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Sample records for 3-4 mm diameter

  1. 32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM FILM SHOT PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  2. Limits on Venus' SO2 abundance profile from interferometric observations at 3.4 mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, J. C.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1983-01-01

    The role of SO2 in the chemistry of the clouds of Venus has been investigated by deducing its mixing ratio profile in the atmosphere through millimeter wavelength interferometric measurements of the planet's limb darkening. The first zero crossing of the Venus visibility function was measured to be 0.6221 + or - 0.0007 at a wavelength of 3.4 mm, using a reference radius for Venus of 6100 km. This measurement constrains the amount of limb darkening and shows that the high concentrations of SO2 found in the lower atmosphere do not persist above an altitude of 42 km. Thus, a sink for SO2 exists below the level of the lowest cloud deck.

  3. Characterization of 100 mm Diameter 4H-Silicon Carbide CrystalsWith Extremely Low Basal Plane Dislocation Density

    SciTech Connect

    M Dudley; N Zhang; Y Zhang; B Raghothamachar; S Byrappa; G Choi; E Drachev; M Loboda

    2011-12-31

    Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) studies are presented of basal plane dislocation (BPD) configurations and behavior in a new generation of 100mm diameter, 4H-SiC wafers with extremely low BPD densities (3-4 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup -2}). The conversion of non-screw oriented, glissile BPDs into sessile threading edge dislocations (TEDs) is observed to provide pinning points for the operation of single ended Frank-Read sources. In some regions, once converted TEDs are observed to re-convert back into BPDs in a repetitive process which provides multiple BPD pinning points.

  4. Ultrasonic micro-motor using miniature piezoelectric tube with diameter of 1.0 mm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Shu-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Wang, Tian-hua; Zhang, Zhong-ning; Fan, Li

    2006-12-22

    At the present moment, the smallest piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-motors utilizing miniature PZT piezoelectric ceramic tubes were developed. The motor consists of a PZT-metal composite tube stator, two steel rotors and a thin shaft that keeps the two rotors pressing on both ends of the stator elastically. The dimensions of the PZT tube are 1.0 mm in outer diameter, 0.6 mm in inner diameter and 5.0 mm in length. The diameter and total length of the assembled micro-motor is 1.0 mm and 8 mm (including an adjusting spring), respectively. The tube-type micro-motor is driven by two pairs of alternative voltages with phase shift 90 degrees between the adjacent electrodes and operated in the first circular-bending vibration mode of the stator with the resonance frequency about 58 kHz. The experimental results show that the tube-type micro-motors have perfect performances: (i) high rotation frequency over 3000 rpm and (ii) large starting torque over 7.8 microN m under the conditions of the input voltage of 110 V(p-p) and the resonance frequency. The micro-motor is well suitable for operating in micro-spaces, such as in intravascular, micro-robots and micro-craft applications.

  5. Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert

    We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of <10 mm length. The use of the Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of <0.2 nm/min and lowest resonance frequencies of 2.5 (xy) and 5.5 kHz (z). We present examples of the performance of the multitip STM designed using the Koala Drive.

  6. Use of 5-mm-diameter implants: Periotest values related to a clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Orozco, P

    1998-12-01

    A modified design of the original Brånemark implant consisting of a cp. Titanium 5.0-mm-diameter self-tapping implant threaded up to the marginal platform has been proposed for specific indications. From February 1992 to November 1995, a total of 185 machined screw implants (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) were installed in 45 patients to withstand 58 prostheses. Of these, 91 were 3.75-mm diameter and 94 were 5.0-mm wide. Most of the implants were placed in type B and C bone quantity and type 2 and 3 bone quality. A retrospective evaluation with regard to indications, marginal bone remodelling, Periotest values (PTv) and survival rate is presented. PTv and radiographic measurements were made at abutment connection and repeated 3, 6 and 12 months later and thereafter every year. The follow-up ranged from 16 to 55 months (mean 32.9 months) post-loading. Three patients with 8 5.0-mm implants dropped-out of the study at different stages. Out of the wide implants, 1 was expelled during the healing period; 3 were found mobile at the abutment connection; 1 lost its osseointegration suddenly after 2 years of function; 4 belonging to 1 patient did not meet the success criteria due to continuous marginal bone loss. The cumulative success rate of 5.0-mm implants (CSR) after 1 year of function was 97.2% for upper jaws and 88.4% in mandibles, whereas the CSR in maxilla after 48 months was 97.2% and 83.4% in mandibles. The obtained PTv from 5.0-mm-wide fixtures in maxilla and mandibles were respectively 1.1 and 0.6 units lower than those obtained PTv for 3.75-mm-diameter implants in the same patients. The hypothesis that there are differences in the damping capacity of the bone surrounding a 5.0-mm-wide implant compared to the 3.75-mm-diameter implant is supported by the PTv results. PMID:11429941

  7. Use of 5-mm-diameter implants: Periotest values related to a clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Orozco, P

    1998-12-01

    A modified design of the original Brånemark implant consisting of a cp. Titanium 5.0-mm-diameter self-tapping implant threaded up to the marginal platform has been proposed for specific indications. From February 1992 to November 1995, a total of 185 machined screw implants (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) were installed in 45 patients to withstand 58 prostheses. Of these, 91 were 3.75-mm diameter and 94 were 5.0-mm wide. Most of the implants were placed in type B and C bone quantity and type 2 and 3 bone quality. A retrospective evaluation with regard to indications, marginal bone remodelling, Periotest values (PTv) and survival rate is presented. PTv and radiographic measurements were made at abutment connection and repeated 3, 6 and 12 months later and thereafter every year. The follow-up ranged from 16 to 55 months (mean 32.9 months) post-loading. Three patients with 8 5.0-mm implants dropped-out of the study at different stages. Out of the wide implants, 1 was expelled during the healing period; 3 were found mobile at the abutment connection; 1 lost its osseointegration suddenly after 2 years of function; 4 belonging to 1 patient did not meet the success criteria due to continuous marginal bone loss. The cumulative success rate of 5.0-mm implants (CSR) after 1 year of function was 97.2% for upper jaws and 88.4% in mandibles, whereas the CSR in maxilla after 48 months was 97.2% and 83.4% in mandibles. The obtained PTv from 5.0-mm-wide fixtures in maxilla and mandibles were respectively 1.1 and 0.6 units lower than those obtained PTv for 3.75-mm-diameter implants in the same patients. The hypothesis that there are differences in the damping capacity of the bone surrounding a 5.0-mm-wide implant compared to the 3.75-mm-diameter implant is supported by the PTv results.

  8. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; Bauer, D.A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; Mandic, V.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Partridge, R.; Radpour, R.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  9. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter.

  10. A 2.5-mm diameter probe for photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Chen, Ruimin; Favazza, Christopher; Yao, Junjie; Li, Chiye; Hu, Zhilin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-10-01

    We have created a 2.5-mm outer diameter integrated photo-acoustic and ultrasonic mini-probe which can be inserted into a standard video endoscope's instrument channel. A small-diameter focused ultrasonic transducer made of PMN-PT provides adequate signal sensitivity, and enables miniaturization of the probe. Additionally, this new endoscopic probe utilizes the same scanning mirror and micromotor-based built-in actuator described in our previous reports; however, the length of the rigid distal section of the new probe has been further reduced to ~35 mm. This paper describes the technical details of the mini-probe and presents experimental results that both quantify the imaging performance and demonstrate its in vivo imaging capability, which suggests that it could work as a mini-probe for certain clinical applications. PMID:23188360

  11. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

  12. 200-mm-diameter neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma etcher and silicon etching

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Nukaga, Osamu; Ueki, Shinji; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Inamoto, Yoshimasa; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-09-15

    The authors developed a neutral beam source consisting of a 200-mm-diameter inductively coupled plasma etcher and a graphite neutralization aperture plate based on the design of a neutral beam source that Samukawa et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L779 (2001)] developed. They measured flux and energy of neutral particles, ions, and photons using a silicon wafer with a thermocouple and a Faraday cup and calculated the neutralization efficiency. An Ar neutral beam flux of more than 1 mA/cm{sup 2} in equivalent current density and a neutralization efficiency of more than 99% were obtained. The spatial uniformity of the neutral beam flux was within {+-}6% within a 100 mm diameter. Silicon etching using a F{sub 2}-based neutral beam was done at an etch rate of about 47 nm/min, while Cl{sub 2}-based neutral beam realized completely no undercut. The uniformity of etch rate was less than {+-}5% within the area. The etch rate increased by applying bias power to the neutralization aperture plate, which shows that accelerated neutral beam was successfully obtained. These results indicate that the neutral beam source is scalable, making it possible to obtain a large-diameter and uniform neutral beam, which is inevitable for application to mass production.

  13. Intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) endoscope with 2.2-mm diameter catheter for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bui, Nhat Quang; Hlaing, Kyu Kyu; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Oh, Yun-Ok; Fan, Xiao Feng; Lee, Yong Wook; Nam, Seung Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is extremely important for detection and characterization of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques as well as gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has been used to differentiate the composition of biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasonic resolution. The combination of these imaging techniques could provide morphological information and molecular screening to characterize abnormal tissues, which would help physicians to ensure vital therapeutic value and prognostic significance for patients before commencing therapy. In this study, integration of a high-frequency IVUS imaging catheter (45MHz, single-element, unfocused, 0.7mm in diameter) with a multi-mode optical fiber (0.6mm in core diameter, 0.22 NA), an integrated intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) imaging catheter, was developed to provide spatial and functional information on light distribution in a turbid sample. Simultaneously, IVUS imaging was co-registered to IVPA imaging to construct 3D volumetric sample images. In a phantom study, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) tissue-mimicking arterial vessel phantom with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) inclusion was used to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the biological dyes, which are used in cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics. For the ex vivo study, an excised sample of pig intestine with ICG was utilized to target the biomarkers present in the gastrointestinal tumors or the atherosclerotic plaques with the proposed hybrid technique. The results indicated that IVUP endoscope with the 2.2-mm diameter catheter could be a useful tool for medical imaging.

  14. Construction and manufacturing of a microgearhead with 1.9-mm outer diameter for universal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuerigen, Christian; Beckord, Ulrich; Bessey, Reiner

    1999-03-01

    Many new applications in medicine, telecommunication, automation systems etc. require powerful microdrives. Speeds up to 100.000 rpm and output torques in the (mu) Nm-range are typical characteristics of electromagnetic micromotors with diameters of a few millimeters. To accomplish a powerful microdrive, these micromotors have to be combined with micro gearheads of the same outer diameter. For such a micro gearhead with toothed wheels manufactured by use of the LIGA process a multi-stage planetary gear has many advantages. Many stages with different gear ratios can be combined to achieve a great number of different transmission, but manufacturing tolerances and a clearance for assembly must be respected. Therefore besides the selection of a reliable gearhead type and a suitable manufacturing process the optimization of the tooth profile is the key to the implementation of powerful micro gear systems with high output torques and efficiencies. The involute profile is the most suitable toothing, but many calculations and simulations are required to find the right modulus, total depth of teeth, profile offset etc. In a joint project Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH and Co. KG and the Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH developed a powerful microdevice with an outer diameter of only 1.9 mm.

  15. Photodynamic therapy for Barrett's esophagus using a 20-mm diameter light-delivery balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Phan, Mary N.; Haydek, John M.; Robinson, Amy R.

    2002-06-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus are at a high risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophagectomy is the standard treatment for such patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an improved light delivery balloon for ablation of Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia and/or early cancer. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with HGD or early cancer (19 with HGD, 1 with T1 cancer) received 2 mg/kg of porfimer sodium, intravenously. Two to three days after the injection, laser light was delivered using a cylindrical diffuser inserted inside a 20-mm diameter reflective esophageal PDT balloon. Initially, the balloon was inflated to a pressure of 80 mm Hg. The balloon pressure was gradually reduced to 30 mm Hg. A KTP/dye laser at 630 nm was used as the light source. Light dose of 115 J/cm was delivered at an intensity of 270 mw/cm. Nodules were pre- treated with an extra 50 J/cm using a short diffuser inserted through the scope. Patients were maintained on PPI therapy to keep the gastric pH higher than 4. Eighteen patients required one treatment, while two patients were treated twice. Follow-up consisted of endoscopy with four quadrant biopsies at every 2 cm of the treated area. Thermal ablation was used to treat small residual islands on the follow-ups. The follow-up endoscopies ranged from 6 to 17 months. Results: On follow-up endoscopy, 12 patients had complete replacement of their Barrett's mucosa with neosquamous mucosa. Five patients had residual non-dysplastic Barrett's mucosa, one had indefinite dysplasia, two had low grad dysplasia. There were no residual HGD or cancers. The average length of Barrett's was reduced from 5.4 cm to 1.2 cm. High balloon pressure resulted in wide variation in PDT response among patients. Lower balloon pressures resulted in more consistent destruction of Barrett's mucosa among patients. Five

  16. Efficacy of silodosin in the treatment of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Serdar; Tokgoz, Husnu; Yalcinkaya, Soner; Baş, Serkan; Ipekci, Tümay; Yildiz, Ali; Ates, Nihat; Savas, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have investigated the efficacy of silodosin, a recently introduced selective alpha 1-A adrenoceptor antagonist, in medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteral calculi. The results of these studies, which all evaluated the efficacy of 8 mg/day, indicate that silodosin is a potential treatment for ureteral calculi. This study investigated the efficacy of 4 mg/day of silodosin for MET of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter. Material and Method: After 70 patients had been randomized into 2 groups of 35 patients each, both the control and experimental groups (groups 1 and 2, respectively) were advised to take 75 mg/day of diclofenacsodiumas needed for pain relief but only the experimental group to take 4 mg/day of silodosin. After 21 days, the groups were compared regarding the stone expulsion rate and duration, number of renalcolicepisodes, and analgesicdosage. Results: The median expulsion rates were 71.4% and 91.4% in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P=0.031). The median expulsion durations were 12.91±6.14 and 8.03±4.99 days, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.001). No significant differences were found regarding the median number of renal colic episodes or median analgesic dosage. While no patients in group 1 experienced side effects, 5 patients (14%) in group 2 experienced retrograde ejaculation. Conclusion: These results indicate that 4 mg/day of silodos in facilitates the expulsion of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter but does not significantly reduce the number of renal colic episodes or analgesic dosage. PMID:26770537

  17. Electrostatic endothelial cell seeding technique for small-diameter (<6 mm) vascular prostheses: feasibility testing.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, G L; Rittgers, S E

    1997-01-01

    Multiple studies have indicated the importance of surface charge in the adhesion of multiple cardiovascular cell lines including platelets and endothelial cells on the substrate materials (1,4,7-10,12-15). It is the purpose of this article to report a feasibility study conducted using an electrostatic endothelial cell seeding technique. The feasibility study was conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), a static pool apparatus, a voltage source, and a parallel plate capacitor. The HUVEC concentration and seeding times were constant at 560,000 HUVEC/ml and 30 min, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the endothelial cell adhesion indicated that an induced temporary positive surface charge on e-PTFE graft material enhances the number and the maturation (flattening) of HUVECs adhered. The results indicated that the total number of endothelial cells adhered (70.9 mm2) was increased from 9198 +/- 1194 HUVECs on the control (no induced surface charge) e-PTFE to 22,482 +/- 4814 HUVECs (2.4 x control) on the maximum induced positive surface charge. The total number of cells in the flattened phase of adhesion increased from 837 +/- 275 to 6785 +/- 1012 HUVECs (8.1x) under identical conditions. Thus, the results of the feasibility study support the premise that electrostatic interaction is an important factor in both the endothelial cell adhesion and spreading processes and suggest that the electrostatic seeding technique may lead to an increased patency of small diameter (<6 mm) vascular prostheses.

  18. Integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a 1-mm-diameter catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaosong; Gong, Xiaojing; Lin, Riqiang; Hau, William; Song, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plays a vital role in assessing the severity of atherosclerosis and has greatly enriched our knowledge on atherosclerotic plaques. However, it mainly reveals the structural information of plaques. In contrast, spectroscopic and molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve plaque composition identification, inflammation detection, and ultimately the stratification of plaque vulnerability and risk. In this work, we developed an integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (IVUS-PAM) system with a single catheter as small as 1 mm in diameter, comparable to that of existing clinical IVUS catheters. In addition, by using a GRIN lens to focus the excitation laser pulse, the system provides an optical-diffraction limited photoacoustic lateral resolution as fine as 19.6 micrometers, ~10-fold finer than that of conventional intravascular photoacoustic imaging and existing IVUS technology. The system employs a custom-made miniaturized single-element ultrasonic transducer with a dimension of ~0.5 mm, a centre frequency of ~40 MHz, and a fractional bandwidth of ~60%. The IVUS-PAM can simultaneously acquire co-registered IVUS images with an axial resolution of ~40 micrometers and a lateral resolution of ~200 micrometers. In the future, IVUS-PAM may open up new opportunities for improved high-resolution vulnerable plaque imaging and image-guided stent deployment.

  19. Manufacturing of 100mm diameter GaSb substrates for advanced space based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. P.; Flint, J. P.; Meshew, G.; Trevethan, J.; Dallas, G.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Hill, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered substrates such as large diameter (100mm) GaSb wafers need to be ready years in advance of any major shift in DoD and commercial technology, and typically before much of the rest of the materials and equipment for fabricating next generation devices. Antimony based III-V semiconductors are of significant interest for advanced applications in optoelectronics, high speed transistors, microwave devices, and photovoltaics. GaSb demand is increasing due to its lattice parameter matching of various ternary and quaternary III-V compounds, as their bandgaps can be engineered to cover a wide spectral range. For these stealth and spaced based applications, larger format IRFPAs benefit clearly from next generation starting substrates. In this study, we have manufactured and tested 100mm GaSb substrates. This paper describes the characterization process that provides the best possible GaSb material for advanced IRFPA and SLS epi growth. The analysis of substrate by AFM surface roughness, particles, haze, GaSb oxide character and desorption using XPS, flatness measurements, and SLS based epitaxy quality are shown. By implementing subtle changes in our substrate processing, we show that a Sb-oxide rich surface is routinely provided for rapid desorption. Post-MBE CBIRD structures on the 100mm ULD GaSb were examined and reveals a high intensity, 6.6nm periodicity, low (15.48 arcsec) FWHM peak distribution that suggests low surface strain and excellent lattice matching. The Ra for GaSb is a consistent ~0.2-4nm, with average batch wafer warp of ~4 μm to provide a clean, flat GaSb template critical for next generation epi growth.

  20. Intravascular Optical-Resolution Photoacoustic Tomography with a 1.1 mm Diameter Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaosong; Gong, Xiaojing; Hau, William; Lin, Riqiang; Zheng, Jiaxiang; Liu, Chengbo; Zeng, Chengzhi; Zou, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Song, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technology that can provide anatomic, functional, and molecular information about biological tissue. Intravascular spectroscopic and molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve the identification of atherosclerotic plaque composition, the detection of inflammation, and ultimately the risk stratification of atherosclerosis. In this study, a first-of-its-kind intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography (OR-PAT) system with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter is developed, offering optical-diffraction limited transverse resolution as fine as 19.6 μm, ∼10-fold finer than that of conventional intravascular photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging. To offer complementary imaging information and depth, the system also acquires co-registered intravascular ultrasound images in parallel. Imaging of an iliac stent and a lipid phantom shows that the high resolution and contrast of OR-PAT can enable improved stent implantation guidance and lipid identification. In the future, these capabilities may ultimately improve the diagnosis and interventional treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are prone to cause thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:24651256

  1. A simple multi-seeding approach to growth of large YBCO bulk with a diameter above 53 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tian-wei; Wu, Dong-jie; Wu, Xing-da; Xu, Ke-Xi

    2015-12-01

    A successful simple multi-seeding approach to growing large size Y-Ba-C-O (YBCO) bulks is reported. Compared with the common single seeding method, our multi-seeding method is more efficient. By using four SmBa2Cu3O7-δ (Sm-123) seeds cut from a large size Sm-Ba-C-O (SmBCO) single domain, large YBCO samples up to 53 mm in diameter could be produced successfully and 100 mm diameter samples can also be grown. Experimental results show that the processing time can be shortened greatly by using this new approach, and the superconducting properties can also be improved. The Hall probe mapping shows that the trapped field distribution of 53 mm diameter multi-seeded sample is homogeneous and the peak value is up to 0.53 T. The magnetic levitation force density reaches to 14.7 N/cm2 (77 K, 0.5 T).

  2. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices.

  3. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices. PMID:25004511

  4. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu.; Gao, Yifeng; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  5. Design and performance of a parachute recovery system to recover 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Peterson, C.W.; Botner, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A parachute recovery system has been developed and demonstrated for the recovery of 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells. The recovery system functions after being subjected to gun launch accelerations of up to 18,000 g's axially and up to 400,000 rad/sec/sup 2/ radially. The parachute is deployed while the shell is still spinning at about 250 revolutions per second. To deploy the parachute while the shell is spinning, a double-swivel system was developed. The deployment signal for the recovery system is provided by an electronic timer. Over 250 tests have been performed on both the 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shell. Impact velocities are between 100 and 120 feet per second. The latest version of the recovery systems has been proven to be over 95% successful for the recovery of 8-inch-diameter artillery shells and over 85% successful for the recovery of 155-mm-diameter artillery shells.

  6. Design and evaluation of coils for a 50 mm diameter induction coilgun launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Shokair, I.R.; Wavrik, R.W.; Dempsey, J.F.; Honey, W.E.; Shimp, K.J.; Douglas, G.M.

    1993-12-31

    Coilguns have the ability to provide magnetic pressure to projectiles which results in near constant acceleration. However, to achieve this performance and control projectile hearing, significant constraints are placed on the design of the coils. We are developing coils to produce an effective projectile base pressure of 100 MPa (1kbar) as a step toward reaching base pressures of 200 MPa. The design uses a scalable technology applicable to the entire range of breech to muzzle coils of a multi-stage launcher. This paper presents the design of capacitor-driven coils for launching nominal 50 mm, 350 gram projectiles. Design criteria, constraints, mechanical stress analysis, launcher performance, and test results are discussed.

  7. Record high-speed short-range transmission over 1 mm core diameter POF employing DMT modulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Lee, S C J; Okonkwo, C M; Abraha, S T; van den Boom, H P A; Breyer, F; Randel, S; Koonen, A M J; Tangdiongga, E

    2010-03-01

    We report multigigabit/second transmission capacity in 1 mm core diameter graded index plastic optical fiber (POF) exploiting off-the-shelf low-cost components and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation. Transmission capacities of 10.1 Gbits/s x 15 m and 12.7 Gbits/s x 3 m are achieved for average bit-error rates less than 10(-3).

  8. Pilot Mouse Study of 1 mm Inner Diameter (ID) Vascular Graft Using Electrospun Poly(ester urea) Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaohua; Yi, Tai; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Lee, Yong Ung; Reneker, Darrell H; Breuer, Christopher K; Becker, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    An off-the-shelf, small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) would be transformative to surgeons in multiple subspecialties. Herein, the results of a small diameter (ID ≈ 1 mm) vascular graft constructed from resorbable, amino acid-based poly(ester urea) (PEU) are reported. Electrospun PEU grafts of two different wall thicknesses (type A: 250 μm; type B: 350 μm) are implanted as abdominal infra-renal aortic grafts in a severe combined immune deficient/beige mouse model and evaluated for vessel remodeling over one year. Significantly, the small diameter TEVG does not rupture or lead to acute thrombogenic events during the intervals tested. The pilot TEVG in vivo shows long-term patency and extensive tissue remodeling with type A grafts. Extensive tissue remodeling in type A grafts leads to the development of well-circumscribed neovessels with an endothelial inner lining, a neointima containing smooth muscle cells. However, due to slow degradation of the PEU scaffold materials in vivo, the grafts remain after one year. The type B grafts, which have 350 μm thick walls, experience occlusion over the one year interval due to intimal hyperplasia. This study affords significant findings that will guide the design of future generations of small diameter vascular grafts.

  9. Synchronous scan-projection lithography on overall circumference of fine pipes with a diameter of 2 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Furuhata, Takahiro; Muro, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    The scan-projection exposure of small-diameter pipe surfaces was investigated using a newly developed prototype exposure system. It is necessary to secure a very large depth of focus for printing thick resist patterns on round pipe surfaces with a roughness larger than that of semiconductor wafers. For this reason, a camera lens with a low numerical aperture of 0.089 was used as a projection lens, and the momentary exposure area was limited by a narrow slit with a width of 800 µm. Thus, patterns on a flat reticle were replicated on a pipe surface by linearly moving the reticle and rotating the pipe synchronously. By using a reticle with inclined line-and-space patterns, helical patterns with a width of 30 µm were successfully replicated on stainless-steel pipes with an outer diameter of 2 mm and coated with a 10-µm-thick negative resist. The patterns replicated at the start and stop edges were smoothly stitched seamlessly.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A Ku-band 3.4 W/mm power AlGaN/GaN HEMT on a sapphire substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongfang, Wang; Xiaojuan, Chen; Xinyu, Liu

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the first domestic Ku-band power AlGaN/GaN HEMT fabricated on a sapphire substrate. The device with a gate width of 0.5 mm and a gate length of 0.35 μm has exhibited an extrinsic current gain cutoff frequency of 20 GHz and an extrinsic maximum frequency of oscillation of 75 GHz. Under VDS = 30 V, CW operating conditions at 14 GHz, the device exhibits a linear gain of 10.4 dB and a 3-dB-gain-compressed output power of 1.4 W with a power added efficiency of 41%. Under pulse operating conditions, the linear gain is 12.8 dB and the 3-dB-compressed output power is 1.7 W. The power density reaches 3.4 W/mm.

  11. Operating characteristics of a 7. 6 mm (0. 30 inch) diameter two-stage light-gas gun

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A R; Hawke, R S; Bowen, P R; Greenwood, D W; Marshall, F R

    1992-07-01

    a series of tests was conducted to determine the operating requirements needed to obtain maximum projectile velocity within the engineering design limits of a two-stage light-gas gun with a 7.6 mm (0.30 inch) diameter bore launch tube. The tests were conducted in a medium vacuum flight range. Previous experience with the gun was used to establish the minimum requirements for optimum efficiency. Two operating parameters, propellant load and drive gas pressure, were varied in order to find an initial optimum operating condition at a conservative propellant load. Propellant load and driver gas pressure were then incrementally increased. This procedure was methodically applied until significant mechanical deformation of a critical gun component took place. This report presents the results of these tests. Projectile velocity was measured to better than 3 percent accuracy using a magnetic induction technique. A 0.485 gram polycarbonate projectile was launched to a velocity of 7.77 km/s during the tests. 13 refs.

  12. Completion of evaluation of manufacturing processes for B/Al composites containing 0.2mm diameter boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Four fabricators produced a total of 54 B/1100 Al, B/6061 Al, and B/2024 Al panels for evaluation. The 8 ply unidirectional, 45 to 50 volume percent, panels were made using 0.20 mm diameter boron fibers which were obtained from a single supplier. Hot press consolidation was carried out in vacuum except for one set of dry woven tape panels which were hot pressed in air. A single testing contractor conducted nondestructive inspection, metallography, fractography and mechanical property tests. The mechanical property tests included 21 and 260 C tensile tests and 21 C shear tests. Panel quality, as measured by nondestructive evaluation, was generally good as were the 21 C tensile properties. The panels hot pressed in air delaminated in the shear tests. Shear strength values were lower in these panels. But tensile strengths were not affected by the delaminations because of the relation between the tensile loading direction and the delaminations. Composite tensile strength was found to be proportional to the volume percent boron and the aluminum matrix rather than to the tape used or fabrication technique. Suitability of these composites for 260 C service was confirmed by tensile tests.

  13. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state.

  14. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state. PMID:26385406

  15. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of lower-pole renal stones with a diameter of smaller than 15 mm.

    PubMed

    Kirac, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Ömer Faruk; Tunc, Lutfi; Guneri, Cagri; Unsal, Ali; Biri, Hasan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) in management of lower-pole renal stones with a diameter smaller than 15 mm. Between December 2009 and July 2012, the patients with the diagnosis of lower-pole stones were evaluated by ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography and computed tomography. The records of 73 evaluable patients who underwent mini-PNL (n = 37) or RIRS (n = 36) for lower-pole (LP) stones with diameter smaller than 15 mm were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 73 patients, 37 underwent mini-PNL and 36 underwent RIRS. The stone-free rates were 89.1 and 88.8 % for mini-PNL and RIRS groups, respectively. The mean operation time was 53.7 ± 14.5 in the mini-PNL group but 66.4 ± 15.8 in the RIRS group (P = 0.01). The mean fluoroscopy times and hospitalization times were significantly higher in the mini-PNL group. There was no major complication in any patient. RIRS and mini-PNL are safe and effective methods for treatment of LP calculi with a diameter smaller than 15 mm. RIRS is a non-invasive and feasible treatment option, and has also short hospitalization time, low morbidity and complication rate. It may be an alternative of mini-PNL in the treatment LP calculi with smaller than 15 mm.

  16. Leg veins with diameter between 1 and 3 mm: flash-lamp-pulsed dye laser, alexandrite laser, invasive Nd:YAG laser treatment, or sclerotherapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smucler, Roman; Mazanek, Jiri; Moidlova, Marta

    2000-05-01

    After unrealistic laser expectations we can see renaissance of 'golden standard' -- sclerotherapy in leg veins treatment. Every laser specialist knows difference between facial and leg veins now. Combination of flash lamp pulsed dye laser /PDL/ and sclerotherapy can be new 'golden standard' but patients are dissatisfied with this procedure which include 'needle medicine.' We presented our way to solve this problem partially-invasive laser treatment with Nd:YAG laser last year. Another trend is introduction of new modifications of near infrared lasers. GentleLASE/Candela, MA/ with dynamic cooling is one of them. We treat veins from 0 - 1 mm in diameter very successfully with PDL/ScleroPlus, Candela, MA/, bigger veins we recommend for minimal invasive or classical surgery. Combination of lasers is we think only one possibility for successful laser treatment. Aim of our work is comparison of sclerotherapy with combinated treatments with PDL, near infrared laser and invasive Nd:YAG laser for veins in diameter between 1 - 2 mm. Results show that combination of lasers offer same results with comparable side effects like sclerotherapy that is cheaper and most common of course. Patients prefer pure laser therapy with combination of pulsed dye laser and alexandrite laser. We think that isn't one best method, decision is one the doctor and patient.

  17. Value of Baseline Clinical and CT Characteristics for Predicting the Progression of Persistent Pure Ground-glass Nodule 10 mm or Less in Diameter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Cai, Zu-Long; Tian, Shu-Ping; Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-Qing; Jin, Mei; Zhao, Shao-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of the progression of persistent pure ground-glass nodule (pGGN) and make the risk stratification for pGGN 10 mm or less in diameter. Methods From June 2008 to April 2015,100 patients (108 lesions) with persistent pGGN≤10 mm in diameter were included in this study. Patients were followed up at least 1 year using thin-section computed tomography (CT). Patients' baseline clinical data and CT characteristics of pGGN were compared between progression group (size increased or/and solid component appeared) and non-progression group. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between clinical data,CT characteristics of pGGN,and lesion progression. The risk indices of lesion progression were calculated according to the results of Cox regression analysis and the relative factors of lung adenocarcinoma in previous studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between risk indices and lesion progression. The optimal cutoff value was decided on receiver operating characteristic curve of risk indices and verified for predicting lesion progression. Results Fifteen of 108 lesions showed progression. The mean follow-up duration was (1016.36±486.00) days. There were statistically significant differences of lesion size,air bronchogram,and vessel changes between progression group and non-progression group (P=0.040,P=0.003,P=0.030,respectively).Lesion density (CT value≥-542.5 HU) and air bronchogram were the risk factors of lesion progression (P=0.003,P=0.021,respectively). The optimal cutoff value of total risk indices on predicting lesion progression was 4.25,with the sensitivity of 46.7%,specificity of 89.2%,and consistency of 83.3%. Conclusions CT value ≥-542.5 HU of pGGN and air bronchogram within lesion may predict lesion progression in persistent pGGN 10 mm or less in diameter. A risk index of less than 4.25 often suggests small probability of disease progression and thus a longer follow

  18. High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Gong, Xiaojing; Liu, Chengbo; Lin, Riqiang; Hau, William; Bai, Xiaosong; Song, Liang

    2015-06-01

    Intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic technology can image atherosclerotic plaque composition with high sensitivity and specificity, which is critical for identifying vulnerable plaques. Here, we designed and engineered a catheter of 0.9 mm in diameter for intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging, smaller than the critical size of 1 mm required for clinical translation. Further, a quasifocusing photoacoustic excitation scheme was developed for the catheter, producing well-detectable IVPA signals from stents and lipids with a laser energy as low as ˜30 μJ/pulse. As a result, this design enabled the use of a low-energy, high-repetition rate, ns-pulsed optical parametric oscillator laser for high-speed spectroscopic IVPA imaging at both the 1.2-μm and 1.7-μm spectral bands for lipid detection. Specifically, for each wavelength, a 1-kHz IVPA A-line rate was achieved, ˜100-fold faster than previously reported IVPA systems offering a similar wavelength tuning range. Using the system, spectroscopic IVPA imaging of peri-adventitial adipose tissue from a porcine aorta segment was demonstrated. The significantly improved imaging speed, together with the reduced catheter size and multiwavelength spectroscopic imaging ability, suggests that the developed high-speed IVPA technology is of great potential to be further translated for in vivo applications.

  19. Development of hot slumping technique and last optical performances obtained on a 500mm diameter slumped segment prototype for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Proserpio, L.

    2009-08-01

    In the framework of the E-ELT Design Study financed by the European Community under OPTICON-FP6, the INAF Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAF-OAB) has developed a technique for the manufacturing of thin optical segments. Thin glass segments are produced by mean of an hot slumping technique that makes use of an optical quality ceramic mould and a precise thermal circle to impart the desired shape to a glass sheet. In the present paper we summarize the results obtained during this study and report the last results of the effort in scaling-up the procedure: in particular the overall process has been refined in order to optimize the parameters (such as time, maximum temperature and amount of pressure) used to slump a 500 mm diameter glass segment. The thickness of these glass segments is of about 1.7 mm, making the optical surface very floppy and easy to be deformed. For this reason optical tests have been performed using a astatic support implemented into a vertical optical bench.

  20. Influence of power density on high purity 63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond deposition inside a 2.45 GHz MPCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwang; Wang, Rong; Zheng, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaojing; Hei, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoping; He, Zhiyong; Shen, Yanyan; Tang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films were synthesized via a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor in 99% H2–1% CH4 atmosphere. Two different conditions, i.e. the typical condition (input power of 5 kW and gas pressure of 13 kPa) and the high power density condition (input power of 10 kW and gas pressure of 18 kPa), were employed for diamond depositions. The color changes of the plasma under the two proposed conditions with and without methane were observed by photographs. Likewise, the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon active chemical species in plasma were analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The morphologies and purity of the PCD films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Finally, the transmission spectrum of the polished PCD plates was characterized by a UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer. Experimental results showed that both the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon radicals increased obviously, with the boost input power and higher pressure. The films synthesized under the high power density condition displayed higher purity and more uniform thickness. The growth rates in 10 kW and 18 kPa reached ~7.7 µm h‑1, approximately 6.5 times as much as that occurred in the typical process. Moreover, the polished plates synthesized under the high power density condition possessed a relatively high optical transmittance (~69%), approaching the theoretical values of approximately 71.4% in IR. These results indicate that the purity and growth rate of big-area PCD films could be simultaneously increased with power density.

  1. Influence of power density on high purity 63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond deposition inside a 2.45 GHz MPCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwang; Wang, Rong; Zheng, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaojing; Hei, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoping; He, Zhiyong; Shen, Yanyan; Tang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films were synthesized via a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor in 99% H2-1% CH4 atmosphere. Two different conditions, i.e. the typical condition (input power of 5 kW and gas pressure of 13 kPa) and the high power density condition (input power of 10 kW and gas pressure of 18 kPa), were employed for diamond depositions. The color changes of the plasma under the two proposed conditions with and without methane were observed by photographs. Likewise, the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon active chemical species in plasma were analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The morphologies and purity of the PCD films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Finally, the transmission spectrum of the polished PCD plates was characterized by a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. Experimental results showed that both the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon radicals increased obviously, with the boost input power and higher pressure. The films synthesized under the high power density condition displayed higher purity and more uniform thickness. The growth rates in 10 kW and 18 kPa reached ~7.7 µm h-1, approximately 6.5 times as much as that occurred in the typical process. Moreover, the polished plates synthesized under the high power density condition possessed a relatively high optical transmittance (~69%), approaching the theoretical values of approximately 71.4% in IR. These results indicate that the purity and growth rate of big-area PCD films could be simultaneously increased with power density.

  2. Development of in vivo tissue-engineered microvascular grafts with an ultra small diameter of 0.6 mm (MicroBiotubes): acute phase evaluation by optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Daizo; Enmi, Jun-Ichiro; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hastue; Kobayashi, Mari; Iwana, Shinichi; Iida, Hidehiro; Satow, Tetsu; Takahashi, Jun C; Kurisu, Kaoru; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2016-09-01

    Biotubes, i.e., in vivo tissue-engineered connective tubular tissues, are known to be effective as vascular replacement grafts with a diameter greater than several millimeters. However, the performance of biotubes with smaller diameters is less clear. In this study, MicroBiotubes with diameters <1 mm were prepared, and their patency was evaluated noninvasively by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). MicroBiotube molds, containing seven stainless wires (diameter 0.5 mm) covered with silicone tubes (outer diameter 0.6 mm) per mold, were embedded into the dorsal subcutaneous pouches of rats. After 2 months, the molds were harvested with the surrounding capsular tissues to obtain seven MicroBiotubes (internal diameter 0.59 ± 0.015 mm, burst pressure 4190 ± 1117 mmHg). Ten-mm-long MicroBiotubes were allogenically implanted into the femoral arteries of rats by end-to-end anastomosis. Cross-sectional OCT imaging demonstrated the patency of the MicroBiotubes immediately after implantation. In a 1-month follow-up MRA, high patency (83.3 %, n = 6) was observed without stenosis, aneurysmal dilation, or elongation. Native-like vascular structure was reconstructed with completely endothelialized luminal surfaces, mesh-like elastin fiber networks, regular circumferential orientation of collagen fibers, and α-SMA-positive cells. Although the long-term patency of MicroBiotubes still needs to be confirmed, they may be useful as an alternative ultra-small-caliber vascular substitute. PMID:27003431

  3. The rates of wear of X3 highly cross-linked polyethylene at five years when coupled with a 36 mm diameter ceramic femoral head in young patients.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, E; Hooper, G; Grabowski, K; Frampton, C; Woodfield, T B F; Inglis, G

    2015-11-01

    Polyethylene wear debris can cause osteolysis and the failure of total hip arthroplasty. We present the five-year wear rates of a highly cross-linked polyethylene (X3) bearing surface when used in conjunction with a 36 mm ceramic femoral head. This was a prospective study of a cohort of 100 THAs in 93 patients. Pain and activity scores were measured pre- and post-operatively. Femoral head penetration was measured at two months, one year, two years and at five years using validated edge-detecting software (PolyWare Auto). At a mean of 5.08 years (3.93 to 6.01), 85 hips in 78 patients were available for study. The mean age of these patients was 59.08 years (42 to 73, the mean age of males (n = 34) was 59.15 years, and females (n = 44) was 59.02 years). All patients had significant improvement in their functional scores (p < 0.001). The steady state two-dimensional linear wear rate was 0.109 mm/year. The steady state volumetric wear rate was 29.61 mm(3)/year. No significant correlation was found between rate of wear and age (p = 0.34), acetabular component size (p = 0.12) or clinical score (p = 0.74). Our study shows low steady state wear rates at five years in X3 highly cross-linked polyethylene in conjunction with a 36 mm ceramic femoral head. The linear wear rate was almost identical to the osteolysis threshold of 0.1 mm/year recommended in the literature.

  4. Total hip replacement through a posterior approach using a 22 mm diameter femoral head : the role of the transverse acetabular ligament and capsular repair in reducing the rate of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, S; James, J; Hodgkinson, J P; Hemmady, M V

    2014-09-01

    Despite a lack of long-term follow-up, there is an increasing trend towards using femoral heads of large diameter in total hip replacement (THR), partly because of the perceived advantage of lower rates of dislocation. However, increasing the size of the femoral head is not the only way to reduce the rate of dislocation; optimal alignment of the components and repair of the posterior capsule could achieve a similar effect. In this prospective study of 512 cemented unilateral THRs (Male:Female 230:282) performed between 2004 and 2011, we aimed to determine the rate of dislocation in patients who received a 22 mm head on a 9/10 Morse taper through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component. The mean age of the patients at operation was 67 years (35 to 89). The mean follow-up was 2.8 years (0.5 to 6.6). Pre- and post-operative assessment included Oxford hip, Short Form-12 and modified University of California Los Angeles and Merle D'Aubigne scores. The angles of inclination and anteversion of the acetabular components were measured using radiological software. There were four dislocations (0.78%), all of which were anterior. In conclusion, THR with a 22 mm diameter head performed through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the TAL as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component was associated with a low rate of dislocation. PMID:25183591

  5. Solar diameter/s/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, J.; Yerle, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two definitions are possible for the solar diameter: astrophysical, relating to a specific physical parameter, or observational, relating to a given quantity that is to be measured. Since only the latter is directly accessible, astrophysical definitions should be linked to these quantities. All current solar diameter programs refer to the point of the limb where the brightness gradient is maximum, or to a higher order approximation of the profile shape. Two such programs, the Pic-du-Midi experiment which uses fast scans of the limb to define the injection point after a correction for atmospheric blurring, and the SCLERA experiment, employing an algorithm to obviate this correction, are compared. The advantage of a fast scan is noted.

  6. Probing channel temperature profiles in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors on 200 mm diameter Si(111) by optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyaw, L. M.; Bera, L. K.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Tan, H. R.; Bhat, T. N.; Tripathy, S.; Liu, Y.; Bera, M. K.; Singh, S. P.; Chor, E. F.

    2014-08-18

    Using micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, the channel temperature profile is probed in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on a 200 mm diameter Si(111) substrate. In particular, RuO{sub x}-based gate is used due to the semitransparent nature to the optical excitation wavelengths, thus allowing much accurate thermal investigations underneath the gate. To determine the channel temperature profile in devices subjected to different electrical bias voltages, the GaN band-edge PL peak shift calibration with respect to temperature is used. PL analyses show a maximum channel temperature up to 435 K underneath the gate edge between gate and drain, where the estimated thermal resistance in such a HEMT structure is about 13.7 KmmW{sup −1} at a power dissipation of ∼10 W/mm. The temperature profiles from micro-Raman measurements are also addressed from the E{sub 2}-high optical phonon peak shift of GaN, and this method also probes the temperature-induced peak shifts of optical phonon from Si thus showing the nature of thermal characteristics at the AlN/Si substrate interface.

  7. SU-D-19A-05: The Dosimetric Impact of Using Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for Treatment with the Xoft 30 Mm Diameter Vaginal Applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, S; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods: MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.

  8. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery versus a single-session percutaneous nephrolithotomy for lower-pole stones with a diameter of 15 to 30 mm: A propensity score-matching study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Gyoo Hwan; Jung, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Tae Sik; Lee, Joong Sub; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Lee, Seung Bae; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate surgical outcomes between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) groups for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient in the RIRS group was matched to one in the PNL group on the basis of calculated propensity scores by use of age, sex, body mass index, previous treatment history, stone site, maximum stone size, and stone volume. We compared perioperative outcomes between the unmatched and matched groups. Results Patients underwent PNL (n=87, 66.4%) or RIRS (n=44, 33.6%). After matching, 44 patients in each group were included. Mean patient age was 54.4±13.7 years. Perioperative hemoglobin drop was significantly higher and the hospital stay was longer in the PNL group than in the RIRS group. The operative time was significantly longer in the RIRS group than in the PNL group. Stone-free rates were higher and complications rates were lower in the RIRS group than in the PNL group without statistical significance. The presence of a stone located in the lower-anterior minor calyx was a predictor of stone-free status. Conclusions RIRS and single-session PNL for patients with a main stone of 15 to 30 mm located in the lower-pole calyx showed comparable surgical results. However, RIRS can be performed more safely than PNL with less bleeding. Stones in the lower-anterior minor calyx should be carefully removed during these procedures. PMID:26175872

  9. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. Graft Diameter matters in Hamstring ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clatworthy, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently techniques have been developed to increase graft diameter in hamstring ACL reconstruction with the hope to decrease graft failure. To date there is limited evidence to show that a smaller graft diameter results in a higher ACL failure rate. Method: The factors for failure in 1480 consecutive single surgeon hamstring ACL reconstructions were evaluated prospectively. Patients were followed for 2-15 years. A multivariate analysis was performed which looked at graft size, age, sex, time to surgery, meniscal integrity, meniscal repair and ACL graft placement to determine whether graft diameter matters in determining the failure of hamstring ACL reconstruction. Results: Graft diameters ranged from 6-10 mm. The mean graft diameter for all patients was 7.75 mm. 83 ACL reconstructions failed. The mean size of graft failures was 7.55 mm ACL reconstructions that failed had a significantly smaller hamstring graft diameter p=0.001. The Hazard Ratio for a smaller diameter graft is 0.517 p=<0.0001. For every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 48.3% higher chance of failure. The multivariate analysis showed a hazard ratio of 0.543 p=0.002. For every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 45.7% higher chance of failure. Conclusion: Smaller diameter hamstring grafts do have a higher failure rate. Grafts ≤ 7.5 mm had twice the failure rate of grafts ≥8 mm using a multivariate analysis for every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 45.7% higher chance of failure.

  11. Management of Benign Tracheal Stenosis by Small-diameter Tube-assisted Bronchoscopic Balloon Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi-Lin; Liu, Guang-Nan; Zheng, Hou-Wen; Li, Yu; Chen, Le-Cheng; Fu, Yu-Yan; Li, Wen-Tao; Huang, Si-Ming; Yang, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: A limitation of bronchoscopic balloon dilatation (BBD) is that airflow must be completely blocked for as long as possible during the operation. However, the patient often cannot hold his or her breath for a long period affecting the efficacy of the procedure. In this study, we used an extra-small-diameter tube to provide assisted ventilation to patients undergoing BBD and assessed the efficacy and safety of this technique. Methods: Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation was performed in 26 patients with benign tracheal stenosis using an extra-small-diameter tube. The tracheal diameter, dyspnea index, blood gas analysis results, and complications were evaluated before and after BBD. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 16.0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Sixty-three BBD procedures were performed in 26 patients. Dyspnea immediately improved in all patients after BBD. The tracheal diameter significantly increased from 5.5 ± 1.5 mm to 13.0 ± 1.3 mm (P < 0.001), and the dyspnea index significantly decreased from 3.4 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.6 (P < 0.001). There was no significant change in the partial pressure of oxygen during the operation (before, 102.5 ± 27.5 mmHg; during, 96.9 ± 30.4 mmHg; and after, 97.2 ± 21.5 mmHg; P = 0.364), but there was slight temporary retention of carbon dioxide during the operation (before, 43.5 ± 4.2 mmHg; during, 49.4 ± 6.8 mmHg; and after, 40.1 ± 3.9 mmHg; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Small-diameter tube-assisted BBD is an effective and safe method for the management of benign tracheal stenosis. PMID:25963352

  12. mm-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, H. P.

    1985-07-01

    The present low profile seeker front end's slotted waveguide antenna was primarily developed to investigate the feasibility of the application of standard manufacturing techniques to mm-wave hardware. A dual plane monopulse comparator was constructed to mate with the antenna via integrated packaging techniques. The comparator was fabricated by CAD/CAM milling operations.

  13. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  14. Effect of conical nanopore diameter on ion current rectification.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Michelle L; Zhou, Kaimeng; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2009-12-10

    Asymmetric nanoscale conduits, such as conical track-etch pores, rectify ion current due to surface charge effects. To date, most data concerning this phenomenon have been obtained for small nanopores with diameters comparable to the electrical double layer thickness. Here, we systematically evaluate rectification for nanopores in poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes with tip diameters of 10, 35, 85, and 380 nm. Current-voltage behavior is determined for buffer concentrations from 1 mM to 1 M and pHs 3.4 and 6.7. In general, ion current rectification increases with decreasing tip diameter, with decreasing ionic strength, and at higher pH. Surface charge contributes to increased pore conductivities compared to bulk buffer conductivities, though double layer overlap is not necessary for rectification to occur. Interestingly, the 35 nm pore exhibits a maximum rectification ratio for the 0.01 M buffer at pH 6.7, and the 380 nm pores exhibit nearly diodelike current-voltage curves when initially etched and strong rectification after the ion current has stabilized.

  15. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  16. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  17. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  18. Influence of tube's diameter on boiling heat transfer performance in small diameter tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chengjun; Wang, Weicheng; Zhang, Lining

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports the experiments of evaporation study in 6 mm inner copper diameter tubes using HFC-134a, HCFC-22 and CFC-12 as working fluid. The results show that the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases with the decreasing of inner diameter of tubes. A new concept of non-dimensional tube diameter U is proposed in this paper for correction of the influence of the tube diameter on the evaporation heat transfer coefficient. And further, a convenient empirical correction method is presented.

  19. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  20. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the veteran died before return to military jurisdiction or within 120 days thereafter. (See § 3.5(d... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section 3.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  1. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the veteran died before return to military jurisdiction or within 120 days thereafter. (See § 3.5(d... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section 3.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  2. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  3. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  4. Blood flow velocity in the pial arteries of cats, with particular reference to the vessel diameter.

    PubMed

    Kobari, M; Gotoh, F; Fukuuchi, Y; Tanaka, K; Suzuki, N; Uematsu, D

    1984-03-01

    The blood flow velocity and diameter of feline pial arteries, ranging in diameter from 20 to 200 microns, were measured simultaneously using a newly developed video camera method under steady-state conditions for all other parameters. There was a linear relationship between blood flow velocity and pial artery diameter (y = 0.340x + 0.309), the correlation coefficient being 0.785 (p less than 0.001). The average values for blood flow velocity in pial arteries less than 50 microns, greater than or equal to 50 but less than 100 microns, greater than or equal to 100 but less than 150 microns, and greater than or equal to 150 microns in diameter were 12.9 +/- 1.3, 24.6 +/- 3.4, 42.1 +/- 4.7, and 59.9 +/- 5.3 mm/s, respectively. Blood flow rate was calculated as a product of the cross-sectional area and the flow velocity. The blood flow rate increased exponentially as the pial artery diameter increased (y = 2.71 X 10(-4) x2.98). The average values for blood flow rate in pial arteries less than 50 microns, greater than or equal to 50 but less than 100 microns, greater than or equal to 100 but less than 150 microns and greater than or equal to 150 microns in diameter were 12.8 +/- 1.5, 122.1 +/- 24.8, 510.2 +/- 74.8, and 1524.2 +/- 174.4 10(-3) mm3/s, respectively. Hemorheological parameters such as the wall shear rate and Reynolds' number were also calculated. The data obtained provide a useful basis for further investigations in the field of cerebral circulation.

  5. The Energy Diameter Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A; Souers, P C

    2007-07-10

    We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  6. The Energy Diameter Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

    2007-04-20

    Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  7. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  8. Reconstruction of small diameter arteries using decellularized vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio; Fujisato, Toshia; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Although artificial vessels are available for large diameter arteries, there are no artificial vessels for small diameter arteries of < 4 mm. We created a decellularized vascular scaffold (length, 10 mm; outer diameter, 1.5 mm; inner diameter, 1.3 mm) from rat abdominal arteries. We measured the biomechanical characteristics of the scaffolds, implanted them to defects made in rat carotid arteries, and evaluated their patency and the endothelial cell linings. Silastic grafts were implanted as controls. The decellularized scaffolds demonstrated similar mechanical characteristics to normal arteries. All of the control grafts were occluded. Fibroblast-like cells were discovered in the thrombus, and fibrous organization was apparent. In contrast, patency of the grafts in 10 of 12 animals was observed 4 weeks after implantation. The internal cavity of the patent scaffold was completely lined by endotheliallike cells. Thus, the possibility of small artery reconstruction using decellularized scaffolds was demonstrated.

  9. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  10. mm-wave radar - The new ECM-ECCM frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. L.

    1984-05-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the relationship of mm-wave radar to electronic countermeasures (ECM)/electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). Electronic warfare support measures (ESM) are also considered, since employment of ECM against mm-wave radar places strong demands on ESM. The mm-waves are defined as wavelengths in the range from 1 to 10 mm corresponding to frequencies in the range from 300 to 30 GHz. Advantages of mm-waves over microwaves for radar applications are partly related to requirements for smaller antenna diameters, increased angular resolution/antenna diameter, increased bandwidth availability, increased range resolution, reduced vulnerability to unwanted detection by hostile forces, and smaller and lighter RF components.

  11. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  12. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G. ); Scanlan, R.; Royet, J. )

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Pulling of 3 mm diameter AlSb rods by micro-pulling down method

    SciTech Connect

    Bourret-Courchesne Ph.D., Edith; Perrodin, Didier

    2009-05-14

    We designed and supplied special crucibles for AlSb material. Thermal insulation and limitation of Sb losses were our first work. The protection of the growth environment was also one of our priority to avoid any pollution of the Fibercryst {mu}PD facility. When this work was achieved, the next step was the calibration of the heating power for these new crucibles. Then, it was the definition of single crystal growth conditions that oriented our research. Following our proposal, many growths attempts were performed. We started from Al & Sb pure powder or from LBNL AlSb crystal as expected. We used different crucibles and different seeds.

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE: Characteristic analysis of an ultrasonic micromotor using a 3 mm diameter piezoelectric rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiangcheng; Yan, Li; Li, Longtu

    2004-04-01

    Smart systems and devices generally use certain microstructures, e.g. rod- and strip-shaped structures. In this paper, a miniaturized piezoelectric rod is analysed using the finite element method (FEM) and a laser scanning vibrometer (LSV). The effects of some factors, including the detailed structure, material parameters and input voltage, on the resonant frequencies and vibration behaviors of a piezoelectric rod are studied. On the basis of experimental results, the vibration modes of the piezoelectric rod can be made available for use in fabricating an ultrasonic micromotor or piezoelectric actuators of other types. The prototype motor fabricated here has a maximum output torque of 410 µN m for a stainless steel stator and 360 µN m for a copper stator. This article was originally published in 2003 by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in the framework of its Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures series. Reprinted by permission of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

  15. Monochromatic imaging studies of sustained metal vapor arcs burning on 150 mm diameter molten iron electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.L.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    Monochromatic imaging was used to investigate the excited-state density distributions of Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region of a 3,100 A dc metal vapor arc burning between molten iron surfaces in a vacuum arc furnace. Multiple images were acquired at four wavelengths. The images were corrected and Abel inverted to yield the absolute radial intensity distributions for Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region. The results show a structured, axisymmetric plasma consisting of a high density `core` of Fe{sup +} emitters centered between the electrode surfaces situated against a relatively broad, flat excited-state Fe distribution.

  16. Laser amplifier based on a neodymium glass rod 150 mm in diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Shaykin, A A; Fokin, A P; Soloviev, A A; Kuzmin, A A; Shaikin, I A; Burdonov, K F; Khazanov, E A; Charukhchev, A V

    2014-05-30

    A unique large-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifier is experimentally studied. The small-signal gain distribution is measured at different pump energies. The aperture-averaged gain is found to be 2.3. The stored energy (500 J), the maximum possible pump pulse repetition rate, and the depolarisation in a single pulse and in a series of pulses with a repetition rate of one pulse per five minutes are calculated based on the investigations performed. It is shown that the use of this amplifier at the exit of the existing laser can increase the output pulse energy from 300 to 600 J. (lasers)

  17. Architectural Analyses and Developments of 1 mm Diameter Micro Forceps for Catheter Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takumi

    Blockage in a blood vessel due to cardiovascular disease such as arteriosclerosis or aneurysms requires minimally invasive placement of a mesh tube or platinum coil stent via a catheter to open the affected area. Stents are positioned using a guide wire via a catheter, but the stent may be dropped on the way to its destination and requires much time in surgery, increasing the burden on the patient. Medical apparatuses are thus desired having a mechanism to grasp artifacts securely in blood vessels. We designed prototype microforceps for use on the end of a catheter for grasping operation in blood vessels and to contribute to medical apparatuses in this field. The microforceps we designed using a minimum number of parts uses metal injection molding (MIM) to realize strong mass production. Microforceps installed in the tip of a catheter. Stress analysis verified its capability to grasp, bend and turn within the confines of a blood vessels model.

  18. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  19. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  20. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal Acquisition..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype...

  1. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal Acquisition..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype...

  2. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal Acquisition..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype...

  3. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC... prototype projects and make related determinations and findings. Approving Official. The official... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal...

  4. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC... prototype projects and make related determinations and findings. Approving Official. The official... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal...

  5. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  6. Suspected melanoma only when the lesion is greater than 6mm may harm patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Souza, Murilo Costa; da Silva, Mariane; Brandão, Mireille Darc Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the distribution of larger diameter in the pathological report of cutaneous melanoma patients. Methods Data were obtained from patients seen from 1994 to 2015. Date, sex, age, maximum diameter, histological subtype, primary site, microscopic thickness, mitoses, ulceration, vertical growth phase, and regression were the variables studied. This study was approved by the National Ethics Committee - Brazil Platform. Patients were grouped into smaller diameter (≤6mm) and larger diameter (>6mm). The statistical analysis used the χ2 test (p<0.05). Results Of the 292 patients analyzed, 123 were seen between 1994 and 2004, and 169 between 2005 and 2015; in that, 151 women and 141 men, mean age of 52 years. The diameters ranged from 2 to 76mm (mean of 14mm), 81 patients with smaller diameter (≤6mm) and 211 with larger diameter (>6mm). Out of 81 patients with smaller diameter, 29 had invasive melanoma, while 179 of the 211 with larger diameter were invasive. A difference was observed in frequency of vertical growth phase. Conclusion Pigmented skin lesions with diameter smaller than 6mm should not be an excluding factor for biopsies, especially when patients present risk of developing skin cancer. PMID:26761547

  7. The GBT 4mm Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; White, S.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Maddalena, R. J.; Simon, R.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2013-01-01

    The new 4mm receiver (67--93 GHz) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built to take advantage of the improved surface accuracy of the dish. The low frequency end of the 3mm atmospheric window is not available with ALMA (<84 GHz), and the sensitivity of the GBT is better than any other facility within this band. We discuss the design and performance of this new receiver for the GBT, and highlight the science opportunities available with the instrument. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  8. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  9. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  10. Mechanical analysis of conventional and small diameter conical implant abutments

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to evaluate if a smaller morse taper abutment has a negative effect on the fracture resistance of implant-abutment connections under oblique compressive loads compared to a conventional abutment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty morse taper conventional abutments (4.8 mm diameter) and smaller abutments (3.8 mm diameter) were tightened (20 Ncm) to their respective implants (3.5 × 11 mm) and after a 10 minute interval, implant/abutment assemblies were subjected to static compressive test, performed in a universal test machine with 1 mm/min displacement, at 45° inclination. The maximum deformation force was determined. Data were statistically analyzed by student t test. RESULTS Maximum deformation force of 4.8 mm and 3.8 mm abutments was approximately 95.33 kgf and 95.25 kgf, respectively, but no fractures were noted after mechanical test. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the evaluated abutments were statistically similar (P=.230). CONCLUSION Abutment measuring 3.8 mm in diameter (reduced) presented mechanical properties similar to 4.8 mm (conventional) abutments, enabling its clinical use as indicated. PMID:22977724

  11. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  12. Phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) influence mushroom tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P; Makowiecka, E

    1987-02-15

    A series of phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) were synthesized in order to study their interaction with mushroom tyrosinase. 1-Amino-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid and 1-amino-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid turned out to be substrates for mushroom tyrosinase with Km values of 3.3 mM and 9.3 mM respectively. Shortening of the alkyl chain by one methylene group gave amino-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonic acid, one of the most powerful known inhibitors of this enzyme. This compound, racemic as well as in its optically active forms, exerts a mixed type of inhibition with an affinity for the enzyme one order of magnitude greater than that of the natural substrate. PMID:3109385

  13. Phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) influence mushroom tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P; Makowiecka, E

    1987-01-01

    A series of phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) were synthesized in order to study their interaction with mushroom tyrosinase. 1-Amino-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid and 1-amino-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid turned out to be substrates for mushroom tyrosinase with Km values of 3.3 mM and 9.3 mM respectively. Shortening of the alkyl chain by one methylene group gave amino-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonic acid, one of the most powerful known inhibitors of this enzyme. This compound, racemic as well as in its optically active forms, exerts a mixed type of inhibition with an affinity for the enzyme one order of magnitude greater than that of the natural substrate. PMID:3109385

  14. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. PMID:27320055

  15. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic.

  16. Directional Solidification and Convection in Small Diameter Crucibles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Sung, P. K.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.; DeGroh, H. C., III

    2003-01-01

    Pb-2.2 wt% Sb alloy was directionally solidified in 1, 2, 3 and 7 mm diameter crucibles. Pb-Sb alloy presents a solutally unstable case. Under plane-front conditions, the resulting macrosegregation along the solidified length indicates that convection persists even in the 1 mm diameter crucible. Al-2 wt% Cu alloy was directionally solidified because this alloy was expected to be stable with respect to convection. Nevertheless, the resulting macrosegregation pattern and the microstructure in solidified examples indicated the presence of convection. Simulations performed for both alloys show that convection persists for crucibles as small as 0.6 mm of diameter. For the solutally stable alloy, Al-2 wt% Cu, the simulations indicate that the convection arises from a lateral temperature gradient.

  17. Correlation of Anterior Chamber Angle and Ciliary Sulcus Diameters With White-to-White Corneal Diameter in High Myopes Using Artemis VHF Digital Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Reinstein, Dan Z.; Archer, Timothy J.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Rondeau, Mark J.; Coleman, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether horizontal angle diameter and sulcus diameter can be accurately estimated by conventional external measurements in high myopic eyes. METHODS Ten horizontal anterior segment scans were obtained with the Artemis 1 very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound arc-scanner in 40 eyes of 20 patients. Angle and sulcus diameters were measured and descriptive statistics and within-eye repeatability were calculated. Linear regression was performed between each permutation of white-to-white, angle diameter, and sulcus diameter. Multivariate regression also included anterior chamber depth (ACD), age, manifest refraction, keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT). The standard deviation and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the residuals were calculated. RESULTS The population mean ±standard deviation (95% CI) was 12.88±0.42 mm [12.74, 13.02] for angle diameter and 12.85±0.69 mm [12.63, 13.07] for sulcus diameter. Within-eye repeatability was 0.13 mm for angle diameter and 0.23 mm for sulcus diameter. A weak correlation was noted between white-to-white and angle diameter (r2=0.59) with a 95% Cl of ±0.53 mm. Multivariate regression found white-to-white, CCT, and minimum keratometry predicted angle diameter (r2=0.69) with a 95% Cl of ±0.46 mm. For predicting sulcus diameter, there were weak correlations between white-to-white (r2=0.32) with a 95% Cl of ±1.11 mm and angle diameter (r2=0.46) with a 95% Cl of ±0.99 mm. Multivariate regression found angle diameter and ACD predicted sulcus diamter (r2=0.57) with 95% Cl of ±0.88 mm. CONCLUSIONS Regression modeling found weak correlations among all combinations of white-to-white, angle diameter, and sulcus diameter. Given the relative accuracy of direct measurement of angle and sulcus diameter compared to the potential accuracy of these regression equations, it appears that direct measurement would increase the safety of anterior and posterior chamber phakic IOL sizing. PMID:19241769

  18. Synthesis of 2-vinyl-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene and 3,4,5-trichlorothenyl acrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Akopyan, A.N.; Saakyan, A.A.; Gavalyan, V.B.; Smbatyan, A.G.; Darbinyan, E.G.

    1988-12-20

    Preparative methods were developed for the production of 2-vinyl-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene from 2-chloromethyl-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene by the Wittig reaction of a two-phase system and by catalytic dehydration of 2-(/alpha/-hydroxyethyl)-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene. In reaction with an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the two-phase water-chloroform system in the presence of sodium carbonate 3,4,5-trichloroenyltrihenylphosphonoium chloride gives vinylthiophene (I) with an almost quantitative yield (93-95%). The process takes place under mild conditions (40/degree/C) and without a specially added phase-transfer catalyst, since the role of latter is evidently played by the phosphonium salt itself. 2-(/alpha/-Hydroxylethyl)-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene is formed by the reduction of the ketone (III) with sodium borohydride in methanol at 40/degree/C with a yield of 87%. The dehydration of the alcohol takes place at 180-200/degree/C in the presence of potassium bisulfate. The methods developed for the production of 2-vinylthiophene can be recommended as preparative methods on account of their simplicity, mild conditions, and high yields.

  19. Temporal relationships between minor, preovulatory, or periovulatory FSH surges and the emergence and development of 2-mm follicles of wave 1 in Bos taurus heifers.

    PubMed

    Baldrighi, J M; Siddiqui, M A R; Ginther, O J

    2016-10-01

    The number and day of emergence (first detection) of 2-mm follicles and the number and day when the 2-mm follicles reached 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-mm during wave 1 were determined every 0.5 d (n = 9 heifers). Emergence of the follicles at each of the indicated diameters was normalized to the beginning and ending nadir and the peak of each of a minor FSH surge, the preovulatory surge, and the periovulatory surge. Relative to the day of ovulation (day 0), the minor FSH surge, preovulatory surge, and periovulatory surge encompassed (nadir to nadir) days -7.0 to -2.5 (peak, day -4.0), days -2.5 to -0.5 (peak, day -1.0), and days -0.5 to 4 (peak, day 0), respectively. Distinct mean nadirs occurred between the minor and preovulatory surges and between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. A small percentage of 2-mm follicles (12%) and 3-mm follicles (2%) emerged during the minor FSH surge. The 4-mm follicles emerged during the preovulatory surge (24% of follicles) and periovulatory surge (76%). The 5-mm and 6-mm follicles emerged only during the periovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 2-, 3-, and 4-mm follicles began at 1.5, 1.0, and 0 d, respectively, before the nadir at the beginning of the preovulatory surge. The first increase (P < 0.05) in number of 5- and 6-mm follicles began at 0.5 and 0 d, respectively, before the intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory surges. Results demonstrated that each of the 3 surges including the minor surge contributed to the emergence of follicles at various diameters during wave 1. The emergence of 2-mm follicles during the descending portion of the minor surge indicated that smaller follicles (eg, 1 mm) apparently emerged during the major portion of the minor surge. The increasing diameter of the 2 largest follicles was not interrupted during the distinct intervening nadir between the preovulatory and periovulatory FSH surges. PMID:27565234

  20. Stellar diameters and temperatures. IV. Predicting stellar angular diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Van Belle, Gerard; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2014-03-01

    The number of stellar angular diameter measurements has greatly increased over the past few years due to innovations and developments in the field of long baseline optical interferometry. We use a collection of high-precision angular diameter measurements for nearby, main-sequence stars to develop empirical relations that allow the prediction of stellar angular sizes as a function of observed photometric color. These relations are presented for a combination of 48 broadband color indices. We empirically show for the first time a dependence on metallicity of these relations using Johnson (B – V) and Sloan (g – r) colors. Our relations are capable of predicting diameters with a random error of less than 5% and represent the most robust and empirical determinations of stellar angular sizes to date.

  1. Data Compilation for AGR-3/4 Designed-to-Fail (DTF) Fuel Particle Batch LEU04-02DTF

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D; Miller, James Henry

    2008-10-01

    This document is a compilation of coating and characterization data for the AGR-3/4 designed-to-fail (DTF) particles. The DTF coating is a high density, high anisotropy pyrocarbon coating of nominal 20 {micro}m thickness that is deposited directly on the kernel. The purpose of this coating is to fail early in the irradiation, resulting in a controlled release of fission products which can be analyzed to provide data on fission product transport. A small number of DTF particles will be included with standard TRISO driver fuel particles in the AGR-3 and AGR-4 compacts. The ORNL Coated Particle Fuel Development Laboratory 50-mm diameter fluidized bed coater was used to coat the DTF particles. The coatings were produced using procedures and process parameters that were developed in an earlier phase of the project as documented in 'Summary Report on the Development of Procedures for the Fabrication of AGR-3/4 Design-to-Fail Particles', ORNL/TM-2008/161. Two coating runs were conducted using the approved coating parameters. NUCO425-06DTF was a final process qualification batch using natural enrichment uranium carbide/uranium oxide (UCO) kernels. After the qualification run, LEU04-02DTF was produced using low enriched UCO kernels. Both runs were inspected and determined to meet the specifications for DTF particles in section 5 of the AGR-3 & 4 Fuel Product Specification (EDF-6638, Rev.1). Table 1 provides a summary of key properties of the DTF layer. For comparison purposes, an archive sample of DTF particles produced by General Atomics was characterized using identical methods. This data is also summarized in Table 1.

  2. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  3. Electromagnetic launch of mm-size pellets to great velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Drobyshevski, E.M.; Zhukov, B.G.; Kurakin, R.O.; Sakharov, V.A.; Studenkov, A.M.

    1994-11-01

    Small body launching that uses gas or plasma faces the fundamental problem caused by excess energy loss that is due to the great wall surface/volume ratio of the barrel. For example, the efficiency of the plasma armature (PA) rail-gun acceleration is maximum for 8-10 mm-size bodies and drops as their size decreases. That is why in the case of nuclear fusion applications, where 1-2 mm-size pellets at 5-10 km/s velocity are desirable, electromagnetic launchers have not yet demonstrated an advantage over light-gas guns and one is now forced to search for a compromise between the pellet size (increasing it up to 3-4 mm) and its velocity (decreasing it down to {approx}3 km/s). As a whole, the probability of attaining 5-10 km/s velocity for 1-2 mm pellets seems to be rather remote at the present.

  4. Production of a chiral alcohol, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol, by mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sarah J; Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Martin, Leona; Doyle, Evelyn M; O'Sullivan, Timothy; Guiry, Patrick J; Coulombel, Lydie; Li, Zhi; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2013-05-01

    1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol was produced biocatalytically for the first time using mushroom tyrosinase. 4-Ethylphenol at 1 mM was consumed over 12 min giving 0.23 mM 4-ethylcatechol and 0.36 mM (R/S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol (ee 0.5 %). Mushroom tyrosinase consumed 4-ethylphenol at 6.7 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) while the rates of formation of 4-ethylcatechol and 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol were 1.1 and 1.9 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1). Addition of the ascorbic acid, as a reducing agent to biotransformation reactions, increased 4-ethylcatechol formation by 340 %. However, accumulation of 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol was not observed in the presence of ascorbic acid. While the 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol was racemic, it is the first chiral product produced by tyrosinase starting from a non-chiral substrate.

  5. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  6. Biological and Electrophysiologic Effects of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on Regenerating Peripheral Nerve Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Baghmanli, Ziya; Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Wei, Benjamin; Shim, Bong S.; Martin, David C.; Cederna, Paul S.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Uninjured peripheral nerves in upper-limb amputees represent attractive sites for connectivity with neuroprostheses because their predictable internal topography allows for precise sorting of motor and sensory signals. The inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) reduces impedance and improves charge transfer at the biotic-abiotic interface. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–coated interpositional decellularized nerve grafts across a critical nerve conduction gap, and examines the long-term effects of two different poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) formulations on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers. Methods In 48 rats, a 15-mm gap in the common peroneal nerve was repaired using a nerve graft of equivalent length, including (1) decellularized nerve chemically polymerized with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (dry); (2) decellularized nerve electrochemically polymerized with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (wet); (3) intact nerve; (4) autogenous nerve graft; (5) decellularized nerve alone; and (6) unrepaired nerve gap controls. All groups underwent electrophysiologic characterization at 3 months, and nerves were harvested for histomorphometric analysis. Results Conduction velocity was significantly faster in the dry poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) group compared with the sham, decellularized nerve, and wet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) groups. Maximum specific force for the dry poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) group was more similar to sham than were decellularized nerve controls. Evident neural regeneration was demonstrated in both dry and wet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) groups by the presence of normal regenerating axons on histologic cross-section. Conclusions Both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) formulations were compatible with peripheral nerve regeneration at 3 months. This study supports poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as a promising adjunct for peripheral nerve interfaces for

  7. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  8. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  9. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  10. Large diameter germanium single crystals for infrared optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, G.; Azoulay, M.; Shiloh, C.; Noter, Y.; Saya, A.; Galron, H.; Roth, M.

    1989-09-01

    Large single crystals, up to 200 mm in diameter, of high optical quality germanium have been grown by the Czochralski technique. Postgrowth thermal treatment improves the optical homogeneity and reduces optical losses, as shown by measurements of refractive index gradients and modulation transfer function (MTF). A new approach for the piecewise combination of interferograms, as well as a polychromatic treatment of MTF, is presented.

  11. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Chau, Henry H.

    1994-07-01

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250 ns, with time-to-burst jitter under 10 ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10 ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  12. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.

    1993-06-14

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  13. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H. )

    1994-07-10

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250 ns, with time-to-burst jitter under 10 ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10 ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  14. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  15. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  20. Effects of Initial Pore Diameter on the Oil Absorption Behavior of Potato Chips during Frying Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinwei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Yuanfa; Fan, Liuping

    2016-01-01

    How initial pore diameter in materials affects oil absorption has been rarely studied up to now. Herein, we provided direct data evidence suggesting that the pore diameter prior to frying closely related to the oil absorption behavior. The pore had no significant effect on oil absorption of potato chips (p>0.05) when its diameter was 0.1 and 0.2 mm compared with the control. However, the oil absorption increased with the increasing of pore diameter when it was 0.3-1.2 mm. The oil absorption tended to be saturated at 0.9 mm pore diameter. In addition, we analyzed the moisture content, total oil (TO), surface oil (SO), penetrated surface oil (PSO) and structural oil (STO) contents of potato chips. The results when using palm oil showed that there was no significant difference in moisture, TO and STO contents of samples with pore diameter of 0.1 and 0.2 mm during the whole frying processing respectively compared with the control (p>0.05). When pore diameter was 0.3-1.2 mm, STO and TO contents significantly increased with the rising of the diameter (p<0.05). The SO content and PSO content dropped as increasing in frying time for the samples with different pore diameters. The equilibrium TO content of samples with 0.3-0.9 mm pore significantly increased with the rising of pore diameter, which was about 6.2-22.5% higher than that of the control. And there was no significant difference in the equilibrium TO contents of both samples of 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm pore (p>0.05). STO fraction gave the greatest contribution to the increment of oil absorption. PMID:27041514

  1. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  2. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  3. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  5. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  11. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  12. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  13. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  14. Coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: coracoid tunnel diameter correlates with failure risk.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Lucas S; Baldini, Todd; Mitchell, Justin J; Messina, Michael; Justl Ellis, Ian A; McCarty, Eric C

    2014-06-01

    The current study compared tunnel diameter as an independent risk factor for fixation failure from the coracoid after transcoracoid coracoclavicular reconstruction. The effect of variation in coracoid size and scapular bone density on fixation failure was also studied. Sixty-two cadaveric scapulae were randomized into 1 of 4 groups: a control group with no coracoid hole, a group with a 4-mm transcoracoid tunnel, a group with a 6-mm transcoracoid tunnel, and a group with a socket technique using a 6-mm hole superiorly with a 4-mm hole inferiorly. Bone density measures for all specimens were performed. Coracoid dimensions were quantified. Using a cortical button device, all specimens were loaded to failure with an Instron servohydraulic testing machine (Instron Corp, Canton, Massachusetts). All drilled specimens failed by button pullout, and all control specimens failed by coracoid fracture. Average pullout strength for each tunnel subgroup was as follows: 4 mm, 296.9 N; 6 mm, 146.2 N; 6-4 socket, 261.8 N; control, 762.9 N. No difference was found with respect to tunnel subgroups in base height (P=.25) or bone density (P=.44). Load to failure for the control group was significantly higher than for the other 3 techniques. The 4-mm tunnel load to failure was significantly higher than that for the 6-mm tunnel (P=.006). No difference was found between the 4-mm tunnel and the 6-4 socket technique (P=.853). Although it was not statistically significant, a very strong trend was seen toward increased strength of the 6-4 socket over the 6-mm tunnel (P=.051). The study results show that when employing a transcoracoid reconstruction technique, a 4-mm tunnel technique is significantly stronger than a 6-mm tunnel technique. None of the coracoids drilled with the various tunnels approached the strength of the native coracoid controls using a looped wire technique. PMID:24972433

  15. Determining factor of median diameter in intermetallic compound nanoparticles prepared by pulsed wire discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Shinobu; Koishi, Tetsuya; Tokoi, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    The preparation of NiAl intermetallic compound nanoparticles was carried out by pulsed wire discharge (PWD) using twisted pure Ni and Al wires in N2 ambient gas with varying number of turns of the wire (Nt), energy ratio (K), and ambient gas pressure (P). From the voltage and current waveforms during the wire heating, the energy deposition ratio up to the voltage peak (Kp) was calculated. It increased with an increase in Nt to 0.4 turns/mm and with increases in K and P. Under all the conditions, with an increase in Kp, the Ni composition ratio of the prepared particles (CNi) became closer to that of the wire (= 51.2 mol %). Furthermore, the collection rate (Rc) increased and the median particle diameter (d50) decreased. In particular, the change in d50 due to the change in Nt was not predicted by the relationship of d50 and Dth in our previous report. Single-phase NiAl intermetallic compound nanoparticles were successfully prepared under the condition in which Nt is 0.4 turns/mm, K is 3.4, and P is 100 kPa, where relatively high value of Kp was obtained. From these results, Kp was determined to be an important factor that determines the composition, collection rate, and median diameter of intermetallic compound nanoparticles synthesized by PWD using different kinds of twisted wires under various experimental conditions. This may be because of the selective wire heating in high-resistance parts that are associated with the introduction of lattice defects and/or necks by overwinding.

  16. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2002-07-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm (approximately failure diameter) to 205 mm, with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn, and local total curvature kappa, were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a Dn(kappa) function. The observed behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives, for which curves for different diameters overlay well for small kappa but diverge for large kappa, and for which kappa increases monotonically with R. For ANFO, we find that Dn(kappa) curves for individual sticks 1) show little or no overlap--with smaller sticks lying to the right of larger ones, 2) exhibit a large velocity deficit with little kappa variation, and 3) reach a peak kappa at an intermediate R.

  17. Diameter effect curve and detonation front curvature measurements for ANFO

    SciTech Connect

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2001-01-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm ({approx} failure diameter) to 205 mm, with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn, and local total curvature {kappa}, were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a Dn({kappa}) function. The observed behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives, for which curves for different diameters overlay well for small {kappa} but diverge for large {kappa}, and for which {kappa} increases monotonically with R. For ANFO, we find that Dn({kappa}) curves for individual sticks (1) show little or no overlap--with smaller sticks lying to the right of larger ones, (2) exhibit a large velocity deficit with little {kappa} variation, and (3) reach a peak {kappa} at an intermediate R.

  18. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, O P; Sterenborg, H J C M; Amelink, A

    2008-01-20

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 microm to 1000 microm. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering coefficients in the range 5 mm(-1)< micros <50 mm(-1) for all fiber diameters and that the path length is proportional to the fiber diameter. The path length decreases with increasing absorption for all fiber diameters, and this effect is more pronounced for larger fiber diameters. An empirical model is formulated that relates the DPS path length to total absorption for all fiber diameters simultaneously.

  19. Spot diameters for scanning photorefractive keratectomy: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare with computer simulations the duration, smoothness and accuracy of scanning photo-refractive keratectomy with spot diameters ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Methods: We calculated the number of pulses per diopter of flattening for spot sizes varying from 0.2 to 1 mm. We also computed the corneal shape after the correction of 4 diopters of myopia and 4 diopters of astigmatism with a 6 mm ablation zone and a spot size of 0.4 mm with 600 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure and 0.8 mm with 300 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure. The accuracy and smoothness of the ablations were compared. Results: The repetition rate required to produce corrections of myopia with a 6 mm ablation zone in a duration of 5 s per diopter is on the order of 1 kHz for spot sizes smaller than 0.5 mm, and of 100 Hz for spot sizes larger than 0.5 mm. The accuracy and smoothness after the correction of myopia and astigmatism with small and large spot sizes were not significantly different. Conclusions: This study seems to indicate that there is no theoretical advantage for using either smaller spots with higher radiant exposures or larger spots with lower radiant exposures. However, at fixed radiant exposure, treatments with smaller spots require a larger duration of surgery but provide a better accuracy for the correction of astigmatism.

  20. Methods of resolution enhancement of laser diameter measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chursin, Yury A.; Fedorov, Evgeny M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents the implementation of diffraction and spectral analysis methods allowing 1 μm resolution enhancement of optical instruments intended for measurements of such round wire materials as cables, wires, cords, etc. with diameters exceeding the wavelength (~0.5 mm and large). The transformation function suggested allows detecting geometrical boundaries of object's shadows that are used to calculate its diameter independently from its location in the gaging zone. The real-time detection algorithm is described for diffraction extreme values in the analog video signal produced by the charge-coupled device sensors. A method of additional improvement of resolution is shown on the basis of spectral analysis.

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM General...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM General...

  3. Predicting Hamstring Graft Diameter Using MRI and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Brett A; Mhaskar, Vikram A; An, Vincent Vinh Gia; Scholes, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Graft diameter is one variable that may affect outcome of ACL reconstruction. The ability to predict the size of a graft in a given patient pre-operatively may help guide graft selection and preparation technique. Various papers have correlated anthropometric data and MRI tendon measurements to intraoperative graft diameter, although no papers have investigated these together. The intra-operative diameter of a hamstring autograft will be influenced by graft preparation technique. Our study aimed to investigate the prediction of intraoperative graft diameter of 2 different graft construct techniques (4-strand semitendinosus versus quadrupled semitendinosus) using anthropometry and MRI measurements. Methods: Retrospective review of two groups of ACL reconstruction using different graft preparation techniques was performed. “Conventional” 4-strand gracilis + semitendinosus with fixed suspension at the femur and screw fixation at the tibia were compared with quadrupled semitendinosus grafts with adjustable suspensory fixation at each end (Graftlink). Cross-sectional areas (XSA) of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was measured in the axial slice of a T2 weighted MRI image using a region-of-interest tool. Stepwise linear regression using intraoperative graft diameter as the dependant variable was performed using MRI XSA of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, gender and height as predictors. Results: 129 ACL Reconstruction in 127 patients were done in the time period, 89 of which were done conventionally, and 40 which employed the Graftlink construct. The median graft diameter in the Graftlink group (8.5mm IQR8-9) was greater than that of the conventional group (8mm, IQR 7.5-8) (p < 0.001). MRI XSA of semitendinosus and height were statistically significant predictors of diameter in the Graftlink group (R2 = 51%), whilst MRI XSA of semitendinosus + gracilis and gender were predictors in the conventional group (R2 = 36%). Conclusion: Graftlink

  4. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  5. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2001-06-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium nitrate-fuel oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm. (≈ failure diameter) to 200 mm., with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn and total curvature κ were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a D_n(κ) function. The resulting behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., and Aslam,T.D., 11^th) Detonation Symposium, 1998^,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., Davis,W.C., and Engelke,R., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 1999) in which curves for different stick sizes overlay well for small κ but diverge for large κ, and for which κ increases monotonically with R to achieve a maximum value at the charge edge. For ANFO, we find that κ achieves a maximum at an intermediate R and that D_n(κ) curves for different stick sizes are widely separated with no overlap whatsoever.

  6. Minimum tube diameters for steady propagation of gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2014-07-01

    Recent experimental results on detonation limits are reported in this paper. A parametric study was carried out to determine the minimum tube diameters for steady detonation propagation in five different hydrocarbon fuel-oxygen combustible mixtures and in five polycarbonate test tube diameters ranging from 50.8 mm down to a small scale of 1.5 mm. The wave propagation in the tube was monitored by optical fibers. By decreasing the initial pressure, hence the sensitivity of the mixture, the onset of limits is indicated by an abrupt drop in the steady detonation velocity after a short distance of travel. From the measured wave velocities inside the test tube, the critical pressure corresponding to the limit and the minimum tube diameters for the propagation of the detonation can be obtained. The present experimental results are in good agreement with previous studies and show that the measured minimum tube diameters can be reasonably estimated on the basis of the /3 rule over a wide range of conditions, where is the detonation cell size. These new data shall be useful for safety assessment in process industries and in developing and validating models for detonation limits.

  7. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  8. Effects of the tube diameter on the propagation of helium plasma plume via electric field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Lu, X.; Yue, Y.; Dong, X.; Pei, X.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the dependence of the length of plasma plume, propagation velocity, electric field in the streamer head, and propagation mode transition on the tube diameter varied in the range of 0.07-4 mm is investigated for the first time. The atmospheric-pressure helium plasma plume, ignited by a positive pulsed direct current voltage with a pulse rising time of 60 ns, is confined inside a long glass tube. First, the decreased tube diameter results in the reduction of the length of plasma plume but the growth of aspect ratio of plasma plume. Second, as the tube diameter decreases, the average velocity of the propagation of plasma plume increases first, then reaches a maximum value at tube diameter of 1 mm, and finally decreases for the tube diameter decreasing further. Third, the electric field in the streamer head, determined by the method based on Stark polarization spectroscopy of He 447 nm line, increases monotonically from 9 kV/cm to 20 kV/cm with the tube diameter decreasing from 4 mm to 0.6 mm. Finally, when the tube diameter is further reduced to 0.07 mm, high-speed photography reveals that the propagation mode of the plasma plume transits from the plasma bullet to the continuous plasma column.

  9. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, R.S.; Gasparyan, L.V.

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  12. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  14. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  16. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  17. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  3. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT... safety and effectiveness with regard to the combination product as a whole. When there are no...

  4. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT... safety and effectiveness with regard to the combination product as a whole. When there are no...

  5. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  6. A Toddler's Treatment of "Mm" and "Mm Hm" in Talk with a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipi, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The study to be reported in this paper examined the work accomplished by "mm" and "mm hm" in the interactions of a parent and his daughter aged 0;10-2;0. Using the findings of Gardner (2001) for adults, the analysis shows that "mm" accomplished a range of functions based on its sequential placement and prosodic features, whereas "mm hm" was much…

  7. Large Diameter, Radiative Extinction Experiments with Decane Droplets in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John; Tien, James; Dietrich, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The extinction of a diffusion flame is of fundamental interest in combustion science. Linan, Law, and Chung and Law analytically and experimentally determined an extinction boundary in terms of droplet diameter and pressure for a single droplet due to Damkohler, or blowoff, extinction. More recently, other researchers demonstrated extinction due to finite rate kinetics in reduced gravity for free droplets of heptane. Chao modeled the effect of radiative heat loss on a quasi-steady spherically symmetric single droplet burning in the absence of buoyancy. They determined that for increasing droplet diameter, a second limit can be reached such that combustion is no longer possible. This second, larger droplet diameter limit arises due to radiative heat loss, which increases with increasing droplet and flame diameter. This increase in radiative heat loss arises due to an increase in the surface area of the flame. Recently, Marchese modeled fuel droplets with detailed chemistry and radiative effects, and compared the results to other work. The modeling also showed the importance of radiative loss and radiative extinction Experiments examined the behavior of a large droplet of decane burning in reduced gravity onboard the NASA Lewis DC-9 aircraft, but did not show a radiative extinction boundary due to g-jitter (Variations in gravitational level and direction) effects. Dietrich conducted experiments in the reduced gravity environment of the Space Shuttle. This work showed that the extinction diameter of methanol droplets increased when the initial diameter of the droplets was large (in this case, approximately 5 mm). Theoretical results agreed with these experimental results only when the theory included radiative effects . Radiative extinction was experimentally verified by Nayagam in a later Shuttle mission. The following work focuses on the combustion and extinction of a single fuel droplet. The goal is to experimentally determine a large droplet diameter limit that

  8. Influence of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on benthic invertebrates in indoor experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Nagel, R

    1995-02-01

    The influence of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on benthic invertebrates has been examined. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with the following species: Pristina longiseta, Aelosoma variegatum (Oligochaeta), Hydrozetes lacustris (Acarina), Planorbarius corneus, and Gyraulus albus (Planorbidae). LC50 values (96 hr) were obtained for Pri. longiseta (2.5 mg/liter) and for Hy. lacustris (4.7 mg/liter). For all other species ranges of toxicity (maximal concentration with 0% dead to minimum concentration with 100% dead) were determined. These ranges were 0.8-20 mg/liter 3,4-DCA for Pri. longiseta, 1.6-20 mg/liter, 3,4-DCA for Hy. lacustris, 10-20 mg/liter 3,4-DCA for G. albus, 50-100 mg/liter 3,4-DCA for Pl. corneus, and 10 mg/liter 3,4-DCA (maximal concentration with 0% dead; minimum concentration with 100% dead was not determined) for Ae. variegatum. In two experimental streams, the recolonization of benthic organisms into defined sample areas was studied. Therefore, a phase without chemical treatment was compared with a following exposure phase. Test concentrations were 0.2 and 1.4 mg/liter 3,4-DCA (nominal concentrations). Significant effects were the complete extinction of Pri. longiseta in 0.2 mg/liter 3,4-DCA within the first 3 weeks of exposure, as well as the reduction of immigrating individuals of another species of Pristina in both test concentrations, and of Hy. lacustris and Stentor sp. in 1.4 mg/liter 3,4-DCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7540538

  9. Prediction of quadruple hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by anthropometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Ranjan, Rahul; Ahmed, Sohail; Sabir, Aamir B; Jilani, Latif Z; Qureshi, Owais A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The literature is scanty regarding the anthropometric predictors on the diameter of quadruple hamstring graft obtained in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in Indian population. Minimum diameter of the graft for ACL reconstruction should be >7 mm to preclude failure. The objective of this study was to assess the prediction of the hamstring graft diameter by several anthropometric parameters including age, thigh circumference, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: 46 consecutive patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction by the same surgeon using quadruple hamstring grafts were evaluated. The age, thigh circumference of the normal side, height, weight and BMI were recorded preoperatively and Pearson correlation was done using these parameters with graft diameter measured intraoperatively. Regression analysis in a stepwise manner was undertaken to assess the influence of individual anthropometric parameters on the graft diameter. Results: There were 44 males and 2 females. Mean age was 29.4 years, mean height was 172.6 cm, mean weight was 70.9 kg, mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2, mean thigh circumference was 47.1 cm and mean graft diameter was 7.9 mm. There was a positive correlation individually between the thigh circumference and graft diameter obtained (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46), and between the height and graft diameter (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46). On the regression analysis thigh circumference and height were found to be significant predictors of graft diameter giving the following equation: Graft diameter (mm) = 0. 079 height (cm) +0.068 thigh circumference (cm) −9.031. Conclusion: Preoperatively using the above equation if graft diameter came out to be <7 mm then alternate options of graft material must be kept in mind in order to prevent failure. PMID:26955176

  10. Introduction to QM/MM simulations.

    PubMed

    Groenhof, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations have become a popular tool for investigating chemical reactions in condensed phases. In QM/MM methods, the region of the system in which the chemical process takes place is treated at an appropriate level of quantum chemistry theory, while the remainder is described by a molecular mechanics force field. Within this approach, chemical reactivity can be studied in large systems, such as enzymes. In the first part of this contribution, the basic methodology is briefly reviewed. The two most common approaches for partitioning the two subsystems are presented, followed by a discussion on the different ways of treating interactions between the subsystems. Special attention is given on how to deal with situations in which the boundary between the QM and MM subsystems runs through one or more chemical bonds. The second part of this contribution discusses what properties of larger system can be obtained within the QM/MM framework and how. Finally, as an example of a QM/MM application in practice, the third part presents an overview of recent QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations on photobiological systems. In addition to providing quantities that are experimentally accessible, such as structural intermediates, fluorescence lifetimes, quantum yields and spectra, the QM/MM simulations also provide information that is much more difficult to measure experimentally, such as reaction mechanisms and the influence of individual amino acid residues.

  11. The effect of patient position and MAST inflation on carotid sinus diameter.

    PubMed

    Hauswald, M; Tandberg, D

    1985-11-01

    A comparison of several maneuvers that are believed to increase vagal tone was made by measuring the carotid sinus with an ultrasound device. For 20 healthy volunteers the mean carotid sinus diameter was 5.7 mm supine, 6.1 mm in the Trendelenberg position, 6.5 mm after supine medical antishock trousers (MAST) inflation, 7.0 mm after MAST inflation in the Trendelenberg position, and 7.3 mm during a headstand. Each mean value was significantly different (P less than .01) from each of the others. These results have important implications for the treatment of dysrhythmias such as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

  12. Influence of diameter on particle transport in a fractured shale saprolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumbie, D.H.; McKay, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments in an undisturbed, saturated column of weathered and fractured shale saprolite using fluorescent carboxylate-coated latex microspheres as tracers indicate that particle diameter plays a major role in controlling transport. In this study the optimum microsphere diameter for transport was approximately 0.5 ??m. Microspheres larger than the optimum size were present in the effluent at lower relative concentrations, apparently because of greater retention due to gravitational settling and/or physical straining. The smaller than optimum microspheres also experienced greater retention, apparently related to their higher rates of diffusion. Faster diffusion can lead to more frequent collisions with, and attachment to, fracture walls and may also lead to movement of particles into zones of relatively immobile pore water in the fractures or in the fine pore structure of the clay-rich matrix between fractures. Dismantling of the soil column and mapping of the distribution of retained microspheres indicated that there was substantial size-segregation of the microspheres between different fractures or in 'channels' within a fracture. Examination of small core samples showed that the smallest microspheres (0.05-0.1 ??m) were present in the fine pores of the matrix at distances of up to 3-4 mm from the nearest fracture, which supports the hypothesis that small particles can be retained by diffusion into the matrix. Calculations of settling velocity and diffusion rate using simple 1D approaches suggest that these processes could both cause significant retention of the larger and smaller particles, respectively, even for the fast advective transport rates (up to 32 m/day) observed during the experiments. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. A Bi-Layered Elastomeric Scaffold for Tissue Engineering of Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Soletti, Lorenzo; Hong, Yi; Guan, Jianjun; Stankus, John J.; El-Kurdi, Mohammed S.; Wagner, William R.; Vorp, David A.

    2011-01-01

    A major barrier in the development of a clinically-useful small-diameter tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) is the scaffold component. Scaffold requirements include matching the mechanical and structural properties with those of native vessels and optimizing the microenvironment to foster cell integration, adhesion, and growth. We have developed a small-diameter, bi-layered, biodegradable, elastomeric scaffold based on a synthetic, biodegradable elastomer. The scaffold incorporates a highly porous inner layer, allowing cell integration and growth, and an external, fibrous reinforcing layer deposited by electrospinning. Scaffold morphology and mechanical properties were assessed, quantified, and compared to those of native vessels. Scaffolds were then seeded with adult stem cells via a rotational vacuum seeding device to obtain a TEVG, cultured in dynamic conditions for 7 days, and evaluated for cellularity. The scaffold showed a firm integration of the two polymeric layers with no delaminations. Mechanical properties were physiologically-consistent showing anisotropy, elastic modulus (1.4±0.4 MPa), and ultimate tensile stress (8.3±1.7 MPa) comparable with native vessels. Compliance and suture retention force were 4.6±0.5×10−4 mmHg−1 and 3.4±0.3 N, respectively. Seeding resulted in a rapid, uniform, bulk integration of cells, with a seeding efficiency of 92±1%. The scaffolds maintained a high level of cellular density throughout dynamic culture. This approach, combining artery-like mechanical properties and a rapid and efficient cellularization, might contribute to the future clinical translation of TEVGs. PMID:19540370

  14. 17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  15. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  16. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  17. Direct injection LC-MS/MS method for identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M; Gustavsson, E; Stephanson, N; Beck, O

    2008-01-01

    A method based on direct injection of diluted urine for the identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in human urine by electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated for use as a confirmation procedure in urine drug testing. Two deuterium labelled analogues, amphetamine-D5 and 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine-D5, were used as internal standards. Twenty microliter aliquots of urine were mixed with 80 microL internal standard solution in autosampler vials and 10 microL was injected. The chromatographic system consisted of a 2.0 mmx100 mm C18 column and the gradient elution buffers used acetonitrile and 25 mmol/L formic acid. Two product ions produced from the protonated molecules were monitored in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The intra- and inter-assay variability (coefficient of variation) was between 5 and 16% for all analytes at 200 and 6000 ng/mL levels. Ion suppression occurred early after injection but did not affect the identification and quantification of the analytes in authentic urine samples. The method was further validated by comparison with a reference gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method using 479 authentic urine samples. The two methods agreed almost completely (99.8%) regarding identified analytes when applying a 150 ng/mL reporting limit. Four deviating results were observed for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and this was due to uncertainty in quantification around the reporting limit. For the quantitative results the slope of the regression lines were between 0.9769 and 1.0146, with correlation coefficients>0.9339. We conclude that the presented liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method is robust and reliable, and suitable for use as a confirmation method in urine drug testing for amphetamines.

  18. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua

    2014-02-01

    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.

  19. Diameter measurement by laser at the submicron accuracy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainsah, E.; Wong, Cheuk-Mun G.; Stout, Kenneth J.

    1993-09-01

    One important consequence of the " Quality Revolution" that is currently taking place in all sectors of advanced manufacturing industry is the requirement for more systematic and precise measurement. This is a pre-requisite for controlling tolerances on manufactured components and for ensuring that products leaving the factory meet the required specifications. The dramatic increase in computer power coupled with the demands of the space age nanotechnology and customer sophistication have meant that instrumentation is being constantly pushed to the limits in terms of accuracy tolerance and speed. Diameter measurements are carried out on a daily basis in many sectors of manufacturing industry. Due to the emphasis on factors such as speed accuracy and repeatability the current trend is to move away from conventional measurement techniques (metre rule measuring tape Vernier callipers) towards non-contact techniques. One of such techniques involves the use of the laser. This paper discusses at the design of a laser tracer data initiation capture and processing unit that permits diameter measurements to be made on-line and has the capability of carrying out up to 500 measurements per second. The system is non-contact with a measurement range of 2. 0000 mm and a resolution of 0. 5 im. It is demonstraated that by using two of these devices diameters of up to 220. 000 mm can be measured. This is done by incorporating a translational table that provides the

  20. QM/MM Calculations on Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryde, U

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I discuss combined quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM; QM/MM) calculations for proteins. In QM/MM, a small but interesting part of the protein is treated by accurate QM methods, whereas the remainder is treated by faster MM methods. The prime problems with QM/MM calculations are bonds between the QM and MM systems, the selection of the QM system, and the local-minima problem. The two first problems can be solved by the big-QM approach, including in the QM calculation all groups within 4.5-6Å of the active site and all buried charges in the protein. The third problem can be solved by calculating free energies. It is important to study QM/MM energy components to ensure that the results are stable and reliable. They can also be used to understand the reaction and the effect of the surroundings, eg, by dividing the catalytic effect into bonded, van der Waals, electrostatic, and geometric components and to deduce which parts of the protein contribute most to the catalysis. It should be ensured that the QM calculations are reliable and converged by extending the basis set to quadruple-zeta quality, including a proper treatment of dispersion, as well as years experience and method development calculations with both pure and hybrid density functional theory methods. If the latter give differing results, calibration with high-level QM methods is needed. Reactions that change the net charge should be avoided. QM/MM calculations can be combined with experimental methods. PMID:27498637

  1. Implosion dynamics and x-ray generation in small-diameter wire-array Z pinches.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Sotnikov, V I; Kindel, J M; Hakel, P; Mancini, R C; Astanovitskiy, A L; Haboub, A; Altemara, S D; Shevelko, A P; Kazakov, E D; Sasorov, P V

    2009-05-01

    It is known from experiments that the radiated x-ray energy appears to exceed the calculated implosion kinetic energy and Spitzer resistive heating [C. Deeney, Phys. Rev. A 44, 6762 (1991)] but possible mechanisms of the enhanced x-ray production are still being discussed. Enhanced plasma heating in small-diameter wire arrays with decreased calculated kinetic energy was investigated, and a review of experiments with cylindrical arrays of 1-16 mm in diameter on the 1 MA Zebra generator is presented in this paper. The implosion and x-ray generation in cylindrical wire arrays with different diameters were compared to find a transition from a regime where thermalization of the kinetic energy is the prevailing heating mechanism to regimes with other dominant mechanisms of plasma heating. Loads of 3-8 mm in diameter generate the highest x-ray power at the Zebra generator. The x-ray power falls in 1-2 mm loads which can be linked to the lower efficiency of plasma heating with the lack of kinetic energy. The electron temperature and density of the pinches also depend on the array diameter. In small-diameter arrays, 1-3 mm in diameter, ablating plasma accumulates in the inner volume much faster than in loads of 12-16 mm in diameter. Correlated bubblelike implosions were observed with multiframe shadowgraphy. Investigation of energy balance provides evidence for mechanisms of nonkinetic plasma heating in Z pinches. Formation and evolution of bright spots in Z pinches were studied with a time-gated pinhole camera. A comparison of x-ray images with shadowgrams shows that implosion bubbles can initiate bright spots in the pinch. Features of the implosions in small-diameter wire arrays are discussed to identify mechanisms of energy dissipation.

  2. High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibell, A.; Biebel, O.; Hertenberger, R.; Ruschke, A.; Schmitt, Ch.; Kroha, H.; Bittner, B.; Schwegler, P.; Dubbert, J.; Ott, S.

    2012-08-01

    Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons 11.11d protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5\\cdot 1034(1)/(cm2s), background hit rates of more than 10(kHz)/(cm2) are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and nonirradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drifttubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit rate on pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution of the cosmic muon signals.

  3. The LLNL 150-mm equation-of-state gun system

    SciTech Connect

    Rienecker, F.; Honodel, C.; Waldron, R.; Moor, E.; Perfect, S.; Bast, R.

    1987-09-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing a large gun system for expanded studies of a wide range of materials, including samples of high explosives weighing up to 10 kg. In its initial configuration, the system will have a 150-mm bore, 20-m-long, single-stage gun that can fire a 10-kg projectile at velocities of 2.2 km/s. Future plans include conversion either to a two-stage gun, or to a single-stage 100-mm gun, and conversion to a ballistic range. The high-explosive samples will be contained in a stainless steel tank that is 3.8 m in diameter, 12.5-m long, and 89-mm thick. This paper emphasizes improvements in the gun design, including tube couplings that use large coupling nuts and elastic interference fits to achieve precise alignment, a rail support system that allows rapid changes of configuration without need for re-alignment, and a barrel venting experiment designed to reduce projectile tilt in free flight. In addition, the authors discuss a computer modeling experiment in which they examined the effects of stress and strain on one part of the gun, the breech. Results showed that peak stresses would cause the breech to deform, producing autofrettaged conditions.

  4. COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO GASTRIC BYPASS PERFORMED WITH DIFFERENT GASTROJEJUNAL DIAMETERS

    PubMed Central

    SAMPAIO-NETO, José; BRANCO-FILHO, Alcides José; NASSIF, Luis Sérgio; BROSKA, Anne Caroline; KAMEI, Douglas Jun; NASSIF, André Thá

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Among the options for surgical treatment of obesity, the most widely used has been the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The gastrojejunal anastomosis can be accomplished in two ways: handsewn or using circular and linear stapled. The complications can be divided in early and late. Aim: To compare the incidence of early complications related with the handsewn gastrojejunal anastomosis in gastric bypass using Fouchet catheter with different diameters. Method: The records of 732 consecutive patients who had undergone the bypass were retrospectively analyzed and divided in two groups, group 1 with 12 mm anastomosis (n=374), and group 2 with 15 mm (n=358). Results: The groups showed anastomotic stenosis with rates of 11% and 3.1% respectively, with p=0.05. Other variables related to the anastomosis were also analyzed, but without statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusion: The diameter of the anastomosis of 15 mm was related with lower incidence of stenosis. It was found that these patients had major bleeding postoperatively and lower surgical site infection, and in none was observed presence of anastomotic leak. PMID:27683767

  5. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  6. Pupil Diameter Tracks Lapses of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small. However, these observations were primarily driven by the joint effects of time-on-task on baseline pupil diameter and task performance. The linear relationships disappeared when we statistically controlled for time-on-task effects and were replaced by consistent inverted U-shaped relationships between baseline pupil diameter and each of the task performance measures, such that most false alarms and the longest and most variable response times occurred when pupil diameter was both relatively small and large. Finally, we observed strong linear relationships between the temporal derivative of pupil diameter and task performance measures, which were largely independent of time-on-task. Our results help to reconcile contradicting findings in the literature on pupil-linked changes in attentional state, and are consistent with the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function. Moreover, they suggest that the derivative of baseline pupil diameter is a potentially useful psychophysiological marker that could be used in the on-line prediction and prevention of attentional lapses. PMID:27768778

  7. Diameter Effect In Initiating Explosives, Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A.; Benterou, J.; Roeske, F.; Roos, E.

    2006-02-10

    The ability to safely machine small pieces of HE with the femtosecond laser allows diameter effect experiments to be performed in initiating explosives in order to study the failure diameter, the reduction of the detonation velocity and curvature versus the diameter. The reduced diameter configuration needs to be optimized, so that the detonation products of the first cylinder will not affect the measurement of the detonation velocity of the second cylinder with a streak camera. Different 2D axi-symmetrical configurations have been calculated to identify the best solution using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX16 Pellet with Ls-Dyna.

  8. Dark filaments observed at 8.3mm and 3.1mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, E.; Ishiguro, M.; Kosugi, T.; Shibasaki, K.

    1986-01-01

    Mapping of the sun was made at 3.1mm (98 GHz) and 8.3mm (36 GHz) wavelengths with a 45m dish radio telescope at the Nobeyama Cosmic Radio Observatory. The depressions associated with large H alpha filaments are derived to be -0.2 at 8.3mm and -0.05 at 3.1mm, which are darker than the values inferred by Raoult et al. (1979)

  9. Effect of Specimen Diameter on Weldability of Impat Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Hidefumi

    Impact welding has been carried out using a projectile having a diameter of 11 and 5 mm at an impact velocity of 200 m/s or more. A large projectile regardless of the slenderness ratio, was welded to a stainless steel target. However, only a small projectile with a slenderness ratio less than 1.2 was welded to the same target. In order to examine the effect of the diameter of the projectile on the weldability, the temperature elevating process in two cylindrical projectiles subjected to a longitudinal impact was evaluated numerically using LS-DYNA. The numerical results indicated that since the deformation mechanism of a projectile with a slenderness ratio less than 1.0 is different of that of the projectile with the slenderness ratio more than 1.5, the small projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 1.0 can be welded to the target.

  10. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  11. Taming of 3,4-Di(nitramino)furazan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-12-30

    Highly energetic 3,4-di(nitramino)furazan (1, DNAF) was synthesized and confirmed structurally by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Its highly sensitive nature can be attributed to the shortage of hydrogen-bonding interactions and an interactive nitro chain in the crystal structure. In order to stabilize this structure, a series of corresponding nitrogen-rich salts (3-10) has been prepared and fully characterized. Among these energetic materials, dihydrazinium 3,4-dinitraminofurazanate (5) exhibits a very promising detonation performance (νD = 9849 m s(-1); P = 40.9 GPa) and is one of the most powerful explosives to date. To ensure the practical applications of 5, rather than preparing the salts of 1 through acid-base reactions, an alternative route through the nitration of N-ethoxycarbonyl-protected 3,4-diaminofurazan and aqueous alkaline workup was developed. PMID:26669520

  12. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. PMID:9820716

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease.

  14. Serial Measurements of Splanchnic Vein Diameters in Rats Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Bridget M.; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate serial ultrasound imaging in rats as a fully non-invasive method to (1) quantify the diameters of splanchnic veins in real time as an indirect surrogate for the capacitance function of those veins, and (2) assess the effects of drugs on venous dimensions. A 21 MHz probe was used on anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats to collect images containing the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC), and splenic vein (SpV; used as a landmark in timed studies) and the abdominal aorta (AA). Stable landmarks were established that allowed reproducible quantification of cross-sectional diameters within an animal. The average diameters of vessels measured every 5 min over 45 min remained within 0.75 ± 0.15% (PV), 0.2 ± 0.09% (SMV), 0.5 ± 0.12% (IVC), and 0.38 ± 0.06% (AA) of baseline (PV: 2.0 ± 0.12 mm; SMV: 1.7 ± 0.04 mm; IVC: 3.2 ± 0.1 mm; AA: 2.3 ± 0.14 mm). The maximal effects of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) on venous diameters were determined 5 min post SNP bolus; the diameters of all noted veins were significantly increased by SNP, while mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 29 ± 4 mmHg. By contrast, administration of the venoconstrictor sarafotoxin (S6c; 5 ng/kg, i.v. bolus) significantly decreased PV and SpV, but not IVC, SMV, or AA, diameters 5 min post S6c bolus; MAP increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg. In order to determine if resting splanchnic vein diameters were stable over much longer periods of time, vessel diameters were measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Measurements were found to be highly reproducible within animals over this time period. Finally, to evaluate the utility of vein imaging in a chronic condition, images were acquired from 4-week deoxycorticosterone acetate salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive and normotensive (SHAM) control rats. All vessel diameters increased from baseline while MAP increased (67 ± 4 mmHg) in DOCA-salt rats

  15. 7 CFR 51.2850 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a straight line running...

  16. 7 CFR 51.651 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...) Definitions § 51.651 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line...

  17. 7 CFR 51.712 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.712 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from...

  18. Shrinking plastic tubing and nonstandard diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Process allows larger-than-normal postshrink diameters without splitting. Tetrafluoroethylene tubing on mandrel is supported within hot steel pipe by several small diameter coil sections. Rising temperature of mandrel is measured via thermocouple so assembly can be removed without overshrinking (and splitting) of tubing.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2850 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a straight line running...

  20. 7 CFR 51.651 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...) Definitions § 51.651 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line...

  1. 7 CFR 51.712 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.712 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from...

  2. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.

    2001-08-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  3. Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakonjac, Ana; Roberts, Kris O.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-02-01

    We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap. A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03° and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

  4. UPDATES AND EVALUATION OF THE PX-LSM IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting with Version 3.4, there is a new land surface model known as the Pleim-Xiu LSM available in the MM5 system. Pleim and Xiu (1995) described the initial development and testing of this land surface and workshop proceedings provided a basic description of the model and s...

  5. Film Programmer's Guide to 16mm Rentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artel, Linda J., Ed.; Weaver, Kathleen, Ed.

    The guide is geared to reflect the expanding interest in the history of cinema, in underground and experimental films, in social and political documentaries as well as more conventional Hollywood and foreign classics. It lists over 8,000 16mm films selected from 50 United States distributors. A title directory contains information concerning the…

  6. CCM3 to MM5 Data Conversion

    2007-03-02

    The accompanying script (which uses the NCAR Command Language) ready output from the Community Climate Model Code, version 3 (CCM3) and converts it to input format for the Mesoscale Model, version 5 (MM5) code. The script utilizes a Fortran binary write routine.

  7. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  8. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  10. 26 CFR 3.4 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.4 Establishment of accounts. (a) In general. Section 607(e)(1) of the Act...: the capital account, the capital gain account, and the ordinary income account. Deposits of the... under section 607(e) of the Act and this section. (b) Capital account. The capital account shall...

  11. Isomers of 3-(4-nitrophenyl)acrolein oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Leitis, L.Ya.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Yansone, D.P.; Dreibante, I.I.; Shimanskaya, M.V.; Maslii, L.K.; Nikol'skaya, G.S.

    1986-06-10

    The Z and E isomers of 3-(4-nitrophenyl)acrolein oxime were obtained and characterized. The assignment was made on the basis of the geminal hetero constants /sup 2/J(/sup 15/N = C-/sup 1/H) and /sup 2/J(/sup 15/N = C-/sup 13/C).

  12. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  13. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  14. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff

    2011-10-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.

  15. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure. PMID:22024957

  16. Dithieno[3,4-b:3',4'-d]thiophene-annelated antiaromatic planar cyclooctatetraene with olefinic protons.

    PubMed

    Aita, Kazunari; Ohmae, Takeshi; Takase, Masayoshi; Nomura, Kotohiro; Kimura, Hideaki; Nishinaga, Tohru

    2013-07-19

    The design and synthesis of a new planar cyclooctatetraene (COT) with protons directly connected to the COT ring was attained by monoannelation with dithieno[3,4-b:3',4'-d]thiophene. The planar structure of the COT core was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The magnetic antiaromaticity of the COT core was found to be higher than that of the previously synthesized planar COTs with olefinic protons, according to the results of (1)H NMR and absorption spectra as well as NICS calculations.

  17. 3,4,6-Trimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Hamri, Salha; Hafid, Abderrafia; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Khouili, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3, the 1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine system and the phenyl ring are each individually planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.017 (2) and 0.011 (2) Å, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two aromatic systems is 9.33 (10)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between parallel pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine ring systems [face-to-face distance = 3.449 (6) Å]. PMID:21588287

  18. Sonar cephalometry in twin pregnancy: discordancy of the biparietal diameter after 28 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Leveno, K J; Santos-Ramos, R; Duenhoelter, J H; Reisch, J S; Whalley, P J

    1980-11-15

    Sonar measured biparietal diameter (BPD) differences of twin paires were examined in 123 twin pregnancies at or beyond 28 weeks' gestation. Among 117 liveborn sets, the risk of a twin infant being small for gestational age was threefold greater when paired BPD differences were 5 mm or more compared to 4 mm or less. The incidence of fetal death increased from 2.7% for twin pairs with 0 to 6 mm BPD differences to 20% when the difference was 7 mm or more. Sonar cephalometry may be helpful in the antepartum evaluation of twin pregnancies, although detection of BPD discordancy does not preclude normal twin outcome.

  19. Diameter prediction mathematical models for xanthan gum-alginate capsules produced by extrusion-dripping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the applicability of particle diameter prediction mathematical models (i.e. Tate's Law equation, the modified Tate's Law equation, the modified Yildirim's model) to determine diameter of liquid core capsules. The capsules were produced by extruding xanthan gum-calcium chloride solution through a hypodermic needle into sodium alginate solution. The effects of two types of xanthan gum with different concentrations and needle diameters on capsule diameter were investigated in this work. The results showed that there was no significant difference in capsule diameter despite different types and concentrations of xanthan gum were used. However, the diameter of the capsules increased when the diameter of needles increased. As a whole, the produced capsules were in the range of 3.47 mm to 4.86 mm. Among the three studied prediction models, the modified Tate's Law mathematical equation was the most suitable model for the diameter prediction of the liquid core capsules with AAD of 2.74% and MAD of 6.55%.

  20. On the relationship between mass and diameter distributions in tree communities.

    PubMed

    Stegen, James C; White, Ethan P

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that frequency distributions of individual tree masses in natural stands are characterized by power-law distributions with exponents near -3/4, and that therefore tree communities exhibit energetic equivalence among size classes. Because the mass of trees is not measured directly, but estimated from diameter, this supposition is based on the fact that the observed distribution of tree diameters is approximately characterized by a power-law with an exponent approximately -2. Here we show that diameter distributions of this form are not equivalent to mass distributions with exponents of -3/4, but actually to mass distributions with exponents of -11/8. We discuss the implications of this result for the metabolic theory of ecology and for understanding energetic equivalence and the processes structuring tree communities.

  1. Biologically Inspired mm-size Gliding UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Daniel; Zussman, Eyal; Yarin, Alexander

    2002-11-01

    We present a first design of an unmanned aerial vehicle whose aerodynamic loads are carried by comb-like permeable surfaces. This concept was based on observation and analysis of the flight capabilities of the Thrip family of insects, whose have wings of this form and various plant seeds which use this concept to form an aerodynamic decelerator. This concept is only practical for at low Reynolds numbers, as the viscous trace of bodies moving in fluid becomes thicker as Re becomes smaller. When Re<1, a cylinder moving in fluid can drag along fluid up to several cylinder diameters. This drag effect can be used to produce a comb structure, where the ratio of comb rod to inter-rod distance can be up to 0.1 without significant throughflow, i.e. the comb is equivalent to a continuous surface. To demonstrate this principle, we have built artificial ``dandelion seeds", i.e. stable aerodynamic decelerators (parachutes) made of permeable light mats of submicron diameter nanofibers. We produced the nanofiber matrices (mats) by electrospinning of polymer solutions, obtaining fibers of 200-400 nm diameter. These fibers were then deposited on frames that serve to define the aerodynamic surfaces, thus producing the mat, with controllable density. For stability, the aerodynamic surfaces had positive dihedral ( inverted umbrella) forms with the fuselage hanging below. When dropped, the platforms fell freely through the air, apex down, reaching terminal velocity very quickly. By comparing the sink rate of the permeable structures with equivalent decelerators with continuous (Saran-wrap) surfaces we show that the permeable surfaces are equivalent to continuous surfaces, with significant weight savings, as long as the local Reynolds number is o(1).

  2. Substrate diameter and compliance affect the gripping strategies and locomotor mode of climbing boa constrictors.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C

    2010-12-15

    Arboreal habitats pose unique challenges for locomotion as a result of their narrow cylindrical surfaces and discontinuities between branches. Decreased diameter of branches increases compliance, which can pose additional challenges, including effects on stability and energy damping. However, the combined effects of substrate diameter and compliance are poorly understood for any animal. We quantified performance, kinematics and substrate deformation while boa constrictors (Boa constrictor) climbed vertical ropes with three diameters (3, 6 and 9 mm) and four tensions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 body weights). Mean forward velocity decreased significantly with both decreased diameter and increased compliance. Both diameter and compliance had numerous effects on locomotor kinematics, but diameter had larger and more pervasive effects than compliance. Locomotion on the largest diameter had a larger forward excursion per cycle, and the locomotor mode and gripping strategy differed from that on the smaller diameters. On larger diameters, snakes primarily applied opposing forces at the same location on the rope to grip. By contrast, on smaller diameters forces were applied in opposite directions at different locations along the rope, resulting in increased rope deformation. Although energy is likely to be lost during deformation, snakes might use increased surface deformation as a strategy to enhance their ability to grip.

  3. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOEpatents

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  4. Gene Tree Diameter for Deep Coalescence.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Paweł; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The deep coalescence cost accounts for discord caused by deep coalescence between a gene tree and a species tree. It is a major concern that the diameter of a gene tree (the tree's maximum deep coalescence cost across all species trees) depends on its topology, which can largely obfuscate phylogenetic studies. While this bias can be compensated by normalizing the deep coalescence cost using diameters, obtaining them efficiently has been posed as an open problem by Than and Rosenberg. Here, we resolve this problem by describing a linear time algorithm to compute the diameter of a gene tree. In addition, we provide a complete classification of the species trees yielding this diameter to guide phylogenetic analyses.

  5. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  6. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    PubMed Central

    Saad, M.; Assaf, A.; Gerges, E.

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  7. Terahertz/mm wave imaging simulation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, M. R.; Dougherty, J.; Kiser, W. L., Jr.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a mm wave/terahertz imaging simulation package from COTS graphic software and custom MATLAB code. In this scheme, a commercial ray-tracing package was used to simulate the emission and reflections of radiation from scenes incorporating highly realistic imagery. Accurate material properties were assigned to objects in the scenes, with values obtained from the literature, and from our own terahertz spectroscopy measurements. The images were then post-processed with custom Matlab code to include the blur introduced by the imaging system and noise levels arising from system electronics and detector noise. The Matlab code was also used to simulate the effect of fog, an important aspect for mm wave imaging systems. Several types of image scenes were evaluated, including bar targets, contrast detail targets, a person in a portal screening situation, and a sailboat on the open ocean. The images produced by this simulation are currently being used as guidance for a 94 GHz passive mm wave imaging system, but have broad applicability for frequencies extending into the terahertz region.

  8. Large diameter carbon-boron fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veltri, R. D.; Jacob, B. A.; Galasso, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations concerned with a development of large-diameter carbon fibers are considered, taking into account the employment of vapor deposition techniques. In the experiments a carbon monofilament substrate is used together with reacting gases which consist of combinations of hydrogen, methane, and boron trichloride. It is found that the described approach can be used to obtain a large-diameter carbon filament containing boron. The filament has reasonable strength and modulus properties.

  9. Ultra-efficient Engine Diameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Brown, Stephen T.; Kawai, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Engine fan diameter and Bypass Ratio (BPR) optimization studies have been conducted since the beginning of the turbofan age with the recognition that reducing the engine core jet velocity and increasing fan mass flow rate generally increases propulsive efficiency. However, performance tradeoffs limit the amount of fan flow achievable without reducing airplane efficiency. This study identifies the optimum engine fan diameter and BPR, given the advanced Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) powerplant efficiencies, for use on an advanced subsonic airframe. Engine diameter studies have historically focused on specific engine size options, and were limited by existing technology and transportation infrastructure (e.g., ability to fit bare engines through aircraft doors and into cargo holds). This study is unique in defining the optimum fan diameter and drivers for future 2015 (UEET) powerplants while not limiting engine fan diameter by external constraints. This report follows on to a study identifying the system integration issues of UEET engines. This Engine Diameter study was managed by Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington through the NASA Glenn Revolutionary Aero Space Engine Research (RASER) contract under task order 10. Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, completed the engine/airplane sizing optimization, while the Boeing Commercial Airplane group (BCA) provided design oversight. A separate subcontract to support the overall project was issued to Tuskegee University.

  10. Beam optics of a 10-cm diameter high current heavy ion diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Vay, J.L.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Halaxa, E.; Westenskow, G.; Haber, I.

    2003-05-01

    Typically a large diameter surface ionization source is used to produce > 0.5 A K{sup +} current with emittance < 1 {pi}-mm-mrad for heavy ion fusion experiments. So far we have observed aberrations that are slightly different from those predicted by computer simulations. We have now set up an experiment to study in detail the beam optics of such a large diameter ion diode and to benchmark the simulation code.

  11. Maximum Diameter of Native Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Measured by Angio-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Caroline E.; Marcus, Claude D.; Barbe, Coralie M.; Ecarnot, Fiona B.; Long, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the reference technique for the measurement of native maximum abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter when surgery is being considered. However, there is a wide choice available for the methodology of maximum AAA diameter measurement on CTA, and to date, no consensus has been reached on which method is best. We analyzed clinical decisions based on these various measures of native maximum AAA diameter with CTA, then analyzed their reproducibility and identified the method of measurement yielding the highest agreement in terms of patient management. Materials and Methods: Three sets of measures in 46 native AAA were obtained, double-blind by three radiologists (J, S, V) on orthogonal planes, curved multiplanar reconstructions, and semi-automated-software, based on the AAA-lumen centerline. From each set, the clinical decision was recorded as follows: "Follow-up" (if all diameters <50 mm), "ambiguous" (if at least one diameter <50 mm AND at least one ≥50 mm) or "Surgery " (if all diameters ≥50 mm). Intra- and interobserver agreements in clinical decisions were compared using the weighted Kappa coefficient. Results: Clinical decisions varied according to the measurement sets used by each observer, and according to intra and interobserver (lecture#1) reproducibility. Based on the first reading of each observer, the number of AAA proposed for surgery ranged from 11 to 24 for J, 5 to 20 for S, and 15 to 23 for V. The rate of AAAs classified as "ambiguous" varied from 11% (5/46) to 37% (17/46). The semi-automated method yielded very good intraand interobserver agreements in clinical decisions in all comparisons (Kappa range 0.83–1.00). Conclusion: The semi-automated method seems to be appropriate for native AAA maximum diameter measurement on CTA. In the absence of AAA outer-wallbased software more robust for complex AAA, clinical decisions might best be made with diameter values obtained using this technique

  12. Validating a Nonhuman Primate Model of Super-Selective Intraophthalmic Artery Chemotherapy: Comparing Ophthalmic Artery Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Ditta, Lauren C.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Tse, Brian C.; Landers, Mark M.; Haik, Barrett G.; Steinle, Jena J.; Williams, J. Scott; Wilson, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Superselective intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy (SSIOAC) is being used for treatment of retinoblastoma; however, the hemodynamic consequences and toxicities are not fully known. We developed a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of SSIOAC and reported our clinical observations. For validation, we compared ophthalmic artery (OA) diameters between NHPs and children (<6 years). Methods. Endovascular cannulation of the right OA was performed three times each in six adult male Rhesus macaques. Angiographic OA images were obtained and measured, and postmortem OAs were histologically sectioned and measured. Retrospectively, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography images of the head in children and adolescents (as an adult reference) were used to measure the OA luminal diameter at its origin. Results. The median angiographic diameter of treated NHP OA origins (n = 6) was 1.06 mm (range 0.94–1.56). Histologic measurements (8 of 12 NHP OAs) gave a median diameter of 1.09 mm (range 0.95–1.41). In 98 children (from 169 consecutive CT and MR angiography studies; median age 1.01 years, range 0.01–5.74), 186 OAs were measurable at the origin (median luminal diameter 1.28 mm, range 0.82–2.00; P = 0.16 for the angiographic NHP diameters versus pediatric cohort). Angiographic measurements of 34 OAs (of 20 consecutive studies of adolescents; median age 16.55 years, range 14.40–18.18) gave a median luminal diameter of 1.45 mm (origin, range 1.13–1.66; P < 0.0001, adolescent versus pediatric). Conclusions. Measurements of the OA luminal diameter at its origin were similar between our NHP and pediatric cohort, validating our NHP model for testing both the hemodynamic consequences and toxicities of SSIOAC. PMID:23111611

  13. Effect of Projectile Diameter on Weldability of Impact Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Hidefumi

    The impact welding has been carried out using the projectile with the diameter of 11 and 5 mm. The large projectile with the slenderness ratio L/d (L is Length and d is diameter) of 1 to 5 was welded to the stainless steel target. However, only the small projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 1.2 was welded to the same stainless steel target. In order to clarify the effect of the diameter of the projectile on the weldability, the temperature elevating process in the cylindrical projectile subjected to a longitudinal impact is evaluated numerically using LS-DYNA. The slenderness ratios used in the analysis were 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. The coefficient of friction used in the analysis was 0.2. The constitutive equation used in the analysis was Cowper-Symonds type. Those numerical results indicated that the deformation mechanism of the projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 2.0 is different of that of the projectile with the slenderness ratio more than 2.0. It was clarified from those results that the temperature of the small projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 1.5 arrives at the bonding temperature by the difference of the deformation mechanism regardless of the small kinetic energy.

  14. Development of Small Diameter Nanofiber Tissue Engineered Arterial Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Tara, Shuhei; Rocco, Kevin A.; Bagi, Paul S.; Yi, Tai; Udelsman, Brooks; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Cleary, Muriel; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Breuer, Christopher K.; Shinoka, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The surgical repair of heart and vascular disease often requires implanting synthetic grafts. While synthetic grafts have been successfully used for medium-to-large sized arteries, applications for small diameter arteries (<6 mm) is limited due to high rates of occlusion by thrombosis. Our objective was to develop a tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for small diameter arteries. TEVGs composed of polylactic acid nanofibers with inner luminal diameter between 0.5 and 0.6 mm were surgically implanted as infra-renal aortic interposition conduits in 25 female C17SCID/bg mice. Twelve mice were given sham operations. Survival of mice with TEVG grafts was 91.6% at 12 months post-implantation (sham group: 83.3%). No instances of graft stenosis or aneurysmal dilatation were observed over 12 months post-implantation, assessed by Doppler ultrasound and microCT. Histologic analysis of explanted TEVG grafts showed presence of CD31-positive endothelial monolayer and F4/80-positive macrophages after 4, 8, and 12 months in vivo. Cells positive for α-smooth muscle actin were observed within TEVG, demonstrating presence of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Neo-extracellular matrix consisting mostly of collagen types I and III were observed at 12 months post-implantation. PCR analysis supports histological observations. TEVG group showed significant increases in expressions of SMC marker, collagen-I and III, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9, and itgam (a macrophage marker), when compared to sham group. Overall, patency rates were excellent at 12 months after implantation, as structural integrity of these TEVG. Tissue analysis also demonstrated vessel remodeling by autologous cell. PMID:25830942

  15. Improved electrical and optical properties of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) via ordered microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Li, Yu; Wu, Jun; Noda, Hideki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2007-05-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanorods (80-150 nm in diameter) and nanospheres were synthesized through a self-assembly method using ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidants, respectively, and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) as the dopant. The PEDOT nanorods showed broader absorption bands, higher crystallinity and much higher room-temperature conductivity (approximately 300 S cm-1) than the PEDOT nanospheres. Such obviously distinct properties of these products were considered to be due to the much lower rate of polymerization with FeCl3 than APS, which made the growth of PEDOT according to the suggested cylinder micelles more moderate and regular; as a result, the morphology of the microstructure changed and the crystallinity, the doping level, the molecular orderliness and the conductivity of PEDOT synthesized under lower rate of polymerization improved intensely at the same time.

  16. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforgue, Alexis

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 ± 10 S cm -1, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions.

  17. Electrical conduction mechanism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber bundles at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutia, P.; Kumar, A.

    2015-09-01

    The nature of charge transport mechanism in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber bundles has been studied as a function of temperature, magnetic field and AC electric field. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs show the formation of nanofibers with an average diameter of 14 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis depicts the enhancement of polymer chains ordering with increasing dopant concentration. Analysis of the temperature dependence of resistivity reveals a three-dimensional variable range hopping electrical conduction mechanism in the synthesized nanofibers system. A large positive magnetoresistance has been observed at low temperature, which shows a decreasing trend with increasing temperature as well as dopant concentration. The high value of positive magnetoresistance at low temperature has been explained by the wave function shrinkage model. The decrease in frequency exponent s with increasing temperature suggests that the AC conduction takes place through correlated barrier hopping mechanism.

  18. 1 mm ultrafast superconducting stripline molecule detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, N.; Casaburi, A.; Shiki, S.; Suzuki, K.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Ohkubo, M.

    2009-10-01

    Superconducting stripline detectors (SSLDs) are promising for detecting keV molecules at nanosecond response times and with mass-independent detection efficiency. However, a fast response time is incompatible with practical centimeter detector size. A parallel configuration of striplines provides a means to address this problem. Experimental results and simulation for promisingly large 1-mm-square parallel niobium SSLDs show that nanosecond pulses are produced by superconducting-normal transition within only one of the parallel striplines instead of cascade switching of all the parallel striplines. Successful detection of a series of multimers of immunoglobulin G up to 584 kDa supports the mass-independent efficiency for mass spectrometry.

  19. Performance of and Pressure Elevation Formed by Small-diameter Microtubes Used in Constant-flow Sets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sae Woon; Noh, Myounggyu D.; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Ahn, Byung Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We explored the performance of and pressure elevation caused by small-diameter microtubes used to reduce overfiltration. Methods Using a syringe pump-driven constant-flow setting (2 µL/min), pressures were measured for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microtubes 5 mm in length with inner diameters of 51, 64, and 76 µm and for polyether block amide (PEBAX) microtubes with an inner diameter of 76 µm. Experiments (using microtubes only) were initially performed in air, water, and enucleated pig eyes and were repeated under the same conditions using intraluminal 9/0 nylon stents. Results The pressures measured in air in 51-, 64-, and 76-µm-diameter PTFE microtubes differed significantly (22.1, 16.9, and 12.2 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.001), and that of the 76-µm-diameter PEBAX microtube was 15.8 mmHg (p < 0.001 compared to the 12.2 mmHg of the 76-µm-diameter PTFE microtube). The pressures measured in water also differed significantly among the three microtubes at 3.9, 3.0, and 1.4 mmHg, respectively, while that in the PEBAX microtube was 2.6 mmHg (all p < 0.001). Using the intraluminal stent, the pressure in water of the three different PTFE microtubes increased to 22.6, 18.0, and 4.1 mmHg, respectively, and that in the PEBAX microtube increased to 10.5 mmHg (all p < 0.001). Similar trends were evident when measurements were performed in pig eyes. Conclusions Although microtubes of smaller diameter experienced higher pressure in air, reduction of the inner diameter to 51 µm did not adequately increase the pressure attained in water or pig eyes. Insertion of an intraluminal stent effectively elevated the latter pressures. PEBAX microtubes created higher pressures than did PTFE microtubes. PMID:27247522

  20. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  1. The effect of initial diameter in sperically symmetric droplet combustion of sooting fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, G. S.; Avedisian, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of initial droplet diameter on the burning rate of sooting fuels - n-heptane and 1-chloro-octane - was examined experimentally at low gravity. A 1.2s drop tower provided a low gravity environment to minimize buoyancy and achieve spherically symmetric flames for stationary droplets. Free-floating and fiber-supported droplets were burned, and both techniques gave matching results for droplets of similar initial diameter. Burning rate constants for both fuels were measured for a large number of droplets ranging from 0.4 to 1.1mm in initial diameter.

  2. Collagen fibril diameter and leather strength.

    PubMed

    Wells, Hannah C; Edmonds, Richard L; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2013-11-27

    The main structural component of leather and skin is type I collagen in the form of strong fibrils. Strength is an important property of leather, and the way in which collagen contributes to the strength is not fully understood. Synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to measure the collagen fibril diameter of leather from a range of animals, including sheep and cattle, that had a range of tear strengths. SAXS data were fit to a cylinder model. The collagen fibril diameter and tear strength were found to be correlated in bovine leather (r(2) = 0.59; P = 0.009), with stronger leather having thicker fibrils. There was no correlation between orientation index, i.e., fibril alignment, and fibril diameter for this data set. Ovine leather showed no correlation between tear strength and fibril diameter, nor was there a correlation across a selection of other animal leathers. The findings presented here suggest that there may be a different structural motif in skin compared with tendon, particularly ovine skin or leather, in which the diameter of the individual fibrils contributes less to strength than fibril alignment does.

  3. Modular Small Diameter Vascular Grafts with Bioactive Functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Link, Thorben; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a novel type of artificial small diameter blood vessels, termed biomimetic tissue-engineered blood vessels (bTEBV), with a modular composition. They are composed of a hydrogel scaffold consisting of two negatively charged natural polymers, alginate and a modified chitosan, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC). Into this biologically inert scaffold two biofunctionally active biopolymers are embedded, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) and silica, as well as gelatin which exposes the cell recognition signal, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). These materials can be hardened by exposure to Ca2+ through formation of Ca2+ bridges between the polyanions, alginate, N,O-CMC, and polyP (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP). The bTEBV are formed by pressing the hydrogel through an extruder into a hardening solution, containing Ca2+. In this universal scaffold of the bTEBV biomaterial, polycations such as poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys) or a His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide (three RGD units) were incorporated, which promote the adhesion of endothelial cells to the vessel surface. The mechanical properties of the biopolymer material (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP-silica) revealed a hardness (elastic modulus) of 475 kPa even after a short incubation period in CaCl2 solution. The material of the artificial vascular grafts (bTEBVs with an outer size 6 mm and 1.8 mm, and an inner diameter 4 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively) turned out to be durable in 4-week pulsatile flow experiments at an alternating pressure between 25 and 100 mbar (18.7 and 75.0 mm Hg). The burst pressure of the larger (smaller) vessels was 850 mbar (145 mbar). Incorporation of polycationic poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys), and especially the His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide, markedly increased the adhesion of human, umbilical vein/vascular endothelial cells, EA.HY926 cells, to the surface of the hydrogel. No significant effect of the polyP samples on the clotting of human plasma is measured. We propose that the metabolically degradable

  4. DiameterJ: A Validated Open Source Nanofiber Diameter Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Nathan A.; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 seconds. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called “DiameterJ” was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 seconds, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  5. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response.

  6. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  7. Ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Chun; Choi, Ho-Jung; Choi, Min-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee

    2003-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the feasibility of ultrasonographic measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in normal dogs and evaluate the effect of breed, sex, body weight and age on biometry of ONSD. The ONSDs were evaluated in 15 dogs (10-50 months old) with normal eye (7 Yorkshire terrier and 8 Maltese). Ultrasonographic measurements of the ONSD were carried out at a constant position located 5 mm behind the optic disc. Eyes were collected immediately after euthanasia, and were used for saline immersion technique and direct measurement by calipers for biometry of ONSD. In this study, there was no significant difference of ONSD between the left and the right eyes, and was no significant difference among ONSD values obtained from ultrasonographical method, saline immersion technique and direct measurement (k=0.95). Also, there was no correlations between ONSD and sex, body weight and age, but was significant between the mean ONSD of Yorkshire terrier and Maltese (p<0.01). The mean ONSD of Yorkshire terrier was 2.10 +/- 0.22 mm and Maltese was 1.63 +/- 0.23 mm. This study suggests that ultrasonographic measurements is useful method for biometry of the ONSD in normal dogs and provides baseline information for the study of evaluating ONSD in various breeds and diagnosing several diseases with the change of the ONSD.

  8. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers is the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.

  9. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  10. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  11. WISE 3.4 micron Detection of PTF10acbp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Hoffman, D.; Masci, F.; Conrow, T.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Helou, G.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Surace, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ 140, 1868) scanned the position of PTF10acbp (ATEL #3094), the luminous red nova in the spiral galaxy UGC 11973, 23 times between 2010 June 17 and June 23, and again 30 times between 2010 December 12 and December 16, just five days after the transient's discovery. The June observations were made during the WISE cryogenic survey yielding images at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns.

  12. Coordinated mm/sub-mm observations of Sagittarius A* in May 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunneriath, D.; Eckart, A.; Vogel, S.; Sjouwerman, L.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Schödel, R.; Baganoff, F. K.; Morris, M.; Bertram, T.; Dovciak, M.; Dowries, D.; Duschl, W. J.; Karas, V.; Konig, S.; Krichbaum, T.; Krips, M.; Lu, R.-S.; Markoff, S.; Mauerhan, J.; Meyer, L.; Moultaka, J.; Muzic, K.; Najarro, F.; Schuster, K.; Straubmeier, C.; Thum, C.; Witzel, G.; Zamaninasab, M.; Zensus, A.

    2008-10-01

    At the center of the Milky Way, with a distance of thicksim8 kpc, the compact source Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) can be associated with a super massive black hole of thicksim4x 106Modot. SgrA* shows strong variability from the radio to the X-ray wavelength domains. Here we report on simultaneous NIR/sub-millimeter/X-ray observations from May 2007 that involved the NACO adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the US mm-array CARMA, the IRAM 30m mm-telescope, and other telescopes. We concentrate on the time series of mm/sub-mm data from CARMA, ATCA, and the MAMBO bolometer at the IRAM 30m telescope.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  16. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  17. Fabrication of 10nm diameter carbon nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Radenovic, Aleksandra; Trepagnier, Eliane; Csencsits, Roseann; Downing, Kenneth H; Liphardt, Jan

    2008-09-25

    The addition of carbon to samples, during imaging, presents a barrier to accurate TEM analysis, the controlled deposition of hydrocarbons by a focused electron beam can be a useful technique for local nanometer-scale sculpting of material. Here we use hydrocarbon deposition to form nanopores from larger focused ion beam (FIB) holes in silicon nitride membranes. Using this method, we close 100-200nm diameter holes to diameters of 10nm and below, with deposition rates of 0.6nm per minute. I-V characteristics of electrolytic flow through these nanopores agree quantitatively with a one dimensional model at all examined salt concentrations.

  18. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This “trial and error” process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand

  19. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Rosales, Anthony R; Tutkowski, Brandon; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-05-17

    The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This "trial and error" process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand screens on a range of

  20. Possible identifications of the 3.4 micrometer feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony C.; Lambert, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A feature at 3.4 micrometer was first detected in Comet Halley by the IKS spectrometer on board the Vega 1 probe; and subsequently from the ground. The feature has since been reported in Comet Wilson. The presence of the feature is of considerable interest for a number of reasons. First, it may represent the detection of a new parent molecule, and when combined with data from Giotto and Vega yield new information on cometary chemistry and the early solar system composition. Secondly, it may represent a link to the interstellar medium, the feature corresponds in wavelength and shape with an interstellar feature seen in absorption in a luminous star, towards the Galactic center known as GC-IRS7. The feature in turn is thought to be related with a growing family of unidentified infrared emission features seen in stellar objects, planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, HII regions and extra galactic sources. These features occur at wavelengths 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.25 micrometers. Further identification theory is given.

  1. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  2. Precision distances with spiral galaxy apparent diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Spiral galaxy diameters offer the oldest extragalactic distance indicator known. Although outdated and hitherto imprecise, two spiral diameter-based distance indicators applied in the 1980s can be tested, calibrated, and re-established for precision era use, based on abundant redshift-independent distances data available in NED-D. Indicator one employs the largest Giant Spiral Galaxies, which have an absolute isophotal major diameter of ~70 +/- 10 kpc, offering standard ruler-based distances with <10% precision. Indicator two employs the diameter-magnitude relation for spirals in general, as a secondary indicator, offering ~20% precision. The ruler-based indicator is the only indicator with <10% precision able to independently calibrate type Ia supernovae-based distances at cosmological distances. The secondary-based indicator is the only indicator with 20% precision applicable to more galaxies than in current Tully-Fisher surveys. The primary indicator gives researchers a new tool to confirm or refute if, as currently believed, universal expansion is accelerating. The secondary indicator gives researchers a new path toward acquiring a more complete 3D picture of the local universe and potentially, because the majority of galaxies in the universe are spirals, the distant universe.

  3. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  4. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  5. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  6. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  7. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  8. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  9. Slug flow in a large diameter pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, C.J.; Sam, R.G.; Wallis, G.B.; Mehta, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and anlytical results are presented for two-phase slug flow in a transparent, large diameter pipe (6.75 inches ID) at high gas density. Slug characteristics of velocity, length, frequency, carpet profile and carpet velocity, as well as pressure drop, have been measured and compared with correlations and mechanistic models.

  10. Changing the Diameter of a Viewing Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the students' investigation about the relationship between the diameter of the view tubes (x) of constant lengths and the viewable vertical distance (y) on the wall while keeping the perpendicular distance from the eyeball to the wall constant. The students collected data and used and represented it in tabular and graphical…

  11. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  12. Strain analysis of different diameter Morse taper implants under overloading compressive conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina Guimarães; Zancopé, Karla; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Soares, Carlos José; Neves, Flávio Domingues das

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of deformation from compression caused by different diameters of Morse taper implants and the residual deformation after load removal. Thirty Morse taper implants lacking external threads were divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to their diameter as follows: 3.5 mm, 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm. Two-piece abutments were fixed into the implants, and the samples were subjected to compressive axial loading up to 1500 N of force. During the test, one strain gauge remained fixed to the cervical portion of each implant to measure the strain variation. The strain values were recorded at two different time points: at the maximum load (1500 N) and 60 seconds after load removal. To calculate the strain at the implant/abutment interface, a mathematical formula was applied. Data were analyzed using a one-way Anova and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The 5.0 mm diameter implant showed a significantly lower strain (650.5 μS ± 170.0) than the 4.0 mm group (1170.2 μS ± 374.7) and the 3.5 mm group (1388.1 μS ± 326.6) (p < 0.001), regardless of the load presence. The strain values decreased by approximately 50% after removal of the load, regardless of the implant diameter. The 5.0 mm implant showed a significantly lower strain at the implant/abutment interface (943.4 μS ± 504.5) than the 4.0 mm group (1057.4 μS ± 681.3) and the 3.5 mm group (1159.6 μS ± 425.9) (p < 0.001). According to the results of this study, the diameter influenced the strain around the internal and external walls of the cervical region of Morse taper implants; all diameters demonstrated clinically acceptable values of strain.

  13. 3,4,5-Trichloroaniline nephrotoxicity in vitro: potential role of free radicals and renal biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher; Ward, Dakota; Anestis, Dianne K; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Deborah; Rankin, Gary O

    2014-11-13

    Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60-120 min. In some experiments, IRCC were pretreated with an antioxidant or a cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), cyclooxygenase or peroxidase inhibitor prior to incubation with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or TCA (0.5 mM) for 120 min. At 60 min, TCA did not induce cytotoxicity, but induced cytotoxicity as early as 90 min with 0.5 mM or higher TCA and at 120 min with 0.1 mM or higher TCA, as evidenced by increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Pretreatment with the CYP inhibitor piperonyl butoxide, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the peroxidase inhibitor mercaptosuccinate attenuated TCA cytotoxicity, while pretreatment with FMO inhibitors or the CYP inhibitor metyrapone had no effect on TCA nephrotoxicity. Pretreatment with an antioxidant (α-tocopherol, glutathione, ascorbate or N-acetyl-L-cysteine) also reduced or completely blocked TCA cytotoxicity. These results indicate that TCA is directly nephrotoxic to IRCC in a time and concentration dependent manner. Bioactivation of TCA to toxic metabolites by CYP, cyclooxygenase and/or peroxidase contributes to the mechanism of TCA nephrotoxicity. Lastly, free radicals play a role in TCA cytotoxicity, although the exact nature of the origin of these radicals remains to be determined.

  14. 3,4,5-Trichloroaniline Nephrotoxicity in Vitro: Potential Role of Free Radicals and Renal Biotransformation

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher; Ward, Dakota; Anestis, Dianne K.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Deborah; Rankin, Gary O.

    2014-01-01

    Chloroanilines are widely used in the manufacture of drugs, pesticides and industrial intermediates. Among the trichloroanilines, 3,4,5-trichloroaniline (TCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine the nephrotoxic potential of TCA in vitro and to determine if renal biotransformation and/or free radicals contributed to TCA cytotoxicity using isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) from male Fischer 344 rats as the animal model. IRCC (~4 million cells/mL; 3 mL) were incubated with TCA (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mM) for 60–120 min. In some experiments, IRCC were pretreated with an antioxidant or a cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), cyclooxygenase or peroxidase inhibitor prior to incubation with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or TCA (0.5 mM) for 120 min. At 60 min, TCA did not induce cytotoxicity, but induced cytotoxicity as early as 90 min with 0.5 mM or higher TCA and at 120 min with 0.1 mM or higher TCA, as evidenced by increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Pretreatment with the CYP inhibitor piperonyl butoxide, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or the peroxidase inhibitor mercaptosuccinate attenuated TCA cytotoxicity, while pretreatment with FMO inhibitors or the CYP inhibitor metyrapone had no effect on TCA nephrotoxicity. Pretreatment with an antioxidant (α-tocopherol, glutathione, ascorbate or N-acetyl-l-cysteine) also reduced or completely blocked TCA cytotoxicity. These results indicate that TCA is directly nephrotoxic to IRCC in a time and concentration dependent manner. Bioactivation of TCA to toxic metabolites by CYP, cyclooxygenase and/or peroxidase contributes to the mechanism of TCA nephrotoxicity. Lastly, free radicals play a role in TCA cytotoxicity, although the exact nature of the origin of these radicals remains to be determined. PMID:25402648

  15. 1,2:3,4-Diepoxybutane Induces Multipolar Mitosis in Cultured Human Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Barajas Torres, Reyna Lucía; Domínguez Cruz, Martín Daniel; Borjas Gutiérrez, César; Ramírez Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Magaña Torres, María Teresa; González García, Juan Ramón

    2016-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, a colorless gas regularly used in the production of plastics, thermoplastic resins, and styrene-butadiene rubber, poses an increased leukemia mortality risk to workers in this field. 1,3-Butadiene is also produced by incomplete combustion of motor fuels or by tobacco smoking. It is absorbed principally through the respiratory system and metabolized by several enzymes rendering 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), which has the highest genotoxic potency of all metabolites of 1,3-butadiene. DEB is considered a carcinogen mainly due to its high potential as clastogen, which induces structural chromosome aberrations such as sister chromatid exchanges, chromosomal breaks, and micronuclei. Due to its clastogenic effect, DEB is one of the most used agents for diagnostic studies of Fanconi anemia, a recessively inherited disease related to mutations affecting several genes involved in a common DNA repair pathway. When performing Fanconi anemia diagnostic tests in our laboratory, we have observed occasional multipolar mitosis (MM) in lymphocyte cultures exposed to 0.1 μg/ml of DEB and harvested in the absence of any mitotic spindle inhibitor. Although previous studies reported an aneugenic effect (i.e. it induces aneuploidy) of DEB, no mechanism was suggested to explain such observations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to 0.1 μg/ml of DEB is significantly associated with the occurrence of MM. We blindly assessed the frequency of MM in lymphocyte cultures from 10 nonsmoking healthy individuals. Two series of 3 cultures were performed from each sample under different conditions: A, without DEB; B, with 0.1 μg/ml of DEB, and C, with 25 μM of mitomycin C as positive control. Cultures exposed to DEB showed higher frequencies of MM (23 of 2,000 cells) than did the unexposed ones (3 of 2,000 cells). PMID:27193269

  16. Analysis on the stress of the bone surrounding mini-implant with different diameters and lengths under torque.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjuan; Chang, Shaohai; Ye, Jiantao; Ye, Yushan; Yu, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress of the bone around the mini-implant under the two kinds of force: the composite force which contains torque and traditional single force. There were 96 finite element models formed by the combination of mini-implant and bone, with diameters of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm, 2.0 mm and corresponding length being 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, respectively. Each size corresponded to 8 models. Group SF (each size n=4) was loaded with 200 g single force, while Group CF (each size n=4) was loaded with composite force which contained 6N mm torque and 200 g single force. The maximum equivalent stress (Max EQS) of the bone surrounding mini implant with different loading directions was calculated, and the relationship of force direction, diameter and length was also evaluated. The Max EQS of Group CF was higher than that of Group SF. The effect of force direction on the stress was related to the diameter of mini implant, but had nothing to do with its length. The Max EQS of the cortical bone around mini implant in Group CF was higher (P<0.05) than that in Group SF. In contrast, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between Group SF and Group CF in terms of bone stress when the diameter of mini implant was 1.6 mm or 2.0 mm. In our study, it is demonstrated that the diameter of mini-implant is better to be larger than 1.2 mm when a mini-implant is used in a torque control of tooth. The impact of this feature in the clinical setting needs to be verified.

  17. From the nm to the Mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic models for the evolution of an orogen start at the Mm scale, and use field work on smaller subunits at the km scale and rocks collected at the m scale. At the mm scale, minerals are identified, analyzed by mass spectrometry, their "cooling ages" assigned to a specific closure temperature, a cooling rate attributed to a particular tectonic regime, and a large body of self-referential literature is the product of an oiled machinery. Problems become apparent if one attempts to harmonize mm-scale science with the nasty little details at even smaller scales. Atoms are invisible to the naked eye (unlike the minerals mentioned above) and their actual behavior is, or was, only accessible to indirect argumentations and simplified calculations. Increased computing power now allows calculating the transport of atoms in a crystal from the Schr”dinger equation: results do not fit 19th century continuum physics for infinitely dilute solutions (Fick's and Arrhenius' "laws"). Moreover, improved nanochemical analyses allow characterizing the supposedly homogeneous mineral matrix. TEM images show how layers or chains in pristine minerals are substituted in a non-periodic way by alteration products. EMP analyses show the almost ubiquitous presence of razor-sharp boundaries rather than Erf profiles. Disequilibrium recrystallization textures thus prevail over diffusive reequilibration; diffusion sensu stricto is shown to be a much slower process than heterochemical replacement. Alterability sequences are well known to surface scientists: e.g. halite, olivine, biotite, muscovite, zircon. Such sequences are reflected in the isotopic retentivity. The link only becomes clear at the nm scale: isotopic exchange occurs during the replacement reactions that affect all rocks on their retrograde P-T evolution. This is sufficient to explain why zircons record higher isotopic ages than muscovites, which in turn undergo less isotope exchange than biotites etc. While there is a vague

  18. A comparison between experimental and authentic blood/serum ratios of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Boy, Regine Garcia; Henseler, Joerg; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Mattern, Rainer; Skopp, Gisela

    2009-06-01

    This paper compares the blood-to-serum distribution (B/S ratio) of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its major metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). B/S ratios were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis following liquid-liquid extraction as a function of the hematocrit value (experimental specimens) and in blood and corresponding serum samples (n = 63) from 16 healthy volunteers participating in a controlled driving experiment (authentic specimens). A regression analysis to calculate the B/S ratio was performed followed by an analysis of covariances (ANCOVA). A linear relationship between the hematocrit value and the B/S ratio of both MDMA and MDA could be established from the experimental data. For MDMA, the regressions provided mean B/S ratios of 1.22 and 1.26 for the experimental setting and the authentic samples, respectively. For MDA, the analysis determined slopes of 1.15 and 1.27 for the experimental setting and field study, respectively. ANCOVA revealed that the method of determination (experimental vs. authentic specimens) did not influence the resulting slopes. A conversion factor of 0.80 may give an adequate estimate to derive the serum concentration for MDMA if only the concentration in whole blood is known, whereas such a definitive factor could not be established for MDA because of its very low levels in authentic samples. PMID:19671249

  19. Interactions between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and σ1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Brammer, Matthew K.; Gilmore, Deborah L.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2006-01-01

    Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are structurally similar and represent a serious and growing health threat. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that methamphetamine interacts with σ receptors and that antagonism of these receptors can attenuate methamphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation and neurotoxicity. However, no research exists which characterizes the interaction between σ receptors and MDMA. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to determine whether σ receptors are involved in the actions of MDMA. In the first part of the study, competition and saturation binding assays were performed to measure the interaction of MDMA with σ receptors. The receptor binding assays revealed that MDMA interacts preferentially with the σ1 subtype, as compared to the σ2 subtype, and that this interaction occurs in a competitive manner. The second part of the study focused on behavioral measurements in male, Swiss Webster mice to determine whether a selective σ1 receptor antagonist, BD1063 (1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine, 0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) could attenuate the locomotor stimulant actions of MDMA (0-50 mg/kg, i.p.). BD1063 alone had no effect on locomotor activity, but dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor stimulant effects of (+)-MDMA and produced a significant shift to the right in the MDMA dose response curve. Together, the data support the functional relevance of the interaction of MDMA with σ1 receptors, and suggest that these receptors are involved in the stimulant actions of MDMA. PMID:17070798

  20. Synthesis and Evaluation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Coated Magnesium for Nerve Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebaa, Meriam Amel

    In an attempt to develop conductive, biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible nerve conduits, pure magnesium (Mg) was used as the biodegradable substrate material to provide strength while the conductive polymer, poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was used as a conductive coating material to control Mg degradation and improve cytocompatibility of Mg substrates. A series of electrochemical deposition conditions were explored to produce a uniform, consistent PEDOT coating on Mg substrates. Five cycles of CV with the potential ranging from -0.5V to 2.0V were used to produce consistent coatings for further evaluation. Scanning electron micrographs showed the micro-porous structure of PEDOT coatings. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed the peaks of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon, indicating PEDOT coating. Adhesion strength of the coating was measured using ASTM-D 3359 standard tape test. The adhesion strength of PEDOT coating was within the classifications of 3B to 4B. Tafel tests of the PEDOT coated Mg showed a corrosion current (ICORR) of 6.14e-5A and critical voltage of -1.10V, as compared with ICORR of 9.08e-4A with a critical voltage of -1.35V for non-coated Mg. The calculated corrosion rate for the PEDOT coated Mg was 8.6 mm/year, much slower than 126.9mm/year for the non-coated Mg. H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture studies were conducted using magnesium (Mg) coated with a conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to study viability for potential neural applications. Stem cells cultured indirectly with the Mg coated with PEDOT for 2 cycles were viable for a about half the amount of time when compared with the stem cells cultured with the 5 cycle PEDOT coated Mg.

  1. Experimental study of lean flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures in tubes of different diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshin, Y.L.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2010-04-15

    Lean limit flames in methane/hydrogen/air mixtures propagating in tubes of internal diameters (ID) of 6.0, 8.9, 12.3, 18.4, 25.2, 35.0, and 50.2 mm have been experimentally studied. The flames propagated upward from the open bottom end of the tube to the closed upper end. The content of hydrogen in the fuel gas has been varied in the range 0-40 mol%. Lean flammability limits have been determined; flame shapes recorded and the visible speed of flame propagation measured. Most of the observed limit flames in tubes with diameters in the range of 8.9-18.4 mm had enclosed shape, and could be characterized as distorted or spherical flame balls. The tendency was observed for mixtures with higher hydrogen content to form smaller size, more uniform flame balls in a wider range of tube diameters. At hydrogen content of 20% or more in the fuel gas, limit flames in largest diameters (35.0 mm and 50.2 mm ID) tubes had small, compared to the tube diameter, size and were ''lens''-shaped. ''Regular'' open-front lean limit flames were observed only for the smallest diameters (6.0 mm and 8.9 mm) and largest diameters (35.0 and 50.2 mm ID), and only for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures, except for 6 mm ID tube in which all limit flames had open front. In all experiments, except for the lean limit flames in methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures in the 8.9 mm ID tube, and all limit flames in 6.0 mm ID tube, visible flame speeds very weakly depended on the hydrogen content in the fuel gas and were close to- or below the theoretical estimate of the speed of a rising hot bubble. This observation suggests that the buoyancy is the major factor which determines the visible flame speed for studied limit flames, except that last mentioned. A decrease of the lean flammability limit value with decreasing the tube diameter was observed for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures for tubes having internal diameters in the range

  2. Apical canal diameter in the first upper molar at various ages.

    PubMed

    Gani, O; Visvisian, C

    1999-10-01

    The shape of root canals cross-sectioned through their roots at 2 mm from their apices and its correlation with the D0 diameter of endodontic instruments was evaluated in 40 first upper molars. The molars were grouped according to age: under 13 yr (children), 18 to 20 yr (adolescents), 30 to 40 yr (adults), and over 50 yr. Evaluation of the root canal diameters revealed that the shapes were predominantly circular in the palatal canal, mostly flat in the mesiobuccal canal, and circular or flat in equal proportions in the distobuccal root. Age does not seem to affect the shape of the canals. Narrowing with age was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for palatal and mesiobuccal canals only. Correlation between the maximum diameter of the canals and the instruments was varied. Even in old age, diameters were observed that would require instruments of a size that would be impossible to use, because one internal diameter would exceed the root's external diameter in a different direction (i.e. intimal buccolingual diameter of #80 and external mesiodistal diameter of #70). PMID:10687530

  3. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of bicomponent and homogeneous polyester silk small diameter arterial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Lu; Guan, Guoping; King, Martin W; Li, Yuling; Peng, Lei; Guan, Ying; Hu, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    The development of a small diameter (≤5 mm) arterial prosthesis requires the appropriate selection of materials, structure and fabrication method so as to provide adequate mechanical properties, superior biocompatibility and precise control over the diameter. In this study, 100% polyester, 100% silk fibroin and a combination of both yarns were woven into seamless tubular prototype prostheses with different basic weaves. After degumming/scouring they met a target inner diameter of 3.9±0.3 mm which demonstrates that weaving is a precise way to manufacture small caliber arterial prostheses. In conclusion, the bicomponent polyester/silk woven samples had superior mechanical properties and improved cytocompatibility compared to commercial ePTFE devices. PMID:23292721

  5. The MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods to estimate ligand-binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Genheden, Samuel; Ryde, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The molecular mechanics energies combined with the Poisson–Boltzmann or generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation (MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA) methods are popular approaches to estimate the free energy of the binding of small ligands to biological macromolecules. They are typically based on molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor–ligand complex and are therefore intermediate in both accuracy and computational effort between empirical scoring and strict alchemical perturbation methods. They have been applied to a large number of systems with varying success. Areas covered: The authors review the use of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods to calculate ligand-binding affinities, with an emphasis on calibration, testing and validation, as well as attempts to improve the methods, rather than on specific applications. Expert opinion: MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA are attractive approaches owing to their modular nature and that they do not require calculations on a training set. They have been used successfully to reproduce and rationalize experimental findings and to improve the results of virtual screening and docking. However, they contain several crude and questionable approximations, for example, the lack of conformational entropy and information about the number and free energy of water molecules in the binding site. Moreover, there are many variants of the method and their performance varies strongly with the tested system. Likewise, most attempts to ameliorate the methods with more accurate approaches, for example, quantum-mechanical calculations, polarizable force fields or improved solvation have deteriorated the results. PMID:25835573

  6. A comparison of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras that provide acceptable photographs within the cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required, only large-format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be an overall better choice. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70 mm, and 35 mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color-infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  7. Quantification of pulmonary vessel diameter in low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyanto, Rina D.; Ortiz de Solórzano, Carlos; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate

    2015-03-01

    Accurate quantification of vessel diameter in low-dose Computer Tomography (CT) images is important to study pulmonary diseases, in particular for the diagnosis of vascular diseases and the characterization of morphological vascular remodeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). In this study, we objectively compare several vessel diameter estimation methods using a physical phantom. Five solid tubes of differing diameters (from 0.898 to 3.980 mm) were embedded in foam, simulating vessels in the lungs. To measure the diameters, we first extracted the vessels using either of two approaches: vessel enhancement using multi-scale Hessian matrix computation, or explicitly segmenting them using intensity threshold. We implemented six methods to quantify the diameter: three estimating diameter as a function of scale used to calculate the Hessian matrix; two calculating equivalent diameter from the crosssection area obtained by thresholding the intensity and vesselness response, respectively; and finally, estimating the diameter of the object using the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM). We find that the accuracy of frequently used methods estimating vessel diameter from the multi-scale vesselness filter depends on the range and the number of scales used. Moreover, these methods still yield a significant error margin on the challenging estimation of the smallest diameter (on the order or below the size of the CT point spread function). Obviously, the performance of the thresholding-based methods depends on the value of the threshold. Finally, we observe that a simple adaptive thresholding approach can achieve a robust and accurate estimation of the smallest vessels diameter.

  8. Ultrasonic wave based pressure measurement in small diameter pipeline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Song, Zhengxiang; Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    An effective non-intrusive method of ultrasound-based technique that allows monitoring liquid pressure in small diameter pipeline (less than 10mm) is presented in this paper. Ultrasonic wave could penetrate medium, through the acquisition of representative information from the echoes, properties of medium can be reflected. This pressure measurement is difficult due to that echoes' information is not easy to obtain in small diameter pipeline. The proposed method is a study on pipeline with Kneser liquid and is based on the principle that the transmission speed of ultrasonic wave in pipeline liquid correlates with liquid pressure and transmission speed of ultrasonic wave in pipeline liquid is reflected through ultrasonic propagation time providing that acoustic distance is fixed. Therefore, variation of ultrasonic propagation time can reflect variation of pressure in pipeline. Ultrasonic propagation time is obtained by electric processing approach and is accurately measured to nanosecond through high resolution time measurement module. We used ultrasonic propagation time difference to reflect actual pressure in this paper to reduce the environmental influences. The corresponding pressure values are finally obtained by acquiring the relationship between variation of ultrasonic propagation time difference and pressure with the use of neural network analysis method, the results show that this method is accurate and can be used in practice.

  9. Research on high accuracy diameter measurement system with CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng

    2011-08-01

    Non-touch measurement is an important technology in many domains such as the monitoring of tool breakage and tool wear, et al. Based on the method of curve fitting and demanding inflection point, we present a high accuracy non-touch diameter measurement system. The measurement system comprise linear array CCD, CCD driving circuit, power supply, workseat, light source, data acquisition card and so on. The picture element of the linear array CCD is 2048, and the size of every pixel and the spacing of adjacent pixels have the same size of 14μmx14μm. The stabilized voltage supply has a constant voltage output of 3V. The light is generated by a halogen tungsten lamp, which does not represent any risk to the health of the whole system. The data acquisition card converts the analog signal to digital signal with the accuracy of 12 bit. The error of non-uniform of the CCD pixels in sensitivity and the electrical noise error are indicated in detail. The measurement system has a simple structure, high measuring precision, and can be carried out automatically. Experiment proves that the diameter measurement of the system is within the range of Φ0.5~Φ10mm, and the total measuring unstability of the system is within the range of +/- 1.4μm.

  10. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-29

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up.

  11. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  12. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  13. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. )

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Lasing in microdisks of ultrasmall diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. E. Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Savelyev, A. V.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Shostak, I. I.; Moiseev, E. I.; Karpov, D. V.; Laukkanen, J.; Tommila, J.

    2014-12-15

    It is demonstrated by calculations and experimental results that room-temperature lasing can be obtained at the ground-state optical transition of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots in optical microcavities with a record-small diameter of 1.5 μm. In 1-μm cavities, lasing occurs at the wavelength of one of the whispering-gallery modes within the band corresponding to the first excited-state optical transition.

  15. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Haruka; Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Nakai, Yusuke; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Saito, Takeshi; Maniwa, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature Twd ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter Dc ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > Dc) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at Twd upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below Twd freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < Dc) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  16. Effect of fiber diameter and matrix alloys on impact-resistant boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Efforts to improve the impact resistance of B/Al are reviewed and analyzed. Nonstandard thin-sheet charpy and Izod impact tests and standard full-size Charpy impact tests were conducted on composites containing unidirectional 0.10mm, 0.14mm, and 0.20mm diameter boron fibers in 1100, 2024, 5052, and 6061 Al matrices. Impact failure modes of B/Al are proposed in an attempt to describe the mechanisms involved and to provide insight for maximizing impact resistance. The impact strength of B/Al was significantly increased by proper selection of materials and processing. The use of a ductile matrix and large diameter boron fibers gave the highest impact strengths. This combination resulted in improved energy absorption through matrix shear deformation and multiple fiber breakage.

  17. Screw fixation diameter for fifth metatarsal jones fracture: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan T; Hyer, Christopher F; DeMill, Shyler L

    2015-01-01

    The fifth metatarsal Jones fracture is a well-documented injury occurring at the proximal diaphyseal-metaphyseal junction. Conservative versus surgical intervention has been discussed in published studies for the management of Jones fractures. Solid intramedullary fixation relies on accurate matching of the screw diameter to the intraosseous diameter. The purpose of the present cadaveric study was to determine the average intraosseous diameter of the proximal fifth metatarsal as it relates to screw size selection for Jones fracture stabilization. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver legs were used for examination. The fifth metatarsal was completely dissected. A transverse osteotomy was performed from laterally to medially along the midline of the metatarsal. A digital caliper was used to measure the diameter of the medullary canal of the fifth metatarsal. The measurement was taken at the narrowest portion of the medullary canal just distal to the proximal metaphysis. The mean dorsal to plantar diameter of the fifth metatarsal was 6.475 ± 1.54 (range 4 to 12) mm and the mean medial to lateral diameter was 4.6 ± 0.85 (range 3 to 6) mm. Intramedullary screw fixation has shown beneficial results in the treatment protocol of fifth metatarsal Jones fractures. Our study has demonstrated that a 4.5-mm cannulated screw is the narrowest diameter screw that can be used in the average fifth metatarsal and still obtain adequate intraosseous purchase. When selecting the appropriate screw, the surgeon must be comfortable selecting the largest screw that will achieve the maximal interface with the dense cortical bone in both the medial to lateral and dorsal to plantar plane.

  18. The measurement of the diameter change of a piezoelectric transducer cylinder with the white-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Abdelaziz; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Yuewu; Wang, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of the diameter change of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) cylinder with the white-light interferometry is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. One arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is wrapped on the PZT cylinder, and the phase change of the interferogram of the MZI is used to determine the diameter change when a DC voltage is applied on the PZT cylinder. The Fourier transform white-light interferometry is used for recovering the phase change of the interferometer. The experimental results show that the diameter change resolution of 0.8 nm for the PZT cylinder with diameter of 40 mm is achieved.

  19. Internal Diameter HVAF Spraying for Wear and Corrosion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolytic hard chrome (EHC) methods are still widely utilized in the printing, automotive and off-shore industries. Alternative methods to EHC have been widely developed in the past decade by conventional HVOF processes and more recently HVAF systems, which are processing at higher kinetic energy and more particularly at lower temperature, significantly increasing wear and corrosion resistance properties. A dedicated internal diameter HVAF system is here presented, and coatings characteristics are compared to the one obtained by standard HVAF coatings. Specially R&D designed fixtures with inside bore of 200 mm have been manufactured for this purpose, with a possibility to spray samples at increasing depth up to 400 mm while simulating closed bottom bore spraying. WC-based and Cr3C2-based powder feedstock materials have been deposited onto high-strength steel substrates. Respective coating microstructures, thermally induced stresses and corrosion resistance are discussed for further optimization of coating performances. The fact that the ID-HVAF system is utilized both for spraying and gritblasting procedures is also given a particular interest.

  20. Evaluation of design parameters of dental implant shape, diameter and length on stress distribution: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Ibrahim, M; Thulasingam, C; Nasser, K S G A; Balaji, V; Rajakumar, M; Rupkumar, P

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the design parameters of dental implants shape, diameter and length on stress distribution by finite element analysis (FEA).The objectives of the study was to compare the influence of stress distribution in the implants of screw-vent tapered and parallel design by varying the implant diameter with a standard implant length. Six dental implant models have been simulated three-dimensionally. The influence of diameter and length on stress distribution was evaluated by Group I: for screw-vent tapered design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (1) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (2) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (3) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. Group II: for parallel design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (4) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (5) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (6) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. The 3-D model of the implant was created in the pro-e wildfire 4.0 software by giving various commands. This model was imported to the ANSYS software through IGES (initial graphic exchange specification) file for further analysis. All six models were loaded with a force of 17.1, 114.6 and 23.4 N in a lingual, an axial and disto-mesial direction respectively, simulating average masticatory force in a natural oblique direction, to analyze the stress distribution on these implants. The increase in implant diameter in Group I and Group II from 3.7 to 4.1 mm and from 4.1 to 4.7 mm with constant 13 mm length for screw-vent tapered and parallel design implant resulted in a reduction in maximum value of Von Mises stress in the bone surrounding the implant was statistically significant at 5% level done by student "t" test. The overall maximum value of Von Mises stress was decreased in parallel design implant diameter of 4.7 mm with constant

  1. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  2. The "ecstasy" hangover: hyponatremia due to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Traub, Stephen J; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2002-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or "ecstasy") has gained an undeserved reputation as a "safe" drug among its users. However, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation, long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity, and death are all associated with MDMA use. Hyponatremia is also reported, and its manifestations are frequently delayed several hours after the drug is ingested. The etiology of this hyponatremia is unclear; both the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH) and free-water intoxication are advanced as explanations. We describe a 19-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status 1 day after using MDMA. Her initial serum sodium was 121 mmol/L, and computerized tomography (CT) of her head demonstrated cerebral edema. She was treated with hypertonic saline and fluid restriction, and her serum sodium increased to 132 mmol/L over the next 24 hours. She regained consciousness completely within 48 hours of presentation and recovered uneventfully. MDMA toxicity, particularly the pathophysiology and treatment of MDMA-induced hyponatremia, are discussed.

  3. Biomechanics and load resistance of small-diameter and mini dental implants: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Istabrak; Bourauel, Christoph; Mundt, Torsten; Stark, Helmut; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the application of small-diameter and mini dental implants to support removable and fixed prosthesis has dramatically increased. However, the success of these implants under functional biting forces and the reaction of the bone around them need to be analyzed. This review was aimed to present studies that deal with the fatigue life of small-diameter and mini dental implants under normal biting force, and their survival rate. The numerical and experimental studies concluded that an increase in the risk of bone damage or implant failure may be assumed in critical clinical situations and implants with <3 mm diameter have a risk of fracture in clinical practice. The survival rate of the small-diameter and mini dental implants over 5 years was 98.3-99.4%.

  4. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  5. Automated calculation of stenosis diameters from the width of the velocity jet with the use of a multi-gate pulsed Doppler system.

    PubMed

    de Knecht, S; Hopman, J C; Alsters, J L; Daniëls, O; Hoeks, A P; Reneman, R S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an algorithm for automated estimation of the width of a jet stream originating from a stenosis. The evaluation was performed in a pulsatile flow model. The width of the jetstream was assessed by measuring the diameter of the region with relatively high velocities (the jet) in the velocity profiles, as recorded with a multi-gate pulsed Doppler system. Measurements were performed at 3, 6, and 9 mm downstream of three different stenoses (stenosis diameter: 3, 5, or 8 mm) at different Reynolds numbers (200-1600) based on time averaged flow velocity for a tube of diameter 15 mm. The developed algorithm was used successfully for automated detection and quantification of jet flow diameters downstream to a stenosis. The algorithm can be used for calculating the stenosis diameter notwithstanding a theoretically predictable overestimation of about 1 mm, depending on the Reynolds number and the distance from the stenosis. PMID:2974211

  6. Larger Maximum Tumor Diameter at Radical Prostatectomy Is Associated With Increased Biochemical Failure, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer After Salvage Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit; Sandler, Howard; Feng, Felix Y.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients

  7. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  8. Effect of Crucible Diameter Reduction on the Convection, Macrosegregation, and Dendritic Morphology during Directional Solidification of Pb-2.2 Wt Pct Sb Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jun; Tewari, S. N.; Magadi, G.; DeGroh, H. C., III

    2003-01-01

    The Pb-2.2 wt pct Sb alloy has been directionally solidified in 1-, 2-, 3-, and 7-mm-diameter crucibles with planar and dendritic liquid-solid interface orphology. For plane front solidification, the experimentally observed macrosegregation along the solidified length follows the relationship proposed by Favier. Application of a 0.4 T transverse magnetic field has no effect on the extent of convection. Reducing the ampoule diameter appears to decrease the extent of convection. However, extensive convection is still present even in the 1-mm-diameter crucible. An extrapolation of the observed behavior indicated that nearly diffusive transport conditions require ampoules that are about 40 microns in diameter. Reduction of the crucible diameter does not appear to have any significant effect on the primary dendrite spacing. However, it results in considerable distortion of the dendrite morphology and ordering. This is especially true for the 1-mm diameter samples.

  9. A deployable .015 inch diameter wire antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibiasi, L.

    1979-01-01

    This mechanism was developed to dispense a small diameter wire which serves as a receiving antenna for electric field measurements on an Earth orbiting satellite. The antenna is deployed radially from a spinning satellite. A brushless dc motor drives a storage spool to dispense the wire at a controlled rate. Centrifugal force, acting on a mass attached to the end of the wire, keeps the wire in the radial position. The mechanism design, testing, and performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, operational data of the mechanism while in orbit are presented.

  10. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  11. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  12. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  13. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  15. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  16. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg−1) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1  μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  17. System performance advances of 18-mm and 16-mm subminiature image intensifier sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nils I.

    2000-11-01

    Night vision system design has been centered aroudn the An/AVS-6 and AN/PVS-7 night vision goggle systems for the past 20 years. Goggle performance has improved during this time through increased performance of the image intensifier sensor, primarily the Omni IV sensor from ITT Industries Night Vision. Most of this improvement has been at the optimal light level (1E-3 fc scene illumination). Recent advances in image sensor performance from the filmless Generation (Gen) IV sensors has increased the low light level performance of night vision devices from 0.3 cy/mr to 0.7 cy/mr. In addition, sensor packaging design requirements have forced night vision sensor manufactures to design light weight, small volume sensors. ITT recently has designed such a sensor in a 16-mm format. This sensor if 50% lighter, up to 50% shorter, and has design features that simplify the objective lens design. New night vision goggles have been, and are being, designed which reduce the perceived head-supported weight. This paper presents signal-to-noise ratio, halo, and other film-less sensor data and similar 16-mm subminiature sensor data. The resulting system performance data will be described. Finally, the system design improvements and relationships with the subminiature 16-mm subminiature sensor will be given.

  18. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Yahyawi, Amjad M; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Al-Blewi, Fawzia F; Aouad, Mohamed R

    2015-09-02

    In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  19. Compressive resistance of abutments with different diameters and transmucosal heights in Morse-taper implants.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Ricardo; Parra, Carlos; Fuentes, Ramón; Borie, Eduardo; Engelke, Wilfried; Beltrán, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive resistance under oblique loads of abutments with two different diameters and transmucosal heights used for cement-retained implant-supported prostheses in Morse-taper implants. Forty Morse-taper implants were divided into four groups with different abutment sizes for cement-retained prostheses in order to perform the compressive test. The groups were divided by abutment diameter and transmucosal height as follows: Group 1: 4.5 x 2.5 mm; Group 2: 4.5 x 3.5 mm; Group 3: 3.3 x 2.5 mm; and Group 4: 3.3 x 3.5 mm. An oblique compressive loading test was performed on each sample located in a platform at 30° using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 1,000 kgf and 0.5 mm/min speed until achieving the deformation of abutment's neck. The compressive resistance and its mechanical behavior were recorded for each group and the data were analyzed using ANOVA, the Shapiro-Wilk and Scheffé tests. In addition, the detailed damage of all samples was recorded with a conventional camera linked to the endoscopic equipment. Significant differences were observed among the groups, except between Groups 2 and 3 (p>0.005). All the abutments showed permanent deformations in the upper region and at the transmucosal portion, but the threads of the screws were intact. Fractures were only identified in Groups 3 and 4. Stronger mechanical behavior and compressive resistance was observed in the abutments with 4.5 mm diameter and 2.5 mm transmucosal height.

  20. Regioisomeric products of propranolol metabolism. The monomethyl ethers of 3,4-dihydroxypropranolol and of 3,4-dihydroxypropranolol glycol.

    PubMed

    Gustavson, L M; Nelson, W L

    1988-01-01

    Regioisomeric monomethyl ethers of the 3,4-catechol of propranolol (1) and its 3-aryloxypropane-1,2-diol (glycol) metabolite were prepared to prove the structures of these putative products of oxidative metabolism. The ring regioisomer 4-methoxy-3-hydroxypropranolol (3) was prepared from 1-acetoxy-3-acetyl-4-methoxynaphthalene (8). Baeyer-Villiger oxidation was the key step in converting the 3-acetyl functionality to the desired 3-naphthol. The ring regioisomer 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypropranolol (4) was prepared from 3-methoxy-1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene (13) by selective 1-O-acylation with trimethylacetyl chloride. 4-O-Benzylation, followed by hydrolysis, and side chain elaboration afforded the 4-O-benzyl ether of 4. Similar methods afforded glycols 5 and 6, with the side chain obtained by osmium tetroxide oxidation of an O-allyl group. GC/MS analysis using the trifluoroacetyl derivatives of these known standards showed both 3 and 4 were metabolites of 1 in the rat. From a single dose study in man, 4 was identified as a minor urinary metabolite, and both regioisomeric glycol metabolites 5 and 6 were observed. In addition, another regioisomeric hydroxymethoxyglycol metabolite was found.

  1. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  2. Diameter and position effect determination of diaphragm on hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-09-01

    This study is aimed to determine and better reveal the mixture enhancement and regression rate distribution of hybrid rocket motor with diaphragm by numerical approach. A numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics software is built to simulate the flow and combustion inside the motor. Four firing tests of the motor, including one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm, are conducted on a standard experimental system and also used as a reference for numerical simulation, the consistency between the simulation and experiment demonstrates that the numerical approach is an effective method to study the diaphragm effect on the motor performance. The flow field characteristic and regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor are then calculated to analyze the effect of position and diameter of the diaphragm. The results indicate that the diaphragm almost have no effect on the regression rate before it. However, the regression rate after the diaphragm has a strong dependence on the position and diameter of the diaphragm. As the diameter decreases and the position moves backward, the regression rate increases larger and larger, this is mainly due to the augmentation of the eddy generated by the diaphragm, which enhances the heat feedback transferred to the grain surface. When the diameter of diaphragm located at middle of grain decreases from 50 mm to 20 mm, regression rate is increased from 0.30 mm/s to 0.57 mm/s. The use of the diaphragm does cause a combustion efficiency improvement; the maximum combustion efficiency is enhanced to 98.9% from lower than 90% of the motor with no diaphragm. The increasing amplitude displays a square relation with the diameter decrease, since the entrainment of the eddy make the reactants mix sufficiently to release more energy inside the motor.

  3. Expanding Endovascular Therapy of Very Small Ruptured Aneurysms with the 1.5-mm Coil

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Masoud, Hesham; Tarlov, Nicholas; Holsapple, James; Chin, Lawrence S.; Norbash, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very small ruptured aneurysms (≤3 mm) demonstrate a significant risk for procedural rupture with endovascular therapy. Since 2007, 1.5-mm-diameter coils have been available (Micrus, Microvention, and ev3), allowing neurointerventionalists the opportunity to offer patients with very small aneurysms endovascular treatment. In this study, we review the clinical and angiographic outcome of patients with very small ruptured aneurysms treated with the 1.5-mm coil. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study in which we examined consecutive ruptured very small aneurysms treated with coil embolization at a single institution. The longest linear aneurysm was recorded, even if the first coil was sized to a smaller transverse diameter. Very small aneurysms were defined as ≤3 mm. Descriptive results are presented. Results From July 2007 to March 2015, 81 aneurysms were treated acutely with coils in 78 patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 5 patients with 3-mm aneurysms, of which the transverse diameter was ≤2 mm in 3 patients. In all 5 patients, a balloon was placed for hemostatic prophylaxis in case of rupture, and a single 1.5-mm coil was inserted for aneurysm treatment without complication. Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 1 patient, residual neck in 2, and residual aneurysm in 2 patients. Aneurysm recanalization was present in 2 patients with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm; a recoiling attempt was unsuccessful in 1 of these 2 patients due to inadvertent displacement and distal coil embolization, but subsequent surgical clipping was successful. Another patient was retreated by surgical clipping for a residual wide-neck carotid terminus aneurysm. One patient died of ventriculitis 3 weeks after presentation; all 4 other patients had an excellent outcome with no rebleed at follow-up (mean 21 months, range 1-62). Conclusion The advent of the 1.5-mm coil may be used in the endovascular treatment of patients with very

  4. Can outer-to-outer diameter be used alone in diagnosing appendicitis on 128-slice MDCT?

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Jamal; Idris, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Kashif, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency of visualization, position and diameter of normal appendix on 128-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in adult population. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study conducted at Radiology Department, Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from March 2013 to October 2013. Non-enhanced computed tomography scans of abdomen and pelvis of 98 patients presenting with hematuria (not associated with abdominal pain, fever or colonic disease) were reviewed by two radiologists, blinded to patient history. The study group included 55 females and 43 males with overall mean age of 54.7 years (range 21 to 94 years). The coronal reformatted images were reviewed in addition to the axial images. The frequency of visualization of appendix was recorded with assessment of position, diameter and luminal contents. RESULTS: The appendix was recorded as definitely visualized in 99% of patients and mean outer-to-outer diameter of the appendix was 5.6 ± 1.3 mm (range 3.0-11.0 mm). CONCLUSION: MDCT with its multiplanar reformation display is extremely useful for visualization of normal appendix. The normal appendix is very variable in its position and diameter. In the absence of other signs, the diagnosis of acute appendix should not be made solely on outer-to-outer appendiceal diameter. PMID:25550996

  5. PHOS Experiment: Thermal Response of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe on Board REXUS-18 Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creatini, F.; Guidi, G. M.; Belfi, F.; Cicero, G.; Fioriti, D.; Di Prizio, D.; Piacquadio, S.; Becatti, G.; Orlandini, G.; Frigerio, A.; Fontanesi, S.; Nannipieri, P.; Rognini, M.; Morganti, N.; Filippeschi, S.; Di Marco, P.; Fanucci, L.; Baronti, F.; Mameli, M.; Marengo, M.; Manzoni, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the results of two Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes (CLPHPs) tested on board REXUS-1 8 sounding rocket in order to get experimental data over a relatively broad reduced gravity period (about 90 s) are thoroughly discussed. The CLPHPs are partially filled with refrigerant FC-72 and have, respectively, an inner tube diameter larger (3 .0 mm) and slightly smaller (1 .6 mm) than a critical diameter defined on Earth gravity conditions. On ground, the small diameter CLPHP works as a real Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP): the typical capillary slug flow pattern forms inside the device and the heat exchange is triggered by self-sustained thermally driven oscillations of the working fluid. Conversely, the large diameter CLPHP behaves like a two-phase thermosyphon in vertical position while does not operate in horizontal position as the working fluid stratifies within the tube and surface tension is not able to balance buoyancy. Then, the idea to test the CLPHPs under reduced gravity conditions: as soon as gravity reduces, buoyancy becomes less intense and the typical capillary slug flow pattern can also forms within a tube with a larger diameter. Moreover, this allows to increase the heat transfer rate and, consequently, to decrease the overall thermal resistance. Even though it was not possible to experience the expected reduced gravity conditions due to a failure of the yo-yo de-spin system, the thermal response to the peculiar acceleration field (hyper-gravity) experienced on board are thoroughly described.

  6. Effect of Orifice Diameter on Bubble Generation Process in Melt Gas Injection to Prepare Aluminum Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ningzhen; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The bubble generation process in conditioned A356 alloy melt through submerged spiry orifices with a wide diameter range (from 0.07 to 1.0 mm) is investigated in order to prepare aluminum foams with fine pores. The gas flow rate and chamber pressure relationship for each orifice is first determined when blowing gas in atmospheric environment. The effects of chamber pressure ( P c) and orifice diameter ( D o) on bubble size are then analyzed separately when blowing gas in melt. A three-dimensional fitting curve is obtained illustrating both the influences of orifice diameter and chamber pressure on bubble size based on the experimental data. It is found that the bubble size has a V-shaped relationship with orifice diameter and chamber pressure neighboring the optimized parameter ( D o = 0.25 mm, P c = 0.4 MPa). The bubble generation mechanism is proposed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. It is found that the bubbles will not be generated until a threshold pressure difference is reached. The threshold pressure difference is dependent on the orifice diameter, which determines the time span of pre-formation stage and bubble growth stage.

  7. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  8. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    PubMed

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, P<.0001), and had more unplanned pregnancies compared to 122 pregnant nonusers (84.2% vs. 54.3%, P<.05). MDMA users were also more likely to be single (57.0% vs. 18.3%, P<.001), and to be White (82.2% vs. 56.0%, P<.05). Comparably more MDMA users smoked cigarettes (53.8% vs. 19.7%, P<.0001), drank alcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, P<.0001), and had significantly more episodes of binge drinking during pregnancy (mean 2.12 vs. 0.05, P<.001). Illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, ketamine, gamma-hydroxy butyrate, and psilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of

  9. Large Diameter Limbs for Dilated Common Iliac Arteries in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Is It Safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Malagari, Katerina Brountzos, Elias; Gougoulakis, Alexandros; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Mastorakou, Renata; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2004-09-15

    In this prospective study we examined whether dilated common iliac arteries (CIAs) can provide a safe distal seal in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the use of bifurcated stent grafts with large diameter limbs. Sixteen patients with 26 dilated CIAs with a diameter of {>=}6 mm who were offered EVAR using stent grafts with large diameter limbs were included in the study (Group A). Forty-two patients who also underwent EVAR without iliac dilatation, matched for age, sex and surgical risk were used for comparison (controls-Group B). In group A mean CIA diameter was 18.2 mm (16-28) and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter was 6.87 {+-} 1.05 cm; mean age was 77.2 {+-} 4.8 yrs (67-81). Mean follow-up was 33.6 months (2.8 yrs). CIA diameter changes and development of endoleaks were assessed by CT angiography (CTA). Overall iliac dilatation was present in 16/58 of our patients (27.6%). In 10 patients dilatation was bilateral (17.3%). Partial or complete flow to the internal iliac artery (IIA) territories was preserved in all patients post-EVAR. On follow-up, stable caliber of the dilated CIAs was observed in 21 patients (84%), enlargement of 1mm in 3 (16%), and failure of the distal attachment in 1 (6.2%). Compared to the control group there was no statistical significance in the incidence of complications. Dilated common iliac arteries provide a safe distal seal in patients who have undergone EVAR, thus obviating the need for additional endovascular procedures and sparing flow in the IIA vascular bed.

  10. The diameters and number of nerve fibers in spinal nerve roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, YongTao; Zhou, XiaoJi; Ma, Jun; Ge, YingBin; Cao, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anatomical and histological features of spinal nerve roots and provide base data for neuroanastomosis therapy for paraplegia. Methods Spinal nerve roots from C1 to S5 were exposed on six adult cadavers. The diameter and the number of nerve fibers of each nerve root were measured, respectively, with a caliper and image analysis software. Results As for ventral roots, the diameter of C5 (2.50 ± 0.55 mm) was the largest in cervical segments. In thoracic and lumbosacral segments, the diameter gradually increased from T11 to S1 and then decreased from S1 to S5 except L3. S1 (1.43 ± 0.16 mm) was the thickest root and S5 (0.14 ± 0.02 mm) was the thinnest one. As for dorsal roots, the diameter of C7 (4.61 ± 0.87 mm) was the largest in cervical segments. From T11 to S1, the diameter increased and then decreased gradually from S1 to S5. The diameter of dorsal roots from T1 to S5 was largest at S1 (2.95 ± 0.57 mm) and smallest at S5 (0.27 ± 0.13 mm), respectively. C7 (8467 ± 1019), T12 (6538 ± 892), L3 (9169 ± 1160), and S1 (8253 ± 1419) ventral roots contained the most nerve fibers in cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral segments, respectively. Similarly, C7 (39 653 ± 8458), T1 (26 507 ± 7617), L5 (34 455 ± 2740), and S1 (41 543 ± 3036) dorsal roots, respectively, contained the most nerve fibers in their corresponding segments. Conclusion The findings in the current study provided the imperative data and may be valuable for spinal nerve root microanastomosis surgery in the paraplegic patients. PMID:24605949

  11. A slotted waveguide field applicator to sustain large diameter uniform plasma cylinders.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Zhan, R; Huang, W

    2000-01-01

    We describe a slotted waveguide field applicator and present the results of experimental investigation. The experimental results show that it can efficiently transfer power to plasma in the wide pressure range. Specially, it is able to produce a large diameter uniform plasma cylinder with diameter over 160 mm. The electron temperature and density are 2-4 eV and 10(10)-10(11) cm-3, respectively, under conditions of the pressure below 135 Pa and the microwave power 500-900 w. In addition, the primary study of the surface-wave modes indicate that the mode of m = 6 can be excited and propagate.

  12. Development of fine diameter mullite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a program to develop and evaluate mullite fiber with a mean diameter under two microns. The two micron fiber is produced by a blowing process at room temperature from a low viscosity (10-25 poise) solution. The blown fiber was evaluated for dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C, and was equivalent to the 5 micron spun B and W mullite fiber. An additive study was conducted to evaluate substitutes for the boron. Three levels of chromium, lithium fluoride, and magnesium were added to the standard composition in place of boron and the fiber produced was evaluated for chemical and dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C. The magnesium was the most chemically stable, but the chrome additive imparted the best dimensional stability.

  13. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  14. Granulation, Irradiance and Diameter Solar Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Calderari Boscardin, Sergio; Lousada Penna, Jucira; Reis Neto, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    Though granulation forms the very face of sun’s photosphere, there are no long term registers of it. Observational and computational hardships to define and follow such highly variable “face” have so far prevented the realization of those registers. However, in recent years a large, coherent body of white light images became available. We retrieved white light, full solar disk images from the BBSO, to a total of 1104 treated ones and 1245 treated and compensated for limb darkening ones. The time coverage extends from the year 2000 to 2005, thus covering the rise and fall of the solar cycle 23. For the analysis, only the central 0.35R portion of the Sun was considered. The central portion was then divided into 100 subsectors, to average and discard the deviant results. The analysis goal is to derive the long term behavior of the photosphere granulation, in broad statistical sense. Three statistics were this way calculated: the standard deviation of the counts (that answers to the grains size); the counts difference between the maximum and minimum tenths (that answers to the grains brightness); the degree of the best fit polynomial along lines and columns (that answers to the grains numbers). According to the statistics, there is no significant variation in the number of grains. The grains sizes are the largest by the solar maximum, in excellent agreement with the maximum of the measured diameter. The grains brightness, on the contrary, is minimum at the solar maximum, and again an excellent agreement is verified with the maximum of the measured diameter.

  15. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Bone Stress around Micro-Implants of Different Diameters and Lengths with Application of a Single or Composite Torque Force

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying-juan; Chang, Shao-hai; Ye, Jian-tao; Ye, Yu-shan; Yu, Yan-song

    2015-01-01

    Background Stress on the bone surrounding dental micro-implants affects implant success. Purpose To compare the stress on the bone surrounding a micro-implant after application of a single force (SF) of 200 g or a composite force (CF) of 200 g and 6 N.mm torque. Materials and Methods Finite element models were developed for micro-implant diameters of 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 mm, and lengths of 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm and either a SF or CF was applied. The maximum equivalent stress (Max EQS) of the bone surrounding the micro-implant was determined, and the relationships among type of force, diameter, and length were evaluated. Results The Max EQS of the CF exceeded that of the SF (P< 0.05). The effect of force on stress was related to implant diameter, but not to implant length. The larger CF led to greater instability of the micro-implant and the effect was most pronounced at an implant diameter of 1.2 mm. The use of implant diameters of 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm produced no significant difference in implant stability when either a CF or SF was applied. Conclusion When considering the use of an implant to perform three-dimensional control on the teeth, the implant diameter chosen should be > 1.2 mm. PMID:26659581

  17. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  18. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoparticle and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold characterization for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    McKeon-Fischer, Kristin D; Browe, Daniel P; Olabisi, Ronke M; Freeman, Joseph W

    2015-11-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves and/or skeletal muscle can cause scar tissue formation and loss of function. The focus of this article is the creation of a conductive, biocompatible scaffold with appropriate mechanical properties to regenerate skeletal muscle. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanoparticles (Np) were electrospun with poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) to form conductive scaffolds. During electrospinning, ribboning, larger fiber diameters, and unaligned scaffolds were observed with increasing PEDOT amounts. To address this, PEDOT Np were sonicated prior to electrospinning, which resulted in decreased conductivity and increased mechanical properties. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the 1:2 solution in an effort to increase conductivity. However, the addition of MWCNT had little effect on scaffold conductivity, and the elastic modulus and yield stress of the scaffold increased as a result. Rat muscle cells attached and were active on the 1-10, 1-2, 3-4, and 1-1 PCL-PEDOT scaffolds; however, the 3-4 scaffolds had the lowest level of metabolic activity. Although the scaffolds were cytocompatible, further development of the fabrication method is necessary to produce more highly aligned scaffolds capable of promoting skeletal muscle cell alignment and eventual regeneration. PMID:25855940

  19. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanoparticle and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) electrospun scaffold characterization for skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    McKeon-Fischer, Kristin D; Browe, Daniel P; Olabisi, Ronke M; Freeman, Joseph W

    2015-11-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves and/or skeletal muscle can cause scar tissue formation and loss of function. The focus of this article is the creation of a conductive, biocompatible scaffold with appropriate mechanical properties to regenerate skeletal muscle. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanoparticles (Np) were electrospun with poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) to form conductive scaffolds. During electrospinning, ribboning, larger fiber diameters, and unaligned scaffolds were observed with increasing PEDOT amounts. To address this, PEDOT Np were sonicated prior to electrospinning, which resulted in decreased conductivity and increased mechanical properties. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the 1:2 solution in an effort to increase conductivity. However, the addition of MWCNT had little effect on scaffold conductivity, and the elastic modulus and yield stress of the scaffold increased as a result. Rat muscle cells attached and were active on the 1-10, 1-2, 3-4, and 1-1 PCL-PEDOT scaffolds; however, the 3-4 scaffolds had the lowest level of metabolic activity. Although the scaffolds were cytocompatible, further development of the fabrication method is necessary to produce more highly aligned scaffolds capable of promoting skeletal muscle cell alignment and eventual regeneration.

  20. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter in dogs with and without presumed intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Scrivani, Peter V; Fletcher, Daniel J; Cooley, Stacy D; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Erb, Hollis N

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a cause of cerebral ischemia and neurologic deficits in dogs. Goals of this retrospective study were to test interobserver agreement for MRI measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter and associations between optic nerve sheath diameter, signalment data, and presumed intracranial hypertension status in a cohort of dogs. A veterinary radiologist interpreted scans of 100 dogs and dogs were assigned to groups based on presence or absence of at least two MRI characteristics of presumed intracranial hypertension. Two observers who were unaware of group status independently measured optic nerve diameter from transverse T2-weighted sequences. Mean optic nerve sheath diameter for all dogs was 3 mm (1-4 mm). The mean difference between observers was 0.3 mm (limits of agreement, -0.4 and 1.0 mm). There was no correlation between optic nerve sheath diameter and age for either observer (r = -0.06 to 0.00) but a moderate positive correlation was observed between optic nerve sheath diameter and body weight for both observers (r = 0.70-0.76). The 22 dogs with presumed intracranial hypertension weighed less than the 78 dogs without (P = 0.02) and were more often female (P = 0.04). Dogs with presumed intracranial hypertension had a larger ratio of optic nerve sheath diameter to body weight for each observer-side pair (P = 0.01-0.04) than dogs without. Findings indicated that the ratio of MRI optic nerve sheath diameter relative to body weight may be a repeatable predictor of intracranial hypertension in dogs.

  1. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease MM1+2C and MM1 are Identical in Transmission Properties.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwaki, Toru; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Murayama, Shigeo; Takao, Masaki; Kato, Shinsuke; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The genotype (methionine, M or valine, V) at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the type (1 or 2) of abnormal prion protein in the brain are the major determinants of the clinicopathological features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), thus providing molecular basis for classification of sporadic CJD, that is, MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1 or VV2. In addition to these "pure" cases, "mixed" cases presenting mixed neuropathological and biochemical features have also been recognized. The most frequently observed mixed form is the co-occurrence of MM1 and MM2, namely MM1+2. However, it has remained elusive whether MM1+2 could be a causative origin of dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD), one of the largest subgroups of iatrogenic CJD. To test this possibility, we performed transmission experiments of MM1+2 prions and a systematic neuropathological examination of dCJD patients in the present study. The transmission properties of the MM1+2 prions were identical to those of MM1 prions because MM2 prions lacked transmissibility. In addition, the neuropathological characteristics of MM2 were totally absent in dCJD patients examined. These results suggest that MM1+2 can be a causative origin of dCJD and causes neuropathological phenotype similar to that of MM1.

  2. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  3. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  4. SKADS: Sub-Kilometer Asteroid Diameter Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. R.; Gladman, B.; Jedicke, R.; Williams, G.

    2004-11-01

    We surveyed 8 sq deg over the course of six nights (March 21-23 and March 29-31 UT, 2001) using the mosaic camera on the KPNO 4m telescope. This survey was designed to sample the mainbelt asteroid size and orbit distribution down to mR ˜ 23 and to obtain V and R band photometry on these objects. Improved understanding of the asteroid size distribution is needed to refine our knowledge of the disruptive scaling law and the collisional evolution of asteroids. On each night, 24 fields were observed 3 times with the fields being shifted by the mean motion of mainbelt asteroids between dates. Data was taken on all six nights with 4 nights being photometric for all or most of the night. A total of 1087 asteroids were detected on 2 or more of the 6 nights while 907 asteroids were detected on at least 4 nights to allow a ``good" orbit to be determined. The 50% detection efficiency was between mR ˜ 22.9 and 23.1 for the photometric nights. Debiasing the detected asteroids will yield the asteroid diameter distribution down to sub-km sizes.

  5. The effect of femoral head diameter upon lubrication and wear of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Smith, S L; Dowson, D; Goldsmith, A A

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that a remarkable reduction in the wear of metal-on-metal hip joints can be achieved by simply increasing the diameter of the joint. A tribological evaluation of metal-on-metal joints of 16, 22.225, 28 and 36 mm diameter was conducted in 25 per cent bovine serum using a hip joint simulator. The joints were subject to dynamic motion and loading cycles simulating walking for both lubrication and wear studies. For each size of joint in the lubrication study, an electrical resistivity technique was used to detect the extent of surface separation through a complete walking cycle. Wear of each size of joint was measured gravimetrically in wear tests of at least 2 x 10(6) cycles duration. Joints of 16 and 22.225 mm diameter showed no surface separation in the lubrication study. This suggested that wear would be proportional to the sliding distance and hence joint size in this boundary lubrication regime. A 28 mm diameter joint showed only limited evidence of surface separation suggesting that these joints were operating in a mixed lubrication regime. A 36 mm diameter joint showed surface separation for considerable parts of each walking cycle and hence evidence of the formation of a protective lubricating film. Wear testing of 16 and 22.225 mm diameter metal-on-metal joints gave mean wear rates of 4.85 and 6.30 mm3/10(6) cycles respectively. The ratio of these wear rates, 0.77, is approximately the same as the joint diameters ratio, 16/22.225 or 0.72, as expected from simple wear theory for dry or boundary lubrication conditions. No bedding-in was observed with these smaller diameter joints. For the 28 mm diameter joint, from 0 to 2 x 10(6) cycles, the mean wear rate was 1.62 mm3/10(6) cycles as the joints bedded-in. Following bedding-in, from 2.0 x 10(6) to 4.7 x 10(6) cycles, the wear rate was 0.54 mm3/10(6) cycles. As reported previously by Goldsmith et al. in 2000 [1], the mean steady state wear rate of the 36 mm diameter joints was lower than those

  6. [Modeling formation of aerobic granule and influence of hydrodynamic shear forces on granule diameter].

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimension aerobic granule mathematical model was established, basing on mathematical biofilm model and activated sludge model. The model was used to simulate simple aerobic granule process such as nutrients removal, granule diameter evolution, cycle performance as well as depth profiles of DO and biomass. The effluent NH4(+) -N concentration decreased as the modeling processed. The simulation effluent NO3(-)-N concentration decreased to 3 mg x L(-1) as the granules grew. While the granule diameter increased from 1.1 mm on day 30 to 2.5 mm on day 100, the TN removal efficiency increased from less than 10% to 91%. The denitrification capacity was believed to enhance because the anoxic zone would be enlarged with the increasing granule diameter. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred inside the big aerobic granules. The oxygen permeating depth increased with the consumption of substrate. It was about 100-200 microm at the beginning of the aeration phase, and it turned to near 800 microm at the end of reaction. The autotrophs (AOB and NOB) were mostly located at the out layer where the DO concentration was high. The heterotrophic bacteria were distributed through the whole granule. As hydrodynamic shear coefficient k(de) increased from 0.25 (m x d)(-1) to 5 (m x d)(-1), the granule diameter under steady state decreased form 3.5 mm to 1.8 mm. The granule size under the dynamic steady-state decreased with the increasing hydrodynamic shear force. The granule size could be controlled by adjusting aeration intensity. PMID:22452208

  7. Relation of Blood Pressure to Retinal Vessel Diameter in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Zinman, Bernard; Gardiner, Robert; Suissa, Samy; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Donnelly, Sandra M.; Goodyer, Paul; Strand, Trudy; Mauer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) and use of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to retinal vessel diameter in normotensive, normoalbuminuric persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants Persons with T1DM and gradable fundus photographs both at baseline (n=147) and 5-year follow-up (n=124). Methods Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs (ABP) were measured. Retinal arteriolar and venular diameters were measured using a computer-assisted technique. Individual arteriolar and venular measurements were combined into summary indices that reflect the average retinal arteriolar (central retinal arteriolar equivalent [CRAE]) and venular (central retinal venular equivalent [CRVE]) diameter of an eye, respectively. Main Outcome Measures CRAE and CRVE. Results While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin and ambulatory pulse rate, daytime ambulatory systolic (-0.29 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.02) and daytime ambulatory diastolic (-0.44 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.04), nighttime ambulatory systolic (-0.27 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.03), and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (-0.31 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.03) were cross-sectionally associated with a smaller CRAE. While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin, ambulatory pulse rate and baseline CRAE, no BP measure was associated with a change in CRAE or CRVE over 5 years of follow-up. Treatment with losartan or enalapril was not associated with a statistically significant change in CRAE or CRVE. Conclusions ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect retinal arteriolar or venular diameter in normotensive persons with T1DM. PMID:20142543

  8. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  9. Pulse height tests of a large diameter fast LaBr₃:Ce scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Maslehuddin, M; Gondal, M A; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Ukashat, M S; Ilyas, A M; Liadi, F A; Isab, A A; Khateeb-ur Rehman; Raashid, M; Dastageer, M A

    2015-10-01

    The pulse height response of a large diameter fast 100 mm × 100 mm LaBr3:Ce detector was measured for 0.1-10 MeV gamma-rays. The detector has a claimed time resolution of 608 ps for 511 keV gamma rays, but has relatively poor energy resolution due to the characteristics of its fast photomultiplier. The detector pulse height response was measured for gamma rays from cobalt, cesium, and bismuth radioisotope sources as well as prompt gamma rays from thermal neutron capture in water samples contaminated with mercury (3.1 wt%), boron (2.5 wt%), cadmium (0.25 wt%), chromium (52 wt%), and nickel (22 wt%) compounds. The energy resolution of the detector was determined from full width at half maximum (FWHM) of element-characteristic gamma ray peaks in the pulse height spectrum associated with the element present in the contaminated water sample. The measured energy resolution of the 100 mm × 100 mm detector varies from 12.7±0.2% to 1.9±0.1% for 0.1 to 10 MeV gamma rays, respectively. The graph showing the energy resolution ΔE/E(%) versus 1/√Eγ was fitted with a linear function to study the detector light collection from the slope of the curve. The slope of the present 100 mm × 100 mm detector is almost twice as large as the slope of a similar curve of previously published data for a 89 mm × 203 mm LaBr3:Ce detector. This indicates almost two times poorer light collection in the 100 mm × 100 mm detector as compared to the other detector. PMID:26207950

  10. Slip flow through colloidal crystals of varying particle diameter.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Benjamin J; Wirth, Mary J

    2013-01-22

    Slip flow of water through silica colloidal crystals was investigated experimentally for eight different particle diameters, which have hydraulic channel radii ranging from 15 to 800 nm. The particle surfaces were silylated to be low in energy, with a water contact angle of 83°, as determined for a silylated flat surface. Flow rates through centimeter lengths of colloidal crystal were measured using a commercial liquid chromatograph for accurate comparisons of water and toluene flow rates using pressure gradients as high as 10(10) Pa/m. Toluene exhibited no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille flow for all hydraulic channel radii. For water, the slip flow enhancement as a function of hydraulic channel radius was described well by the expected slip flow correction for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, and the data revealed a constant slip length of 63 ± 3 nm. A flow enhancement of 20 ± 2 was observed for the smallest hydraulic channel radius of 15 nm. The amount of slip flow was found to be independent of shear rate over a range of fluid velocities from 0.7 to 5.8 mm/s. The results support the applicability of the slip flow correction for channel radii as small as 15 nm. The work demonstrates that packed beds of submicrometer particles enable slip flow to be employed for high-volume flow rates.

  11. Slip Flow through Colloidal Crystals of Varying Particle Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Benjamin J.; Wirth, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Slip flow of water through silica colloidal crystals was investigated experimentally for 8 different particle diameters, which have hydraulic channel radii ranging from 15 nm to 800 nm. The particle surfaces were silylated to be low in energy, with a water contact angle of 83°, as determined for a silylated flat surface. Flow rates through centimeter lengths of colloidal crystal were measured using a commercial liquid chromatograph for accurate comparisons of water and toluene flow rates using pressure gradients as high as 1010 Pa/m. Toluene exhibited no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille flow for all hydraulic channel radii. For water, the slip flow enhancement as a function of hydraulic channel radius was described well by the expected slip flow correction for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, and the data revealed a constant slip length of 63±3 nm. A flow enhancement of 20±2 was observed for the smallest hydraulic channel radius of 15 nm. The amount of slip flow was found to be independent of shear rate over a range of fluid velocities from 0.7 to 5.8 mm/s. The results support the applicability of the slip flow correction for channel radii as small as 15 nm. The work demonstrates that packed beds of submicrometer particles enable slip flow to be employed for high volume flow rates. PMID:23237590

  12. Presenting a high accuracy Theta-Phi-style fiber-positioner prototype with a 15-mm pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuser, Marco; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Richter, Josef; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Degwert, Adrian; Karasz, Adolf; Kosyra, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    We present a Θ - Φ-style fiber-positioner prototype, which will be controlled via the EMI-robust CAN-Bus. Our positioner points without iterations or a metrology system. Due to the overlapping patrol disc of 17.3 mm diameter, we reach a filling factor of 100 %. The positioners diameter is 14.6 mm, containing the control electronics on a contemporary PCB of 13.5 mm width. While moving, the power consumption does not lead to a significant rise in temperature. Given a mechanical reference point measured by stall detection, the absolute accuracy is 27 μm (1σ = 14 µm) and pointings are repeatable with 7 μm (1σ = 4 μm). Better positioning may be reachable with upcoming calibration.

  13. Synthesis of a novel small diameter polyurethane vascular graft with reactive binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D J; Phaneuf, M D; Bide, M J; Szycher, M; Quist, W C; Logerfo, F W

    1998-01-01

    Development of a small diameter (4 mm inner diameter [ID]) prosthetic vascular graft with functional groups accessible for covalent binding of recombinant hirudin (a potent anticoagulant) should create a more hemocompatible surface. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for generating carboxylic acid groups on the surface of precast 4 mm ID poly-(carbonate urea)-urethane vascular grafts and to evaluate the accessibility of these groups. A polycarbonate based urethane with the chain extender 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid was synthesized. A precast 4 mm ID poly(carbonate urea)-urethane vascular graft (Chronoflex [CF]; CardioTech International, Woburn, MA) was then placed into a 4% carboxylated polyurethane (cPU) solution (in 1% dimethyl acetamide) and incubated for 30 minutes (cPU graft). To determine the accessibility of the carboxylic acid groups, a standard textile technique using methylene blue dye was used. Macroscopic cross-sections, which were cut and evaluated for dye penetration, showed greatest concentration of carboxylic acid groups at the luminal and capsule surfaces, with minimal penetration into the mid-portion of the graft. Analysis of dye baths for absorbance reduction resulted in the cPU grafts having 3.7-fold and 5.4-fold more accessible carboxylic acid groups compared with untreated and dimethyl acetamide dipped CF grafts. Thus, a novel small diameter vascular graft has been developed that contains reactive carboxylic acid groups accessible for protein binding. PMID:9804482

  14. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  15. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  16. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  17. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  18. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  19. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S.; Gasevic, Danijela; Liang, Zhe; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Torres, William E.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Lin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background In the context of increasing obesity prevalence, the relationship between large visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. In a clinical sample of severely obese women (mean body mass index [BMI], 46 kg/m2) with fasting normoglycemia (n=40) or dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose+diabetes; n=20), we sought to determine the usefulness of anthropometric correlates of VAT and associations with dysglycemia. Methods VAT volume was estimated using multi-slice computer tomography; anthropometric surrogates included sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference (WC) and BMI. Insulin sensitivity (Si), and beta-cell dysfunction, measured by insulin secretion (AIRg) and the disposition index (DI), were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Compared to fasting normoglycemic women, individuals with dysglycemia had greater VAT (P<0.001) and SAD (P=0.04), but BMI, total adiposity and Si were similar. VAT was inversely associated with AIRg and DI after controlling for ancestry, Si, and total adiposity (standardized beta, −0.32 and −0.34, both P<0.05). In addition, SAD (beta=0.41, P=0.02) was found to be a better estimate of VAT volume than WC (beta=0.32, P=0.08) after controlling for covariates. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that VAT volume, followed by SAD, outperformed WC and BMI in identifying dysglycemic participants. Conclusions Increasing VAT is associated with beta-cell dysfunction and dysglycemia in very obese women. In the presence of severe obesity, SAD is a simple surrogate of VAT, and an indicator of glucose dysregulation. PMID:23408092

  20. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  1. The Vapor Pressure of 1-(2,2,3,3-Tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-prop anol

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2002-01-29

    The vapor pressure of the compound 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol was measured over the temperature range 62 to 92 C using a Knudsen effusion technique. This compound, known as Cs-7SB, is the modifier component in the caustic-side solvent extraction process solvent. The vapor pressure is related to temperature by the equation ln(p/Pa) = (32.202 {+-} 0.265) - (12154 {+-} 93)/T, where p is the pressure, expressed in pascals; Pa is the reference pressure of 1 pascal; and T is the temperature, expressed in degrees kelvin. The derived heat of vaporization is 101.1 {+-} 0.8{sup kJ{center_dot}mol{sup 1} at 351 K. Because the vapor pressures over the temperature range of 15 to 50 C were lower than the design capabilities of the Knudsen effusion apparatus, the vapor pressures at these temperature limits were obtained by extrapolation. The estimated values are 4.6 {+-} 0.3E-05 (3.5 {+-} 0.2E-07 mm Hg) and 4.5 {+-} 0.1E-03 Pa (3.4 {+-} 0.1E-05 mm Hg) for 15 C and 50 C, respectively.

  2. THE MAGNETIC FIELD MORPHOLOGY OF THE CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR L1157-mm

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Ian W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Kwon, Woojin; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Chapman, Nicholas; Novak, Giles; Matthews, Tristan; Davidson, Jacqueline; Vaillancourt, John E.; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2013-05-20

    We present the first detection of polarization around the Class 0 low-mass protostar L1157-mm at two different wavelengths. We show polarimetric maps at large scales (10'' resolution at 350 {mu}m) from the SHARC-II Polarimeter and at smaller scales (1.''2-4.''5 at 1.3 mm) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The observations are consistent with each other and show inferred magnetic field lines aligned with the outflow. The CARMA observations suggest a full hourglass magnetic field morphology centered about the core; this is only the second well-defined hourglass detected around a low-mass protostar to date. We apply two different methods to CARMA polarimetric observations to estimate the plane-of-sky magnetic field magnitude, finding values of 1.4 and 3.4 mG.

  3. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  4. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  6. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  7. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  8. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  9. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  10. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis.

  11. Limitations on the Optical Tunability of Small Diameter Gold Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Michael R.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoshells were grown on silica nanoparticles with differing average diameters, ranging from 30 nm to 120 nm. Au nanoshells were also formed on silica spheres encapsulating 5 nm diameter magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals. The optical absorbance spectra of these Au nanoshells are reported. The plasmon resonance wavelengths of the smaller diameter nanoshells were significantly less tunable than those of the larger diameter nanoshells. This is due to a reduced range of accessible core-shell ratio—the geometric factor that determines the plasmon peak position—as the silica core diameter shrinks. The smaller diameter nanoshells were also found to be highly prone to aggregation, which broadens the plasmon absorption peak. Model calculations of dispersion stability as a function of silica core diameter reveal that smaller diameter Au shells exhibit more aggregation because of the size-dependence of the electrostatic double-layer potential. PMID:19711913

  12. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  13. A λ 3 mm and 1 mm line survey toward the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420⋆

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Our knowledge of the chemical properties of the circumstellar ejecta of the most massive evolved stars is particularly poor. We aim to study the chemical characteristics of the prototypical yellow hypergiant star, IRC +10420. For this purpose, we obtained full line surveys at 1 and 3 mm atmospheric windows. Methods We have identified 106 molecular emission lines from 22 molecular species. Approximately half of the molecules detected are N-bearing species, in particular HCN, HNC, CN, NO, NS, PN, and N2H+. We used rotational diagrams to derive the density and rotational temperature of the different molecular species detected. We introduced an iterative method that allows us to take moderate line opacities into account. Results We have found that IRC +10420 presents high abundances of the N-bearing molecules compared with O-rich evolved stars. This result supports the presence of a N-rich chemistry, expected for massive stars. Our analysis also suggests a decrease of the 12C/13C ratio from ≳ 7 to ~ 3.7 in the last 3800 years, which can be directly related to the nitrogen enrichment observed. In addition, we found that SiO emission presents a significant intensity decrease for high-J lines when compared with older observations. Radiative transfer modeling shows that this variation can be explained by a decrease in the infrared (IR) flux of the dust. The origin of this decrease might be an expansion of the dust shell or a lower stellar temperature due to the pulsation of the star. PMID:27458319

  14. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  15. The diameter-dependent photoelectrochemical performance of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Chang; Wang, Hui; He, Le; Duan, Chun-Yang; Li, Fan; Ou, Xue-Mei; Sun, Bao-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-25

    We demonstrate the first systematic study of the diameter-dependent photoelectrochemical performance of single silicon nanowires within a broad size range from 200 to 2000 nm. SiNWs with a diameter of 1415 nm exhibit the highest solar energy conversion efficiency, which can be mainly traced to their diameter-dependent light absorption properties.

  16. Optimization of rod diameter in solid state lasers side pumped with multiple laser diode arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Newton, Jr.; Chamblee, Christyl M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the optimum laser rod diameter for maximum output energy in a solid state neodymium laser transversely pumped with multiple laser diode arrays are reported here. Experiments were performed with 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm rod radii of both neodymium doped Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) and La2Be2O5 (Nd:BeL) pumped with laser diode arrays having a maximum combined energy of 10.5 mJ. Equations were derived which predict the optimum rod radius and corresponding output mirror reflectivity for a given laser material and total pump energy. Predictions of the equations agreed well with the experiments for each of the laser materials which possessed significantly different laser properties from one another.

  17. A 3mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Navarrini, A.; Marongiu, P.; Valente, G.

    2014-07-01

    We present the optical and mechanical design of a 3mm band SIS receiver for the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The receiver, was designed and built at IRAM and deployed on the IRAM for the Plateau de Bure Interferometer antennas until 2006. Following its decommissioning the receiver was purchased by the INAFAstronomical Observatory of Cagliari with the aim to adapt its optics for test of the performance of the new 64-m diameter Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) in the 3 mm band (84 - 116 GHz). The instrument will be installed in the rotating turret inside of the Gregorian focal room of SRT. The dimensions of the focal room, the horn position in the lower side of the cryostat and the vessel for the liquid helium impose very hard constraints to the optical and mechanical mounting structure of the receiver inside the cabin. We present the receiver configuration and how we plan to install it on SRT.

  18. The effect of substrate diameter and incline on locomotion in an arboreal frog.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Perrenoud, Mats; Decamps, Thierry; Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana; Pouydebat, Emannuelle

    2013-10-01

    Frogs are characterized by a unique morphology associated with their saltatory lifestyle. Yet, arboreal species show morphological specializations relative to other ecological specialists allowing them to hold on to narrow substrates. However, almost nothing is known about the effects of substrate characteristics on locomotion in frogs. Here, we quantified the 3D kinematics of forelimb movement for frogs moving across branches of different diameters (1 and 40 mm) and two different inclines (horizontal and 45 deg uphill). Our results show that grip types differ while moving across substrates of different diameters and inclines. The kinematics of the wrist, elbow and shoulder as well as the body position relative to the substrate also showed significant effects of individual, diameter and incline. Kinematic differences involved duration, velocity of movement and angular excursions. Differences were most pronounced for the proximal joints of the forelimb and effects for substrate diameter were greater than for incline. Interestingly, the effects of diameter and incline on both grip type and kinematics are similar to what has been observed for lizards and primates, suggesting that the mechanics of narrow substrate locomotion drive the kinematics of movement independent of morphology and phylogeny.

  19. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad F; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-15

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  20. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohammad F.; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  1. Diameter-selective separation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kataoka, Masakazu; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Shimamoto, Daisuke; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2008-12-01

    Here, we report a simple and effective way of separating double-walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their diameter using individually dispersed nanotube solutions with the aid of long and random single-stranded DNA. The subtle pH change in nanotube solutions gives rise to the preferential coagulation of large-diameter tubes and allows the easy preparation of small-diameter tubes. The stronger van der Waals forces between large-diameter tubes, combined with the decreased solubility of DNA in water at low pH, lead to the preferential agglomeration of large-diameter tubes.

  2. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of some 3-(4,6-disubtituted-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl) propanoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mokale, Santosh N; Shinde, Sandeep S; Elgire, Rupali D; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Shinde, Devanand B

    2010-08-01

    A series of 3-(4,6-disubtituted-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl) propanoic acid derivatives has been synthesized by condensation of thiourea, 5-(4-subtituted phenyl)-5-oxopentanoic acid and substituted aldehyde. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity using rat paw edema method. Most of the compounds from the series showed significant (p <0.05) anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri; Rusdiana, Dadi; Nugroho, A. A.; Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer's method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  4. Inhibition of dual-specificity phosphatase 26 by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin: Ethyl-3,4-dephostatin as a multiphosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Huiyun; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate protein function by dephosphorylating phosphorylated proteins in many signaling cascades and some of them have been targets for drug development against many human diseases. There have been many reports that some chemical inhibitors could regulate particular phosphatases. However, there was no extensive study on specificity of inhibitors towardss phosphatases. We investigated the effects of ethyl-3,4-dephostatin, a potent inhibitor of five PTPs including PTP-1B and Src homology-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), on thirteen other PTPs using in vitro phosphatase assays. Of them, dual-specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26), which inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p53 tumor suppressor and is known to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, was inhibited by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies with ethyl-3,4-dephostatin and DUSP26 revealed competitive inhibition, suggesting that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin binds to the catalytic site of DUSP26 like other substrate PTPs. Moreover, ethyl-3,4-dephostatin protects DUSP26-mediated dephosphorylation of p38, a member of the MAPK family, and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin functions as a multiphosphatase inhibitor and is useful as a therapeutic agent for cancers overexpressing DUSP26. PMID:27209699

  5. Self-Assembly Fabrication of Coaxial Te@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocables and Their Conversion to Pd@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocables with a High Peroxidase-like Activity.

    PubMed

    Chi, Maoqiang; Nie, Guangdi; Jiang, Yanzhou; Yang, Zezhou; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Ce; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-13

    Here, we report a simple one-step procedure to fabricate coaxial Te@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanocables via a self-assembly redox polymerization between 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene monomer and the oxidant of sodium tellurite without the assistance of any templates and surfactants. The as-synthesized Te@PEDOT coaxial nanocables have diameters of center cores in the range of 5-10 nm, and the size of the outer shell from several nanometers to 15 nm. More interestingly, the as-prepared Te@PEDOT nanocables can be converted to Pd@PEDOT nanocables via a galvanic replacement reaction. The center core of the Pd nanowire exhibits a high crystallinity. The application of the synthesized Pd@PEDOT nanocables as peroxidase-like catalysts for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 is reported. The synergistic effect between the Pd nanowire and electrically conducting PEDOT enhances the catalytic activity toward the oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H2O2. A detection limit toward H2O2 is as low as 4.83 μM, and a linear range from 10 to 100 μM has been achieved. This work offers a potential versatile route for the fabrication of cable-like nanocomposites with conducting polymers and other active components, which display great promise in applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronic devices, and energy storage and conversion. PMID:26695596

  6. Impact of Needle Diameter on Long-Term Dry Needling Treatment of Chronic Lumbar Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Qian; Li, Jun; Tian, Yuling; Hou, Jingshan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impact of diameter of needles on the effect of dry needling treatment of chronic lumbar myofascial pain syndrome. Design Forty-eight patients with chronic lumbar myofascial pain syndrome were randomly allocated to 3 groups. They received dry needling with needles of diameter 0.25 (group A), 0.5 (group B), and 0.9 mm (group C). Visual analog scale evaluation and health survey were conducted at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Results Visual analog scale scores were significantly different in all groups from baseline to 3 months. Visual analog scale scores at 3 months showed differences between group C and the other 2 groups. When baseline and 3 months after treatment (0 day and 3 months) in each of the 3 groups was compared, there was a difference between group C and group B. The Short Form (36) Health Survey scores from baseline to 3 months were different within the treatment groups. Conclusions Visual analog scale score evaluations at 3 months showed efficacy in all groups. Results of 3 months showed that efficacy of treatment with larger needles (0.9-mm diameter) was better than that of smaller ones (0.5-mm diameter). The Short Form (36) Health Survey scores at 3 months indicated that treatments with needles of varying diameters were all effective, and when the results of 3 months were compared, there was no difference between the 3 groups. PMID:27333534

  7. [Diurnal variation of Quercus variabilis trunk diameter in response to environmental factors at south aspect of Taihang Mountains].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Jia, Chang-Rong; Ren, Ying-Feng

    2012-08-01

    By using Circumference Dendrometer 2 (DC2), this paper studied the diurnal variation of trunk diameter in Quercus variabilis plantation at the south aspect of Taihang Mountains. During seasonal drought, the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter was quite evident. The time of the diameter shrinkage followed the start-up time of sap flow, but the appearance of the minimum trunk diameter lagged behind the maximum sap flow flux about 3-4 h. The maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) value of the trunk diameter presented a trend low-high-low, being significantly correlated with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux and leaf water potential and having a significant quadratic relationship with soil moisture content. The MDS value was affected by the variations of meteorological factors, being significantly correlated with the diurnal variations of air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and relative humidity, but less correlated with the diurnal variation of solar radiation. After successive precipitation, soil moisture content was no longer the limiting factor of the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. The MDS value had less correlations with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux, leaf water potential, soil moisture content, and other meteorological factors. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the soil moisture content and air temperature in seasonal drought and rain seasons were the key factors affecting the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. PMID:23189691

  8. Aortic Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Diameter in Small for Gestational Age and Growth Restricted Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roig, M. Dolores; Mazarico, Edurne; Valladares, Esther; Guirado, Laura; Fernandez-Arias, Mireia; Vela, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and aortic diameter (AD) in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Methods Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks. Results Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm]), than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447–0.485 mm]), and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm]) (p = 0.023). Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258–4.655 mm]), than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm]) (p = 0.028). Conclusions Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease. PMID:26017141

  9. [Clinical Study of Surgical Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
10 mm or Less in Diameter Under Video-assisted Thoracoscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Ma, Shaohua; Yan, Tiansheng; Song, Jintao; Wang, Keyi; He, Wei; Bai, Jie

    2016-04-20

    背景与目的 早期原发性非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)的手术切除及淋巴结切除的合理方式存在较大争议,本研究旨在探讨直径≤10 mm的原发NSCLC的微创切除及淋巴结切除的手术方式。方法 对2013年7月-2016年3月在我院接受电视胸腔镜手术(video-assisted thoracic surgery, VATS)治疗并有明确病理诊断为NSCLC的共46例患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。所有患者术前行薄层计算机断层扫描(computed tomography, CT),实性结节5例,混合性磨玻璃结节(mixed ground-glass opacity, mGGO)23例,纯磨玻璃结节(pure ground-glass opacity, pGGO)18例。根据患者具体情况采用不同术式,包括VATS肺叶切除和系统性淋巴结清扫,VATS肺楔形切除和选择性淋巴结切除,VATS肺段切除和选择性淋巴结切除,或仅采用VATS肺楔形切除。其中7例术前行CT引导下Hook-wire定位。结果 VATS肺叶切除和系统性淋巴结清扫23例(mGGOs 15例,pGGOs 4例,实性结节4例),只有1例实性腺癌结节出现N2淋巴结转移,VATS肺楔形切除和选择性淋巴结切除5例(mGGOs 2例,pGGOs 3例)和VATS肺段切除和选择性淋巴结切除4例(mGGOs 2例,pGGOs 2例)均无淋巴结转移 ,仅采用VATS肺楔形切除14例(mGGOs 4例,pGGOs 9例,实性结节1例)。7例Hook-wire定位均成功。 围手术期无重大并发症,随访1个月-26个月,平均(13.7±8.7)个月,无复发及转移。结论 直径≤10 mm以mGGO和pGGO为表现的原发性NSCLC淋巴结转移率低,术中可以不进行淋巴结的清扫,实性结节应选择性淋巴结切除或系统性淋巴结清扫。高龄和心肺功能差的患者可以选择楔形切除或肺段切除。术前运用Hook-wire定位安全有效,可为VATS提供便利。.

  10. Structural properties of free-standing 50 mm diameter GaN waferswith (101_0) orientation grown on LiAlO2

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, Jacek; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Maruska, Herbert-Paul; Chai, Bruce H.; Hill, David W.; Chou, Mitch M.C.; Gallagher, John J.; Brown, Stephen

    2005-09-27

    (10{und 1}0) GaN wafers grown on (100) face of {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Despite good lattice matching in this heteroepitaxial system, high densities of planar structural defects in the form of stacking faults on the basal plane and networks of boundaries located on prism planes inclined to the layer/substrate interface were present in these GaN layers. In addition, significant numbers of threading dislocations were observed. High-resolution electron microscopy indicates that stacking faults present on the basal plane in these layers are of low-energy intrinsic I1type. This is consistent with diffraction contrast experiments.

  11. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion cartridges, and…

  12. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media (NICEM) has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion…

  13. Do Noncontingent Interviewer Mm-hmms Facilitate Interviewee Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe

    1976-01-01

    Two studies investigated the hypothesis that noncontingent interviewer "mm-hmms" facilitate interviewee verbal productivity. Within- and between-subjects comparisons failed to support the hypothesis, although interviewees' ratings indicate that the mm-hmms were perceived as the social reinforcers they were intended to be. (Author)

  14. Is smaller better? Comparison of 3-mm and 5-mm leaf size for stereotactic radiosurgery: A dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Shyh-shi . E-mail: Richard.Chern@hci.utah.edu; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric comparison of a minimal 3-mm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC) and a minimal 5-mm MLC in dynamic conformal arc stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: The treatment plans of 23 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were redone using the BrainSCAN, version 5.3, stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning system (BrainLAB). For each case, two dynamic conformal arc plans were generated: one using a minimal 3-mm micro-MLC (BrainLAB, Novalis) and one using a minimal 5-mm MLC (Varian Millennium). All arc parameters were the same in each of the two plans, except for the collimator angle settings. The collimator angle settings were optimized for each arc in each plan. A peritumoral rind structure (1 cm) was created to evaluate normal tissue sparing immediately adjacent to the target volume. Conformity indexes (CIs) were calculated for each plan. The dependence of normal tissue sparing and target conformity on target volume (TV) was determined. Results: The TV was 0.14-36.32 cm{sup 3} (median, 5.90). The CI was 1.22-2.60 (median, 1.51) for the 3-mm micro-MLC and 1.23-2.69 (median, 1.60) for the 5-mm MLC. Despite this small difference, it was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0001) for the 5-mm MLC compared with the 3-mm micro-MLC. Improved normal tissue sparing was demonstrated using the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC by examining the peritumoral rind volumes (PRVs) receiving 50% (PRV{sub 5}), 80% (PRV{sub 8}), and 90% (PRV{sub 9}) of the prescription dose. The reduction in the PRV{sub 5}, PRV{sub 8}, and PRV{sub 9} for the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC was 13.5%, 12.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. The CI decreased with a larger TV, as did the difference in the CIs between the 3-mm micro-MLC and 5-mm MLC. A reduction in the PRV increased with larger TVs. Conclusion: The 3-mm micro-MLC provided better target conformity and

  15. Progression Rates of Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Adventitial Diameter during the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors assessed whether the levels and progression rates of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD) vary by menopausal stage. Methods 249 Women (42–57 years old, premenopausal (49%) or early peri-menopausal (46%)) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation were included in the current analysis. Participants were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 carotid scans. Linear mixed models were used for analysis. Results The overall rate of change in IMT was 0.007 mm/year. Independent of age and race, progression rate of IMT increased substantially in late peri-menopausal stage (0.017 mm/year) compared to both premenopausal (0.007 mm/year) and early peri-menopausal (0.005 mm/year) stages; (P≤0.05). For AD, while the overall rate of change was negative (−0.009 mm/year), significant positive increases in the rate of change were observed in late peri-menopausal (0.024 mm/year) and postmenopausal (0.018 mm/year) stages compared to premenopausal stage (−0.032 mm/year); (P<0.05). In final models, postmenopausal stage was independently associated with higher levels of IMT and AD (P<0.05) compared to premenopausal stage. Conclusions During the menopausal transition, the carotid artery undergoes an adaptation that is reflected in adverse changes in IMT and AD. These changes may impact the vulnerability of the vessel to disease in older women. PMID:22990755

  16. Fiber diameter distributions in the chinchilla's ampullary nerves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Larry F.; Honrubia, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    A morphometric study of the chinchilla's ampullary nerves was conducted to produce an unbiased accounting of the diameter distribution of their constituent fibers. Diameter analyses were determined from 1 microm plastic-embedded nerve sections taken at a plane immediately proximal to the sensory epithelium. We found these nerves to be composed of 2094+/-573 fibers, having diameters that ranged from 0.5 to 8 microm. The distributions of diameters were positively skewed, where approximately 75% of the fibers were found to have diameters less than 3.5 microm. An analysis of the spatial distribution of diameters within the nerve section revealed that the lateralmost areas of the nerve contained larger fractions of fibers within the smallest diameter quintiles, and the central area harbored greater proportions of the larger diameter quintiles. However, significant fractions of all quintiles were found in all areas. These data were integrated with available data of Fernandez et al. (1998) to produce diameter estimates of calyx, dimorphic, and bouton morphology subpopulations. In view of a general relationship between diameter, innervation locus, and an afferent's physiologic characteristics, these data provide the basis for developing a perspective for the in situ distribution of afferent response dynamics.

  17. 3D Imaging with a Single-Aperture 3-mm Objective Lens: Concept, Fabrication and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korniski, Ron; Bae, Sam Y.; Shearn, Mike; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed. For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized) or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant advantage especially during brain surgery. Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.

  18. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s).

  19. Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength

  20. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  1. Pyrometry temperature studies of shocked tin including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil diameter and the integration with emissivity diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenton-Taylor, Caroline; de'Ath, James; Ota, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of shock-loaded systems continues to present experimental challenges. With short measurable time durations diagnostic methods are almost exclusively restricted to optical techniques. By preventing full sample pressure unloading, through the use of an anvil, partial release temperature measurements can be deduced from multiple wavelength optical pyrometry. This paper presents our recent studies of tin shocked to 28GPa including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil dimensions and the integration with emissivity diagnostics. The results indicate that a ring groove, 5mm across and with a nominal machined depth of 50 microns, acts to enhance the measured temperature by approximately 150K. Additionally on reducing the LiF anvil diameter from 20mm to 15mm, comparable partial release temperatures were observed. With the anticipated development of multiple anvil target designs, the smaller anvil diameter is desirable. British Crown Copyright 2009/MOD.

  2. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  3. Hyaluronic acid enhancement of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for small diameter vascular grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nicole R.

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States and other developed countries. In the United States alone, 8 million people are diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease per year and over 250,000 patients have coronary bypass surgery each year. Autologous blood vessels are the standard graft used in small diameter (<6mm) arterial bypass procedures. Synthetic small diameter grafts have had limited success. While polyethylene (Dacron) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) are the most commonly used small diameter synthetic vascular graft materials, there are significant limitations that make these materials unfavorable for use in the low blood flow conditions of the small diameter arteries. Specifically, Dacron and ePTFE grafts display failure due to early thrombosis or late intimal hyperplasia. With the shortage of tissue donors and the limited supply of autologous blood vessels available, there is a need for a small diameter synthetic vascular graft alternative. The aim of this research is to create and characterize ePTFE grafts prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA), evaluate thrombogenic potential of ePTFE-HA grafts, and evaluate graft mechanical properties and coating durability. The results in this work indicate the successful production of ePTFE-HA materials using a solvent infiltration technique. Surface interactions with blood show increased platelet adhesion on HA-modified surfaces, though evidence may suggest less platelet activation and erythrocyte lysis. Significant changes in mechanical properties of HA-modified ePTFE materials were observed. Further investigation into solvent selection, uniformity of HA, endothelialization, and dynamic flow testing would be beneficial in the evaluation of these materials for use in small diameter vascular graft bypass procedures.

  4. Correlation between linezolid zone diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration values determined by regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, G; Poiata, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Buiuc, D

    2006-01-01

    Linezolid is a new synthetic antibiotic belonging to the oxazolidinone class, available for the therapy of gram-positive infections, caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro activity of linezolid against staphylococci strains and also to determine the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone diameter by calculating the regression analysis. We tested one hundred S. aureus isolates, obtained from healthy persons (naso-pharyngeal swabs) during 2005 year. The antibiotic susceptibility of strains was determined by disk diffusion standardized method and by agar dilution method using a multipoint inoculator. The relationship between the diameter of the inhibition zone produced by a linezolid disc impregnated with a fixed amount (30 eg) was determined by regression performed with the least squares method, considering the log2 of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as the independent variable and the zone diameter as the dependent variable. The MIC values expressed in logarithmic form are plotted against inhibition zone diameter (arithmetic scale) of the same strain. The activity of linezolid against staphylococci was very good, with MIC 90 of 1 mg/l. All strains were fully sensitive. The regression line for linezolid passes through a continuous series of points that all are approximately located on the a straight line. For each of the MIC values the differences result no greater than 23 mm in diameter sizes were registered. Regression equation was y= -0.188x + 8.048. In conclusion, the regression line analysis calculated for linezolid, demonstrates a significant correlation between MIC values and the inhibition zone diameters obtained by a 30 mg disc.

  5. Diameter Controlled of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Nanoporous Silicon Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Maryam, M.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesized on nanoporous silicon template (NPSiT) using botanical source, camphor oil. Diameter of CNTs synthesized was controlled by pore size of NPSiT prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. The diameter of CNTs grown on different NPSiT corresponded to the pore diameter of NPSiT. FESEM images showed self-organized bundles of fiber-like structures of CNTs with diameter of around 20nm which were successfully grown directly on nanoporous silicon while raman spectra obtained ratio of ID/IG at 0.67.

  6. Effect of Specimen Diameter on Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Liquid Hydrogen and Gaseous Helium at 20K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, H.; Ohmiya, S.; Shibata, K.; Ogata, T.

    2006-03-01

    Tensile tests using round bar type specimens of 3, 5 and 7 mm in diameter were conducted at 20K in liquid hydrogen and also in gaseous helium at the same temperature for three major austenitic stainless steels, JIS SUS304L, 316L and 316LN, extensively used for cryogenic applications including liquid hydrogen transportation and storage vessels. Stress-strain curves were considerably different between circumstances and also specimen diameter, resulting in differences of strength and ductility. In liquid hydrogen, serrated deformation appeared after considerable work hardening and more active in specimens with larger diameter. Meanwhile serrated deformation was observed from the early stage of plastic deformation in gaseous helium at 20 K and serration was more frequent in specimens with smaller diameter. The serrated deformation behaviors were numerically simulated for 304L steel with taking thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat transfer from specimens to cryogenic media into account, and some agreement with the experiments was obtained.

  7. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds. PMID:27589713

  8. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  9. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  10. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Poveda, Jonay; Sanz, Ana Belen; Carrasco, Susana; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is the key driver of diabetic complications and increased concentrations of glucose degradation products. The study of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility has highlighted the adverse biological effects of glucose degradation products. Recently, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as the most toxic glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids. In addition, 3,4-DGE is present in high-fructose corn syrup, and its precursor 3-deoxyglucosone is increased in diabetes. The role of 3,4-DGE in glomerular injury had not been addressed. We studied the effects of 3,4-DGE on cultured human podocytes and in vivo in mice. 3,4-DGE induced apoptosis in podocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3,4-DGE promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. While high glucose concentrations increased the levels of the podocyte intracellular antiapoptotic protein HSP27/HSPB1, 3,4-DGE decreased the expression of podocyte HSP27/HSPB1. Apoptosis induced by 3,4-DGE was caspase-dependent and could be prevented by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Antagonism of Bax by a Ku-70-derived peptide also prevented apoptosis. Intravenous administration of 3,4-DGE to healthy mice resulted in a decreased expression of HSP27/HSPB1 and caspase-3 activation in whole kidney and in podocytes in vivo. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE induces apoptotic cell death in cultured human podocytes, suggesting a potential role in glomerular injury resulting from metabolic disorders. PMID:24337777

  18. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    PubMed

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results. PMID:14965913

  19. Influence of hole diameter on the average size and quantity distribution of Si nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Lizhi; Zong, Yu; Deng, Zechao; Ding, Xuecheng; Zhao, Hongdong; Wang, Yinglong

    2013-12-01

    The single crystalline Si target with high resistivity was ablated by a XeCl excimer laser (wavelength 308nm) in pure Ar gas under the ambient pressure of 10 Pa. The mask with a 1-10 mm diameter hole in the center was placed at a distance of 1.5 cm to the Si target. The Si nanocrystalline films were systemically deposited on a glass or single crystalline Si substrate placed behind the mask parallelly with a distance of 1.0 cm. The Raman and X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that the films were nanocrystalline. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that the diameter of the hole affected on the quantity and distributed range of Si nanoparticles on the substrate. It was obtained that the average size of Si nanoparticles decreasing with the diameter of the hole increasing, the quantity of Si nanoparticles was proportional to the power of 1.5 of the hole diameter. It is the nonlinear dynamic process to lead to the experimental result.

  20. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  1. [Degradation of oil derivatives by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5].

    PubMed

    Marín, M M; Ortiz, M L; Laborda, F

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of microorganisms from polluted heating oil. The growth of one of them has been studied (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5) in several linear and branched hydrocarbons as well as the effect of its growth on commercial diesel oil. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5 is not capable of using glucose as its only source of carbon, and it needs the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources to degrade any petroleum by-product.

  2. Diamond Powders Less Than 100 nm in Diameter as Effective Solid Lubricants in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarevich, Anna Valeryevna; Usuba, Shu; Kakudate, Yozo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Odawara, Osamu

    2004-07-01

    The frictional behavior of detonation nanodiamond and single-crystal fine diamond powders were studied to determine the effect of particle diameter on their lubricative and abrasive characteristics. In vacuum, nanodiamond with an average aggregate size of 75 nm and mechanically crushed single-crystal diamond powders with an average diameter of 50 nm formed a uniform lubricating layer while sliding against a SiC ball and showed very low friction coefficients of 0.03 and less than 0.01, respectively, under moderate conditions of 0.5 N applied load and 3.5 mm/s sliding speed. A clear tendency was observed for both the friction coefficient and specific wear rates to decrease with decreasing particle/aggregate size.

  3. A system for magnetostrictive transduction of guided waves in fluid-filled pipes of small diameter.

    PubMed

    Challis, Richard E; Phang, Albert P Y; Lowe, Michael J S; Mather, Melissa L

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of magnetostrictive transducers for the excitation and detection of guided waves in metal pipes of small diameter (mm) and their application to the study of wave propagation in pipes filled with water or supercritical CO(2). Optimized system design is based on a simulation of the overall signal pathway which includes the electric circuit conditions at the transducers, mode excitability, and the wavenumber filtering effect of the spatial distribution of the exciting alternating magnetic field. A prototype system was built, and experimental observations on small diameter pipes indicated good agreement with expected results from simulations. The reassigned spectrogram has been used to compare expectation on the basis of guided wave dispersion curves for fluid-filled pipes with experimental data. PMID:18986895

  4. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score <−2 SDs were considered to have the smallest diameters, individuals with a BAR score >−2 and <2 SDs had average diameters, and individuals with a BAR score >2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. Conclusions The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. PMID:26251284

  5. Fabrication of ф 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror for remote sensing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2012-10-01

    In this study, efficient polishing processes with inspection procedures for a large convex hyperbolic mirror of Cassegrain optical system are presented. The polishing process combines the techniques of conventional lapping and CNC polishing. We apply the conventional spherical lapping process to quickly remove the sub-surface damage (SSD) layer caused by grinding process and to get the accurate radius of best-fit sphere (BFS) of aspheric surface with fine surface texture simultaneously. Thus the removed material for aspherization process can be minimized and the polishing time for SSD removal can also be reduced substantially. The inspection procedure was carried out by using phase shift interferometer with CGH and stitching technique. To acquire the real surface form error of each sub aperture, the wavefront errors of the reference flat and CGH flat due to gravity effect of the vertical setup are calibrated in advance. Subsequently, we stitch 10 calibrated sub-aperture surface form errors to establish the whole irregularity of the mirror in 160 mm diameter for correction polishing. The final result of the In this study, efficient polishing processes with inspection procedures for a large convex hyperbolic mirror of Cassegrain optical system are presented. The polishing process combines the techniques of conventional lapping and CNC polishing. We apply the conventional spherical lapping process to quickly remove the sub-surface damage (SSD) layer caused by grinding process and to get the accurate radius of best-fit sphere (BFS) of aspheric surface with fine surface texture simultaneously. Thus the removed material for aspherization process can be minimized and the polishing time for SSD removal can also be reduced substantially. The inspection procedure was carried out by using phase shift interferometer with CGH and stitching technique. To acquire the real surface form error of each sub aperture, the wavefront errors of the reference flat and CGH flat due to

  6. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF... reports of injury or damage. A person may not knowingly give any false or fictitious report concerning...

  7. The Phenolic, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, is an Endogenous Regulator of Rooting in Protea Cynaroides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays indicated the presence of allelochemicals in Protea cynaroides stem cuttings. Analysis of stem extracts identified large quantities of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and other simlar phenolics. Phytotoxicity bioassay showed that 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid both stimulated and inhibited root gro...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay...

  9. Study on measurement of 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror for Cassegrain reflecting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the measurement of a 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror by using the 6 inches phase shifting interferometer and the CGH (computer-generated hologram) in a vertical setup is presented. The wavefront errors of the metrology system including the reference flat and CGH flat due to gravity effect are measured and calibrated by using random testing and null cavity testing with and without CGH. Then, the real form error of each single sub-aperture could be acquired by subtracting the system wavefront errors. In this study, we measured form errors of 10 off-axis sub-apertures with equal angle space and then stitched them to establish the whole irregularity in the shape of the mirror in 160 mm diameter. Finally, we imported the irregularity in the shape of the mirror to the CNC aspheric polishing machine for correction polishing. Combining the aspheric metrology technique and the CNC aspheric polishing technique, a 160 mm secondary mirror for the Cassegrain reflecting system was finished within PV 0.15μm and RMS 17.9 nm.

  10. Performance of 0. 75 mm pitch MWPC'S operating at high rate

    SciTech Connect

    Conetti, S.; Kuzminski, J.; Marchionni, A.; Stairs, D.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Cox, B.; Delchamps, S.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.

    1989-01-01

    Three Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) with high rate capability have been constructed for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment 705 (Charmonium and Direct Photon production by ..pi../sup +-/, p and /bar p/ at 300 GeV/c). Each chamber, with a sensitive area of 308 cm/sup 2/, consists of three anode planes, wound with 12.5 ..mu..m diameter gold-plated tungsten/rhenium wire, facing 25 ..mu..m graphite-coated kapton cathode planes at a distance of 3 mm. Wire spacing in two of the MWPC (PC-B1 and PC-B2) is 0.75 mm and 1.00 mm in the third one (PC-B3). After a few weeks of running on ''Magic Gas'' with a beam flux of up to /approximately/10/sup 7/ particles/cm/sup 2/sec, severe damage occurred to the graphite coating. All cathode planes were replaced by aluminized kapton, and the chambers worked successfully for the next 3 months until the end of the run, when a 10% efficiency drop was observed after a total accumulated charge of /approximately/1 C/cm of sense wire. After the end of the run the chambers were disassembled and inspected. A white deposit with a characteristic ''wire pattern'' etched away from the Al coating was observed in the region of the beam spot. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Flow cytometric analysis of micronucleus induction in rat bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes by 1,2;3,4-diepoxybutane, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, and 1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol.

    PubMed

    Lähdetie, J; Grawé, J

    1997-07-01

    Automation of the analysis of micronucleus induction with flow cytometry was developed by using mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood. In the present study, we report the use of flow cytometry for the identification and quantification of micronuclei (MN) induced in rat bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. Three metabolites of the industrial chemical 1,3-butadiene, namely 1,2;3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB) and 1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol (diol-EB), were studied in addition to mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide, which served as positive controls. DEB showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MN, whereas EB was completely negative and diol-EB only weakly positive at one dose level. The effect of the positive control compounds was observed 48 h after a single injection in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry was an effective method to quantitate bone marrow MN induction in the rat when density gradient separation of polychromatic erythrocytes is used. The results are compatible with the theory that oxidation of EB to the mutagenic metabolite DEB occurs at a low rate in rat bone marrow and that EB is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase and by conjugation with glutathione by glutathione transferase yielding nonmutagenic metabolites. Thus, the reported lack of MN induction by 1,3-butadiene inhalation in rat bone marrow is explained.

  12. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  13. A pilot trial of large versus small diameter needles for oocyte retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to determine whether small diameter needles for oocyte retrieval alter oocyte yields in patients undergoing IVF in comparison to standard large diameter needles. Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study of 21 consecutive favorable prognosis patients. In each patient one ovary was randomly allocated to retrieval with either a 20 G/ 35 mm (thin) or 17 G/ 35 mm (standard) needle, the other ovary was then retrieved with the opposite needle. Results The standard diameter needle was used to collect a total of 215 oocytes from 355 aspirated follicles (60.6%) compared to 203 oocytes from 352 aspirated follicles (57.7%) with the thinner needle (p = 0.23). Stratifying outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as indicator of ovarian reserve, and by body mass index (BMI) the oocyte yields, still, did not differ (AMH, r (17) = −0.20, p = 0.44; BMI, r (17) =0.02, p = 0.96). Outcomes also did not vary among women with diminished ovarian reserve (p = 0.17) and in women with normal ovarian reserve (p = 1.00). Operating time was, however, significantly increased by 3.3 minutes per ovary (z = −3.08, p = 0.002) with the thinner needle. Conclusions Needle diameter does not affect oocyte yield, including in obese patients and patients with diminished ovarian reserve. Thinner needles appear to significantly prolong operating time. PMID:23510450

  14. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  15. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  16. Influence of the implant diameter with different sizes of hexagon: analysis by 3-dimensional finite element method.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implants of regular platforms and of wide diameter with different sizes of hexagon by the 3-dimensional finite element method. We used simulated 3-dimensional models with the aid of Solidworks 2006 and Rhinoceros 4.0 software for the design of the implant and abutment and the InVesalius software for the design of the bone. Each model represented a block of bone from the mandibular molar region with an implant 10 mm in length and different diameters. Model A was an implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon, model B was an implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon, and model C was an implant 5.00 mm/expanded hexagon. A load of 200 N was applied in the axial, lateral, and oblique directions. At implant, applying the load (axial, lateral, and oblique), the 3 models presented stress concentration at the threads in the cervical and middle regions, and the stress was higher for model A. At the abutment, models A and B showed a similar stress distribution, concentrated at the cervical and middle third; model C showed the highest stresses. On the cortical bone, the stress was concentrated at the cervical region for the 3 models and was higher for model A. In the trabecular bone, the stresses were less intense and concentrated around the implant body, and were more intense for model A. Among the models of wide diameter (models B and C), model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) was more favorable with regard to distribution of stresses. Model A (implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon) showed the largest areas and the most intense stress, and model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) showed a more favorable stress distribution. The highest stresses were observed in the application of lateral load.

  17. Atypical Membrane-embedded Phosphatidylinositol 3,4-Bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2)-binding Site on p47phox Phox Homology (PX) Domain Revealed by NMR*

    PubMed Central

    Stampoulis, Pavlos; Ueda, Takumi; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Terasawa, Hiroaki; Miyano, Kei; Sumimoto, Hideki; Shimada, Ichio

    2012-01-01

    The Phox homology (PX) domain is a functional module that targets membranes through specific interactions with phosphoinositides. The p47phox PX domain preferably binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) and plays a pivotal role in the assembly of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. We describe the PI(3,4)P2 binding mode of the p47phox PX domain as identified by a transferred cross-saturation experiment. The identified PI(3,4)P2-binding site, which includes the residues of helices α1 and α1′ and the following loop up to the distorted left-handed PPII helix, is located at a unique position, as compared with the phosphoinositide-binding sites of all other PX domains characterized thus far. Mutational analyses corroborated the results of the transferred cross-saturation experiments. Moreover, experiments with intact cells demonstrated the importance of this unique binding site for the function of the NADPH oxidase. The low affinity and selectivity of the atypical phosphoinositide-binding site on the p47phox PX domain suggest that different types of phosphoinositides sequentially bind to the p47phox PX domain, allowing the regulation of the multiple events that characterize the assembly and activation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:22493288

  18. Solar diameter measurements for study of Sun climate coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Variability in solar shape and diameters was examined as a possible probe of an important climatic driving function, solar luminosity variability. The techniques and facilities developed for measuring the solar diameter were used. The observing program and the requisite data reduction were conducted simultaneously. The development of a technique to calibrate the scale in the telescope field progressed to the design and construction phase.

  19. Method accurately measures mean particle diameters of monodisperse polystyrene latexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Photomicrographic method determines mean particle diameters of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Many diameters are measured simultaneously by measuring row lengths of particles in a triangular array at a glass-oil interface. The method provides size standards for electronic particle counters and prevents distortions, softening, and flattening.

  20. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... case of products blended with some portion of biomass-based fuel, the carbon share in Table MM-1 of... biomass should not be reported, but products that were derived from both biomass and a petroleum...

  1. Kerosene-water separation in T-junction with orientation upward branch with a 60° angle: Variation of diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani

    2016-06-01

    Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.

  2. Superresolution measurement of nanofiber diameter by modes beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, E. F.; Solano, P.; Hoffman, J. E.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Fatemi, F. K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofibers are becoming an important tool in quantum information technologies for coupling photonics systems to atomic systems. Nondestructive techniques for characterizing these nanofibers prior to integration into an apparatus are desirable. In this work, we probe the light propagating in a fused silica optical nanofiber (750-nm-diameter) by coupling it evanescently to a 6- μm-diameter microfiber that is scanned along the nanofiber length. This technique is capable of observing all possible beat lengths among different propagating modes. The beat lengths are strongly dependent on the nanofiber diameter and refractive index of the fiber. The steep dependence has enabled measurements of the fiber diameter with sub-Angstrom sensitivity. The diameter extracted from the beat length measurements agrees with a measurement made using scanning electron microscopy. Work supported by NSF.

  3. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena.

  4. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena.

  5. Lysosome Transport as a Function of Lysosome Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Cyphersmith, Austin; Zapata, Jairo A.; Kim, Y. Joseph; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles responsible for the transport and degradation of intracellular and extracellular cargo. The intracellular motion of lysosomes is both diffusive and active, mediated by motor proteins moving lysosomes along microtubules. We sought to determine how lysosome diameter influences lysosome transport. We used osmotic swelling to double the diameter of lysosomes, creating a population of enlarged lysosomes. This allowed us to directly examine the intracellular transport of the same organelle as a function of diameter. Lysosome transport was measured using live cell fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. We find, as expected, the diffusive component of intracellular transport is decreased proportional to the increased lysosome diameter. Active transport of the enlarged lysosomes is not affected by the increased lysosome diameter. PMID:24497985

  6. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena. PMID:27581602

  7. Valve-in-valve implantation with a 23-mm balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve for the treatment of a 19-mm stentless bioprosthesis severe aortic regurgitation using a strategy of "extreme" underfilling.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Florent; Leipsic, Jonathon; Généreux, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of valve-in-valve (ViV) implantation by transfemoral approach with a 23-mm balloon-expandable prosthesis inside a stentless 19-mm acutely degenerated bioprosthesis, using a strategy of "extreme" underfilling. A 74-year-old patient presented to our institution in cardiogenic shock. An initial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed severe central aortic regurgitation (AR) due to a torn leaflet. She was deemed inoperable and considered for urgent transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Given the fairly small true internal diameter, a strategy of 3-cc underfilling of a 23-mm transcatheter heart valve (THV) was planned. However, the final implantation was performed with 5-cc underfilling due to the incapacity to deliver the entire amount of fluid contained in the inflation syringe. TEE guidance confirmed the successful positioning and deployment of the prosthesis, with no AR and a mean gradient of 25 mm Hg. While implantation of a smaller prosthesis (20 mm) was debated during the Heart Team discussion, the risk of valve embolization due to inadequate anchoring inside the stentless prosthesis led to the selection of a 23-mm THV. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was in NYHA class I, with no AR and a mean gradient of 28 mm Hg. We report for the first time the use of in vivo THV with 5-cc underfilling with no acute or short-term structural failure, and the first ViV implantation by transfemoral approach with a 23-mm balloon-expandable prosthesis inside a stentless 19-mm bioprosthesis. The current report presents the challenges related to ViV implantation inside a small stentless bioprosthesis and offers practical ways to overcome them. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) around living neural cells

    PubMed Central

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Foster, Brian; Povlich, Laura K.; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Martin, David C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe interactions between neural cells and the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) toward development of electrically conductive biomaterials intended for direct, functional contact with electrically-active tissues such as the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscle. We introduce a process for polymerizing PEDOT around living cells and describe a neural cell-templated conducting polymer coating for microelectrodes and a hybrid conducting polymer-live neural cell electrode. We found that neural cells could be exposed to working concentrations (0.01 M) of the EDOT monomer for as long as 72 hours while maintaining 80% cell viability. PEDOT could be electrochemically deposited around neurons cultured on electrodes using 0.5-1 μA/mm2 galvanostatic current. PEDOT polymerized on the electrode and surrounded the cells, covering cell processes. The polymerization was impeded in regions where cells were well-adhered to the substrate. The cells could be removed from the PEDOT matrix to generate a neural cell-templated biomimetic conductive substrate with cell-shaped features that were cell-attracting. Live cells embedded within the conductive polymer matrix remained viable for at least 120 hours following polymerization. Dying cells primarily underwent apoptotic cell death. PEDOT, PEDOT+live neurons, and neuron-templated PEDOT coatings on electrodes significantly enhanced the electrical properties as compared to the bare electrode as indicated by decreased electrical impedance of 1-1.5 orders of magnitude at 0.01-1 kHz and significantly increased charge transfer capacity. PEDOT coatings showed a decrease of the phase angle of the impedance from roughly 80 degrees for the bare electrode to 5-35 degrees at frequencies >0.1 kHz. Equivalent circuit modeling indicated that PEDOT-coated electrodes were best described by R(C(RT)) circuit. We found that an RC parallel circuit must be added to the model for PEDOT+live neuron and neuron

  9. Experimental study on thermal performance of heat sinks: the effect of hydraulic diameter and geometric shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzougui, M.; Hammami, M.; Maad, R. Ben

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is focused on experimental investigation of cooling performance of various minichannel designs. The hydraulic dimension of one of the heat sink is 3 mm while that of the other is 2 mm. Deionised water was used as the coolant for studies conducted in both the heat sinks. Tests were done for a wide range of flow rates (0.7 l-9 l h-1) and heat inputs (5-40 kW/m2). Irrespective of the hydraulic diameter and the geometric configuration, profits and boundaries of each channel shape are analyzed and discussed in the clarity of experimental data. The total thermal resistance and the average heat transfer coefficient are compared for the various channels inspected.

  10. Structural and thermal response of 30 cm diameter ion thruster optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrae, G. S.; Zavesky, R. J.; Gooder, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    Tabular and graphical data are presented which are intended for use in calibrating and validating structural and thermal models of ion thruster optics. A 30 cm diameter, two electrode, mercury ion thruster was operated using two different electrode assembly designs. With no beam extraction, the transient and steady state temperature profiles and center electrode gaps were measured for three discharge powers. The data showed that the electrode mount design had little effect on the temperatures, but significantly impacted the motion of the electrode center. Equilibrium electrode gaps increased with one design and decreased with the other. Equilibrium displacements in excess of 0.5 mm and gap changes of 0.08 mm were measured at 450 W discharge power. Variations in equilibrium gaps were also found among assemblies of the same design. The presented data illustrate the necessity for high fidelity ion optics models and development of experimental techniques to allow their validation.

  11. Comparison of ultrasonic and direct biparietal diameter measurements and placental localization.

    PubMed

    Staisch, K J; Cumberland, W G; Hammill, H; Geck, D

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) measurements and placental localizations performed by physicians in a university hospital obstetrical service using real-time ultrasound equipment was determined. The sonographic estimations were compared to caliper measurements on the neonate and to the implantation site of the placenta found at surgery in 40 patients undergoing repeat cesarean section. The correlation coefficient 0.93 and p less than 0.00001 indicate high agreement between the BPD measurements. The regression of caliper on sonar measurements gave 95% prediction intervals of +/- 3.50 mm compared to +/- 2.4 mm calculated from data reported by ultrasonic laboratories. Placental localization was in error in 5.9% of the cases. Thus, physicians should be aware that their errors are likely to be larger than those which have been published by experts in ultrasound diagnosis.

  12. Large-diameter total hip arthroplasty modular heads require greater assembly forces for initial stability

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, A. R.; Sullivan, N. P. T.; Whitehouse, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Modular junctions are ubiquitous in contemporary hip arthroplasty. The head-trunnion junction is implicated in the failure of large diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) hips which are the currently the topic of one the largest legal actions in the history of orthopaedics (estimated costs are stated to exceed $4 billion). Several factors are known to influence the strength of these press-fit modular connections. However, the influence of different head sizes has not previously been investigated. The aim of the study was to establish whether the choice of head size influences the initial strength of the trunnion-head connection. Materials and Methods Ti-6Al-4V trunnions (n = 60) and two different sizes of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) heads (28 mm and 36 mm; 30 of each size) were used in the study. Three different levels of assembly force were considered: 4 kN; 5 kN; and 6 kN (n = 10 each). The strength of the press-fit connection was subsequently evaluated by measuring the pull-off force required to break the connection. The statistical differences in pull-off force were examined using a Kruskal–Wallis test and two-sample Mann–Whitney U test. Finite element and analytical models were developed to understand the reasons for the experimentally observed differences. Results 36 mm diameter heads had significantly lower pull-off forces than 28 mm heads when impacted at 4 kN and 5 kN (p < 0.001; p < 0.001), but not at 6 kN (p = 0.21). Mean pull-off forces at 4 kN and 5 kN impaction forces were approximately 20% larger for 28 mm heads compared with 36 mm heads. Finite element and analytical models demonstrate that the differences in pull-off strength can be explained by differences in structural rigidity and the resulting interface pressures. Conclusion This is the first study to show that 36 mm Co-Cr heads have up to 20% lower pull-off connection strength compared with 28 mm heads for equivalent assembly forces. This effect is likely

  13. Observation of a Spot Diameter Dependency in Confined Laser Ablation of Zinc Oxide on Copper-Indium-Diselenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Regina; Seiler, Daniel; Huber, Heinz P.; Marowsky, Gerd

    Confined laser ablation with ultra-short laser pulses, also referred to as laser "lift-off", is initiated at the interface of transparent thin films and underlying absorbing substrates. The energy per ablated volume at confined laser ablation (<10J/mm3) is higher than at direct laser ablation (about 100 J/mm3). In this paper the selective laser structuring of a zinc oxide (ZnO) / copper-indium-diselenid (CIS) layer system is investigated with 10 ps and 460 fs long laser pulses. Spot diameters between 14 μm and 100 μm were selected to show the relation between the spot diameter and the so called punching fluence. This value describes the lowest fluence at which the laser "lift-off" takes place. For both pulse durations the punching fluence depends on the spot diameter. The punching fluence increases from about 0.4 J/cm2 at spot diameters ≥40 μm to about 1.1 J/cm2 for decreasing spot diameters <40 μm.

  14. CMOS mm-wave transceivers for Gbps wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoyong, Chi; Zheng, Song; Lixue, Kuang; Haikun, Jia; Xiangyu, Meng; Zhihua, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The challenges in the design of CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transceiver for Gbps wireless communication are discussed. To support the Gbps data rate, the link bandwidth of the receiver/transmitter must be wide enough, which puts a lot of pressure on the mm-wave front-end as well as on the baseband circuit. This paper discusses the effects of the limited link bandwidth on the transceiver system performance and overviews the bandwidth expansion techniques for mm-wave amplifiers and IF programmable gain amplifier. Furthermore, dual-mode power amplifier (PA) and self-healing technique are introduced to improve the PA's average efficiency and to deal with the process, voltage, and temperature variation issue, respectively. Several fully-integrated CMOS mm-wave transceivers are also presented to give a short overview on the state-of-the-art mm-wave transceivers. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61331003).

  15. The same-source parallel MM{sub 5}.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1999-08-23

    The set of architectures available to users of the Penn State/NCAR MM5 has been expanded to included distributed-memory parallel computers, providing cost-effective scalable performance and memory capacity for large problem sizes. The same-source approach uses high-level parallel library and source-translation technology for adapting MM5, simplifying maintenance and allowing new physics modules to be incorporated without modification. The approach facilitates maintenance of the DM-parallel option to MM5 as an option within the official version, rather than as a separate stand-alone version. As a result, the DM-parallel option to MM5 (now at Version 3.1) has been a part of six subsequent model releases since MM5 Version 2.8 in March 1998. The same-source approach is applicable to other, similarly constructed codes when there is a need or desire to develop the code for distributed memory parallel machines without impacting the pre-existing source code. The approach is also compatible with pre-existing loop-level multithreading directives so that the code will run in distributed-memory/shared-memory mode on SMP clusters.

  16. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Hadi; Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3-6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was -0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  17. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3–6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was −0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  18. A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Yildirim, Murat; Subramanian, Kaushik; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Towards developing precise microsurgery tools for the clinic, we previously developed image-guided miniaturized devices using low repetition rate amplified ultrafast lasers for surgery. To improve the speed of tissue removal while reducing device diameter, here we present a new 5-mm diameter device that delivers high-repetition rate laser pulses for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery. The device consists of an air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for the delivery of high energy pulses, a piezoelectric tube actuator for fiber scanning, and two aspheric lenses for focusing the light. Its inline optical architecture provides easy alignment and substantial size reduction to 5 mm diameter as compared to our previous MEMS-scanning devices while realizing improved intensity squared (two-photon) lateral and axial resolutions of 1.16 μm and 11.46 μm, respectively. Our study also sheds light on the maximum pulse energies that can be delivered through the air-core PBF and identifies cladding damage at the input facet of the fiber as the limiting factor. We have achieved a maximum energy delivery larger than 700 nJ at 92% coupling efficiency. An in depth analysis reveals how this value is greatly affected by possible slight misalignments of the beam during coupling and the measured small beam pointing fluctuations. In the absence of these imperfections, self-phase modulation becomes the limiting factor for the maximum energy delivery, setting the theoretical upper bound to near 2 μJ for a 1-m long, 7-μm, air-core PBF. Finally, the use of a 300 kHz repetition rate fiber laser enabled rapid ablation of 150 µm x 150 µm area within only 50 ms. Such ablation speeds can now allow the surgeons to translate the surgery device as fast as ~4 mm/s to continuously remove a thin layer of a 150 µm wide tissue. Thanks to a high optical transmission efficiency of the in-line optical architecture of the device and improved resolution, we could successfully perform ablation of

  19. A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Yildirim, Murat; Subramanian, Kaushik; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2014-07-01

    Towards developing precise microsurgery tools for the clinic, we previously developed image-guided miniaturized devices using low repetition rate amplified ultrafast lasers for surgery. To improve the speed of tissue removal while reducing device diameter, here we present a new 5-mm diameter device that delivers high-repetition rate laser pulses for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery. The device consists of an air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for the delivery of high energy pulses, a piezoelectric tube actuator for fiber scanning, and two aspheric lenses for focusing the light. Its inline optical architecture provides easy alignment and substantial size reduction to 5 mm diameter as compared to our previous MEMS-scanning devices while realizing improved intensity squared (two-photon) lateral and axial resolutions of 1.16 μm and 11.46 μm, respectively. Our study also sheds light on the maximum pulse energies that can be delivered through the air-core PBF and identifies cladding damage at the input facet of the fiber as the limiting factor. We have achieved a maximum energy delivery larger than 700 nJ at 92% coupling efficiency. An in depth analysis reveals how this value is greatly affected by possible slight misalignments of the beam during coupling and the measured small beam pointing fluctuations. In the absence of these imperfections, self-phase modulation becomes the limiting factor for the maximum energy delivery, setting the theoretical upper bound to near 2 μJ for a 1-m long, 7-μm, air-core PBF. Finally, the use of a 300 kHz repetition rate fiber laser enabled rapid ablation of 150 µm x 150 µm area within only 50 ms. Such ablation speeds can now allow the surgeons to translate the surgery device as fast as ~4 mm/s to continuously remove a thin layer of a 150 µm wide tissue. Thanks to a high optical transmission efficiency of the in-line optical architecture of the device and improved resolution, we could successfully perform ablation of

  20. Nonstructural protein 3-4A: the Swiss army knife of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, K; Lange, C M; Gouttenoire, J; Meylan, E; Brass, V; Penin, F; Moradpour, D

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3-4A (NS3-4A) is a complex composed of NS3 and its cofactor NS4A. It harbours serine protease as well as NTPase/RNA helicase activities and is essential for viral polyprotein processing, RNA replication and virion formation. Specific inhibitors of the NS3-4A protease significantly improve sustained virological response rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C when combined with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. The NS3-4A protease can also target selected cellular proteins, thereby blocking innate immune pathways and modulating growth factor signalling. Hence, NS3-4A is not only an essential component of the viral replication complex and prime target for antiviral intervention but also a key player in the persistence and pathogenesis of HCV. This review provides a concise update on the biochemical and structural aspects of NS3-4A, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C and the clinical development of NS3-4A protease inhibitors.

  1. Nuclear Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3 signaling: an ongoing story.

    PubMed

    Déléris, Paul; Gayral, Stéphanie; Breton-Douillon, Monique

    2006-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3)) is linked to a variety of cellular functions, such as growth, cell survival, and differentiation. Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3) is primarily synthesized by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases and its hydrolysis by two 3-phosphoinositide 3-phosphatases, PTEN and SHIP proteins, leads to the production of two other second messengers, Ptdlns(4,5)P(2) and Ptdlns(3,4)P(2), respectively. Evidence accumulated over the last years strongly suggest that Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3) is an important component of signaling pathway operating within the nucleus. Moreover, recent advances indicated that nuclear translocation of cell surface receptors could activate nuclear phosphoinositide 3-kinase suggesting a new mode of signal transduction. The aim of this review is intended to summarize the state of our knowledge on nuclear Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3) and its metabolizing enzymes, and to highlight the emerging roles for intranuclear Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3). PMID:16645993

  2. Engineering Strong Interactions Between mm-wave and Optical Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Mark; Suleymanzade, Aziza; Estes, Jeremy; Eustice, Scott; Schuster, David; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We propose an atomic interface of Rydberg atoms as a means of engineering effective strong interactions between single mm-wave and optical photons. The atomic sample resides at the intersection of a high-finesse optical cavity and a superconducting mm-wave cavity, where it can coherently interact with photons of both regimes. The use of mm-wave (100 GHz) frequencies allows strong coupling at higher temperatures and with less sensitivity to stray electric fields. A hybrid cryogenic vacuum chamber at 4 Kelvin enables access to superconductivity as well as a UHV environment with optical access necessary for cold atom experiments. Strong interactions between these separate quantum degrees of freedom has important applications in quantum computing as well as simulation of many-body interacting systems.

  3. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  4. New Methods for Exploring QM:MM Potential Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the applicability of quantum chemical methods for large system studies has been greatly enhanced by the development of hybrid QM:MM techniques. Despite these advancements, exploring the associated potential energy surfaces continues to present two key challenges. First, the QM energy and derivative evaluations may be too costly for simulations; and second, the system size for many QM:MM cases are too large to effectively store or use second-order information, an approach often used in QM studies to allow for larger integration steps and fewer QM evaluations of the potential energy surface. Our most recent work is focused on overcoming both computational bottlenecks. Using surface fitting models together with direct Hessian-vector and diagonalization algorithms, we are developing models that can accurately and efficiently explore QM:MM potential energy landscapes for very large systems. Our current development status and results from initial applications will be described.

  5. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  6. Increased Arterial Diameters in the Posterior Cerebral Circulation in Men with Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221

  7. Increased arterial diameters in the posterior cerebral circulation in men with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males-females; normal-impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity.

  8. Coronary artery diameter can be assessed reliably with transthoracic echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Saraste, Markku; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Airaksinen, K E Juhani; Toikka, Jyri O; Saraste, Antti; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Hartiala, Jaakko J

    2004-04-01

    We studied whether diameters of coronary arteries can be measured accurately with the use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). By knowing the anatomic diameter of the coronary artery together with coronary flow velocity it is possible to measure coronary flow volume more precisely by TTE. However, the suitability of TTE for measurement of diameters of all main epicardial coronary arteries has not been systematically validated. We measured the diameters of the left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary arteries (RCA) with the use of TTE [manual two-dimensional (2D), color-Doppler, and automated 2D analysis] in 30 patients who had normal coronary anatomy. We compared these diameters to those measured with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). We could measure diameters of LM, LAD, LCX, and RCA by TTE in up to 37%, 63%, 7%, and 60% of patients, respectively. The overall correlation coefficients between TTE and QCA measurements were 0.83 (P < 0.01) with manual 2D analysis, 0.82 (P < 0.01) with automated 2D analysis, and 0.94 (P < 0.01) with a color-Doppler-based analysis. Interobserver variability of TTE measurements was low (coefficient of variation 5.4 +/- 4.6-7.5 +/- 8.8%). TTE is an accurate method to evaluate coronary artery diameter in patients with healthy coronary arteries.

  9. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  10. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  11. Full-mesh optical backplane with standard MM fiber ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, M.; Coviello, D.; Boffi, P.; Martinelli, M.; Basile, V.; Fassi, I.; Falcucci, M.; Renghini, C.; Scalmati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    A new optical backplane solution is proposed for high-capacity ICT apparatus. A modular, scalable and full-mesh bandwidth-upgradable optical interconnection between optoelectronic boards is guaranteed thanks to an optimized layout of standard MM 12-fiber ribbons which divides the overall backplane into several independent optical sub-circuits. The novel automated assembly procedure of fiber ribbons inside sub-circuits with a robotic work-cell is described. System validation of the optical backplane performed with commercially available MM 12-fiber transceivers @10Gb/s proved the feasibility of the proposed solution for future optical interconnections with terabit overall capacity.

  12. Performance evaluation of 4.75-mm NMAS superpave mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Farhana

    A Superpave asphalt mixture with 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) is a promising, low-cost pavement preservation treatment for agencies such as the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). The objective of this research study is to develop an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in Kansas. In addition, the study evaluated the residual tack coat application rate for the 4.75-mm NMAS mix overlay. Two, hot-in-place recycling (HIPR) projects in Kansas, on US-160 and K-25, were overlaid with a 15- to 19-mm thick layer of 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in 2007. The field tack coat application rate was measured during construction. Cores were collected from each test section for Hamburg wheel tracking device (HWTD) and laboratory bond tests performed after construction and after one year in service. Test results showed no significant effect of the tack coat application rate on the rutting performance of rehabilitated pavements. The number of wheel passes to rutting failure observed during the HWTD test was dependent on the aggregate source as well as on in-place density of the cores. Laboratory pull-off tests showed that most cores were fully bonded at the interface of the 4.75-mm NMAS overlay and the HIPR layer, regardless of the tack application rate. The failure mode during pull-off tests at the HMA interface was highly dependent on the aggregate source and mix design of the existing layer material. This study also confirmed that overlay construction with a high tack coat application rate may result in bond failure at the HMA interface. Twelve different 4.75-mm NMAS mix designs were developed using materials from the aforementioned but two binder grades and three different percentages of natural (river) sand. Laboratory performance tests were conducted to assess mixture performance. Results show that rutting and moisture damage potential in the laboratory depend on aggregate type irrespective of binder grade. Anti-stripping agent affects moisture

  13. Enantioselective separation of the sunscreen agent 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor by electrokinetic chromatography: Quantitative analysis in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Gómara, Belén; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, María Luisa

    2005-10-01

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)-camphor (MBC) is a chiral sunscreen agent used in cosmetic products. In this work, the enantioseparation of MBC has been performed by EKC and applied to the analysis of the MBC enantiomers in cosmetic creams. Different experimental conditions (type and concentration of the chiral selector, temperature, and sample solvent) have been optimized. Due to the neutral nature of this compound, anionic CD derivatives were investigated as chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-beta-CD (CM-beta-CD) showed the highest chiral separation power, observing that a 15 mM concentration of this CD at a working temperature of 15 degrees C enabled to obtain the highest enantioresolution. However, under these conditions, tailing of peaks obtained for the enantiomers was observed. The addition of increasing concentrations of the neutral alpha-CD to CM-beta-CD at a 15 mM concentration in a 100 mM borate buffer at pH 9.0 improved the enantiomeric separation and decreased peak tailing. The use of DMF for the total dissolution of the cosmetic creams, and methanol:water (1:1 v/v) for appropriate dilution enabled to observe good shape and size for the peaks of the MBC enantiomers. After optimizing a method for the preconditioning of the capillary, the analytical characteristics of the chiral separation method for the analysis of MBC were investigated. Linearity, LODs and LOQs, precision (instrumental repeatability, method repeatability, intermediate precision), accuracy, and selectivity were evaluated. The method was applied to analyze MBC enantiomers contained in two commercial cosmetic creams containing racemic MBC and to study the skin absorption of this compound with time. PMID:16217832

  14. Detonation wave velocity and curvature of a plastic-bonded, nonideal explosive PBXN-111 as a function of diameter and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. W.; Lemar, E. R.

    1998-12-01

    Detonation velocities and wave front curvatures are measured on various diameter cylinders of PBXN-111 (RDX/AP/Al/HTPB binder with 20/43/25/12 weight percent). The cylinders are either unconfined or encased in 5-mm-thick brass tubes. In all experiments with brass tubes (diameters from 19 to 100 mm) the detonation velocity of PBXN-111 was affected by the confinement. Steady detonation waves propagated in brass encased charges with diameters as small as 19 mm, which is about half of the 37.1 mm failure diameter for unconfined PBXN-111. The radii of curvature at the center of the detonation wave fronts ranged from 52 to 480 mm for charge diameters from 25 to 100 mm, respectively. Detonation velocity as a function of radius of curvature at the wave's center is represented by a single curve for both cased and uncased cylindrical charges. The difference in the axial position of the detonation wave at the center of the charge and at the edge of the charge (i.e., lag distance) are between 1.6 and 6.7 mm. The angles between the detonation wave fronts and the brass/charge interfaces are between 73° and 82° while the angles at the cylindrical free surface for the uncased charges are between 61° and 64°. Calculation of this angle for brass encased charges using oblique shock equations and assuming no reaction in the shock front resulted in angles 8° higher than measured except for the 100-mm-diam charge which was in agreement. The calculated angles for the uncased charge are in agreement with the measured values.

  15. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels.

  16. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  17. Copolyimides Prepared from 3,4'-Oxydianiline and 1,3-Bis(3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene with 3,3', 4,4'-Biphenylcarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Polyimide copolymers were prepared by reacting different ratios of 3,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 1,3-bis(3- aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) with 3,3',4,4'- biphenylcarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and endcappfng with an effective amount of a non-reactive endcapper. Within a narrow ratio of diamines, from -50% ODA/50% APB to -95% ODA/5% APB, the copolyimides prepared with BPDA have a unique combination of properties that make them very attractive for various applications. This unique combination of properties includes low pressure processing (200 psi and below), long term melt stability (several hours at 390 C.), improved toughness, improved solvent resistance, improved adhesive properties, and improved composite mechanical properties.

  18. Thyroid-vitamin A interactions in Chicks exposed to 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl: influence of low dietary vitamin A and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, P.A.; Moon, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    Poultry chicks receiving a low vitamin A semipurified diet and exposed to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl became hypothyroid in comparison with unexposed controls. Metabolic rate, total serum thyroxine, total serum triiodothyronine, and food intake decreased significantly while thyroid weight increased. Unexpectedly, growth rate was not affected on this diet. In the case of chicks receiving a low vitamin A-low iodine semipurified diet and exposed to the PCB congener, the hypothyroid response was apparently antagonized. Comparing exposed chicks with unexposed controls, metabolic rate and the proportion of free T/sub 3/ (i.e., %T/sub 3/ resin uptake) increased while total serum thyroxine and thyroid weight were unchanged. In addition, growth rate, food consumption, and serum retinol decreased on this diet. These results are interpreted to mean that (i) growth rate may have been altered by circulating levels of retinol, and (ii) vitamin A insufficiency may predispose birds to the hypothyroid effects of PCBs.

  19. Diameter dependent failure current density of gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, S.; Maaz, K.; Ali, G.; Ensinger, W.

    2009-09-01

    Failure current density of single gold nanowires is investigated in this paper. Single wires with diameters ranging from 80 to 720 nm and length 30 µm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density was investigated while keeping the wires embedded in the polymer matrix and ramping up the current until failure occurred. The current density is found to increase with diminishing diameter and the wires with a diameter of 80 nm withstand 1.2 × 1012 A m-2 before undergoing failure. Possible reasons for these results are discussed in this paper.

  20. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  1. Poly(thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate): a low band gap, water dispersible conjugated polymer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoungchul; Seshadri, Venkataramanan; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2005-11-01

    Herein we report the oxidative chemical polymerization of thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (T34bT) using several different oxidants including ferric sulfate, ammonium persulfate, and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of poly(styrenesulfonic acid) in water and properties of the resulting poly(thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PT34bT-PSS) dispersion. The PT34bT-PSS is rendered a colloidal dispersion in water with a particle size diameter ranging between 180 and 220 nm depending on the oxidant used for polymerization. PT34bT-PSS films have band gaps of ca. 1 eV (1260 nm) as determined by the onset of the pi to pi transition from the vis-NIR spectrum with absorption maxima ranging from 1.4 eV (912 nm) to 1.7 eV (724 nm). The neutral and oxidized forms of PT34bT-PSS prepared from ferric sulfate dispersed in water were blue and lime green, respectively, whereas the neutral and oxidized forms of PT34bT-PSS prepared from ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide were blue and blue-green, respectively. Spectral properties of the PT34bT-PSS dispersion can be tuned by the combination of oxidants. PT34bT-PSS films showed ca. 100% cation dominant ion transport behavior as determined by electrochemical gravimetry with each charge-discharge cycle and the doping level of the polymer was calculated to be 26%. Electrical conductivities for these polymers were found to be dependent on chemical oxidants used and varied from 10(-2) to 10(-4) S/cm. PMID:16262354

  2. Correlation of anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements with graft trephine diameter following descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess repeatability of the Zhongshan Assessment Program (ZAP) software measurement of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT) images and correlate with graft trephine diameter following Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) Methods Retrospectively evaluated interventional case series. 121 consecutive eyes undergoing DSAEK over a 26 month period underwent ASOCT imaging 1month after their surgery. ASOCT images were processed using ZAP software which measured the graft and cornea parameters including anterior and posterior graft arc length and cord length, posterior cornea arc length (PCAL) and anterior chamber width. Results The graft measurements showed good repeatability on ASOCT using ZAP with high intra class coefficient and small variation in the coefficient of variation. On ASOCT, the mean recipient PCAL was 12.99+/−0.69mm and the anterior chamber width was 11.16+/−0.57mm. The mean Graft anterior arc length was 9.69+/−0.66mm and the mean Graft anterior cord length was 8.92+/−2.94mm. The mean graft posterior arc length was 9.24+/−0.75mm and the mean graft posterior cord length was 8.15+/−0.57mm. Graft posterior arc length (rho=0.788, p< 0.001) correlated best with intra-operative graft trephine diameter. The mean ratio of posterior graft arc length to PCAL was 0.712 +/− 0.056. Conclusions We have validated the repeatability of the ZAP software for DSAEK graft measurements from ASOCT images and shown that the graft arc length parameters calculated from the ASOCT images correlate well with the intra-operative graft trephine diameter. This software may help surgeons determine the optimal DSAEK graft size based on pre-operative ASOCT measurements of the recipient eye. PMID:22824516

  3. PROGRESS IN 2 mm GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER MANDREL DEVELOPMENT FOR NIF

    SciTech Connect

    NIKROO,A; BOUSQUET,J; COOK,R; McQUILLAN,B.W; PAGUIO,R; TAKAGI,M

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 All planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule targets except machined beryllium require a glow discharge polymer (GDP) mandrel upon which the albator is applied. This mandrel, {approx} 2 mm in diameter, must at least meet if not exceed the symmetry and surface finish requirements of the final capsule. Such mandrels are currently produced by the three-step depolymerizable mandrel technique. The quality of the final mandrel depends upon precise optimization and execution of each of the three steps. They had shown previously that fabrication of a mandrel which met the symmetry and surface finish requirements was feasible using this technique. In this paper they will discuss recent progress towards converting this process into a high yield, production scale process.

  4. Advanced ACTPol Multichroic Polarimeter Array Fabrication Process for 150 mm Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, S. M.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Datta, R.; Gallardo, P. A.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is a third-generation cosmic microwave background receiver to be deployed in 2016 on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Spanning five frequency bands from 25 to 280 GHz and having just over 5600 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, this receiver will exhibit increased sensitivity and mapping speed compared to previously fielded ACT instruments. This paper presents the fabrication processes developed by NIST to scale to large arrays of feedhorn-coupled multichroic AlMn-based TES polarimeters on 150-mm diameter wafers. In addition to describing the streamlined fabrication process which enables high yields of densely packed detectors across larger wafers, we report the details of process improvements for sensor (AlMn) and insulator (SiN_x) materials and microwave structures, and the resulting performance improvements.

  5. 4. 3/4 VIEW DETAIL, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SEMICIRCULAR 'ICE BREAKER' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW DETAIL, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SEMICIRCULAR 'ICE BREAKER' AT CENTER SPAN OF WEST ELEVATION - Mulladay Hollow Bridge, Spanning Mulladay Hollow Creek at County Road No.61, Eureka Springs, Carroll County, AR

  6. 9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station looking southeast - Sinclair Service Station, Natchez Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, southeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  7. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  8. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK AND PROPS AND RUDDER UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  9. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  10. 3/4 VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE AND BOW AFTER LIFTING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE AND BOW AFTER LIFTING FROM WATER. RAILS AND CARRIAGE ON LIFT PLATFORM CAN BE SEEN UNDER SHIP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter TANEY, Pier 5, Pratt Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. 7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN AND THE ABUTMENT AND LIFT TOWER OF RAILROAD BRIDGE ADJACENT TO CARTER ROAD BRIDGE. - Carter Road Lift Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River at Carter Road, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  13. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  14. 3/4 view, looking SW from north bank, showing spans over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view, looking SW from north bank, showing spans over back channel, with Pennsylvania Turnpike in background. - Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, Allegheny River Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River, East of Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-76), Oakmont, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 12. Building H9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Building H-9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing relationship of blast barricade to building. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  16. 14. Building 09; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Building 0-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of blast barricades to building. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  17. 2. Building D9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building D-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of reactor leg to building proper. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  18. 11. Building H9; 3/4 view, looking NW; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Building H-9; 3/4 view, looking NW; showing relationship of wheeling ramp to building. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  19. 3/4 view of elliptical stern looking forward along starboard side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of elliptical stern looking forward along starboard side - horizontal composition with Mike Vlahovich working on deck. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  20. 3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER SWAY BRACE AT CENTER SPAN, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM, AND LATERAL BRACING - Achmun Creek Bridge, Spanning Achmun Creek at County Road 222, Ola, Yell County, AR