and did not vary appreciably during growth or with carbon source. Sodium cAMP (5 mM) failed to reverse the catabolite repression of inducible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) synthesis caused by the addition of 10 mM succinate. Exogenous cAMP also had no discernible effect on the catabolite repression control of inducible mannitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.67). P. aeruginosa was found to contain both soluble cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity, and these were compared to the activities detected in crude extracts of E. coli. B. fragilis crude cell extracts contain neither of these enzyme activities, and little or no cAMP was detected in cells or culture filtrates of this anaerobic bacterium. PMID:187575

  3. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development.

  4. Solvent induced reactivity of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole towards zinc (II) carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rupam; Kalita, Dipjyoti; Baruah, Jubaraj B

    2009-09-28

    The reactions of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole with zinc(II)acetate dihydrate and varieties of aromatic carboxylic acids led to formation of mono-nuclear zinc complexes of composition [Zn(HDMP)2(RCO2)2] (R = C6H5, p-CH3-C6H4, p-NO2-C6H4 etc. HDMP = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) in methanol, whereas the same reactants in dimethylformamide (DMF) gave binuclear 3,5-dimethylpyrazolato bridged zinc carboxylate complexes containing monodentate 3,5-dimethylpyraozole ligands with composition [Zn2(mu-DMP)2(HDMP)2(RCO2)2]. The mononuclear complexes can be converted to the corresponding binuclear complexes by simply dissolving in DMF. The reaction of zinc(II)acetate dihydrate with p-nitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole in different solvents gave solvated mononuclear complexes of the corresponding solvent. All these solvated complexes having the core [Zn(HDMP)2(p-NO2-C6H4CO2)2] contain two structurally independent molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2).

  5. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  6. The C-H Stretching Features at 3.2--3.5 μm of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Aliphatic Sidegroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. J.; Li, Aigen; Glaser, R.; Zhong, J. X.

    2016-07-01

    The so-called “unidentified” infrared emission (UIE) features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical regions. The UIE features are characteristic of the stretching and bending vibrations of aromatic hydrocarbon materials, e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The 3.3 μm aromatic C-H stretching feature is often accompanied by a weaker feature at 3.4 μm. The latter is generally thought to result from the C-H stretch of aliphatic groups attached to the aromatic systems. The ratio of the observed intensity of the 3.3 μm aromatic C-H feature to that of the 3.4 μm aliphatic C-H feature allows one to estimate the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers, provided that the intrinsic oscillator strengths of the 3.3 μm aromatic C-H stretch ({A}3.3) and the 3.4 μm aliphatic C-H stretch ({A}3.4) are known. While previous studies on the aliphatic fraction of the UIE carriers were mostly based on the {A}3.4/{A}3.3 ratios derived from the mono-methyl derivatives of small PAH molecules, in this work we employ density functional theory to compute the infrared vibrational spectra of PAH molecules with a wide range of sidegroups including ethyl, propyl, butyl, and several unsaturated alkyl chains, as well as all the isomers of dimethyl-substituted pyrene. We find that, except for PAHs with unsaturated alkyl chains, the corresponding {A}3.4/{A}3.3 ratios are close to that of mono-methyl PAHs. This confirms the predominantly aromatic nature of the UIE carriers previously inferred from the {A}3.4/{A}3.3 ratio derived from mono-methyl PAHs.

  7. Identification of the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes from Antarctic moss and their regulation during abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenghao; Ju, Jianfang; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-06-10

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant secondary metabolites, and their hydroxylation pattern determines their color, stability, and antioxidant capacity. The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of flavonoids is determined by the activity of two members of cytochrome P450 protein (P450) family, the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3',5'H). However, they are still not well documented in lower plants such as bryophytes. We report the identification of gene encoding F3'H, F3',5'H from Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans and their transcriptional regulation under different stress conditions. Totally, sixteen cDNAs were isolated from P. nutans by RT-PCR and RACE techniques, all of which were predicted to code for F3'Hs or F3',5'Hs based on their annotations of Blast results. Amino acid alignment showed that they possessed the featured conserved domains of flavonoid hydroxylase, including proline-rich "hinge" region, EXXR motif, oxygen binding pocket motif, heme binding domain and substrate recognition sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that moss F3'Hs and F3',5'Hs were highly conserved and have independent evolution from the monocots, dicots and ferns. Meanwhile, real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression profiling of flavonoid hydroxylase genes was influenced by diverse abiotic stresses including cold, salinity, drought or UV-B radiation and plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) or jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Since 3',4',5'-hydroxylated flavonoid-derivatives may serve a multitude of functions, including antioxidant activity and UV filters, the evolution and expression profile of flavonoid hydroxylase probably reflect the adaptive value of Antarctic moss in the acclimation of polar environment.

  8. Tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane-based heterobimetallic complexes that contain Zn - and Cd - transition-metal bonds: synthesis, structures, and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jens; González-Gallardo, Sandra; Hohnstein, Silvia; Garnier, Delphine; Armbruster, Markus K; Fink, Karin; Klopper, Wim; Breher, Frank

    2015-02-09

    Reactions of the tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methanide amido complexes [M'{C(3,5-Me2 pz)3 }{N(SiMe3 )2 }] (M'=Mg (1 a), Zn (1 b), Cd (1 c); 3,5-Me2 pz=3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl) with two equivalents of the acidic Group 6 cyclopentadienyl (Cp) tricarbonyl hydrides [MCp(CO)3 H] (M=Cr (2 a), Mo (2 b)) gave different types of heterobimetallic complex. In each case, two reactions took place, namely the conversion of the tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methanide ligand (Tpmd*) into the -methane derivative (Tpm*) and the reaction of the acidic hydride M = H bond with the M' = N(SiMe3 )2 moiety. The latter produces HN(SiMe3 )2 as a byproduct. The Group 2 representatives [Mg(Tpm*){MCp(CO)3 }2 (thf)] (3 a/b) form isocarbonyl bridges between the magnesium and chromium/molybdenum centres, whereas direct metal-metal bonds are formed in the case of the ions [Zn(Tpm*){MCp(CO)3 }](+) (4 a/b; [MCp(CO)3 ](-) as the counteranion) and [Cd(Tpm*){MCp(CO)3 }(thf)](+) (5 a/b; [Cd{MCp(CO)3 }3 ](-) as the counteranion). Complexes 4 a and 5 a/b are the first complexes that contain Zn - Cr, Cd - Cr, and Cd - Mo bonds (bond lengths 251.6, 269.8, and 278.9 pm, respectively). Quantum chemical calculations on 4 a/b* (and also on 5 a/b*) provide evidence for an interaction between the metal atoms.

  9. Selective neurotensin-derived internally quenched fluorogenic substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16): comparison with thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Campos, M; Hemerly, J P; Ferro, E S; Camargo, A C; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L

    2001-05-15

    Internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from neurotensin (pELYENKPRRPYIL) sequence were synthesized and assayed as substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15 or TOP), and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11 or NEP). Abz-LYENKPRRPYILQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp is N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine and Abz is ortho-aminobenzoic acid) was derived from neurotensin by the introduction of Q-EDDnp at the C-terminal end of peptide and by the substitution of the pyroglutamic (pE) residue at N-terminus for Abz and a series of shorter peptides was obtained by deletion of amino acids residues from C-terminal, N-terminal, or both sides. Neurolysin and TOP hydrolyzed the substrates at P--Y or Y--I or R--R bonds depending on the sequence and size of the peptides, while NEP cleaved P-Y or Y-I bonds according to its S'(1) specificity. One of these substrates, Abz-NKPRRPQ-EDDnp was a specific and sensitive substrate for neurolysin (k(cat) = 7.0 s(-1), K(m) = 1.19 microM and k(cat)/K(m) = 5882 mM(-1). s(-1)), while it was completely resistant to NEP and poorly hydrolyzed by TOP and also by prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26). Neurolysin concentrations as low as 1 pM were detected using this substrate under our conditions and its analogue Abz-NKPRAPQ-EDDnp was hydrolyzed by neurolysin with k(cat) = 14.03 s(-1), K(m) = 0.82 microM, and k(cat)/K(m) = 17,110 mM(-1). s(-1), being the best substrate so far described for this peptidase.

  10. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval or disapproval of applications. 4750.3-4 Section 4750.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... facilities or transport, the individual may correct the shortcoming and file a new application....

  11. Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Ryo; Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Carter, Mark G.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2006-01-01

    POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks. PMID:17183653

  12. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1985-12-01

    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  13. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  14. Geochemical modeling (EQ3/6) plan: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, W.F.; Wolery, T.J.; Delany, J.M.; Silva, R.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Emerson, D.O.

    1986-08-28

    This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines.

  15. Estimation of food portion sizes frequently consumed by children 3-6 years old in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Keiko; Haga, Megumi; Adachi, Miyuki; Sakai, Haruko; Takahashi, Chieko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    No study has documented Japanese children's food portion sizes. Since this information is essential to establish valid measurement tools and effective education methods for dietary intake, we measured them using one-day, semi-weighed diet records (DRs) for 489 Japanese children aged 3-6 y. Each food's frequency of appearance on the DRs was counted. If a child consumed a certain food more than once per day, an average weight for that food was calculated and used in the portion size calculation as that child's representative value. In total, 67 food items were consumed by twenty or more children. We calculated the mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum portion size values for these food items. In addition to these 67 items, Chinese noodles and water were included in the analysis. The most frequently consumed food was well-milled rice (mean portion size for rice=79 g), which was consumed by 350 children, followed by soy sauce (4 g), eggs (26 g), and carrots (9 g). Among the five most frequently consumed foods, portion sizes of rice and pork but not milk, eggs, or carrots significantly increased with age, height, and weight. In multivariate linear regression analysis, however, the significant relationships between rice portion size and age were not observed. Regarding pork, only the relationship with height was significant. A sex difference was detected in the rice and milk portion sizes. Most of portion sizes observed here were apparently smaller than those reported among United Kingdom children. This study provides important basic information for the implementation of quantitative nutritional research and educational efforts for Japanese preschool children.

  16. Comparing sea ice, hydrography and circulation between NEMO3.6 LIM3 and LIM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uotila, Petteri; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Lensu, Mikko; Rousset, Clement

    2017-03-01

    A set of hindcast simulations with the new version 3.6 of the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) ocean-ice model in the ORCA1 configuration and forced by the DRAKKAR Forcing Set version 5.2 (DFS5.2) atmospheric data was performed from 1958 to 2012. Simulations differed in their sea-ice component: the old standard version Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model (LIM2) and its successor LIM3. Main differences between these sea-ice models are the parameterisations of sub-grid-scale sea-ice thickness distribution, ice deformation, thermodynamic processes, and sea-ice salinity. Our main objective was to analyse the response of the ocean-ice system sensitivity to the change in sea-ice physics. Additional sensitivity simulations were carried out for the attribution of observed differences between the two main simulations.In the Arctic, NEMO-LIM3 compares better with observations by realistically reproducing the sea-ice extent decline during the last few decades due to its multi-category sea-ice thickness. In the Antarctic, NEMO-LIM3 more realistically simulates the seasonal evolution of sea-ice extent than NEMO-LIM2. In terms of oceanic properties, improvements are not as evident, although NEMO-LIM3 reproduces a more realistic hydrography in the Labrador Sea and in the Arctic Ocean, including a reduced cold temperature bias of the Arctic Intermediate Water at 250 m. In the extra-polar regions, the oceanographic conditions of the two NEMO-LIM versions remain relatively similar, although they slowly drift apart over decades. This drift is probably due to a stronger deep water formation around Antarctica in LIM3.

  17. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  18. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  19. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  20. Oct3/4-associating proteins from embryonal carcinoma and spermatogenic cells of mouse.

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A; Vorob'ev, V; Drosdowsky, M; Séralini, G E

    1998-03-01

    The octamer-binding protein Oct3/4 was postulated to active transcription through protein-protein interactions with hypothetical cellular coactivator(s). We have used a bacterially produced Oct3/4, as a protein-binding probe, to detect by far-Western assay the Oct3/4-associating proteins (OTAPs) from the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells F9 and pachytene spermatocytes. Both common and cell-specific OTAPs were shown to interact directly with Oct3/4. Differentiation of the EC cells results in disappearance of most of OTAPs, supporting their coactivator nature. Several OTAPs detected in pachytene spermatocyte may represent germ cell-specific Oct3/4 coactivators.

  1. Neuropeptide specificity and inhibition of recombinant isoforms of the endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 family: comparison with the related recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed

    Rioli, V; Kato, A; Portaro, F C; Cury, G K; te Kaat, K; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Camargo, A C; Glucksman, M J; Roberts, J L; Hirose, S; Ferro, E S

    1998-09-08

    Endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 (EP24.16c, neurolysin) and thimet oligopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 are close related members of a large family of metalloproteases. Besides their cytosolic and membrane bound form, endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 appears to be present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria (EP24.16m). We have overexpressed two porcine EP24.16 isoforms in E. coli and purified the recombinant proteins to homogeneity. We show here that these peptidases hydrolyse a series of neuropeptides with similar rates and at sites reminiscent of those elicited by classically purified human brain EP24.16c. All neuropeptides, except neurotensin, were similarly cleaved by recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15, thimet oligopeptidase), another zinc-containing metalloenzyme structurally related to EP24.16. These two EP24.16 isoforms were drastically inhibited by Pro-Ile and dithiothreitol and remained unaffected by a specific carboalkyl inhibitor (CFP-AAY-pAb) directed toward the related EP24.15. The present purification procedure of EP24.16 should allow to establish, by mutagenesis analysis, the mechanistic properties of the enzyme.

  2. An efficient synthesis of 3,4-Dihydrofuro [3,4-B] [1,4] dioxepine-6,8-dicarboxylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DENG, D. D.; WANG, L. P.; YAN, H. W.; SUN, X. X.; WANG, Z.

    2017-01-01

    As a class of important conjugated polymers, electroluminescent material of polyfuran possess a lot of merits, including good stability, structure is easy to be modified and controllable electrochemical properties. This study uses ethylene diglycol, diethyl oxalate, 1,3- dibromopropane and so on as raw materials to synthesize 3, 4 - ethylenedioxy furan monomer and similar derivatives via oxidation, acetylation, hydrolysis and elimination reaction, etc.

  3. 3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates--new group of potential cardiotonic drugs.

    PubMed

    Krauze, A; Vītoliņa, R; Garaliene, V; Sīle, L; Klusa, V; Duburs, G

    2005-11-01

    3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates 6-11 were prepared by a Michael reaction of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride with 3-aryl-2-cyanothioacrylamides or by a one-pot three-carbon condensation of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride, aromatic aldehyde and 2-cyanothioacetamide, and their cardiotonic properties were studied. 3,4-trans-5-cyano-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate 8 was considered as a lead compound in this series since it in vitro experiments (spontaneously beating rat atria) showed a cardiotonic activity similar to that of milrinone 2, however compound 8 induced activity at lover concentrations and without influence on chronotropic action of the heart. Unlike milrinone 2, thiolate 8 in vivo experiments (anaesthetized rats) did not influence blood pressure and heart rate. The acute toxicity of compound 8 was more than 10 times lower than that of milrinone 2.

  4. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  5. Loss of the six3/6 controlling pathways might have resulted in pinhole-eye evolution in Nautilus.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moritaki, Takeya; Okuda, Yuki; Sese, Jun; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Sousounis, Konstantinos; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2013-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods have an elaborate camera eye whereas nautiloids have primitive pinhole eye without lens and cornea. The Nautilus pinhole eye provides a unique example to explore the module of lens formation and its evolutionary mechanism. Here, we conducted an RNA-seq study of developing eyes of Nautilus and pygmy squid. First, we found that evolutionary distances from the common ancestor to Nautilus or squid are almost the same. Although most upstream eye development controlling genes were expressed in both species, six3/6 that are required for lens formation in vertebrates was not expressed in Nautilus. Furthermore, many downstream target genes of six3/6 including crystallin genes and other lens protein related genes were not expressed in Nautilus. As six3/6 and its controlling pathways are widely conserved among molluscs other than Nautilus, the present data suggest that deregulation of the six3/6 pathway led to the pinhole eye evolution in Nautilus.

  6. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  7. Synthesis and photoluminescence studies on YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, Ranganathan; Ponnusamy, Velladurai; Jose, Mundiyanikal Thomas; Sivakumar, Vairan

    2014-12-01

    Terbium (Tb3+) doped yttrium aluminium borate phosphors (YAl3(BO3)4) with different compositions such as YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ (x = 1-8 mol.%) were synthesized using modified solid state reaction technique. The synthesized phosphor was studied using powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), high resolution-scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM). Lattice parameters are calculated for the Tb3+ doped and substituted YAB phosphors using XRD analysis. The phosphor exhibits green emission at 572 nm with 375 nm of excitation. It is found that the Tb3+ ions substitution in the sites Y3+ and Al3+ ions in Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ leads to overlapping of energy levels which affects the PL intensity of the phosphor significantly. Thus, phosphor synthesized with the composition YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, acquires higher photoluminescence (PL) intensity when compared to Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ phosphors. Temperature dependent PL property (thermal quenching studies) of YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ was also performed up to 250 °C. Further, it is found that the PL intensity of the studied phosphor is comparable with commercial green phosphor. HR-SEM analysis demonstrates that the phosphors are grown as nanorods with an average diameter of 50-80 nm and length 250-500 nm.

  8. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  9. High-resolution spectroscopy, crystal-field calculations, and quadrupole helix chirality of DyFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, M. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Chukalina, E. P.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution polarized transmission spectra of DyFe3(BO3)4 single crystals were investigated in broad spectral (10-23000 cm-1) and temperature (3.5-300 K) ranges. Energies of the dysprosium levels in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases were determined. On the basis of these data and preliminary calculations in the frameworks of the exchange-charge model, we determined the crystal-field and Dy-Fe exchange interaction parameters of the Dy3+ ions at sites with the point C2 symmetry corresponding to the enantiomorphic P3121 and P3221 space groups. The values of electronic quadrupole moments of the Dy3+ ions were calculated, which enabled us to interpret results of the work [Usui et al., Nature Mater. 13, 611 (2014)] on the observation of domains of different quadrupole chirality in DyFe3(BO3)4.

  10. On the kinetics and energetics of one-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, M E D G; Burrows, H D; Canle, M; Coimbra, R; Fernández, M I; García, M V; Rodrigues, A E; Santaballa, J A; Steenken, S

    2003-01-07

    One-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines is observed with both excited uranyl ion (*UO2(2+)) and sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) in aqueous solution, but not with Tl2+, indicating that the standard reduction potentials E degree of 1,3,5-triazine radical cations are = 2.3 +/- 0.1 V vs. NHE, consistent with theoretical calculations; this suggests that if triazines inhibit electron transfer during photosynthesis, they would need to act on the reductive part of the electron transport chain.

  11. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions.

  12. Bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-kappaN2)silver(I) nitrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Fackler, John P

    2002-04-01

    The two independent bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)silver(I) cations in crystalline [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]NO(3) display N-Ag-N angles of 175.51 (14) and 174.44 (13) degrees, and an average Ag-N distance of 2.124 (5) A. The nitrate anion is situated between [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]+ units and interacts via hydrogen bonds with the NH groups. The two 3,5-dimethylpyrazole ligands are trans about the silver center. Only a small deviation from linearity is observed in the coordination around silver.

  13. Crystal growth of CW diode-pumped (Er3+,Yb3+):GdAl3(BO3)4 laser material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, V. V.; Koporulina, E. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Gorbachenya, K. N.; Kisel, V. E.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.

    2014-09-01

    Phase relationships in the Er:YbxGd1-xAl3(BO3)4-K2Mo3O10-B2O3-(Gd,Er,Yb)2O3 (x=0-0.2, Er-1 at%) system were studied in the temperature range from 1150 to 900 °С. Multicomponent melts of 55 mol%K2Mo3O10-45 mol% B2O3 (I) and 55 mol% K2Mo3O10-40 mol% B2O3-5 mol% (Gd,Er,Yb)2O3 (II) were suggested as reasonable fluxes for high-temperature solution growth of (Yb3+,Er3+):GdAl3(BO3)4 single crystals. Yb0.15Gd0.85Al3(BO3)4 solubility in the complex flux of II composition has been found as varying from 17 to 9.5 mol% with decreasing temperature in the interval of 1000-800 °C. As a result, (Er,Yb):GdAB single crystals with high optical quality and sizes up to 20×10×10 mm were grown on dipped "point" seeds. Absorption and stimulated emission spectra, emission lifetimes, and efficiencies of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions were determined. Highly efficient continuous-wave diode-pumped laser operation of (Er,Yb):GdAl3(BO3)4 crystal was realized.

  14. Hierarchical scheme for liquid chromatography/multi-stage spectrometric identification of 3,4,5-triacyl chlorogenic acids in green Robusta coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2010-08-15

    Liquid chromatography/multi-stage spectrometry (LC/MS(n)) (n = 2-4) has been used to detect and characterize in green Robusta coffee beans eight quantitatively minor triacyl chlorogenic acids with seven of them not previously reported in nature. These comprise 3,4,5-tricaffeoylquinic acid (Mr 678); 3,5-dicaffeoyl-4-feruloylquinic acid, 3-feruloyl-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-dicaffeoyl-5-feruloylquinic acid (Mr 692); 3-caffeoyl-4,5-diferuloylquinic acid and 3,4-diferuloyl-5-caffeoylquinic acid (Mr 706); and 3,4-dicaffeoyl-5-sinapoylquinic acid and 3-sinapoyl-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (Mr 722). Structures have been assigned on the basis of LC/MS(n) patterns of fragmentation. A new hierarchical key for the identification of triacyl quinic acids is presented, based on previously established rules of fragmentation. Fifty-two chlorogenic acids have now been characterized in green Robusta coffee beans. In this study five samples of green Robusta coffee beans and fifteen samples of Arabica coffee beans were analyzed with triacyl chlorogenic acids only found in Robusta coffee bean extracts. These triacyl chlorogenic acids could be considered as useful phytochemical markers for the identification of Robusta coffee beans.

  15. White light from an electroluminescent diode made from poly(3(4-octylphenyl)-2,2min -bithiophene) and an oxadiazole derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, M.; Gustafsson, G.; Inganas, O.; Andersson, M. R.; Hjertberg, T.; Wennerstrom, O.

    1994-12-01

    We report on an electroluminescent diode emitting red, green, and blue light simultaneously. The device is based on a thin polymer layer, poly(3-(4-octylphenyl)-2,2 min-bithiophene) and a thick molecular layer, 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tertbutyl-phenyl)1,3,5-oxadiazole. The quantum efficiency for light conversion is 0.3% and the turn-on voltage for light emission is 7 V. In this arcitcle we present electric and spectroscopic characterizations. A mechanism for the light emission, based on electron and hole recombination between the two organic layers, is proposed.

  16. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Overestimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in water samples due to the presence of nitroglycerin or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Lévesque, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Marois, André

    2012-08-24

    A large number of laboratory studies have reported nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to be among the most common degradation products of the high explosives nitroglycerin (NG) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Additionally, several field studies have reported the presence of RDX or NG along with NO(3)(-) in groundwater near production plants. Most studies, however, did not specify whether their NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) analyses were performed on samples which also contained RDX or NG. Inconsistent NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) results obtained in our laboratory suggested that the presence of RDX or NG in water samples caused an overestimation of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations when using two of the most common analytical methods, namely ionic chromatography and automated colorimetry. This could have important implications for mass balance calculations and for environmental decisions. This paper focused on quantifying the overestimation of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) due to the presence of RDX and NG, and finding a method for extracting RDX and NG from water samples without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Results showed that the overestimation can be predicted using regression coefficients; however the margin of error at the 95% confidence level was between 5 and 15%. Alternatively, a cartridge was found which retains both RDX and NG without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). The cartridge can be used for concentrating the RDX or NG in dilute environmental samples, while removing RDX/NG from solution to allow the interference-free analysis of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Additionally, if recovery of RDX/NG from the cartridges is not desired, the cartridges could be used for the extraction of more than one sample, thus reducing the costs.

  18. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use.

  19. Toxic effects of oral hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig A; Quinn, Michael J; Bazar, Matthew A; Talent, Larry G; Johnson, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely used as an explosive in munition formulations, resulting in contamination of wildlife habitat on military installations. To estimate health effects for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Estimated oral median lethal doses were 72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-106) mg/kg body weight (slope, 3.754) for males and 88 (95% CI, 65-119) mg/kg (slope, 4.525) for females. Toxicity from RDX suggested the neurological system as the critical target tissue. A 14-d subacute study followed with males dosed orally with RDX (corn oil) at 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg/d. Signs of toxicity frequently included a characteristic body posture. A significant dose-survival relationship was seen over the range of doses, with a significant decrease in survival at 20 mg/kg/d. Males in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 8, and 11 mg/kg/d, and signs of toxicity included lethargy, cachexia, and anorexia. Survival was decreased at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Reduced growth rate and food consumption occurred at 5 mg/kg/d. Brain tissue was assayed for RDX when seizures were observed at a residue concentration of at least 18 microg/g. No abnormalities were observed in the hematologic indices, whereas plasma proteins were reduced. Hepatic enlargement and decreased testes mass occurred at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Plasma testosterone concentrations, sperm counts, and motility measures were variable for all treatment levels. Based on survival, growth rate, food intake, and testes to brain weight ratios, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/d.

  20. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.