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Sample records for 3-4 months post-surgery

  1. The Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait in a bariatric surgery seeking population and ability to predict post-surgery weight loss at six months.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Nina M; LePage, Marie L; Goldman, Rachel L; O'Neil, Patrick M; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Byrne, T Karl

    2012-12-01

    Food cravings have been understudied in bariatric surgery patients and the Food Craving Questionnaire-Trait has not been validated in this population. Reliability and validity of the FCQ-T were examined and a regression analysis was run to determine whether or not preoperative scores on individual subscales of the instrument could predict weight loss at 6 months. The FCQ-T demonstrated excellent internal consistency in bariatric surgery-seeking patients, and individual subscales measuring emotion and mood were correlated with other measures of depression and anxiety. Endorsement of binge eating or emotional eating behaviors during a clinical interview was correlated with similar subscales on the FCQ-T. Higher scores on the subscale 'cues that may trigger food cravings' were associated with greater weight loss at 6 months post-surgery and higher scores on the subscale 'guilt from cravings and/or giving into them' was associated with less weight loss. Management of external cues may predict successful outcomes while emotional impact of cravings may indicate the need for further intervention to help manage specific food craving traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. VIG Monthly Meeting 04/05/2017 3 - 4 pm Bldg. 50/2328 | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    VIG meetings are held the first Thursday of every month from 3- 4 pm Bldg. 50 Room 2328. Video cast live to NCI-F 549 conf room B. May 4 - Gustavo Palacios, Ph.D., National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Disease, George Mason University

  3. Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3-4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, F. Woodward; Chang, Shao-Ju; Sparta, Dennis R.; Bowers, M. Scott; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Background Continued consumption of alcohol despite deleterious consequences is a hallmark of alcoholism and represents a critical challenge to therapeutic intervention. Previous rat studies showed that enduring alcohol self-administration despite pairing alcohol with normally aversive stimuli was only observed after very long-term intake (> 8 months). Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been previously interpreted to indicate pathological or compulsive motivation to consume alcohol. However, given the time required to model compulsive alcohol seeking in previous studies, there is considerable interest in developing more efficient and quantitative rodent models of aversion-resistant alcohol self-administration. Methods Outbred Wistar rats underwent 3-4 months or ∼1.5 months of intermittent, home-cage, two-bottle access (IAA) to 20% alcohol (v/v) or water. Then, after brief operant training, the effect of the bitter-tasting quinine (0.1 g/L) on the motivation of to seek alcohol was quantified via progressive ratio (PR). Motivation for quinine-adulterated 2% sucrose under PR was assayed in a separate cohort of 3-4 months IAA rats. The effects of quinine on home-cage alcohol consumption in IAA rats and rats with continuous access to alcohol were also examined. Finally, a dose-response for quinine taste preference in IAA and continuous-access animals was determined. Results Motivation for alcohol after 3-4 months IAA, measured using an operant PR procedure, was not altered by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/L quinine. In contrast, after 3-4 month of IAA, motivation for sucrose under PR was significantly reduced by adulteration of sucrose with 0.1 g/L quinine. In addition, motivation for alcohol after only ∼1.5 months IAA was significantly reduced by adulteration of alcohol with 0.1 g/L quinine. Furthermore, home-cage alcohol intake by IAA rats was insensitive to quinine at concentrations (0.01, 0.03 g/L) that significantly reduced alcohol drinking in animals

  4. Increased anxiety and impaired memory in rats 3 months after administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Morley, K C; Gallate, J E; Hunt, G E; Mallet, P E; McGregor, I S

    2001-12-14

    Male Wistar rats were administered either (a) a high dose regime of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (4 x 5 mg/kg, i.p. over 4 h on each of 2 consecutive days), (b) a moderate dose regime of MDMA (1 x 5 mg/kg on each of 2 consecutive days), (c) D-amphetamine (4 x 1 mg/kg over 4 h on each of 2 days), or (d) vehicle injections. The high MDMA dose regime and the amphetamine treatment both produced acute hyperactivity and hyperthermia. Twelve weeks later, all rats were tested in the drug-free state on a battery of anxiety tests (elevated plus maze, emergence and social interaction tests). A further 2 weeks later they were tested on a novel object recognition memory task. Rats previously given the neurotoxic dose of MDMA showed greater anxiety-like behaviour on all three anxiety tests relative to both controls and D-amphetamine-treated rats. Rats given the moderate MDMA dose regime also showed increased anxiety-like behaviour on all three tests, although to a lesser extent than rats in the high dose group. In the object recognition task, rats given the high MDMA dose regime showed impaired memory relative to all other groups when tested at a 15-min delay but not at a 60-min delay. Rats previously exposed to amphetamine did not differ from saline controls in the anxiety or memory tests. These data suggest that moderate to heavy MDMA exposure over 48 h may lead to increased anxiety and memory impairment 3 months later, possibly through a neurotoxic effect on brain serotonin systems.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  6. Influence of Additional Ankle Weights on Kinematic Variables of Late Preterm Infants Aged 3-4 Months.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Jadiane; Santos, Gabriela Lopes Dos; Tudella, Eloisa

    2017-01-01

    The authors analyzed and compared the effect of additional weight on the spatiotemporal parameters of the kicking movement of late preterm and full-term infants. The experiment was divided into 4 conditions: training, baseline, weight, and postweight. In the W condition, a weight of one third the lower limb mass was added to the infant's ankle. During the baseline and postweight conditions, the ankle weight was removed. Late preterm infants do not differ from full-term infants in relation to spatiotemporal variables at 3 and 4 months. However, during the weight condition, the straightness index and the hip-ankle and knee-ankle correlations decreased in the preterm infants at both ages. In contrast, the straightness index increased in the postweight condition compared to the baseline values at both ages.

  7. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE PAGES

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more » and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  8. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of -1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = -110%) and organic carbon (MFB = -29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.

  9. The influence of perceived family support on post surgery recovery.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Moreno, M J; Tomás-Aragones, L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possible relationship between perceived family support, levels of cortisol and post surgery recovery. The study sample comprised 42 patients that were due to undergo open cholecystectomy surgery in a Regional Health Authority Reference Centre of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura in Spain. The FACES-II questionnaire was used for the evaluation of perceived family support and to measure the three fundamental dimensions of perceived family behaviour: cohesion, adaptability and family type. The day before surgery, a sample of saliva was taken from each subject in order to determine the level of cortisol. Results showed a clear relationship between family support and recovery. Patients with higher scores on the Cohesion Scale demonstrated better post surgery recovery (F = 8.8; gl = 40; p = .005). A relationship between levels of cortisol, perceived family support and recovery was also revealed. Patients with lower scores on the Cohesion scale and higher cortisol levels demonstrated poorer post surgery recovery (F = 10.96; gl = 40; p = .006). These results are coherent with other studies that have highlighted the beneficial effects of perceived family support on mental and physical health.

  10. Month

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A unit of time based on the motion of the Moon around the Earth. The synodic (or lunar) month is the mean time interval between two successive new moons (i.e. the time taken for the Moon to pass through its cycle of phases) and is equal to 29.53059 mean solar days. Because the synodic month (the basis of the lunar calendar) is not equal to a whole number of days, the calendar month is rounded to ...

  11. Exposure to household furry pets influences the gut microbiota of infant at 3-4 months following various birth scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tun, Hein M; Konya, Theodore; Takaro, Tim K; Brook, Jeffrey R; Chari, Radha; Field, Catherine J; Guttman, David S; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush J; Turvey, Stuart E; Subbarao, Padmaja; Sears, Malcolm R; Scott, James A; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2017-04-06

    Early-life exposure to household pets has the capacity to reduce risk for overweight and allergic disease, especially following caesarean delivery. Since there is some evidence that pets also alter the gut microbial composition of infants, changes to the gut microbiome are putative pathways by which pet exposure can reduce these risks to health. To investigate the impact of pre- and postnatal pet exposure on infant gut microbiota following various birth scenarios, this study employed a large subsample of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) cohort, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy between 2009 and 2012. Participating mothers were asked to report on household pet ownership at recruitment during the second or third trimester and 3 months postpartum. Infant gut microbiota were profiled with 16S rRNA sequencing from faecal samples collected at the mean age of 3.3 months. Two categories of pet exposure (i) only during pregnancy and (ii) pre- and postnatally were compared to no pet exposure under different birth scenarios. Over half of studied infants were exposed to at least one furry pet in the prenatal and/or postnatal periods, of which 8% were exposed in pregnancy alone and 46.8% had exposure during both time periods. As a common effect in all birth scenarios, pre- and postnatal pet exposure enriched the abundance of Oscillospira and/or Ruminococcus (P < 0.05) with more than a twofold greater likelihood of high abundance. Among vaginally born infants with maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis exposure, Streptococcaceae were substantially and significantly reduced by pet exposure (P < 0.001, FDRp = 0.03), reflecting an 80% decreased likelihood of high abundance (OR 0.20, 95%CI, 0.06-0.70) for pet exposure during pregnancy alone and a 69% reduced likelihood (OR 0.31, 95%CI, 0.16-0.58) for exposure in the pre- and postnatal time periods. All of these associations were independent of maternal

  12. Efficacy of Percutaneous Adhesiolysis in the Treatment of Lumbar Post Surgery Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Manchikanti, Kavita N.; Gharibo, Christopher G.; Kaye, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Context Lumbar post-surgery syndrome is common and often results in chronic, persistent pain and disability, which can lead to multiple interventions. After failure of conservative treatment, either surgical treatment or a nonsurgical modality of treatment such as epidural injections, percutaneous adhesiolysis is often contemplated in managing lumbar post surgery syndrome. Recent guidelines and systematic reviews have reached different conclusions about the level of evidence for the efficacy of epidural injections and percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing lumbar post surgery syndrome. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of all 3 percutaneous adhesiolysis anatomical approaches (caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal) in treating lumbar post-surgery syndrome. Evidence Acquisition Data Sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2014 utilizing multiple databases. Study Selection: A systematic review of randomized trials published from 1966 through October 2014 of all types of epidural injections and percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing lumbar post-surgery syndrome was performed including methodological quality assessment utilizing Cochrane review criteria, Interventional Pain Management Techniques–Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM–QRB), and grading of evidence using 5 levels of evidence ranging from Level I to Level V. Data Extraction: The search strategy emphasized post-surgery syndrome and related pathologies treated with percutaneous adhesiolysis procedures. Results The search criteria yielded 16 manuscripts on percutaneous adhesiolysis assessing post-surgery syndrome. Of these, only 4 randomized trials met inclusion criteria for methodological quality assessment, 3 of them were of high quality; and the fourth manuscript was of low quality. Based on these 3 randomized controlled trials, 2 of them with one-day procedure and one with a 3-day procedure, the level of

  13. [Post-surgery cerebral abscess due to Propionibacterium acnes].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Mariela S; Yahni, Diego; Guevara, Martín; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2009-01-01

    Brain abscesses by Propioni-bacterium acnes are rare. The rapid identification of this pathogen is important in order to choice the appropriate antibiotic therapy. We describe the case of a patient with excision of a multiform glioblastoma who 9 months later presented a tumor recurrence. A subtotal tumor excision was made and implants chemotherapy were placed in the residual tumor. After one month of surgery the patient presented a brain abscess. A craniotomy for drainage was performed. P. acnes was isolated from the biopsy and from purulent material. Identification was made by conventional biochemical tests and by the API system 20 A. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) to clindamycin, penicillin, amoxicillin and metronidazole was determined. The values of MIC (microg/ml) obtained were: 0.250, 0.040, 0.023 and 256, respectively. The patient received cefepime and metronidazole intravenously during 30 days and completed treatment with oral clindamycin for 60 days, considering the possibility of adjacent bone involvement. Eight months after the drainage the patient had no evidence of infection or tumor recurrence. Although P. acnes is a rare cause of post-neurosurgical infection, it should be considered as a possible pathogen in postoperative brain abscesses.

  14. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  15. The Effect of Presurgery Recombinant Erythropoietin on Post-surgery Hematocrit following Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Politano, Nicholas; Jaskolka, Michael; Blakey, George; Turvey, Timothy; White, Raymond; Phillips, Ceib

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Compare the post-surgery red cell mass as indicated by hematocrit value of orthognathic surgery patients given iron supplementation and a single presurgery dose of erythropoietin alpha(EPO) and patients who did not receive either EPO or iron supplementation (NEPO). Subjects and Methods Subjects who had a Lefort I osteotomy(LFI) or a combination of a LFI and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy(BSSO) between 2005 and 2008, and were at least 13 years of age, were included. Subjects were excluded if they had a history of maxillofacial trauma, a craniofacial syndrome, or a major systemic medical condition. Subjects had either the drug administered with iron supplements prior to surgery(EPO; Surgeon A protocol) or received neither (NEPO; Surgeon B protocol). Venous blood samples were taken, in accordance with clinic protocol, before surgery (before administration of EPO) and on post-surgery day 1. Multiple linear regression with backward selection was used to analyze the change in hematocrit value. Explanatory variables included group, pre-surgery hematocrit, age, gender, length of surgery, blood loss, and crystalloid (fluid replacement) volume. Results 178 eligible patients were included: 86 patients (48%) had a combination LFI and BSSO and 92 patients (52%) an isolated LFI. 114 (64%) had erythropoietin alpha/ iron supplements administered presurgery, while 64 did not. The average change in hematocrit as an indicator of the change in red cell mass was statistically significantly different(P= 0.01) for the subjects who received preoperative administration of EPO with iron supplementation compared to those who did not receive EPO+Iron. The administration of EPO + iron was protective: the decrease in hematocrit after surgery was smaller for subjects in the EPO group even after controlling for age, gender, preoperative hematocrit, length of surgery, blood loss, and crystalloid (fluid replacement ) volume. Conclusions A single presurgery dose of erythropoietin with

  16. Combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (HibMenC) or serogroup C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (and HibMenCY) vaccines are well-tolerated and immunogenic when administered according to the 2,3,4 months schedule with a fourth dose at 12-18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Habermehl, Pirmin; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Sänger, Roland; Mächler, Gudrun; Boutriau, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    Combined HibMenCY and HibMenC conjugate vaccines may facilitate inclusion of vaccination against MenC and MenY into routine vaccination schedules, without additional injections. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of vaccination with three different formulations of a novel HibMenCY-conjugate vaccine, or a HibMenC-conjugate vaccine was assessed. Infants were randomized to receive either Hib(2.5 µg)-MenC(5 µg)-MenY(5 µg)-TT, Hib(5 µg)-MenC(10 µg)-MenY(10 µg)-TT, Hib(5 µg)-MenC(5 µg)-MenY(5 µg)-TT or Hib(5 µg)-MenC(5 µg)-TT vaccines co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV at 2-3-4 months of age. Controls received licensed conjugate MenC-CRM197 vaccine co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib. A fourth dose was administered to a subset of children at age 12-18 months. Anti-PRP concentrations and meningococcal bactericidal (rSBA-MenC/Y) titres were measured prior to and one month post third and fourth vaccination dose. Solicited local, general symptoms and unsolicited adverse events were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each vaccination, respectively. Post dose 3, all subjects had anti-PRP antibody levels ≥ 0.15 µg/ml and rSBA-MenC ≥ 1:8. 97.0%-98.6% of HibMenCY recipients had rSBA-MenY ≥ 1:8. Pre-dose-4, 95.6%-100% of HibMenCY and HibMenC recipients had anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml and 90.7%-97.6% recipients had rSBA-MenC titres ≥ 1:8. In HibMenCY groups, 78.6%-86.7% had persisting rSBA-MenY ≥ 1:8. The post-dose-4 response was robust after all vaccines with all subjects having anti-PRP ≥ 1 µg/ml and 92.3%-100% rSBA-MenC ≥ 1:128. All HibMenCY recipients had rSBA-MenY ≥ 1:128. Vaccination with the novel Hib-meningococcal vaccines had a safety profile similar to control. HibMenCY and HibMenC conjugate vaccine formulations given at 2-3-4 months of age with a fourth dose in the second year of life were immunogenic and had a comparable safety profile to licensed vaccines. (study 792014 and 100381;www.clinicaltrial.govID:NCT00129116)

  17. Pilot prospective study of post-surgery sleep and EEG predictors of post-operative delirium.

    PubMed

    Evans, Joanna L; Nadler, Jacob W; Preud'homme, Xavier A; Fang, Eric; Daughtry, Rommie L; Chapman, Joseph B; Attarian, David; Wellman, Samuel; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-08-01

    Delirium is a common post-operative complication associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. We sought sleep/EEG predictors of delirium present prior to delirium symptoms to facilitate developing and targeting therapies. Continuous EEG data were obtained in 12 patients post-orthopedic surgery from the day of surgery until delirium assessment on post-operative day 2 (POD2). Diminished total sleep time (r=-0.68; p<0.05) and longer latency to sleep onset (r=0.67; p<0.05) on the first night in the hospital were associated with greater POD2 delirium severity. Patients experiencing delirium slept 2.4h less and took 2h longer to fall asleep. Greater waking EEG delta power (r=0.84; p<0.05) on POD1 and less non-REM sleep EEG delta power (r=-0.72; p<0.05) on night 2 also predicted POD2 delirium severity. Loss of sleep on night1 post-surgery is an early predictor of subsequent delirium. EEG Delta Power alterations in waking and sleep appear to be later indicators of impending delirium. Further work is needed to evaluate reproducibility/generalizability and assess whether sleep loss contributes to causing delirium. This first study to prospectively collect continuous EEG data for an extended period prior to delirium onset identified EEG-derived indices that predict subsequent delirium that could aid in developing and targeting therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Application of desaturation index in post-surgery follow-up in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Fang; Tsai, Chih-Min; Su, Mao-Chang; Lin, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Lee, Wei-Ju; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Niu, Chen-Kuang; Yu, Hong-Ren

    2017-01-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is recommended for children who need surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Overnight, polysomnography (PSG) is suggested for post-surgery follow-up, but this diagnostic technique is time consuming and inconvenient. Desaturation index (DI) has been reported as a good tool for predicting both the presence and severity of OSAS in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of the DI for post-surgery follow-up of children with OSAS. This retrospective study enrolled 42 children, aged 3-12 years, who were snorers diagnosed with OSAS by overnight PSG and who underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Pre- and postoperative PSG parameters, nocturnal pulse oximetry data, and modified Epworth sleepiness scale scores were assessed. Previously determined cut-off DI values (2.05, 3.50, and 4.15 for mild, moderate, and severe OSAS, respectively) were used to predict residual OSAS. Of the 42 children, obvious improvements were observed in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, decreased 45.5 %), arousal index (decreased 30.5 %), DI (decreased 40.4 %), and snore index (decreased 100.3 %) compared with the preoperative measurements. Among these objective PSG measures, DI had the strongest correlation with AHI both pre- and post-surgeries (r = 0.947 and r = 0.954, respectively; p all <0.001). The DI change, before and after surgery, also had the strongest positive correlation to the AHI change (r = 0.482 and p = 0.001). Using the previously determined DI cut-off values to predict postoperative residual OSAS, there was a good positive predictive value (92.6 %) for mild residual OSAS and a good negative predictive value for moderate and severe residual OSAS (85.2 and 89.7 %, respectively). These findings suggest that DI, as determined using a nocturnal pulse oximeter, may be an alternative tool for postoperative evaluation and follow-up of children with OSAS.

  19. Scapula alata in early breast cancer patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of post-surgery short-course image-guided radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scapula alata (SA) is a known complication of breast surgery associated with palsy of the serratus anterior, but it is seldom mentioned. We evaluated the risk factors associated with SA and the relationship of SA with ipsilateral shoulder/arm morbidity in a series of patients enrolled in a trial of post-surgery radiotherapy (RT). Methods The trial randomized women with completely resected stage I-II breast cancer to short-course image-guided RT, versus conventional RT. SA, arm volume and shoulder-arm mobility were measured prior to RT and at one to three months post-RT. Shoulder/arm morbidities were computed as a post-RT percentage change relative to pre-RT measurements. Results Of 119 evaluable patients, 13 (= 10.9%) had pre-RT SA. Age younger than 50 years old, a body mass index less than 25 kg/m2, and axillary lymph node dissection were significant risk factors, with odds ratios of 4.8 (P = 0.009), 6.1 (P = 0.016), and 6.1 (P = 0.005), respectively. Randomization group was not significant. At one to three months’ post-RT, mean arm volume increased by 4.1% (P = 0.036) and abduction decreased by 8.6% (P = 0.046) among SA patients, but not among non-SA patients. SA resolved in eight, persisted in five, and appeared in one patient. Conclusion The relationship of SA with lower body mass index suggests that SA might have been underestimated in overweight patients. Despite apparent resolution of SA in most patients, pre-RT SA portended an increased risk of shoulder/arm morbidity. We argue that SA warrants further investigation. Incidentally, the observation of SA occurring after RT in one patient represents the second case of post-RT SA reported in the literature. PMID:22591589

  20. Memantine before Mastectomy Prevents Post-Surgery Pain: A Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. Method A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0–10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Results Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314 PMID:27050431

  1. What are gastric banding patients eating one year post-surgery?

    PubMed

    McGrice, Melanie A; Porter, Judi A

    2012-12-01

    There is a paucity of evidence-based dietary management guidelines for patients post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, including no consensus recommendations for macronutrient intake. We examined the macronutrient intake across a multi-centre cohort of post-bariatric surgery patients and compared these intakes to post-bariatric surgery and population-based dietary guidelines. Two hundred and fifteen patients from three bariatric surgery centres in Melbourne, Australia were invited to complete a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire 12 months post-operatively. Energy intakes of the 52 participants ranged from 1,140 to 13,200 kJ/day, with an average of 4,890 kJ/day (±2,360 kJ/day). Many patients did not meet minimum population recommendations for macronutrients. The average fibre intake was only 14 g/day (compared to the recommendations of 25 g for women and 30 g for men). The average diet 1 year post-operatively was 36% total fat compared to the recommendations of 20-25%, with 14% of intake from saturated fat. Patients' dietary intakes vary significantly 1 year post-laparoscopic adjustable band surgery, with many patients not meeting recommendations. These results suggest that patients decrease their total energy intake; however, eating habits may not improve as they consume a diet high in saturated fat. It is recommended that all patients receive dietary education about diet quality post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery to assist them in improving their diet quality as well as quantity for optimal health and weight loss. Specific international guidelines for nutrient intakes for people undergoing bariatric surgery are needed.

  2. Wendler glottoplasty and voice-therapy in male-to-female transsexuals: results in pre and post-surgery assessment.

    PubMed

    Casado, Juan C; O'Connor, Carlos; Angulo, María S; Adrián, José A

    2016-01-01

    With the development of new ENT techniques, many male transsexuals who wish to become women usually request a surgical procedure to raise the fundamental frequency of the voice (feminization). The ENT specialist and the voice-therapist have to use an interdisciplinary approach to this growing social demand. The aim of this study was to show the results in a group of transsexual patients after Wendler's anterior synechiae, with additional voice-therapy treatment. Ten male transexulas who wish to become women patients who had Wendler glottoplasty and voice-therapy were assessed. The surgical procedure consisted of a de-epithelialization of the anterior third of both vocal folds; this area was sutured and the surface of both vocal folds was vaporised with laser diode. Pre- and postsurgery voice assessment consisted of measuring fundamental frequency (Fo) and maximum phonation time, administering the transgender self-assessment questionnaire (TSEQ) and obtaining perceptual voice assessment by inter-rater agreement. All the male transsexuals who wish to become women patients significantly increased their Fo (106 Hz on average) after the treatment. Furthermore, significant improvements were shown in self-reported satisfaction and in the degree of voice feminization. No improvements in the maximum phonation time were observed. Wendler glottoplasty is a surgical procedure to contribute to feminising the voice, with good medium-term results and without noteworthy medical complications. The increase in vocal tone was observed using several pre- and post-surgery control measures and voice therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  3. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  4. Baseline and post-surgery endothelial progenitor cell levels in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung carcinoma: impact on cancer recurrence and survival.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Matteo; Cagini, Lucio; Paciullo, Francesco; Pecoriello, Roberta; Mannarino, Massimo R; Bagaglia, Francesco; Capozzi, Rosanna; Puma, Francesco; Mannarino, Elmo

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are believed to play a role in promoting abnormal vascularization in neoplastic sites. We measured the number of circulating EPCs in treatment-naïve patients with early non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and healthy controls. The prospective influence of baseline and post-surgery EPC levels on cancer recurrence and survival was investigated. Circulating EPCs were quantified by FACS analysis in 34 patients with Stage I-II NSCLC and 68 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Measurement of EPCs was repeated 48 h after thoracic surgery and at the hospital discharge. Cancer recurrence and survival was evaluated after 446 ± 106 days of follow-up (range 182-580 days). The base 10 logarithmic [log] number of circulating EPCs was comparable between patients with NSCLC and controls [mean ± standard deviation (SD): 2.3 ± 0.32 vs 2.3 ± 0.26 n/ml, P = 0.776]. In regression analysis, smoking status [standardized coefficient beta (β) = -0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) for B -0.29/-0.03, P = 0.014] and systolic blood pressure [β = -0.23, 95% CI for B -0.011/-0.001, P = 0.018] were independent predictors of the number of EPCs, irrespective of the NSCLC status. The mean number of EPCs did not change after surgical treatment. However, a post-surgery EPC increase was observed in 44% patients. Patients with a 48 h post-surgery EPC increase had a higher rate of cancer recurrence/death than patients with either stable or decreased post-surgery EPC levels [hazard ratio (HR) 4.4, 95% CI 1.1-17.3; P = 0.032], irrespective of confounders. Circulating EPC levels are comparable between patients with early-stage NSCLC and healthy controls. Overall, surgical cancer resection was not associated with a significant early EPC change. However, an early post-surgery EPC increase is able to predict an increased risk of cancer recurrence and death.

  5. Socio-demographic, treatment-related, and health behavioral predictors of persistent pain 15 months and 7-9 years after surgery: a nationwide prospective study of women treated for primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, M; Christensen, S; Zachariae, R; Jensen, A B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and report prevalence and risk factors for persistent pain in breast cancer patients at 15 months and 7-9 years post surgery. A nationwide inception cohort study including 3343 women treated for primary breast cancer between 2001 and 2004, who returned a questionnaire 3 months post surgery. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from registries. Questionnaire data on pain and health behaviors were obtained 15 months and 7-9 years post surgery. A total of 1905 women were eligible for analysis. At 15-month post surgery, 32.7 % reported pain "almost every day" or more frequently. At 7-9 years post surgery, the prevalence decreased to 20.4 %. Socio-demographic (young age, lower education, lower income, lower occupational status), treatment-related (being lymph node positive, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), post-menopausal endocrine treatment), and health behavioral factors (smoking ≥ 10 cigarettes/day, obesity (BMI ≥ 30 and < 35), comorbidity, poor physical function) were significantly associated with pain at 15 months. Being physically active and moderate alcohol intake (<3 units/day) were negatively associated with pain. At 7-9 years post surgery, only ALND (OR:1.41, p = 0.03), post-menopausal endocrine treatment (OR:1.62, p = 0.01), poorer physical function (ORs:2.00-2.40, p = 0.003), and weight training (h/week) at 15 months (OR:1.10, p = 0.008) were significant predictors of pain when adjusting for age and pain 15 months post surgery. No socio-demographic predictors remained statistically significant. Younger age, lower socio-economic status, more invasive surgery, endocrine treatment, and adverse health behaviors emerged as risk factors for persistent pain. The influence of risk factors changed over time, suggesting a complex course of pain development and maintenance.

  6. Investigating the role of the IGF axis as a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients post-surgery.

    PubMed

    Breen, Kieran J; O'Neill, Amanda; Murphy, Lisa; Fan, Yue; Boyce, Susie; Fitzgerald, Noel; Dorris, Emma; Brady, Lauren; Finn, Stephen P; Hayes, Brian D; Treacy, Ann; Barrett, Ciara; Aziz, Mardiana Abdul; Kay, Elaine W; Fitzpatrick, John M; Watson, R William G

    2017-09-01

    Between 20% and 35% of prostate cancer (PCa) patients who undergo treatment with curative intent (ie, surgery or radiation therapy) for localized disease will experience biochemical recurrence (BCR). Alterations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and PTEN expression have been implicated in the development and progression of several human tumors including PCa. We examined the expression of the insulin receptor (INSR), IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), PTEN, and AKT in radical prostatectomy tissue of patients who developed BCR post-surgery. Tissue microarrays (TMA) of 130 patients post-radical prostatectomy (65 = BCR, 65 = non-BCR) were stained by immunohistochemistry for INSR, IGF-1R, PTEN, and AKT using optimized antibody protocols. INSR, IGF1-R, PTEN, and AKT expression between benign and cancerous tissue, and different Gleason grades was assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to examine the relationship between proteins expression and BCR. INSR (P < 0.001), IGF-1R (P < 0.001), and AKT (P < 0.05) expression was significantly increased and PTEN (P < 0.001) was significantly decreased in cancerous versus benign tissue. There was no significant difference in INSR, IGF-1R, or AKT expression in the cancerous tissue of non-BCR versus BCR patients (P = 0.149, P = 0.990, P = 0.399, respectively). There was a significant decrease in PTEN expression in the malignant tissue of BCR versus non-BCR patients (P = 0.011). Combinational analysis of the tissue proteins identified a combination of decreased PTEN and increased AKT or increased INSR was associated with worst outcome. We found that in each case, our hypothesized worst group was most likely to experience BCR and this was significant for combinations of PTEN+INSR and PTEN+AKT but not PTEN+IGF-1R (P = 0.023, P = 0.028, P = 0.078, respectively). Low PTEN is associated with BCR and this association is strongly modified by high INSR and high AKT expression

  7. Accidental ingestion of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine).

    PubMed Central

    Bedford Russell, A R; Schwartz, R H; Dawling, S

    1992-01-01

    There is no report of the effects of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) poisoning in childhood. The case of a 13 month old boy who ingested one capsule of Ecstasy is reported. Neurological and cardiovascular side effects predominated, which responded well to treatment with a chlormethiazole infusion. PMID:1358033

  8. Impact of malnutrition on 12-month mortality following acute hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jack J; Pulle, Ranjeev C; Crouch, Alisa M; Kuys, Suzanne S; Ferrier, Rebecca L; Whitehouse, Sarah L

    2016-03-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between malnutrition and post-discharge mortality following acute hip fracture yield conflicting results. This study aimed to determine whether malnutrition independently predicted 12-month post-fracture mortality after adjusting for clinically relevant covariates. An ethics approved, prospective, consecutive audit was undertaken for all surgically treated hip fracture inpatients admitted to a dedicated orthogeriatric unit (November 2010-October 2011). The 12-month mortality data were obtained by a dual search of the mortality registry and Queensland Health database. Malnutrition was evaluated using the Subjective Global Assessment. Demographic (age, gender, admission residence) and clinical covariates included fracture type, time to surgery, anaesthesia type, type of surgery, post-surgery time to mobilize and post-operative complications (delirium, pulmonary and deep vein thrombosis, cardiac complications, infections). The Charlson Comorbidity Index was retrospectively applied. All diagnoses were confirmed by the treating orthogeriatrician. A total of 322 of 346 patients were available for audit. Increased age (P = 0.004), admission from residential care (P < 0.001), Charlson Comorbidity Index (P = 0.007), malnutrition (P < 0.001), time to mobilize >48 h (P < 0.001), delirium (P = 0.003), pulmonary embolism (P = 0.029) and cardiovascular complication (P = 0.04) were associated with 12-month mortality. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that malnutrition (odds ratio (OR) 2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-4.7, P = 0.007)), in addition to admission from residential care (OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3, P = 0.005)) and pulmonary embolism (OR 11.0 (95% CI 1.5-78.7, P = 0.017)), independently predicted 12-month mortality. Findings substantiate malnutrition as an independent predictor of 12-month mortality in a representative sample of hip fracture inpatients. Effective strategies to identify and treat malnutrition in hip

  9. A Pilot Study on Telephone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Patients Six-Months Post-Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Cassin, Stephanie E; Wnuk, Susan; Du, Chau; Jackson, Timothy; Hawa, Raed; Parikh, Sagar V

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a post-operative telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (Tele-CBT) in improving eating pathology and psychosocial functioning. Six-month post-operative bariatric surgery patients (n = 19) received six sessions of Tele-CBT. Study outcome variables included binge eating (BES), emotional eating (EES), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), and anxiety symptoms (GAD-7). Retention was 73.7 % post-intervention. Tele-CBT resulted in significant reductions in mean difference scores on BES, EES-Total, EES-Anxiety, EES-Anger, PHQ9, and GAD7. Tele-CBT patients experienced a mean weight loss of 8.62 ± 15.02 kg between 6-months post-surgery (pre-Tele-CBT) and 12-months post-surgery. These preliminary results suggest that post-surgery Tele-CBT is feasible and can improve post-surgery symptoms of psychopathology in this uncontrolled study, supporting the need for a randomized controlled trial.

  10. Pre- and post-surgery treatments in rectal cancer: a long-term single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, H.; Ozden, A.S.; Ozgen, Z.; Gemici, C.; Yaprak, G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Our study evaluated long-term survival outcomes in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy, and the impact on survival of concomitant and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (ctx), among other prognostic factors. Methods The study included 196 patients [median age: 58 years (range: 20–86 years); 63.0% men] with locally advanced rectal carcinoma and, in some cases, resectable liver metastasis. Rates of distant metastasis and local recurrence and of 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (dmfs) and overall survival (os) were determined. Results The 5-year os rate was 57.0%, with a median duration of 81.5 months (95% confidence interval: 73.7 months to 89.4 months), and the 5-year dmfs rate was 54.1%, with a median duration of 68.4 months (95% confidence interval: 40.4 months to 96.4 months). Prognostic factors for higher os and dmfs rates were downstaging (p = 0.013 and p = 0.005 respectively), radiotherapy dose (50 Gy vs. 56 Gy or 45–46 Gy, both p = 0.002), and concomitant ctx use (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001) and type (5-fluorouracil–leucovorin–folinic acid vs. tegafur–folinic acid, p = 0.034 and p = 0.043). Adjuvant ctx after neoadjuvant long-term concomitant chemoradiotherapy (ccrt) and surgery was associated with better 5-year os rates for postoperative T0–T3 disease (p = 0.003) and disease at all lymph node stages (p = 0.001). Conclusions Our findings revealed a favourable survival outcome with long-term fractionated irradiation and concomitant 5-fluorouracil–based ctx, achieving 5-year os and dmfs rates of 57.0% and 54.1% respectively. Preoperative administration of radiotherapy (50 Gy) and postoperative adjuvant ctx were associated with a significant survival benefit. Radiation doses above 50 Gy and the interval between ccrt and surgery had no significant effect on survival. PMID:28270729

  11. The LIPPSMAck POP (Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal - with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy) trial: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Boden, Ianthe; Browning, Laura; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Reeve, Julie; El-Ansary, Doa; Robertson, Iain K; Denehy, Linda

    2015-12-15

    Post-operative pulmonary complications are a significant problem following open upper abdominal surgery. Preliminary evidence suggests that a single pre-operative physiotherapy education and preparatory lung expansion training session alone may prevent respiratory complications more effectively than supervised post-operative breathing and coughing exercises. However, the evidence is inconclusive due to methodological limitations. No well-designed, adequately powered, randomised controlled trial has investigated the effect of pre-operative education and training on post-operative respiratory complications, hospital length of stay, and health-related quality of life following upper abdominal surgery. The Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal- with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy (LIPPSMAck POP) trial is a pragmatic, investigator-initiated, bi-national, multi-centre, patient- and assessor-blinded, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority. Four hundred and forty-one patients scheduled for elective open upper abdominal surgery at two Australian and one New Zealand hospital will be randomised using concealed allocation to receive either i) an information booklet or ii) an information booklet, plus one additional pre-operative physiotherapy education and training session. The primary outcome is respiratory complication incidence using standardised diagnostic criteria. Secondary outcomes include hospital length of stay and costs, pneumonia diagnosis, intensive care unit readmission and length of stay, days/h to mobilise >1 min and >10 min, and, at 6 weeks post-surgery, patient reported complications, health-related quality of life, and physical capacity. The LIPPSMAck POP trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial powered and designed to investigate whether a single pre-operative physiotherapy session prevents post-operative respiratory complications. This trial standardises post-operative assisted ambulation and

  12. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  13. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  14. LiHo(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zarkouna, Emna; Driss, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Lithium holmium(III) polyphosphate(V), LiHo(PO3)4, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO3)4, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetra­hedra and 21 inter­nal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetra­hedral and dodeca­hedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho⋯Ho distance being 5.570 (1) Å. PMID:21581738

  15. The role of routine bronchoscopy for early detection of bronchial stump recurrence of lung cancer: 1 year post-surgery.

    PubMed

    Peled, Nir; Flex, Dov; Raviv, Yael; Fox, Benjamin D; Shitrit, David; Refaeli, Yael; Sauté, Milton; Amital, Anat; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2009-09-01

    Local recurrence after complete resection (R(0)) occur in approximately 20% of patients with stage I disease and in up to 50% with stage III. This study focuses on early detection of stump recurrence by a routine bronchoscopy. Prospective analysis 1 year after surgery between April 2006 and April 2008. 104 NSCLC patients (age 69.1+/-9.6 years) participated in the study; 97 underwent lobectomy and 7 pneumonectomy. 61% were stage I, 25% stage II, 10% IIIA, 5% IIIB and 1% stage IV. 66% had N0, 21% had N1 disease, 9% N2 disease and 4% had N3. Bronchoscopy was performed 12.9+/-3.8 months after surgery. Nine percents had stump polyp, 5 (5%) had a suspicious mucosa. Four of the nine polyps were malignant. Nine other patients had squamous metaplasia and two had squamous dysplasia. Malignant stump recurrence was observed in four cases, all had a stump polyp. All had R(0), but two had short (<1.0 cm) tumor-free bronchial margin, two had N1 disease and two N2 disease. Fisher exact analysis showed short bronchus (p=0.003), N2 vs. N0-1 (p=0.012), and N1 vs. N0 (p=0.011) as significant risk factor for stump recurrence. For stump recurrence, one patient underwent completion pneumonectomy and has no evidence for disease (32.2 months), two patients were treated by chemotherapy and one patient died from pneumonia before therapy. Routine bronchoscopy 1 year after thoracic resection for NSCLC is justified in patients who are at high risk for local recurrence, i.e. short free bronchial margins and N2/N1 disease.

  16. STARS Proceedings (3-4 December 1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-04

    SUBTITLE S FUNDING NUMBERS STARS 󈨟 Proceedings 3-4 December, 1991 F19628-88-D-0031 6. AUTHOR (S) Paramax Corporation 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...See authorities . Block 4. Title and Subtitle. A title is taken from NASA - See Handbook NH8 2200.2. ,he part of the report that provides the most NTIS...numbers shown in the Authors Index found at the back of these proceedings include a coded prefix (P, 1, 2, 3, or 4) to indicate the part of the

  17. LiDy(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Chehimi-Moumen, Fathia; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO3)4, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy⋯Li distances of 3.54 (1) and 3.48 (1) Å. The DyO8 dodeca­hedra and LiO4 tetra­hedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2). PMID:21202729

  18. Electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jeffrey F; Miller, Thomas M; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K; Viggiano, A A; Rekha, G K; Stevens, Amy E

    2008-03-14

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4) using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) is 1.9 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39+/-5 meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF(3))(4) is 5.4 x 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84+/-8 meV. For both complexes, a PF(3) ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF(3))(3)(-) ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF(3))(4) and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  19. Electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K.; Viggiano, A. A.; Rekha, G. K.; Stevens, Amy E.

    2008-03-01

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4 using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 is 1.9×10-7cm3s-1 at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39±5meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF3)4 is 5.4×10-8cm3s-1 at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84±8meV. For both complexes, a PF3 ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF3)3- ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF3)4 and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  20. KPr(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; Daoud, Mohamed; Tanouti, Boumediene; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, potassium praseodymium(III) polyphosphate, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The monoclinic non-centrosymmetric structure is isotypic with all other KLn(PO3)4 analogues from Ln = La to Er, inclusive. The crystal structure of these long-chain polyphosphates is built up from infinite crenelated polyphosphate chains of corner-sharing PO4 tetra­hedra with a repeating unit of four tetra­hedra. These chains, running along [100], are arranged in a pseudo-tetra­gonal rod packing and are further linked by isolated PrO8 square anti­prisms [Pr—O = 2.3787 (9)–2.5091 (8) Å], forming a three-dimensional framework. The K+ ions reside in channels parallel to [010] and exhibit a highly distorted coordination sphere by eight O atoms at distances ranging from 2.7908 (9) to 3.1924 (11) Å. PMID:21588081

  1. Neem leaf glycoprotein generates superior tumor specific central memory CD8(+) T cells than cyclophosphamide that averts post-surgery solid sarcoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sarbari; Sarkar, Madhurima; Ghosh, Tithi; Guha, Ipsita; Bhuniya, Avishek; Saha, Akata; Dasgupta, Shayani; Barik, Subhasis; Bose, Anamika; Baral, Rathindranath

    2017-08-03

    The success of cancer vaccines is limited as most of them induce corrupted CD8(+) T cell memory populations. We reported earlier that a natural immunomodulator, neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP), therapeutically restricts tumor growth in a CD8(+) T cell-dependent manner. Here, our objective is to study whether memory CD8(+) T cell population is generated in sarcoma hosts after therapeutic NLGP treatment and their role in prevention of post-surgery tumor recurrence, in comparison to the immunostimulatory metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment. We found that therapeutic NLGP and CTX treatment generates central memory CD8(+) T (TCM) cells with characteristic CD44(+)CD62L(high)CCR7(high)IL-2(high) phenotypes. But these TCM cells are functionally impaired to prevent re-appearance of tumors along with compromised proliferative, IL-2 secretive and cytotoxic status. This might be due to the presence of tumor load, even a small one in the host, which serves as a persistent source of tumor antigens thereby corrupting the TCM cells so generated. Surgical removal of the persisting tumors from the host restored the functional characteristics of memory CD8(+) T cells, preventing tumor recurrence after surgery till end of the experiment. Moreover, we observed that generation of superior TCM cells in NLGP treated surgically removed tumor hosts is related to the activation of Wnt signalling in memory CD8(+) T cells with concomitant inhibition of GSK-3β and stabilisation of β-catenin, which ultimately activates transcription of Wnt target genes, like, eomesodermin, a signature molecule of CD8(+) TCM cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  3. Monthly errors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2006 monthly average statistical metrics for 2m Q (g kg-1) domain-wide for the base and MODIS WRF simulations against MADIS observations. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Ran, L., J. Pleim, R. Gilliam, F. Binkowski, C. Hogrefe, and L. Band. Improved meteorology from an updated WRF/CMAQ modeling system with MODIS vegetation and albedo. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 121(5): 2393-2415, (2016).

  4. REO Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include size of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.

  5. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Breast Reconstruction Surgery and Therapeutic Mammoplasty: Prospective Evaluation 1 Year Post-Surgery with BREAST-Q Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Laxmi; Busheri, Laleh; Dixit, Santosh; Patel, Chaula; Dhar, Upendra; Koppiker, Chaitanyanand

    2015-12-01

    Breast Cancer (BC) treatment leads to mutilation and destruction of breast shape with negative effects on body image and self-esteem.One of the main goals of reconstructive and oncoplastic breast surgery is to satisfy patients and improve their quality of life (QoL).Therefore, it is important to assess the patient experience post-surgery by means of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that focus on the patient's perception of the surgery and surgical care, as well as psychosocial well-being and physical functioning. The objective of the current study was to identify predictors of patient satisfaction such as breast appearance including implant type in a selective sample of women who underwent breast reconstruction surgery using implants. Participants in this prospective study were women, (age 26-75 years) that were newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma. All consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction between January 2013 and October 2014 were asked to complete the BREAST-Q questionnaire 1 year after surgery. 120 patients underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using implant. While 38 patients underwent reconstruction with opposite breast reduction symmertization, 27 patients underwent therapeutic mammoplasty. The response rate for BREAST-Q questionnaire completion was 98 % with 147 out of 150 study participants completed the questionnaire. From the data collected from 147 patients, the responses could be distributed into 4 distinct groups based on the reconstruction outcomes namely "very much satisfied" (93 %) or "definitely and mostly satisfied" (94 %) or "satisfied" with the outcome (88 %) or "definitely agree on having reconstruction rather than the alternative of having no breast "(91 %).The results showed significant improvement in all four areas that were evaluated after surgery namely satisfaction with the appearance of the breasts, psychosocial, sexual and physical well-being. While the reconstruction surgery had an overall

  6. KinoHaptics: An Automated, Wearable, Haptic Assisted, Physio-therapeutic System for Post-surgery Rehabilitation and Self-care.

    PubMed

    Rajanna, Vijay; Vo, Patrick; Barth, Jerry; Mjelde, Matthew; Grey, Trevor; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    A carefully planned, structured, and supervised physiotherapy program, following a surgery, is crucial for the successful diagnosis of physical injuries. Nearly 50 % of the surgeries fail due to unsupervised, and erroneous physiotherapy. The demand for a physiotherapist for an extended period is expensive to afford, and sometimes inaccessible. Researchers have tried to leverage the advancements in wearable sensors and motion tracking by building affordable, automated, physio-therapeutic systems that direct a physiotherapy session by providing audio-visual feedback on patient's performance. There are many aspects of automated physiotherapy program which are yet to be addressed by the existing systems: a wide classification of patients' physiological conditions to be diagnosed, multiple demographics of the patients (blind, deaf, etc.), and the need to pursue patients to adopt the system for an extended period for self-care. In our research, we have tried to address these aspects by building a health behavior change support system called KinoHaptics, for post-surgery rehabilitation. KinoHaptics is an automated, wearable, haptic assisted, physio-therapeutic system that can be used by a wide variety of demographics and for various physiological conditions of the patients. The system provides rich and accurate vibro-haptic feedback that can be felt by the user, irrespective of the physiological limitations. KinoHaptics is built to ensure that no injuries are induced during the rehabilitation period. The persuasive nature of the system allows for personal goal-setting, progress tracking, and most importantly life-style compatibility. The system was evaluated under laboratory conditions, involving 14 users. Results show that KinoHaptics is highly convenient to use, and the vibro-haptic feedback is intuitive, accurate, and has shown to prevent accidental injuries. Also, results show that KinoHaptics is persuasive in nature as it supports behavior change and habit building

  7. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-4 Trust protection lands. The regulations in this group do not apply to the leasing...

  8. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  9. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initiation of termination. 1210.3-4 Section 1210.3-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation...

  10. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  11. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  12. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  13. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  14. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  15. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  16. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or organization outside of the Department may be made only with the Department's prior written approval....

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be...

  19. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  1. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  5. [3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) epidemic?].

    PubMed

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2011-12-11

    Little is known about 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV), a new designer drug that has become popular in Hungary in the last couple of months. At the same time, its consumption, as a consequence of its low street-price, rises so fast that the event can be considered an epidemic. This paper reviews the chemistry, biochemistry and metabolism of MDPV. Then, on the basis of a few international reports and the author's own clinical observations, it discusses MDPV intoxication and withdrawal. In the metabolism of MDPV, the most important catalyst is the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, but the CYP1A2 and the CYP2D6 isoenzymes also play a crucial role. The formed catechols are conjugated with either glucuronic acid or sulfate. It is important to note that MDPV is consumed either together or in a sequence with other illicit drugs of abuse. As far as it can be established, MDPV use increases the activity and vigilance, decreases appetite and claim to sleep, but it can also provoke cardiac sensations and disturbance of perception. In the course of coming down, withdrawal after MDPV use, bone and muscle pain, hypersomnia, disturbance of vision are experienced, but panic attack may also occur. The appearance of new designer drugs on the market draws attention to a need of paradigm changing in spiritual field. Unless it happens these negative trends likely will speed up.

  6. Synthesis of 2,3-trans-3,4-cis- and 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-2,3,4-triphenyltetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Munshi, K L; Dikshit, D K; Kapil, R S; Anand, N

    1974-04-01

    The synthesis of 2,3-trans-3,4-cis- and 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-2,3,4-triphenyltetrahydrofurans was undertaken because these compounds incorportae the essential structural features of certain 2,3-diphenyl-benzofurans and 1,2,3-triphenylalkanones reported earlier to have marked antifertility activity. The synthesis of the 2 tetrahydrofurans was achieved by the cyclization of corresponding 2,3,4-triphenylbutane-1,4-diols upon heating with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The butane 1,4-diols were in turn prepared either by direct litium aluminum hydride (LAH) reduction of methyl 3-benzoyl-2,3-diphenylpropionates or by conversion of these propionates to delta-3,4-butryrolactones followed by LAH reduction. The propionates were prepared from the Fiedel-Crafts reaction of 2,3-diphenylsuccinic anhydride with benzene. Tetrahydrofurans were tested for their antiimplantation activity in rats. 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-2,4-diphenyl-3-p -(beta-pyrrolidinoethoxy) phenyltetrahydrofuran oxalate was found to inhibit implantation completely at 50 mg/kg, but was inefective at a lower dose.

  7. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  8. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  9. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  10. 43 CFR 2201.3-4 - Appraisal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... market value of the lands appraised. (c) The review appraiser shall prepare a written review report... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal review. 2201.3-4 Section 2201.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or occupancy...

  12. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  13. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  19. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  20. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  1. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  2. New 3,4-Secocycloartane and 3,4-Secodammarane Triterpenes from the Ecuadorian Plant Coussarea macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Gilardoni, Gianluca; Chiriboga, Ximena; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Coussarea macrophylla (Mart.) Müll.Arg. (Rubiaceae) was collected in Ecuador, and the bark was extracted with AcOEt. Chromatographic separation afforded six novel 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes, named macrocoussaric acids A-F, together with the known metabolites secaubryenol and 3,4-secodammara-4(28),20,24-triene-3,26-dioic acid. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data. This is the first report of 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes occurring in a Coussarea species. Macrocoussaric acids A and B (2 and 3, resp.) were found to be moderately cytotoxic against five different tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective is to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. The attained benefits are obtained by first providing the bis (exocyclodiene) bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane, which is a novel material formed from the monomer N-phenyl-3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidine. This compound undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide, without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane.

  4. Smoking, pain intensity, and opioid consumption one to three months after major surgery: A retrospective study in a hospital-based Transitional Pain Service.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Janice J; Weinrib, Aliza Z; Azam, Muhammad A; Ladak, Salima S J; Shah, B R; Jiang, Jiao; McRae, Karen; Tamir, Diana; Lyn, Sheldon; Katznelson, Rita; Clarke, Hance A; Katz, Joel

    2017-05-03

    The present study investigated the associations between smoking, pain, and opioid consumption in the three months after major surgery in patients seen by the Transitional Pain Service. Current smoking status and lifetime pack years were expected to be related to higher pain intensity, more opioid use, and poorer opioid weaning after surgery. 239 patients reported smoking status in their pre-surgical assessment (62 smokers, 92 past smokers, and 85 never smokers). Pain and daily opioid use were assessed in hospital before post-surgical discharge, at first outpatient visit (median of one month post-surgery), and at last outpatient visit (median of 3 months post-surgery). Pain was measured using numeric rating scale. Morphine equivalent daily opioid doses were calculated for each patient. Current smokers reported significantly higher pain intensity (p < 0.05) at one month post-surgery than never smokers and past smokers. Decline in opioid consumption differed significantly by smoking status, with both current and past smokers reporting a less than expected decline in daily opioid consumption (p < 0.05) at 3 months. Decline in opioid consumption was also related to pack years, with those reporting higher pack years having a less than expected decline in daily opioid consumption at 3 months (p < 0.05). Smoking status may be an important modifiable risk factor for pain intensity and opioid use after surgery. In a population with complex post-surgical pain, smoking was associated with greater pain intensity at one month after major surgery and less opioid weaning three months after surgery. Smoking may be an important modifiable risk factor for pain intensity and opioid use after surgery.

  5. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  6. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40–70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:26039360

  7. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40-70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain.

  8. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a biologically active scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khalilullah, H; Ahsan, M J; Hedaitullah, Md; Khan, S; Ahmed, B

    2012-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, antimycobecterial, antitumour, antiviral and antitubercular activities. 1,3,4-oxadiazoles constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations led to the development of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. This review article describes the various biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system and is useful in guiding the researchers across the world working on this moiety and consequently have been instrumental in the advancement of 1,3,4-oxadiazole chemistry.

  9. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF WEST CHANNEL SPANS, SPANS 3, 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF WEST CHANNEL SPANS, SPANS 3, 4 AND 5 REMOVED, LOOKING EAST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  10. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  11. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  12. 17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  13. Spatiotemporal control of endocytosis by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Posor, York; Eichhorn-Gruenig, Marielle; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schöneberg, Johannes; Ullrich, Alexander; Lampe, André; Müller, Rainer; Zarbakhsh, Sirus; Gulluni, Federico; Hirsch, Emilio; Krauss, Michael; Schultz, Carsten; Schmoranzer, Jan; Noé, Frank; Haucke, Volker

    2013-07-11

    Phosphoinositides serve crucial roles in cell physiology, ranging from cell signalling to membrane traffic. Among the seven eukaryotic phosphoinositides the best studied species is phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is concentrated at the plasma membrane where, among other functions, it is required for the nucleation of endocytic clathrin-coated pits. No phosphatidylinositol other than PI(4,5)P2 has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas the subsequent endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway are dominated by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphates(PI(3)P). How phosphatidylinositol conversion from PI(4,5)P2-positive endocytic intermediates to PI(3)P-containing endosomes is achieved is unclear. Here we show that formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) by class II phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase C2α (PI(3)K C2α) spatiotemporally controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of PI(3,4)P2 or PI(3)K C2α impairs the maturation of late-stage clathrin-coated pits before fission. Timed formation of PI(3,4)P2 by PI(3)K C2α is required for selective enrichment of the BAR domain protein SNX9 at late-stage endocytic intermediates. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for the role of PI(3,4)P2 in endocytosis and unravel a novel discrete function of PI(3,4)P2 in a central cell physiological process.

  14. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  15. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  16. Synthesis and reactivity of coumarin 3,4-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Born, S L; Rodriguez, P A; Eddy, C L; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1997-11-01

    Coumarin is used widely as a fragrance constituent and is administered clinically in the treatment of certain lymphedemas and malignancies. Although toxicity occurs only rarely in humans treated clinically with high-dose coumarin, it is well established that coumarin is hepatotoxic in the rat. This species difference in susceptibility to toxicity reflects the disparate metabolic processes occurring in humans and rodents. In humans, coumarin is converted extensively via cytochrome P450 2A6 to the nontoxic 7-hydroxycoumarin metabolite. In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxidation is thought to predominate in rodent species, resulting in the formation of several potentially toxic metabolites. Coumarin epoxide is thought to be highly unstable and has not been isolated synthetically or as a microsomal product. To address this issue, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was synthesized, and its stability and fate have been determined. Coumarin 3,4-epoxide was prepared by reacting coumarin with dimethyldioxirane. The epoxide was stable in organic solvents and survived conditions required for analysis by gas chromotography. Its structure was confirmed via 1H-NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-infrared spectroscopy (GC-MS-IR). In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was unstable in aqueous solution, converting within 20 sec to a ring-opened compound. Using GC-MS-IR analysis, the single coumarin 3,4-epoxide product was identified as o-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (o-HPA). Although other investigators have suggested that 3-hydroxycoumarin is an intermediate in o-HPA formation from coumarin 3,4-epoxide, we have demonstrated that 3-hydroxycoumarin, incubated in an aqueous system or with liver microsomal proteins, does not form o-HPA. Thus, the results of the present work establish that coumarin 3,4-epoxide can be synthesized and that o-HPA, which has previously been shown to be a prominent coumarin metabolite in rat liver microsomal incubations, is formed directly from coumarin 3,4-epoxide. These

  17. Synthesis and antityrosinase activities of alkyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Li, Hua-Liang; Yu, Xiao-Jie; Zuo, Qi-Xuan; Zheng, Guo-Xing; Shi, Yan; Liu, Xuan; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liang, Ge; Wang, Qin; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2011-06-22

    In insects, tyrosinase plays important roles in normal developmental processes, such as cuticular tanning, scleration, wound healing, production of opsonins, encapsulation and nodule formation for defense against foreign pathogens. Thus, tyrosinase may be regarded as a potential candidate for novel bioinsecticide development. A family of alkyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (C₆-C₉), new tyrosinsase inhibitors, were synthesized. Their inhibitory effects on the activity of tyrosinase have been investigated. The results showed all of them could inhibit the activity of tyrosianse effectively. The order of potency was nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (C₉DB) > octyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(C₈DB) > heptyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(C₇DB) > hexyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (C₆DB). The kinetic analysis of these four compounds on tyrosinase was taken to expound their inhibitory mechanism. The research of the control of insects in agriculture was taken as C₆DB for example. C₆DB could inhibit the development and molting of Plutella xylostella effectively. To clarify its insecticidal mechanism, we researched the expression of tyrosinase in the P. xylostella treated with C₆DB by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed C₆DB could inhibit the expression of tyrosinase in the P. xylostella as expected.

  18. Evaluation of Case Management Process Fulfillment: The First Six Months of U.S. Public Health Service OPTICOMAP Implementation in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fleet Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-19

    cites the conclusion of Mumford and her colleagues (1982), "A review of thirteen studies that used hospital days post surgery or post heart attack as...Trunk, head 1 3.5 6 14.3 Teeth, face 2 6.9 4 9.5 Eye, eyelid 3 10.3 4 9.5 Multiple bruises 0 - 1 2.4 Heart attack 0 - 1 2.4 Pilonidal cyst 0 - 1 2.4...effects of psychol- ogical intervention on recovery from surgery and heart attacks : An analysis of the literature. American Journal of Public Health

  19. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  20. 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential biological agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Makawana, Jigar A; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of novel compound libraries along with screening is a rapid and effective approach for the discovery of potential chemical agents, and it becomes an important method in pharmaceutical chemistry research. 1,3,4- oxadiazole derivatives as the typical heterocyclic compounds, exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities and vital leading compounds for the development of chemical drugs. Herein, we focus on the synthesis and screening of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives with antimicrobial, antitumor or antiviral activities during the past decade. In this review, we discussed the synthetic development of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives, and also the relevant bioactivity and their prospects as the potential chemical drugs.

  1. Bis(4-(3,4-dimethylenepyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    It is the primary object of the present invention to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. According to the present invention, this object is achieved, and the attending benefits are obtained, by first providing the bis(exocyclodiene) bis(4-(3,4-dinethylene pyrrolidyl) phenyl) methane, which is formed from the monomer N-phenyl 3,4-dimethylene pyrrolidine. This bis-(exocyclodiene) undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide.

  2. Pc 3, 4 activity and interplanetary field orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Olson, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of Pc 3, 4 micropulsation wave forms recorded at Calgary in September 1969 shows a tendency toward signal enhancement in cases where the interplanetary magnetic field is at a small angle to the sun-earth line. Scatter plots of hourly Pc 3, 4 amplitudes exhibit a definite trend toward large signals when this angle is less than 50 or 60 degrees, and a corresponding disappearance of significant amplitudes when the angle is greater than 60 degrees. There is, however, an appreciable variability in individual cases. Power density spectrograms improved the correlation of pulsation strength with low angle in some cases.

  3. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information on impact. 60... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... records or other information which will disclose the impact which its tests and other selection procedures...

  5. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Information on impact. 60... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... records or other information which will disclose the impact which its tests and other selection procedures...

  6. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  7. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  8. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  9. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  10. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  11. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  12. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  13. Year 3/4 Children's Forms of Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in justifying, forming conjectures and generalising is critical to develop their mathematical reasoning. Previous studies have revealed limited opportunities for primary school children to justify their thinking, form conjectures and generalise in mathematics lessons. Forms of justification of Year 3/4 children from three schools…

  14. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  15. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  16. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  17. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  18. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  19. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  20. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  1. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  2. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  3. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3. 4, Aging Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6].

  4. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers.

  5. Assessing localized skin-to-fat water in arms of women with breast cancer via tissue dielectric constant measurements in pre- and post-surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Weingrad, Daniel N; Lopez, Lidice

    2015-05-01

    Skin-to-fat tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values at 300 MHz largely depend on tissue water and provide a rapid way to assess skin water by touching skin with a probe for approximately 10 s. This method has been used to investigate lymphedema features accompanying breast cancer (BC), but relationships between TDC and nodes removed or symptoms is unclear. Our goals were: (1) to compare TDC values in BC patients prior to surgery (group A) and in patients who had BC-related surgery (group B) to determine if TDC of group B were related to nodes removed and reported symptoms and (2) to develop tentative lymphedema-detection thresholds. Arm volumes and TDC values of at-risk and contralateral forearms and biceps were determined in 103 women awaiting surgery for BC and 104 women who had BC-related surgery 26.3 ± 17.5 months prior to evaluation. Inter-arm ratios (at-risk/contralateral) were determined and patients answered questions about lymphedema-related symptoms. Inter-arm TDC ratios for group A forearm and biceps were respectively 1.003 ± 0.096 and 1.012 ± 0.143. Group B forearm ratios were significantly greater, and among group B patients who reported at least one symptom there was a significant correlation between TDC ratios and symptom burden and nodes removed. Inter-arm TDC ratios are significantly related to symptoms and nodes removed. Ratios increase with increasing symptom score and might be used to detect pre-clinical unilateral lymphedema using TDC ratio thresholds of 1.30 for forearm and 1.45 for biceps. Threshold confirmation awaits targeted prospective studies but can serve as guideposts to provide quantitative and easily done tracking assessments during follow-up visits.

  6. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-05-17

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO(3))(4), was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO(4) tetra-hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c.

  7. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO3)4, was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO4 tetra­hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c. PMID:21202436

  8. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Removal by agent. 5511.3-4 Section 5511.3... Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be... processing it, and no charge shall be made by such agent for the timber itself. No part of the timber may be...

  9. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Removal by agent. 5511.3-4 Section 5511.3... Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be... processing it, and no charge shall be made by such agent for the timber itself. No part of the timber may be...

  10. $3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.…

  11. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1992-12-01

    Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  12. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  13. Small band gap oligothieno[3,4-b]pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Bram P; Janssen, René A J

    2008-08-21

    The synthesis and the optical and electrochemical properties of thiophene end capped oligo(2,3-alkylthieno[3,4- b]pyrazine)s are presented. The optical absorption rapidly shifts to lower energies with increasing chain length, caused in almost equal amounts by a rise of the HOMO and a lowering of the LUMO levels. The optical band gap of the polymer is estimated to be 1.13 +/- 0.07 eV. Extrapolated redox potentials indicate that the polymer is a small band gap p-type material.

  14. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  15. 3,4-Diamino­pyridinium hydrogen succinate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Balasubramani, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H8N3 +·C4H5O4 −, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diamino­pyridine mol­ecule is protonated. The protonated N atom participates in an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond to a succinate O atom of the singly deprotonated succinate anion. Each of the two amino groups are hydrogen-bonded to the O atoms of two different sets of succinate groups.. The crystal structure is further stabilized by O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21582821

  16. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  17. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  18. 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene in planarizable push-pull oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Matile, Stefan

    2013-03-28

    We report design, synthesis and evaluation of push-pull quaterthiophene amphiphiles containing one 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a single strong twist in the scaffold. Planarizable push-pull oligothiophene amphiphiles have been introduced recently as conceptually innovative fluorescent probes that sense the fluidity and the potential of lipid bilayer membranes. The "hyper-twisted" EDOT probes respond to planarization and restricted rotational freedom with a red shift and changes in vibrational finestructure in the excitation spectrum, respectively. In solution, comparably weak solvatochromism and significant thermochromism are found. Planarization and restricted rotational freedom afford exquisite sensitivity toward nature and fluidity of lipid bilayer membranes, including ratiometric detection of phase transitions. The sensing of membrane potentials is weakened by these unique properties but remains possible.

  19. Stimulation of 3,4-dichloroaniline mineralization by aniline.

    PubMed Central

    You, I S; Bartha, R

    1982-01-01

    Mineralization of free and of humus-bound 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) by a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated by analog enrichment was greatly enhanced in the presence of aniline. The addition of aniline to soil that contained 0.2 to 100 micrograms of DCA per g in free or in humus-bound form increased the mineralization rates of DCA severalfold. Within the concentration ranges tested, absolute mineralization of DCA per unit time was positively correlated with both increasing DCA and increasing aniline concentrations. The specific enrichment of microbial populations and the induction of pathways that can co-metabolize DCA are the most plausible explanations for the effect of aniline. The observed phenomenon points to a potential approach for eliminating xenobiotic pollutants from contaminated soils. PMID:7138005

  20. 3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (ecstasy) use reduces cognition.

    PubMed

    Chummun, Harry; Tilley, Victoria; Ibe, Jude

    3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) use reduces cognition by reducing levels of dopamine and serotonin in the central nervous system. This results in dose-related cognition impairment, particularly in complex cognitive skills, as well as causing disorders such as mood changes, hallucinations, altered perception amd memory loss. MDMA reduces the level of these neurotransmitters within the neural synapses by reducing the number of intraneural transporters to the synaptic clefts, increasing deactivation with the synapse and/ or increasing degradation with the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Users may have varied reasons for MDMA use and therefore require help and support from their families or friends, and knowledgeable and well-skilled healthcare professionals for successful abstinence, avoidance of further psychological damage and a reversal of adverse health effects or reduction in their severity.

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl amines and styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines.

    PubMed

    Sravya, G; Yamini, G; Padmavathi, V; Padmaja, A

    2016-10-21

    A new class of mono and bis heterocycles - styryl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines, pyrrolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines and pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines were prepared from the synthetic intermediate Z-styrylsulfonylacetic acid adopting simple and well versed synthetic methodologies and studied their antimicrobial activity. Amongst all the tested compounds styryl thiadiazole 5c exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium chrysogenum.

  2. Effect of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on the reworking behavior of Lumbriculus variegatus exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The reworking response (bioturbation) of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was measured by following the burial rate and spread of a 137Cs marker layer translating worm activity into a biological burial rate (Wb) and a biological diffusion rate constant (Db) for surficial sediment mixing. Reworking was measured at 10 and 22 degrees C in two sediments: a reference site sediment dosed with 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) and a field-collected sediment from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site in Dicks Creek (DCC, Middletown, OH, USA). The body residue associated with response to TCBP also was determined. Reduction in the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C reduced both Wb and Db by a factor of approximately two. The internal TCBP concentration to reduce the Wb by 50% was 96 nmol/g (95% CI 45-225 nmol/g) and 124 nmol/g (40-547 nmol/g) (28 and 36 microg/g) wet weight at 22 and 10 degrees C, respectively, and was independent of temperature. The Wb for the DCC sediment was lower than observed for the highest TCBP treatment. The internal body residue for total PCB for worms exposed to DCC sediment was 20-fold lower than TCBP in worms exposed to the lowest TCBP treatment on a molar basis. Comparing body residues of total PCB to TCBP assumes that the PCB congeners act additively on a molar basis. The DCC site contained a higher proportion of coarse material and a lower organic carbon concentration. The difference in sediment characteristics was assumed to be responsible for differences in the Wb.

  3. Drug interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Insong J

    2009-07-24

    Alcohol (ethanol) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are frequently co-abused, but recent findings indicate a harmful drug interaction between these two agents. In our previous study, we showed that MDMA exposure inhibits the activity of the acetaldehyde (ACH) metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the co-administration of MDMA and ethanol would reduce the metabolism of ACH and result in increased accumulation of ACH. Rats were treated with MDMA or vehicle and then administered a single dose of ethanol. Liver ALDH2 activity decreased by 35% in the MDMA-treated rats compared to control rats. The peak concentration and the area under the concentration versus time curve of plasma ACH were 31% and 59% higher, respectively, in the MDMA-ethanol group compared to the ethanol-only group. In addition, the MDMA-ethanol group had 80% higher plasma transaminase levels than the ethanol-only group, indicating greater hepatocellular damage. Our results not only support a drug interaction between MDMA and ethanol but a novel underlying mechanism for the interaction.

  4. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  5. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to MDMA results in learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze, a task known to be sensitive to hippocampal disruption, when the animals are tested as adults. Developmental MDMA exposure leads to hypoactivity in the offspring as adults but does not affect outcome on tests of anxiety. MDMA administration decreases pup weight, increases corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during treatment while decreasing brain levels of serotonin; a decrease that initially dissipates and then reappears in adulthood. Neonatal MDMA exposure increases the sensitivity of the serotonin 1A receptor, a possible mechanism underlying the learning and memory deficits seen. Taken together, the evidence shows that MDMA exposure has adverse effects on the developing brain and behavior. The animal and human data on developmental MDMA exposure are reviewed and their public health implications discussed. PMID:18332674

  6. Chemical modification of spiramycins. IV. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activities of 3'',4''-diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spriamycin I.

    PubMed

    Sano, H; Sunazuka, T; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, K; Okachi, R; Omura, S

    1984-07-01

    3'',4''-Diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by the four parameters, MIC against bacteria, affinity to ribosomes, retention time in HPLC and therapeutic effect. Among them, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyryl-spiramycin I were the most active in vivo, which were superior to acetylspiramycin.

  7. Hispanic Heritage Month

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Hispanic-themed music and Salsa dance performances helped kick off the Johnson Space Center celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, commemorating the histories, cultures and contributions of Hispan...

  8. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

    2014-10-03

    Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50μM) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release.

  9. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  10. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  11. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg−1) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1  μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  12. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC).

    PubMed

    Lopes Jesus, A J; Jarmelo, S; Fausto, R; Reva, I

    2015-04-05

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radical sequestration by protein-bound 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michelle; Foxwell, A Ruth; Tyrer, Peter; Dean, Roger T

    2010-05-01

    Protein-bound 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (PB-DOPA), a redox-active product of protein oxidation, is capable of functioning as both a pro- and antioxidant. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated a toxic, non-toxic or even beneficial effect of free DOPA, however little investigation has examined the physiological activity of PB-DOPA. Being the major treatment available for Parkinson's disease, most studies have focused on the effect of DOPA within neurological cells or tissues, although the presence of PB-DOPA in other locations, for example within atherosclerotic plaques, suggests that broader research is needed to fully understand the physiological effects of both free and PB-DOPA. We hypothesise that the generation of PB-DOPA can trigger an enhancement of the cellular antioxidant defence system, thus enabling PB-DOPA to restrict and potentially terminate the initiating oxidative stress, minimising the level of oxidative damage. Using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, we demonstrate that free DOPA is capable of direct peroxyl radical scavenging, even in the presence of competing scavengers, and has a different effect to that of the parent amino acid, tyrosine. Furthermore, we show that both free and PB-DOPA, in combination or individually, were able to protect monocytes and macrophages from peroxyl radical-induced oxidative stress in vitro. These results confirm a role for both free and PB-DOPA in cellular antioxidant defences and suggest the possibility of using DOPA as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of diseases involving oxidative stress or the accumulation of oxidative damage. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  15. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  16. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  17. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  18. Rapid, Microwave Accelerated Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from 4-Acylamino-1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Stesphanie L; Olson, Margaret E; Harki, Daniel A

    2016-09-07

    1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.

  19. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Yahyawi, Amjad M; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Al-Blewi, Fawzia F; Aouad, Mohamed R

    2015-09-02

    In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  20. A novel dilithiation approach to 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines, 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Jain, Ritu

    2002-11-15

    3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines 4, 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines 9, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines 6 were synthesized by directed ortho-lithiation of thiophenols and phenols and by side-chain lithiation of substituted thiophenols, respectively, in one-pot by reacting with N,N-bis[(benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amines 3 as 1,3-biselectrophile synthons.

  1. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  2. False-positive amphetamine/ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (CEDIA) and ecstasy (MDMA/3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) (DRI) test results with fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Erol, Almla; Karadaş, Barş

    2012-10-01

    This case report describes a false-positive amphetamine/ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and ecstasy (MDMA) screen after therapeutic use of antihyperlipidemic drug, fenofibrate. A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to inpatient psychiatry unit with the diagnosis of alcohol dependency. He was prescribed diazepam 30 mg/day, thiamine 300 mg/day, and naltrexone 50 mg/day. He had also been using fenofibrate 267 mg/day for 3 years for hyperlipidemia and trazodone 100 mg/day for 5 months for insomnia. On routine, urine drugs-of-abuse screening amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) test was positive for 4 different occasions and MDMA (DRI) test was positive on 5 different occasions. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of the first positive 3 samples were negative for amphetamine and MDMA. After discontinuation of fenofibrate, amphetamine/MDMA, and MDMA immunoassay results turned out to be negative. Caution should be given to interpretation of amphetamine/MDMA (CEDIA) and MDMA (DRI) tests in patients taking fenofibrate. Specific confirmation with a suitable method should be used to prevent erroneous interpretations.

  3. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  4. SW LW MONTHLY

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-09

    ... 06/30/1991 Temporal Resolution:  Monthly average Tools:  Contact User Services ... Water Radiative Forcing Shortwave Radiation Surface Temperature Order Data:  Contact User Services: Order Data ...

  5. Children's Health Month 2017

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    October is Children's Health month, with information and links that you can use -- in October and throughout the year. We will work with parents, teachers, and health providers to promote healthy environments where children live, learn and play.

  6. Variation in early developmental course in autism and its relation with behavioral outcome at 3-4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Werner, Emily; Dawson, Geraldine; Munson, Jeffrey; Osterling, Julie

    2005-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe variations in the early course of development in autism by utilizing an in-depth parent interview that incorporated techniques to improve accuracy of parent recall, and to examine the relation between variations in early developmental course in autism and behavioral outcome at 3-4 years of age. The Early Development Interview, which consisted of questions about child's behavior in several domains from birth through 2 years of age, was created and administered to parents of 72 3-4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and 34 3-4-year-old children with developmental delay, who were matched on mental and chronological age, and 39 1-4-year-old typically developing children, who were matched to the clinical groups on mental age. At 3-4 years of age, children were administered standardized measures (some clinician administered and some parent report); these included verbal and nonverbal IQ, autism symptom severity, and adaptive and aberrant behavior. Based on the Early Development Interview, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were reported to have elevated symptoms in the social and regulatory domains by 3-6 months. By 12-15 months, parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher levels of social symptoms than parents of children with developmental delay. At 3-4 years of age, children with autism with early vs. late onset of symptoms, and with vs. without a history of loss of skills (regression) were not found to differ on standardized tests of verbal and nonverbal IQ and observational measures of autism symptom severity.

  7. Differentiation of CD3-4-8- human fetal thymocytes in vivo: characterization of a CD3-4+8- intermediate

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Human thymocyte differentiation was examined by injecting fetal thymic progenitor populations into human thymic xenografts in SCID-hu mice. Thymic progenitors were fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye PKH2. The phenotypes of their progeny could be identified by flow cytometric analysis of cells with a very high fluorescent PKH2 signal. Intrathymic injection of purified triple negative (TN) CD3-4-8- thymocytes resulted in the sequential appearance of CD3-4+8-, CD3-4+8+, and CD3+4+8+ cells, with the subsequent appearance of small numbers of phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ cells over a 4-d period. Sorted CD3-4+8- thymocytes injected intrathymically rapidly differentiated to CD4+8+ cells. CD4+8+ fetal thymocytes in cell cycle differentiated into phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ populations, whereas nondividing CD4+8+ cells failed to differentiate after intrathymic transfer. The number of cell divisions that occurred between the injection of TN thymocytes and their progeny at different time points was estimated based on the decrease in the intensity of the PKH2 label. The average length of the cell cycle for the TN population was calculated to be 24 h. The SCID-hu model thus provides a useful tool for studying the kinetics of cell division and differentiation of human thymocytes in vivo. PMID:8315382

  8. 2011 Black History Month

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-16

    Victoria Webb (center) discusses African-American history during a Black History Month program for John C. Stennis Space Center employees on Feb. 16. Webb, a 103-year-old native of Pass Christian, was guest speaker for the program, sponsored by the Stennis Diversity Council and the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. She was joined in her presentation by Valli Battle (left), a NAVOCEANO employee at Stennis, and friend Jeanell Barnes. Black History Month was first observed in 1976 and is celebrated each February. The 2011 theme was African-Americans and the Civil War.

  9. 2011 Women's History Month

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-24

    John C. Stennis Space Center employees (l to r) Janet Kovac (NASA Shared Services Center), Lael Butler (Environmental Protection Agency Gulf of Mexico Program), Mary Carter (NSSC) and Maura Lohrenz (Naval Research Laboratory) celebrate a correct answer during the Women's History Month Quiz Bowl held onsite March 24. The contest between the women and a panel of four men tested each side's knowledge of women's history facts and events. This year's Women's History Month theme was 'Our History is Our Strength.' Befitting that sentiment, the panel of women won the contest.

  10. Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline by a novel dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwei; Liu, Runlong; Chen, Pei; Yuan, Shoujun; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) was conducted in a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The factors affecting the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA and the degradation mechanism of 3,4-DCA were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA increased with increasing input power intensity, and the degradation of 3,4-DCA by the novel DBD plasma reactor fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics. Higher degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA was observed in acidic conditions. The degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA, the removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC), and the detected Cl(-) increased dramatically with adding Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). Degradation of 3,4-DCA could be accelerated or inhibited in the presence of H2O2 depending on the dosage. Several degradation intermediates of 3,4-DCA such as 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 3,4-dichlorophenyl isocyanate, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and 3,4-dichlorophenol were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Based on the identification of aromatic intermediates, acetic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, and Cl(-) released, a possible mineralization pathway of 3,4-DCA was proposed.

  11. Special Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granstrom, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)

  12. Monthly Energy Review

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

  13. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  14. Monthly Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  15. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  16. November 2010 monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Warren E

    2010-12-07

    These viewgraphs are to be provided to NNSA to update the status of the B61 Life Extension Project work and activities. The viewgraphs cover such issues as budget, schedule, scope, and the like. They are part of the monthly reporting process.

  17. Monthly energy review

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  18. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  19. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  20. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  1. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  2. 3' Phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] by voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP).

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sakata, Souhei; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Horie, Shigeo; Homma, Koichi J; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-06-19

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) consist of a voltage-sensor domain and a cytoplasmic region with remarkable sequence similarity to phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor phosphatase. VSPs dephosphorylate the 5' position of the inositol ring of both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] upon voltage depolarization. However, it is unclear whether VSPs also have 3' phosphatase activity. To gain insights into this question, we performed in vitro assays of phosphatase activities of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP) and transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology (TPTE) and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase (TPIP; one human ortholog of VSP) with radiolabeled PI(3,4,5)P(3). TLC assay showed that the 3' phosphate of PI(3,4,5)P(3) was not dephosphorylated, whereas that of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)] was removed by VSPs. Monitoring of PI(3,4)P(2) levels with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain from tandem PH domain-containing protein (TAPP1) fused with GFP (PH(TAPP1)-GFP) by confocal microscopy in amphibian oocytes showed an increase of fluorescence intensity during depolarization to 0 mV, consistent with 5' phosphatase activity of VSP toward PI(3,4,5)P(3). However, depolarization to 60 mV showed a transient increase of GFP fluorescence followed by a decrease, indicating that, after PI(3,4,5)P(3) is dephosphorylated at the 5' position, PI(3,4)P(2) is then dephosphorylated at the 3' position. These results suggest that substrate specificity of the VSP changes with membrane potential.

  3. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  4. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels of net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  8. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in this EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  9. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  10. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  11. Image of the Month

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    an- tibiotics and a brief crystalloid resuscitation. What Is the Diagnosis? A. Giant hepatic cyst B. Giant hepatic abscess C. Sigmoid volvulus D...18-cm abnormality in seg- ments VI and VII with evidence of metallic coils in a branch of the right hepatic artery (Figure 1 and Figure 2). It was...presumed that these coils were rem- nants from the management of the blunt hepatic injury sustained a month prior. In the presence of sepsis with

  12. Regioselective synthesis of 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via reagent-based cyclization of thiosemicarbazide intermediate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Lee, Seok-Hyeong; Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Gong, Young-Dae

    2013-01-18

    A regioselective, reagent-based method for the cyclization reaction of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeletons is described. The thiosemicarbazide intermediate 3 was reacted with EDC·HCl in DMSO or p-TsCl, triethylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to give the corresponding 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 4 and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5 through regioselcective cyclization processes. The regioselectivity was affected by both R(1) and R(2) in p-TsCl mediated cyclization. It is shown in select sets of thiosemicarbazide 3 with R(1)(benzyl) and R(2)(phenyl). 2-Amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4 was also shown in the reaction of p-TsCl mediated cyclization. The resulting 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeleton are functionalized with various electrophiles such as alkyl halide, acid halides, and sulfornyl chloride in high yields.

  13. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  14. 22 CFR 3.4 - Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations. 3.4 Section 3.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.4 Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations. (a) An employee is prohibited from...

  15. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  16. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  17. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  19. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  20. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  1. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  2. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  3. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2004-12-01

    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  4. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s) in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs) with attached global positioning systems (GPS) were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3%) of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0%) of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7%) slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1%) of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%). Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels. PMID:20576145

  5. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets.

    PubMed

    Hightower, Allen; Kiptui, Rebecca; Manya, Ayub; Wolkon, Adam; Vanden Eng, Jodi Leigh; Hamel, Mary; Noor, Abdisalan; Sharif, Shahnaz K; Buluma, Robert; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla; Slutsker, Laurence; Akhwale, Willis

    2010-06-24

    In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s) in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs) with attached global positioning systems (GPS) were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3%) of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0%) of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7%) slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1%) of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%). The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  6. Does obesity induce resistance to the long-term cardiovascular and metabolic actions of melanocortin 3/4 receptor activation?

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandre A da; Kuo, Jay J; Tallam, Lakshmi S; Liu, Jiankang; Hall, John E

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that blockade of melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors (MC3/4-R) markedly attenuates the chronic hypertensive effects of leptin. Although obesity has been reported to be associated with leptin "resistance," it is unclear whether obesity alters the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of chronic MC3/4-R activation. Therefore, we tested whether the cardiovascular and metabolic actions of MC3/4-R activation are attenuated in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HF, n=6) compared with rats fed a standard chow (NF, n=6) for 12 months. A 21G steel cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle for ICV infusion, and arterial and venous catheters were implanted for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) 24 hours/day and IV infusions. After a 5-day control period, rats were infused with MC3/4-R agonist melanotan II (10 ng/h, ICV), for 10 days followed by a 5-day recovery period. HF rats were heavier (558+/-21 versus 485+/-13 g) with 140% more visceral fat than NF rats, hyperleptinemic (8.9+/-0.5 versus 2.7+/-0.5 ng/mL), and insulin resistant. HF rats also had higher MAP (109+/-3 versus 100+/-1 mm Hg). Chronic melanotan II infusion significantly increased MAP in HF and NF (7+/-2 and 6+/-1 mm Hg), decreased caloric intake (-32+/-2 and -25 +/-2 kcal/day), and reduced insulin levels in both groups by approximately 50%. Thus, the metabolic and cardiovascular actions of chronic MC3/4-R activation are preserved in diet-induced obesity, supporting a potential role for the hypothalamic melanocortin system in obesity hypertension.

  7. The marine polyketide myriaporone 3/4 stalls translation by targeting the elongation phase.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Yazh; Roy, Myriam; Raja, Aruna; Taylor, Richard E; Sasse, Florenz

    2013-01-21

    Myriaporone 3/4, a cytotoxic polyketide, has been reported as an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits translation was unknown. Here we show that myriaporone 3/4 stalls protein synthesis in the elongation phase by inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The phosphorylation results from direct binding of myriaporone 3/4 to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Our study also shows that myriaporone 3/4 in the nanomolar range inhibits in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells without being cytotoxic. In general, myriaporone 3/4 was at least 300 times less toxic to primary cells than to tumor cells.

  8. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  9. Simultaneous determination of 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and 3,4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid in human urine by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongli; Liu, Fan; Wan, Yiqun

    2017-05-01

    A simple and reliable method was established for simultaneous determination of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, and 3,4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Solid-phase extraction was used to eliminate the interferences in urine. The separation of three analytes was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase formed by a 95:5 v/v mixture of 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer at pH 6.8 that contained 5 mmol/L tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and acetonitrile. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, and 3,4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid were 4.8 × 10(-3) , 8.80 × 10(-3) , and 9.00 × 10(-3) mg/L, respectively, and the recoveries were in the range of 85.0-120.0% with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.1%. This method was used to analyze urine samples from breast cancer patients, healthy people and post-surgery breast cancer patients. Significant differences in urinary levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid could be found between the breast cancer patients group and other two groups. No effect of age and sex was observed on the urinary levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid. This method might be helpful for cancer biomarkers discovery in urine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  11. CNO monthly bulletin.

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    If you are a nurse director and want to receive the English chief nursing officer's monthly bulletin direct to your desktop, you can subscribe by emailing a request to dh-test-emails@doh.gsi.gov.uk Other nurses, midwives and health visitors should send email requests to doh_cno_subscription@talkingnumbers.com You should include details of the email address you want to use, your name, job title, the full name of your organisation, full postal address with postcode, plus phone and fax numbers. These details will be stored on a DoH database for future bulletin mailings.

  12. EPR of Dy3+ ions in YAl3(BO3)4 and EuAl3(BO3)4 aluminoborates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, A. D.; Prokhorov, A. A.; Zubov, E. E.; Chernysh, L. F.; Dyakonov, V.; Szymczak, H.

    2014-08-01

    The EPR spectra of impurity Dy3+ ions in YAl3(BO3)4 and EuAl3(BO3)4 aluminoborates were investigated. The signals from the ground and excited doublets were observed and the g-factors and the hyperfine interaction constants were determined. From the temperature dependence of the signal intensity of the excited doublet, the energy distances between the ground and excited doublets were obtained as (3.26 ± 0.13) cm-1 and (2.54 ± 0.16) cm-1 for YAl3(BO3)4 and EuAl3(BO3)4, respectively. A broadening of the absorption line with increasing temperature is related with the strong spin-phonon interaction and is described by the Orbach-Aminov process via the excited doublet. It was found that the decrease in g-factor is caused by the spin-phonon interaction.

  13. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohammad F.; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  14. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad F; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-15

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  15. Susceptibility of laboratory rats against genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rat hepatitis E viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2013-04-12

    To determine whether or not rats are susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, each of group containing three laboratory rats (Wistar) were experimentally inoculated with genotypes 1, 3, 4 and rat HEV by intravenous injection. Serum and stool samples were collected and used to detect HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The virus infection was monitored up to 3 months after inoculation. None of the serum or stool samples collected from the rats inoculated with G1, G3, or G4 HEV indicated positive sign for virus replication. Although no alteration was observed in ALT level, rat HEV RNA was detected in stools from both of the rats inoculated with rat HEV, and both rats were positive for anti-rat HEV IgG and IgM from 3 weeks after inoculation. These results demonstrated that rats are susceptible to rat HEV but not to G1, G3, and G4 HEV. We also confirm that the nude rats were useful for obtaining a large amount of rat HEV and that the rat HEV was transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

  16. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain–domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an “extended” catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. PMID:24123290

  17. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain-domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an "extended" catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  18. Validated liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolites 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine in squirrel monkey plasma.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Melanie; Peters, Frank T; Ricaurte, George A; Maurer, Hans H

    2007-08-15

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a recreational drug with neurotoxic potential. Pharmacokinetic data of MDMA and its metabolites may shed light on the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxicity. An LC-MS assay with electrospray ionization (ESI) is presented for quantifying MDMA and its metabolites 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) in squirrel monkey plasma. The method involved enzymatic conjugate cleavage and protein precipitation. Separation was achieved within 14min. The method was validated according to international guidelines with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect. The present method should prove useful for acquiring pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic data in squirrel monkeys.

  19. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    This report presents data on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the USA during August 1982, as well as data on production, storage, imports, exports, and consumption. Selected data are also presented on the activities of the major interstate pipeline companies. Marketed production of natural gas decreased 18.2% during August 1982, compared to August 1981, from 1706 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 1471 Bcf. Consumption during the same period declined as well, from 1314 Bcf to 1153 Bcf. Commencing with this issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), estimates of marketed production are provided for two more recent months, September and October. Volumes of natural gas in storage continue to run slightly ahead of year-ago levels. The volume of natural gas purchased from producers and imported by major interstate natural gas pipeline companies continues to decline. In August 1981, 864 Bcf were purchased from producers, compared to 793 Bcf in August 1982. Imports during the same period declined from 62 Bcf to 46 Bcf. Applications for determination of a maximum lawful price under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) showed a significant increase between September and October 1982. The increase occurred principally for Section 103 classification wells (new onshore production wells), and for Section 107 classification wells (high-cost natural gas).

  20. Impact of 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) on cytotoxicity of acidic heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tadashi; Okabe, Eiji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Namoto, Shinji; Iwashita, Tomohiko; Matsuyama, Kazuhiro; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Of the glucose degradation products (GDPs) in glucose-rich peritoneal dialysate, we investigated the influence of 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) on the cytotoxicity of acidic heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid (L-H PDF) using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC). We prepared acidified filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing eight types of added GDP [3,4-DGE, glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), and furfural (FF)] or seven types of GDP (GO, MGO, 3-DG, FA, AA, 5-HMF, and FF). HPMC were exposed to these two types of solution and acidic heat-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%, L-H 3.86) for 4 h. Cell viability was determined by 3,(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-terazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MTT viability was decreased significantly compared with the control when treated with L-H 3.86 or acidified neutral filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing eight GDPs. However, no significant decrease in MTT viability was observed when HPMC were treated with acidified neutral filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing seven GDPs. Thus, 3,4-DGE strongly affects the cytotoxicity of L-H PDF. It is suggested that the cytotoxicity of L-H PDF is based on the presence of 3,4-DGE.

  1. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... new skills your baby may have this month: Communication and Language Skills develops more distinct cries to ... Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 2 Months Communication and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding ...

  2. Fermi at Six Months

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first 6 months in operation is provided. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly called GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy rage 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. It contains a Large Area Telescope capable of viewing the entire sky every 3 hours and a Gamma-ray Burst Monitor for viewing the entire unocculted sky. Since its launch on June 11, 2008 Fermi has provided information on pulsars, gamma ray bursts, relativistic jets, the active galactic nucleus, and a globular star cluster. This presentation describes Fermi's development, mission, instruments and recent findings.

  3. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of April 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Five articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: GAP 1.0 - Groove Analysis Program, Version 1.0; SUBTRANS - Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions for Image Processing; CSDM - COLD-SAT Dynamic Model; CASRE - Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation; and XOPPS - OEL Project Planner/Scheduler Tool. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and disseminations are also described along with a budget summary.

  4. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  5. Predictors of functional shoulder recovery at 1 and 12 months after breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Levy, Ellen W; Pfalzer, Lucinda A; Danoff, Jerome; Springer, Barbara A; McGarvey, Charles; Shieh, Ching-yi; Morehead-Gee, Alicia; Gerber, Lynn H; Stout, Nicole L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study are (1) to determine if upper extremity function, as represented by shoulder ROM, self-reported symptoms and upper extremity functional limitations in activities of daily living could be predictively related to demographic and cancer characteristics post-surgery for breast cancer. And (2) to examine if variables related to early onset impairment contribute to late onset impairments in women after breast cancer surgery. Subjects were assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12+ months post breast cancer surgery for impairments and symptoms and at 12+ months for shoulder functional limitations using a physical therapy surveillance model. Body weight, shoulder ROM, manual muscle testing, and upper limb volume were recorded. At 12+ months, the Harvard Alumni Health Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, and an Upper Limb Disability Questionnaire were administered. Symptoms and ROM impairments were compared by functional limitations. Characteristics significantly associated with early ROM impairment (but not later impairment) were axillary lymph node dissection, removal of ≥15 nodes, mastectomy surgery and stage II breast cancer. Positive nodes, older age, and BMI≥25 were significantly associated with reduced shoulder ROM at 12+ months. At 12+ months, only 10 % of the patients experienced ROM impairments while rates of self-reported symptoms in the affected upper extremity at 12+ months were as follows: pain-49%, weakness-47.1%, numbness-55.9%, feeling tired-42.5%. The majority of patients used the affected upper extremity for reaching without limitation, but ≥35% reported limitation with household chores, carrying and lifting. Difficulty carrying and lifting could be predicted by BMI≥25 and use of the dominant affected upper limb. Different factors are associated with early versus later ROM loss. Symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors are frequently associated with functional limitations in upper extremity tasks and warrant

  6. Pharmacokinetics and safety of 3,4-diaminopyridine base in healthy Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Erina; Kondo, Yuya; Matsushita, Ryo; Komai, Kiyonobu

    2015-08-01

    3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) is commonly used for treating neuromuscular diseases, such as the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, but the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-DAP base have not been investigated. We therefore studied 3,4-DAP base pharmacokinetics in healthy Japanese volunteers. In this crossover study, we administered a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg 3,4-DAP base to healthy Japanese volunteers (n = 5) after food intake, or 10 mg 3,4-DAP to fasting individuals. We measured serum 3,4-DAP concentrations, performed electrocardiography (ECG), and administered questionnaires. After administration of 10 or 20 mg 3,4-DAP following food intake, the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) were 8.09 ± 4.47 ng/mL and 35.8 ± 15.7 ng/mL, respectively (mean ± standard deviation; SD), and the areas under the serum concentration-time curve (extrapolated to infinity) were 639 ± 213 ng x min/mL and 2,097 ± 936 ng x min/mL (mean ± SD), respectively. Administration to fasted individuals indicated that food intake did not significantly alter 3,4-DAP pharmacokinetics. ECG showed no clinically significant changes, but PR intervals were prolonged in all cases. Two out of 5 subjects showed perioral paresthesia symptoms after administration of 20 mg 3,4-DAP. This study indicated that 3,4-DAP base pharmacokinetics were non-linear. Although no clinically significant changes in ECG were observed, it is advisable to perform ECG periodically during 3,4-DAP administration in order to monitor cardiac function. Moreover, the development of perioral paresthesia may be dependent on the dose of 3,4-DAP used.

  7. Lack of detectable metabolism for solubilized 2,3,4-trimethylpentane by rat kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    DelRaso, N J; Mattie, D R; Godin, C S

    1990-12-01

    Primary proximal tubule suspension cultures exposed to solubilized 2,3,4-trimethylpentane (2,3,4-TMP) resulted in a linear dose response, as determined by cellular lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The EC50 for 2,3,4-TMP was 16.3 mM. Metabolite analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of supernate and cell extracts from cultures exposed to 2,3,4-TMP (12.0 mM) failed to detect the presence of metabolites. Electron-microscopic examination of proximal tubules exposed to 2,3,4-TMP indicated ultrastructural changes that included increased mitochondrial swelling, increased vesiculation, decreased microvilli and pyknotic nuclei. This study indicates that kidney proximal tubules do not appear to metabolize 2,3,4-TMP.

  8. Thin layer chromatography/fluorescence detection of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriyuki; Fujita, Susumu; Ohta, Hikoto; Fukuba, Makoto; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2008-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of six methylenedioxylatedphenethylamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3-butamine; and 3,4-methylenedioxydimethylamphetamine, by thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection is proposed. These compounds form fluorophores on the developing plate following spraying with a reagent consisting of sodium hypochlorite, potassium hexacyanoferrate (III), and sodium hydroxide, and heating for 3 min at 100 degrees C. Blue fluorescent spots were observed under ultraviolet light in a wavelength range of 250-400 nm. The detection limits for MDMA and the above related compounds were 50 ng. The proposed method was effectively applied to the detection of MDMA in urine samples.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of August, 1993. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Ten articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (UNIX Version); (2) EM-Animate - Computer Program for Displaying and Animating the Steady-State Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Near Field and Surface-Current Solutions; (3) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (IBM PC Version); (4) M414 - MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures Computer Program; (5) MEDOF - Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter; (6) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (Macintosh Version); (7) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (IBM PC Version); (8) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version); (9) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS Version); and (10) TFSSRA - Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  11. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  14. Lost your orientation? Find your way with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3!

    PubMed

    Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2007-12-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation requires correct positioning of the spindle during mitosis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Toyoshima et al. describe a new mechanism for spindle orientation involving phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3]. They found that in metaphase cells, dynactin was associated with the cortex through the actin cytoskeleton, and accumulated in the midsections in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner. Thus, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates spindle orientation through dynein-dynactin motor complexes.

  15. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ya-Ching; Chang, Yao-To; Lin, Chun-Ling; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Kuo, Yao Haur; Tu, Lan-Chun; Yeh, Sheau Farn; Chern, Ji-Wang

    2011-01-01

    A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR) study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed. PMID:21566798

  16. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games, and the Internet Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Print A A A What's in this article? ... Child's Growth Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month- ...

  17. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  18. The intracellular distribution and secretion of endopeptidases 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15) and 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16).

    PubMed

    Ferro, Emer S; Carreno, Flávia R; Goni, Camila; Garrido, Paula A G; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Castro, Leandro M; Oliveira, Vitor; Araujo, Maurício C; Rioli, Vanessa; Gomes, Marcelo D; Fontenele-Neto, José Domingues; Hyslop, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and endopeptidase 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are enzymes involved in general peptide metabolism in mammalian cells and tissues. This review will focus on morphological and biochemical aspects related to the subcellular distribution and secretion of these homologous enzymes in the central nervous system. These are important issues for a better understanding of the functions of EP24.15 and EP24.16 within neuroendocrine systems.

  19. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. The NGM replaces three EIA reports previously published annually: Underground Natural Gas Storage in the United States; US Imports and Exports of Natural Gas; Main Line Sales of Natural Gas to Industrial Users. Some of the highlights are: marketed production of natural gas during June 1983 was estimated at 1307 billion cubic feet (Bcf), 178 Bcf (12.0 percent) below the June 1982 level; consumption of natural gas during June 1983 was an estimated 1060 Bcf, a decrease of 55 Bcf (4.9 percent) compared to June 1982 consumption; natural gas consumption in May 1983, compared to the previous May, was up 14.0 percent in the residential sector, up 7.9 percent in the commercial sector, and up 14.2 percent in the industrial sector; the volume of working gas in underground storage reservoirs at the end of June 1983 was 3.1 percent above the June 30, 1982 level; the average wellhead price of natural gas in April 1983 was $2.63 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) compared to $2.35 per Mcf for April 1982; in June 1983, the US city average residential price for 100 therms of natural gas was $64.70 ($6.63 per Mcf), the comparable price in June 1982 was $54.80 ($5.62 per Mcf); the average wellhead (first sale) price for natural gas purchases projected for July 1983 by selected interstate pipeline companies was $2.72 per Mcf, in July 1982 the average price was $2.45 per Mcf.

  20. An Examination of the Hadley Sea-Surface Temperature Time Series for the Nino 3.4 Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Hadley sea-surface temperature (HadSST) dataset is investigated for the interval 1871-2008. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the degree of success in identifying and characterizing El Nino (EN) southern (ENSO) extreme events, both EN and La Nina (LN) events. Comparisons are made against both the Southern Oscillation Index for the same time interval and with published values of the Oceanic Nino Index for the interval since 1950. Some 60 ENSO extreme events are identified in the HadSST dataset, consisting of 33 EN and 27 LN events. Also, preferential associations are found to exist between the duration of ENSO extreme events and their maximum anomalous excursion temperatures and between the recurrence rate for an EN event and the duration of the last known EN event. Because the present ongoing EN is a strong event, it should persist 11 months or longer, inferring that the next EN event should not be expected until June 2012 or later. Furthermore, the decadal sum of EN-related months is found to have increased somewhat steadily since the decade of 1920-1929, suggesting that the present decade (2010-2019) possibly will see about 3-4 EN events, totaling about 37 +/- 3 EN-related months (i.e., months that meet the definition for the occurrence of an EN event).

  1. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-Bisphosphate and Its Binding Protein Lamellipodin Regulate Chemotaxis of Malignant B Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhao; Wu, Xun; Hou, Sen; Malek, Mouhannad; Kielkowska, Anna; Noh, Edward; Makondo, Kennedy J; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Lin, Francis; Marshall, Aaron J

    2016-01-15

    Cell migration is controlled by PI3Ks, which generate lipid messengers phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and consequently recruit pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing signaling proteins. PI3K inhibition impairs migration of normal and transformed B cells, an effect thought to partly underlie the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in treatment of B cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Although a number of studies have implicated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cell migration, it remains unknown whether PI(3,4)P2 plays a distinct role. Using the PI(3,4)P2-specific phosphatase inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase, we investigate the impact of depleting PI(3,4)P2 on migration behavior of malignant B cells. We find that cells expressing wild-type, but not phosphatase dead, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase show impaired SDF-induced PI(3,4)P2 responses and reduced migration in Transwell chamber assays. Moreover, PI(3,4)P2 depletion in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells significantly impaired their migration capacity. PI(3,4)P2 depletion reduced both overall motility and migration directionality in the presence of a stable chemokine gradient. Within chemotaxing B cells, the PI(3,4)P2-binding cytoskeletal regulator lamellipodin (Lpd) was found to colocalize with PI(3,4)P2 on the plasma membrane via its PH domain. Overexpression and knockdown studies indicated that Lpd levels significantly impact migration capacity. Moreover, the ability of Lpd to promote directional migration of B cells in an SDF-1 gradient was dependent on its PI(3,4)P2-binding PH domain. These results demonstrate that PI(3,4)P2 plays a significant role in cell migration via binding to specific cytoskeletal regulators such as Lpd, and they suggest that impairment of PI(3,4)P2-dependent processes may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in B cell malignancies.

  2. The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Green, A Richard; Mechan, Annis O; Elliott, J Martin; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, M Isabel

    2003-09-01

    The amphetamine derivative (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a popular recreational drug among young people, particularly those involved in the dance culture. MDMA produces an acute, rapid enhancement in the release of both serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine from nerve endings in the brains of experimental animals. It produces increased locomotor activity and the serotonin behavioral syndrome in rats. Crucially, it produces dose-dependent hyperthermia that is potentially fatal in rodents, primates, and humans. Some recovery of 5-HT stores can be seen within 24 h of MDMA administration. However, cerebral 5-HT concentrations then decline due to specific neurotoxic damage to 5-HT nerve endings in the forebrain. This neurodegeneration, which has been demonstrated both biochemically and histologically, lasts for months in rats and years in primates. In general, other neurotransmitters appear unaffected. In contrast, MDMA produces a selective long-term loss of dopamine nerve endings in mice. Studies on the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity in both rats and mice implicate the formation of tissue-damaging free radicals. Increased free radical formation may result from the further breakdown of MDMA metabolic products. Evidence for the occurrence of MDMA-induced neurotoxic damage in human users remains equivocal, although some biochemical and functional data suggest that damage may occur in the brains of heavy users. There is also some evidence for long-term physiological and psychological changes occurring in human recreational users. However, such evidence is complicated by the lack of knowledge of doses ingested and the fact that many subjects studied are or have been poly-drug users.

  3. Reproductive success in rainbow trout following parental transfer of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, P.D.; Ward, F.J.; Brown, S.C.; Muir, D.C.G.; Evans, R.E.; Lockhart, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Brood stock rainbow trout were intraperitoneally injected with corn oil containing a nominal dose of 0 or 3 {micro}g [{sup 14}]2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (P{sub 5}CDF)/kg (8.8 nmol/kg). The fish were held on a light cycle designed to induce spawning 10 months later. Eggs were expressed from individual ripe females and divided into two lots. One lot from each control female (F{sub c}) and treated female (F{sub t}) was fertilized by a treated male (M{sub t}) and the other by a control male (M{sub c}). Radioactivity levels were determined in parental muscle, gonads, eggs, embryos, and fry. Mean concentrations in dorsal muscle tissue were 604 pg/g (1.77 pmol/g) in treated females (F{sub t}) and 868 pg/g (2.54 pmol/g) in treated males. No differences were found between treated and control fish, in fecundity, or in fertilization rates between any of the crosses. Concentrations of P{sub 5}CDF in eggs at the time of spawning ranged from 68 to 443 pg/g wet weight with a mean concentration (N = 7) of 232 pg/g (0.68 pmol/g). Average prehatch mortalities, posthatch survival, or survival through swim-up, and the first 21 d of feeding were not different between the cross groups. Within the F{sub t} {times} M{sub t} cross group, fertilization mortality, prehatch mortality, and total mortality were significantly correlated with egg concentrations of P{sub 5}CDF. Marginal but significant increases in the incidence of blue-sac-like disease occurred in the groups from treated females.

  4. Selective neurotensin-derived internally quenched fluorogenic substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16): comparison with thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Campos, M; Hemerly, J P; Ferro, E S; Camargo, A C; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L

    2001-05-15

    Internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from neurotensin (pELYENKPRRPYIL) sequence were synthesized and assayed as substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15 or TOP), and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11 or NEP). Abz-LYENKPRRPYILQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp is N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine and Abz is ortho-aminobenzoic acid) was derived from neurotensin by the introduction of Q-EDDnp at the C-terminal end of peptide and by the substitution of the pyroglutamic (pE) residue at N-terminus for Abz and a series of shorter peptides was obtained by deletion of amino acids residues from C-terminal, N-terminal, or both sides. Neurolysin and TOP hydrolyzed the substrates at P--Y or Y--I or R--R bonds depending on the sequence and size of the peptides, while NEP cleaved P-Y or Y-I bonds according to its S'(1) specificity. One of these substrates, Abz-NKPRRPQ-EDDnp was a specific and sensitive substrate for neurolysin (k(cat) = 7.0 s(-1), K(m) = 1.19 microM and k(cat)/K(m) = 5882 mM(-1). s(-1)), while it was completely resistant to NEP and poorly hydrolyzed by TOP and also by prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26). Neurolysin concentrations as low as 1 pM were detected using this substrate under our conditions and its analogue Abz-NKPRAPQ-EDDnp was hydrolyzed by neurolysin with k(cat) = 14.03 s(-1), K(m) = 0.82 microM, and k(cat)/K(m) = 17,110 mM(-1). s(-1), being the best substrate so far described for this peptidase.

  5. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  6. Cytotoxic bis-3,4-dihydro-beta-carbolines and bis-beta-carbolines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Qun; Charlet-Fagnère, Catherine; Sapi, Janos; Laronze, Jean-Yves; Renard, Pierre; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Léonce, Stéphane

    2002-12-01

    Ten bis-beta-carboline 1, 2 and bis-3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline 3, 4 derivatives, linked between carbons 1 and 1' by a polymethylene spacer, were synthesized from bistryptamine amides 9, 10. Some of them display a micromolar IC50 towards L-1210 cells.

  7. Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Ryo; Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Carter, Mark G.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2006-01-01

    POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks. PMID:17183653

  8. Generation and regioselective trapping of a 3,4-piperidyne for the synthesis of functionalized heterocycles.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Travis C; Medina, Jose M; Yang, Yun-Fang; Simmons, Bryan J; Houk, K N; Garg, Neil K

    2015-04-01

    We report the generation of the first 3,4-piperidyne and its use as a building block for the synthesis of annulated piperidines. Experimental and computational studies of this intermediate are disclosed, along with comparisons to the well-known 3,4-pyridyne. The distortion/interaction model is used to explain the observed regioselectivities.

  9. Generation and Regioselective Trapping of a 3,4-Piperidyne for the Synthesis of Functionalized Heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Travis C.; Medina, Jose M.; Yang, Yun-Fang; Simmons, Bryan J.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    We report the generation of the first 3,4-piperidyne and its use as a building block for the synthesis of annulated piperidines. Experimental and computational studies of this intermediate are disclosed, along with comparisons to the well-known 3,4-pyridyne. The distortion/interaction model is used to explain the observed regioselectivities. PMID:25768436

  10. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1985-12-01

    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of unilateral subthalamotomy in Parkinson's disease: results in 89 patients followed for up to 36 months.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L; Macias, R; Pavón, N; López, G; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C; Rodríguez, R; Alvarez, M; Pedroso, I; Teijeiro, J; Fernández, R; Casabona, E; Salazar, S; Maragoto, C; Carballo, M; García, I; Guridi, J; Juncos, J L; DeLong, M R; Obeso, J A

    2009-09-01

    Stereotactic thermocoagulative lesions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) have been shown to induce significant motor improvement in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). 89 patients with PD were treated with unilateral subthalamotomy. 68 patients were available for evaluations after 12 months, 36 at 24 months and 25 at 36 months. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores improved significantly contralaterally to the lesion in the "off" and "on" states throughout the follow-up, except for the "on" state at the last evaluation. Axial features and signs ipsilateral to the lesion progressed steadily throughout the study. Levodopa daily doses were significantly reduced by 45%, 36% and 28% at 12, 24 and 36 months post-surgery. 14 patients (15%) developed postoperative hemichorea-ballism which required pallidotomy in eight. These 14 patients had significantly higher dyskinesia scores (levodopa induced) preoperatively than the entire cohort. Unilateral subthalamotomy was associated with significant and sustained motor benefit contralateral to the lesion. Further work is needed to ascertain what factors led to severe, persistent chorea-ballism in a subset of patients. Subthalamotomy may be considered an option in circumstances when deep brain stimulation is not viable.

  12. Neuropeptide specificity and inhibition of recombinant isoforms of the endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 family: comparison with the related recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed

    Rioli, V; Kato, A; Portaro, F C; Cury, G K; te Kaat, K; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Camargo, A C; Glucksman, M J; Roberts, J L; Hirose, S; Ferro, E S

    1998-09-08

    Endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 (EP24.16c, neurolysin) and thimet oligopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 are close related members of a large family of metalloproteases. Besides their cytosolic and membrane bound form, endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 appears to be present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria (EP24.16m). We have overexpressed two porcine EP24.16 isoforms in E. coli and purified the recombinant proteins to homogeneity. We show here that these peptidases hydrolyse a series of neuropeptides with similar rates and at sites reminiscent of those elicited by classically purified human brain EP24.16c. All neuropeptides, except neurotensin, were similarly cleaved by recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15, thimet oligopeptidase), another zinc-containing metalloenzyme structurally related to EP24.16. These two EP24.16 isoforms were drastically inhibited by Pro-Ile and dithiothreitol and remained unaffected by a specific carboalkyl inhibitor (CFP-AAY-pAb) directed toward the related EP24.15. The present purification procedure of EP24.16 should allow to establish, by mutagenesis analysis, the mechanistic properties of the enzyme.

  13. An efficient synthesis of 3,4-Dihydrofuro [3,4-B] [1,4] dioxepine-6,8-dicarboxylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DENG, D. D.; WANG, L. P.; YAN, H. W.; SUN, X. X.; WANG, Z.

    2017-01-01

    As a class of important conjugated polymers, electroluminescent material of polyfuran possess a lot of merits, including good stability, structure is easy to be modified and controllable electrochemical properties. This study uses ethylene diglycol, diethyl oxalate, 1,3- dibromopropane and so on as raw materials to synthesize 3, 4 - ethylenedioxy furan monomer and similar derivatives via oxidation, acetylation, hydrolysis and elimination reaction, etc.

  14. Aromatic Heterocycle 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Substituted Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene to Build Low-Bandgap Polymer for Photovoltaic Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dangqiang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Qian; Wen, Shuguang; Han, Liangliang; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-12-01

    Electron-deficient heterocycle 1,3,4-oxadiazole is first introduced to the 2-position of thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) to construct a new building block 2-(thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-(alkylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TTSO) with alkylthio chain. The polymer PBDT-TTSO based on TTSO and benzodithiophene (BDT) exhibits a deep lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.32 eV and low-bandgap of 1.62 eV. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.86% is obtained with a relatively high V OC of 0.74 V, a J SC of 13.1 mA cm(-2), and FF of 60.5%. Furthermore, as S atom in thioether can be oxidized easily, the optoelectronic properties of PBDT-TTSO treated with different oxidants are preliminary investigated. Interestingly, the oxidation products still maintain high PCE with reduction less than 30%. This work demonstrates a new method to regulate HOMO energy levels by introducing electron-deficient aromatic heterocyclic moiety. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Oct3/4-associating proteins from embryonal carcinoma and spermatogenic cells of mouse.

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A; Vorob'ev, V; Drosdowsky, M; Séralini, G E

    1998-03-01

    The octamer-binding protein Oct3/4 was postulated to active transcription through protein-protein interactions with hypothetical cellular coactivator(s). We have used a bacterially produced Oct3/4, as a protein-binding probe, to detect by far-Western assay the Oct3/4-associating proteins (OTAPs) from the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells F9 and pachytene spermatocytes. Both common and cell-specific OTAPs were shown to interact directly with Oct3/4. Differentiation of the EC cells results in disappearance of most of OTAPs, supporting their coactivator nature. Several OTAPs detected in pachytene spermatocyte may represent germ cell-specific Oct3/4 coactivators.

  16. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  17. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  18. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence studies on YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, Ranganathan; Ponnusamy, Velladurai; Jose, Mundiyanikal Thomas; Sivakumar, Vairan

    2014-12-01

    Terbium (Tb3+) doped yttrium aluminium borate phosphors (YAl3(BO3)4) with different compositions such as YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ (x = 1-8 mol.%) were synthesized using modified solid state reaction technique. The synthesized phosphor was studied using powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), high resolution-scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM). Lattice parameters are calculated for the Tb3+ doped and substituted YAB phosphors using XRD analysis. The phosphor exhibits green emission at 572 nm with 375 nm of excitation. It is found that the Tb3+ ions substitution in the sites Y3+ and Al3+ ions in Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ leads to overlapping of energy levels which affects the PL intensity of the phosphor significantly. Thus, phosphor synthesized with the composition YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, acquires higher photoluminescence (PL) intensity when compared to Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ phosphors. Temperature dependent PL property (thermal quenching studies) of YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ was also performed up to 250 °C. Further, it is found that the PL intensity of the studied phosphor is comparable with commercial green phosphor. HR-SEM analysis demonstrates that the phosphors are grown as nanorods with an average diameter of 50-80 nm and length 250-500 nm.

  20. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... pushed to encourage walking. Sing songs together. Avoid television time until age 2. Try using a transition object to help decrease separation anxiety. Alternative Names Growth milestones for children - 9 months; Childhood growth milestones - 9 months; Normal ...

  1. Conversion of retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol in the tadpole.

    PubMed

    Tsin, A T; Alvarez, R A; Fong, S L; Bridges, C D

    1985-01-01

    The conversion of retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol in bullfrog tadpoles was studied by injecting [3H] all-trans retinol into the peritoneal cavity. The specific activities of retinoids in the eye and the rest of the body at various time intervals after the injection were then determined by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). Radioactivity was observed in ocular 3,4-didehydroretinyl esters after 2 days and their specific activity increased throughout the 2 weeks of experiment. This demonstrates that tadpoles can convert retinol to its 3,4-didehydro derivative. In vitro experiments performed on isolated eye cups also suggested that the ocular tissues could convert retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol. In the eye, the specific activity of porphyropsin or all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinal (extracted by the denaturing solvent acetone) exceeded that of the all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinyl esters in storage. This suggests that the main ocular store of 3,4-didehydroretinyl esters does not constitute a precursor pool for porphyropsin synthesis.

  2. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a privileged structure in antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Zhan, P; Liu, X

    2011-11-01

    1,3,4-oxadiazole, a privileged structure, endows its derivatives with broad and potent biological functions, especially in antiviral activities, including anti-HIV, anti-HCV, anti-HBV, anti-HSV activities, etc. Molecular modeling and pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the introduction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring to the inhibitors can change their polarity, flexibility as well as metabolic stability, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold can also act as acceptors of hydrogen bonds formation, which make it possible to be used as a isosteric substituent for amide or ester groups. This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring and mainly the discovery, biological activities investigations and structural modifications of several distinct classes of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles as potent antiviral agents. In addition, the binding models of some representative 1,3,4-oxadiazoles were also discussed, which provide rational explanation for their interesting antiviral activities, and also pave the way for further optimization of 1,3,4- oxadiazole based antiviral agents.

  3. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  4. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sing songs. Have a play date with a child of a similar age. Avoid television and other screen time until age 2. Try using a transitional object to help with separation anxiety. Alternative ... milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Well ...

  5. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 9 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds have a new understanding of the world. ...

  6. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... little differently. If you are concerned about your child's development, talk to your child's health care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS The ... months; Growth milestones for children - 4 months; Well child - 4 months ... KJ, Kliegman RM. Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ...

  7. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months A A A Notice your baby doing anything new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  8. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 2 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 2 Months A A A Your baby develops from head ... some new skills your baby may have this month: Communication and Language Skills develops more distinct cries ...

  9. Your Child's Development: 1 Month

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 1 Month KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 1 Month A A A Have you ever noticed how ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Baby's Growth: 1 Month Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 1 ...

  10. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 15 Months A A A Toddlers this age are learning ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months Delayed Speech or Language Development Nutrition Guide for ...

  11. Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games, and the Internet Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months Print A A A What's in this article? ... continue to grow in weight and length this month. How Much Will My Baby Grow? The first ...

  12. Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games, and the Internet Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months Print A A A What's in this article? ... How Much Will My Baby Grow? By 5 months, your baby's birth weight may have doubled. Babies ...

  13. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  14. [An immunohistochemical study of the expression of transcription factor Oct3/4 in mouse spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A N; Kostyleva, E I; Drosdovskiĭ, M A; Seralini, J E; Vorob'ev, V I

    1996-01-01

    The expression of POU-domain transcription factor Oct3/4 in the testis of adult mice has been studied using indirect immunofluorescence with highly specific antibodies. The protein is shown to be expressed in germ cells of seminiferous epithelium in a stage specific manner. The protein synthesis is initiated in mid-pachytene spermatocytes, increases to reach its peak during meiotic division. The Oct3/4 level remains augmented in early spermatids, but gradually declines during their further developmental advancement. These findings imply that Oct3/4 may have a regulatory function providing for the control of meiosis and/or terminal differentiation of spermatogenic cells.

  15. Copolyimides Prepared from 3,4'-Oxydianiline and 1,3-Bis(3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene with 3,3', 4,4'-Biphenylcarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Polyimide copolymers were prepared by reacting different ratios of 3,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 1,3-bis(3- aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) with 3,3',4,4'- biphenylcarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and endcappfng with an effective amount of a non-reactive endcapper. Within a narrow ratio of diamines, from -50% ODA/50% APB to -95% ODA/5% APB, the copolyimides prepared with BPDA have a unique combination of properties that make them very attractive for various applications. This unique combination of properties includes low pressure processing (200 psi and below), long term melt stability (several hours at 390 C.), improved toughness, improved solvent resistance, improved adhesive properties, and improved composite mechanical properties.

  16. Synthesis of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazine, 1,3,6-thiadiazepane and quinoxaline derivatives from symmetrical dithiobiureas and thioureidoethylthiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Alaa A; Mourad, Aboul-Fetouh; El-Shaieb, Kamal M; Abou-Zied, Ashraf H

    2005-08-31

    Reactions of N,N;-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N;-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented.

  17. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels.

  18. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-08

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  19. Thyroid-vitamin A interactions in Chicks exposed to 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl: influence of low dietary vitamin A and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, P.A.; Moon, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    Poultry chicks receiving a low vitamin A semipurified diet and exposed to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl became hypothyroid in comparison with unexposed controls. Metabolic rate, total serum thyroxine, total serum triiodothyronine, and food intake decreased significantly while thyroid weight increased. Unexpectedly, growth rate was not affected on this diet. In the case of chicks receiving a low vitamin A-low iodine semipurified diet and exposed to the PCB congener, the hypothyroid response was apparently antagonized. Comparing exposed chicks with unexposed controls, metabolic rate and the proportion of free T/sub 3/ (i.e., %T/sub 3/ resin uptake) increased while total serum thyroxine and thyroid weight were unchanged. In addition, growth rate, food consumption, and serum retinol decreased on this diet. These results are interpreted to mean that (i) growth rate may have been altered by circulating levels of retinol, and (ii) vitamin A insufficiency may predispose birds to the hypothyroid effects of PCBs.

  20. Comparison of N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)naphthalen-1-amine and its reduction product N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)naphthalen-1-amine.

    PubMed

    Garay, Alexander; Abonía, Rodrigo; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The molecules in (E)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)naphthalen-1-amine, C20H19NO3, (I), and its reduction product N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)naphthalen-1-amine, C20H21NO3, (II), are both conformationally chiral, but (I) crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group, while (II) crystallizes with just one conformational enantiomer in each crystal. A combination of two C-H···O hydrogen bonds links the molecules of (I) into sheets containing a single type of R(6)(6)(44) ring, and these sheets are linked into a continuous three-dimensional array by a single π-π stacking interaction. The molecules of (II) are linked into complex sheets by a combination of N-H···O, C-H···O and C-H···π(arene) hydrogen bonds.

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of novel 4-amino-6-(1,3,4-oxadiazolo/1,3,4-thiadiazolo)-pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Poornima; Praveen, B M; Raghavendra, M; Manjunath, K; Cheruku, Srinivas

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel 4-amino-6-(1,3,4-oxadiazolo/1,3,4-thiadiazolo)-pyrimidine derivatives of biological interest were prepared by sequential amination, hydrazide formation, and hydrazine carbothioamidination followed by cyclization. All the synthesized compounds (6a-6h and 7a-7f) were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. From this group, compound 7f (MIC (μg/mL μg/mL )/Inhibition (mm): 6.25/23-30) showed good antibacterial and antifungal activity. Reagents and conditions: (a) Ethyl acetoacetate, 60% NaH, 1,4-dioxane, 60°C, 6 h; (b) DIPEA, 1,4-dioxane, 100°C, 14 h; (c) NH2NH2 ⋅ H2O, EtOH, reflux, 14 h; (d) Tolyl isothiocyanatobenzene, DMF, RT, 2 h; (e) (if X = O) EDC⋅ HCl, TEA, DMF, RT, 14 h; (f) (if X = S) Conc. H2O4, RT, 14h.

  2. 2,3-Dibromo-3-(4-bromo-phen-yl)-1-[3-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)sydnon-4-yl]propan-1-one.

    PubMed

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Nithinchandra; Kalluraya, Balakrishna

    2011-04-01

    In the title compound {systematic name: 4-[2,3-dibromo-3-(4-bromo-phen-yl)propano-yl]-3-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1,2,3-oxa-dia-zol-3-ylium-5-olate}, C(18)H(13)Br(3)N(2)O(4), the central oxadiazole ring, which is essentially planar with a maximum deviation of 0.016 (3) Å, makes dihedral angles of 29.98 (16) and 52.04 (16)°, respectively, with the terminal bromo-substituted and meth-oxy-substituted benzene rings. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif.

  3. 3,4-Dihydroxy- and 3,4-methylenedioxy- phenanthrene-type alkaloids with high selectivity for D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Cabedo, Nuria; Ivorra, María Dolores; Sanz, María-Jesús; Castel, Arturo López; Carmen Álvarez, M; Cortes, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine-mediated neurotransmission plays an important role in relevant psychiatric and neurological disorders. Nowadays, there is an enormous interest in the development of new drugs acting at the dopamine receptors (DR) as potential new targets for the treatment of schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have revealed that isoquinoline compounds such as tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) can behave as selective D2 dopaminergic alkaloids. In the present study we have synthesized five aporphine compounds and five phenanthrene alkaloids and evaluated their potential dopaminergic activity. Binding studies on rat striatal membranes were used to evaluate their affinity and selectivity towards D1 and D2 DR. Phenanthrene type alkaloids, in particular the 3,4-dihydroxy- and 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives, displayed high selectivity towards D2 DR. Therefore, they are potential candidates to be used in the treatment of schizophrenia (antagonists) or Parkinson's disease (agonists) due to their scarce D1 DR-associated side effects.

  4. A highly sensitive spectrophotometric determination of micro amounts of vanadium(V) in environmental and alloy samples by using 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (3,4-DHBINH).

    PubMed

    Narayana, S Lakshmi; Reddy, K Janardhan; Narayana Reddy, S Adi; Sarala, Y; Reddy, A Varada

    2008-09-01

    3, 4-Dihydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone was prepared, characterized with spectral analyses and used for developing a new method for the simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric determination of vanadium(V) which gives maximum absorbance at wave length 360 nm. The metal ion gives a yellow colored complex with 3, 4-DHBINH in acetate buffer of pH 5.5 with 1:1 (metal:ligand) composition. The method obeys Beer's law in the range 0.5-5.3 microg mL(-1) of vanadium(V). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 1.29 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.003949 microg cm(-2) respectively. The correlation co-efficient of the V(V)-3, 4-DHBINH complex was 0.992 which indicated an excellent linearity between the two variables. The repeatability of the method was checked by finding the relative standard deviation (RSD) as 0.424% (n = 5), and its detection limit 0.01677 microg mL(-1) of vanadium(V). The instability constant of the method was calculated by Asmus' method as 4.1666 x 10(-3). The interfering effect of various cations and anions were also studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium(V) in environmental samples (water and soil) tobacco leaves and alloy samples. The validity of the method was tested by comparing the results with those obtained using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

  5. Synthesis and antitumor activities of novel hybrid molecules containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole bearing Schiff base moiety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xuan, Li-Na; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Jing, Fen; Li, Sha; Liu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bao-Quan

    2014-11-15

    A series of novel hybrid molecules containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole bearing Schiff base moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activities against SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and A549 human tumor cell lines by CCK-8 assay. The bioassay results demonstrated that most of the tested compounds showed potent antitumor activities, and some compounds exhibited stronger effects than positive control 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against various cell lines. Among these compounds, compound 8d showed the best inhibitory effect against SMMC-7721 cells, with IC50 value of 2.84 μM. Compounds 8k and 8 n displayed highly effective antitumor activities against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 4.56 and 4.25 μM, respectively. Compounds 8a and 8 n exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 4.11 and 4.13 μM, respectively. The pharmacological results suggest that the substituents of phenyl ring on the 1,3,4-oxadiazole are vital for modulating antiproliferative activities against various tumor cell lines.

  6. LOFT Monthly Progress Report for July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    N. C. Kaufman

    1980-08-01

    During July, the LOFT test sequence underwent careful review which determined that changes would be appropriate. Evaluation of Tests L3-4 and L6-1 indicated they would not add significantly to the information base available from other experiments; therefore, these tests were cancelled. As shown in the Management Summary Schedule included in this report, the next test to be run is L3-5, scheduled for mid-September. Test L3-5 will be a small-break test in the cold leg side of the operating loop of the plant. Work efforts during July concentrated on plant preparation for the mid-September test. Installation of a new small-break path from the cold leg to the blowdown suppression tank, together with the associated new instrumentation installations, were well underway and on schedule at month's end. The Actual spending rate to date is in agreement with current budgets and authorized funding levels.

  7. Severe cervical spondylotic myelopathy with complete neurological and neuroradiological recovery within a month after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marios, Th.; Dimitrios, Zevgaridis; Theologos, Th.; Christos, Tsonidis

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a complex syndrome evolving in the presence of degenerative changes. The choice of care and prognostic factors are controversial. The use of appropriate surgical technique is very important. Posterior approach may be chosen when pathology is present dorsally and/or in the presence of neutral to lordotic alignment. Anterior approach is the golden standard in patients with kyphosis and/or stenosis due to ventral lesions, even with three or more affected levels. A 67-year-old man presented with progressive weakness and clumsiness (mJOA: 5; Nurick: 4). An anterior discectomy, osteophytectomy and bilateral foraminotomy of the C4–C5; C5–C6; C6–C7 were performed. Polyether-Ether-Ketone spacers and a titanium plate were placed. The patient was mobilized 3-hour post-surgery and was released the following day. Medicament therapy and a neck-conditioning program were prescribed. Clinical examinations were normal within a month. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no traces of the preoperatively registered intramedullary focal T2 hyper-intensity. PMID:27887013

  8. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  9. 1,3,4-Thiadiazole-based diamides: Synthesis and complexation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasik, Natalia; Luboch, Elżbieta; Chojnacki, Jarosław; Wagner-Wysiecka, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    Aromatic diamides, derivative of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and isophthalic acid, bearing 1,3,4-thiadiazole residue were prepared with satisfactory yields in conventional procedures and microwave stimulated reactions. X-ray structure of N,N‧-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (2) DMSO solvate (2·DMSO) was described. Selective zinc(II), lanthanum(III), terbium(III) and L-tyrosine recognition was found for N,N‧-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide in DMSO and its mixture with water. The IDA (Indicator Displacement Assay) system for metal cations sensing was proposed. The binding properties of 2 were compared with newly synthesized N,N‧-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-benzenedicarboxamide 1.

  10. 3. 3/4 view of east and north elevations looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 view of east and north elevations looking southwest - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  11. 9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station looking southeast - Sinclair Service Station, Natchez Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, southeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  12. 7. 3/4 view of west and south elevations looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 view of west and south elevations looking northeast - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  13. 9. Suningive 3/4 view from rear, looking northeast. Note internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Suningive 3/4 view from rear, looking northeast. Note internal garage entrance. - Whitesbog Village & Cranberry Bog, Suningive House & Garden, 120-34 Whitesbog Road, Pemberton, Burlington County, NJ

  14. Testing Consent Order on 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride (DCBTF) and Response to the Interagency Testing Committee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable Testing Consent Order with Occidental Chemical Corp. to perform certain chemical fate and environmental effects tests on 3,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride (DCBTF).

  15. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. Carboxylic esters derivatives of 2-thioxo-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrido-[2,3-e]-1,3,4-triazepin-5-ones and 2-thioxo-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3,4-benzotriazepin-5-ones.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, W; Liszkiewicz, H; Wilimowski, M; Rutkowska, M; Barczyńska, J; Kedzierska-Goździk, L; Wojewódzki, W; Szelag, A

    1994-01-01

    2-Thioxo-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-e]-1,3,4-triazep in -5-ones [I] and 2-thioxo-1H-2,3,4,-5-tetrahydro-1,3,4-benzotriazepin-5-ones [V] furnish with methyl, ethyl and phenyl chloroformates two series of the corresponding 3-methoxy-, ethoxy- and phenoxycarbonyl triazepines. In the pharmacological screening, compounds [I], [V] and [II] showed an antianxiety activity in the four plate test, compounds [II] and [III] inhibited the 5-HTP- induced head twitches, and compound [VI] showed an analgesic activity in the "writing" test. The replacement of the benzene ring by the pyridine one in triazepines is accompanied by the enhancement of anxiolytic activity as well as toxicity.

  18. Intramolecular Diels–Alder/1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Cascade of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Gregory I.; Fuchs, James R.; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Ishikawa, Hayato; Tao, Houchao; Yuan, Z.-Q.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    Full details of a systematic exploration of the intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are disclosed in which the scope and utility of the reaction are defined. PMID:16895427

  19. 4. 3/4 VIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST Milwaukee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  20. 5. 3/4 VIEW, WEST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHEAST Milwaukee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW, WEST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  1. 4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END OF SPAN, LOOKING SW, SHOWING RIBBED ARCH CONSTRUCTION. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Peacock's Lock Viaduct, Spanning Schuykill River at Reading Railroad, Reading, Berks County, PA

  2. 5. 3/4 VIEW OF WESTERN ARCHES, SHOWING CURVATURE OF VIADUCT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW OF WESTERN ARCHES, SHOWING CURVATURE OF VIADUCT. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Delaware River Viaduct, Spanning Delaware River, north of Portland-Columbia Bridge, Portland, Northampton County, PA

  3. Electrochemical sensing of melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as recognition element.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jian

    2010-08-18

    A new electrochemical sensor for melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as the recognition element is established. The results of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra demonstrate that melamine may interact with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to form a complex mainly through the hydrogen-bonding interaction. The electrochemical behavior of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the presence of melamine was studied. The anodic peak currents of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid obtained by differential pulse voltammetry are linear with the logarithm of melamine concentrations in the range from 1.0 x 10(-8) to 5.0 x 10(-6) M with a linear coefficiency of 0.997. The detection limit is 3.0 x 10(-9) M. The proposed method displayed an excellent sensitivity and was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in milk products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 1. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, showing relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, showing relationship to Building 140 at right; looking SE. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 139, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. Self-inhibitor of bean rust uredospores: methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate.

    PubMed

    Macko, V; Staples, R C; Gershon, H; Renwick, J A

    1970-10-30

    Two germination inhibitors from bean rust uredospores were identified as the cis and trans isomers of methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate. They appear to be the "self-inhibitors" previously described from these spores.

  6. Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la casa, showing entrance to first story, view towards the south. - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  7. Synthesis, Urease Inhibition, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Molecular Docking Studies of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad; Shoaib, Khurram; Saleem, Muhammad; Hasan Rama, Nasim; Zaib, Sumera; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2012-01-01

    A series of eighteen 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been synthesized by treating aromatic acid hydrazides with carbon disulfide in ethanolic potassium hydroxide yielding potassium salts of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Upon neutralization with 1 N hydrochloric acid yielded crude crystals of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, which were purified by recrystallization in boiling methanol. The synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their urease inhibitory activities, most of the investigated compounds were potent inhibitors of Jack bean urease. The molecular docking studies were performed by docking them into the crystal structure of Jack bean urease to observe the mode of interaction of synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were also tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities and some derivatives exhibited very promising results. PMID:22934191

  8. Pseudorotaxane capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) detection in water.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Torres, Beatriz; Pascual, Lluís; Bernardos, Andrea; Marcos, María D; Jeppesen, Jan O; Salinas, Yolanda; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix

    2017-03-23

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

  9. 33. 3/4 VIEW OF COMPLETED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Erection and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 3/4 VIEW OF COMPLETED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Erection and field welding was completed on Monday, May 16, 1949) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  10. 3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier photos taken from the tower atop this structure. - Vermilion Life Saving Station, Shore of Lake Superior, 10 miles west of Whitefish Point, Paradise, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Southside thurmond, 3/4 view of black worker's housing at Dunloup ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southside thurmond, 3/4 view of black worker's housing at Dunloup Creek, on the southern side of the new river. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  12. East yard, 3/4 view of east and north elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, 3/4 view of east and north elevations of car departments tool house. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  13. 3/4 view of bridge connecting over new river which connects ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of bridge connecting over new river which connects thurmond to south side junction. View facing southwest. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  14. 3/4 view north and east elevations of oil and engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view north and east elevations of oil and engine supply house located on south side (riverside) of tracks. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  15. 3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER SWAY BRACE AT CENTER SPAN, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM, AND LATERAL BRACING - Achmun Creek Bridge, Spanning Achmun Creek at County Road 222, Ola, Yell County, AR

  16. Diversity of coordination modes in the polymers based on 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Du Xiaodi; Xiao Hongping; Zhou Xinhui; Wu Tao; You Xiaozeng

    2010-06-15

    Four new compounds [Ni{sub 2}(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Ni(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Mn{sub 2}(2,2'-bpy){sub 4}(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc){sub 2}] (3) and {l_brace}[Mn(1,10-phen){sub 2}(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc)].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (4) (3,4-H{sub 4}bptc=3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine, 2,2'-bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, 1, 10-phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), have been prepared and structurally characterized. In all compounds, the derivative ligands of 3,4-H{sub 4}bptc (3,4-bptc{sup 4-} and 3,4-H{sub 2}bptc{sup 2-}) exhibit different coordination modes and lead to the formation of various architectures. Compounds 1 and 2 display the three-dimensional (3D) framework: 1 shows a 3,4-connected topological network with (8{sup 3})(8{sup 5}.10) topology symbol based on the coordination bonds while in 2, the hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed to connect the 1D linear chain generating a final 3D framework. 3 exhibits the 2D layer constructed from the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the dinuclear manganese units. Complex 4 shows the double layers motif through connecting the 1D zigzag chains with hydrogen-bonded rings. The thermal stability of 1-4 and magnetic property of 1 were also reported. - Graphical abstract: Four coordination compounds exhibiting four coordination modes of the 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand, with three of new in this system, are obtained showing diversified architectures.

  17. Immobilization of Trametes hirsuta laccase into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polyaniline polymer-matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoju; Sjöberg-Eerola, Pia; Immonen, Kirsi; Bobacka, Johan; Bergelin, Mikael

    The immobilization of Trametes hirsuta laccase (ThL) in the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polyaniline (PANI) matrices was carried out in order to study the catalytic effect of ThL in different biocathode structures in a biofuel cell application. By using 2,2‧-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as a mediator compound, the immobilized ThL in both polymer matrices, exhibited catalytic activity for the reduction of oxygen into water. The amount of ThL was adjustable in the PEDOT matrix by controlling the working parameters, such as the charge density used in the electropolymerization of EDOT monomer and the ThL concentration used in the electropolymerization electrolyte. In the PEDOT biocathode structure, the utilization of porous material as the PEDOT supporting template was studied in order to improve the current density generated per unit area/volume. Reticulated vitreous carbon foam (RVC foam) was chosen as the PEDOT supporting template material and the biocathodes were manufactured by in situ entrapment of ThL into PEDOT films polymerized on the RVC foam. These biocathodes possessed a high cathodic open circuit potential and produced a large current density, reaching 1 mA cm -3 at 0.45 V when 19.5 μg ml -1 of ThL was used in the electrolyte. The performance of these biocathodes was extremely sensitive to variations in pH and the optimal working pH was around 4.2. The biocathode reserved 80%, 50%, and 30% of the catalytic activity after storage in a +4 °C buffer solution for 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The PANI matrix was prepared in a form of printable ink where ThL was in situ entrapped in the PANI matrix during the laccase activated polymerization of aniline using a chemical batch reactor method. Different amounts of the ThL-containing printable PANI ink were then applied on carbon paper and the performance of the ink was subsequently electrochemically characterized. In this way, not only two different polymer

  18. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  19. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  20. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  1. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  2. Novel Variants of Oct-3/4 Gene Expressed in Mouse Somatic Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Mitsuko

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that Oct-3/4 may regulate self-renewal in somatic stem cells, as it does in embryonic stem cells. However, recent reports raise the possibility that detection of human Oct-3/4 expression by RT-PCR is prone to artifacts generated by pseudogene transcripts and argue against a role for Oct-3/4 in somatic cells. In this study, we clarified Oct-3/4 expression in mouse somatic tissues using designed PCR primers, which can exclude amplification of its pseudogenes. We found that novel alternative transcripts are indeed expressed in somatic tissues, rather than the normal length transcripts in germline and ES cells. The alternative transcripts indicate the expression of two kinds of truncated proteins. Furthermore, we determined novel promoter regions that are sufficient for the expression of Oct-3/4 transcript variants in somatic cells. These findings provide new insights into the postnatal role of Oct-3/4 in somatic tissues. PMID:18765667

  3. Spectroscopic study of the magnetic ordering in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalina, E. P.; Popova, M. N.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2010-04-01

    SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 belongs to the family of rare-earth RFe 3(BO 3) 4 multiferroics. We present the first measurements of the optical spectra of SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 (on single crystals) and report the data on the crystal-field levels and their symmetries for the ground multiplet 6H 5/2 [0 ( Γ), 135 ( Γ), and 220 ( Γ) cm -1] and on the ground-state exchange splitting (13.2 cm -1 at 1.7 K), important to interpret the magnetic, magnetoelectric, and thermodynamic properties of this compound. The observed exchange splitting of the Sm 3+ Kramers doublets manifests the magnetic ordering in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 at 32±1 K. From a comparison of the temperature-dependent spectra of the Sm 3+ ion in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 and in Nd-Gd mixed iron borate where the magnetic spin reorientation has been found earlier, we suggest the easy-plane arrangement of the Fe spins in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4. The samarium iron borate preserves the R32 ( D37) crystal structure at all the investigated temperatures (down to 1.7 K).

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of rat brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16.

    PubMed

    Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1995-11-10

    We have isolated by immunological screening of a lambda ZAPII cDNA library constructed from rat brain mRNAs a cDNA clone encoding endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The longest open reading frame encodes a 704-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 80,202 daltons and bears the consensus sequence of the zinc metalloprotease family. The sequence exhibits a 60.2% homology with those of another zinc metallopeptidase, endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Northern blot analysis reveals two mRNA species of about 3 and 5 kilobases in rat brain, ileum, kidney, and testis. We have transiently transfected COS-7 cells with pcDNA3 containing the cloned cDNA and established the overexpression of a 70-75-kDa immunoreactive protein. This protein hydrolyzes QFS, a quenched fluorimetric substrate of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16, and cleaves neurotensin at a single peptide bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (11-13). QFS and neurotensin hydrolysis are potently inhibited by the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide blocker Pro-Ile and by dithiothreitol, while the enzymatic activity remains unaffected by phosphoramidon and captopril, the specific inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme, respectively. Altogether, these physicochemical, biochemical, and immunological properties unambiguously identify endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 as the protein encoded by the isolated cDNA clone.

  5. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  6. Radiological and functional 24-month outcomes of resurfacing versus stemmed anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    C Glanzmann, Michael; Kolling, Christoph; Schwyzer, Hans-Kaspar; Flury, Matthias; Audigé, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    This study compared clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients undergoing resurfacing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) with those treated with a stemmed TSA. Patients with primary osteoarthritis who underwent humeral resurfacing (RES) or stemmed (STA) TSA were identified in our shoulder arthroplasty register for retrospective analysis. Standard radiographs and clinical/patient-rated assessments were made up to 24 months post-surgery. Implant revisions were assessed. Patients were frequency-matched in a 1:1 (RES:STA) ratio based on gender and age, and compared with regard to operation time and shoulder function (Constant, SPADI and Quick DASH scores). Mixed models with statistical adjustments were applied. From 2006 to 2014, 44 RES and 137 STA operations were performed in 157 patients; one and two revisions were recorded in the RES and STA group, respectively. The final matched cohort included a total of 69 patients and 37 operations per treatment group. Resurfacing TSA was 17 min shorter (95%CI: 5-28) compared to the stemmed procedure (p = 0.005). RES and STA patients showed significant functional improvement six months post-implantation, yet all measured scores did not differ between the groups at 2 years (p ≥ 0.131). The status of static centering of the humeral head, acromiohumeral distance, and a lack of signs of implant loosening were also similar between treatments. Similar 24-month post-operative radiological and functional outcome is achieved by RES and STA patients, even with a shorter RES surgery time. Larger cohorts and longer follow-up are required to better assess implant survival.

  7. Natural gas monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured articles for this month are: Opportunities with fuel cells, and revisions to monthly natural gas data.

  8. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  9. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  11. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  12. Cometabolism of 3,4-dichlorobenzoate by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1.

    PubMed Central

    Adriaens, P; Focht, D D

    1991-01-01

    When Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 was grown on 4-chlorobenzoate (4-CB), it cometabolized 3,4-dichlorobenzoate (3,4-DCB) to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which could be used as a growth substrate. No cometabolism of 3,4-DCB was observed when Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 was grown on benzoate. 4-Carboxyl-1,2-benzoquinone was formed as an intermediate from 3,4-DCB and 3-C-4-OHB in aerobic and anaerobic resting-cell incubations and was the major transient intermediate found when cells were grown on 3-C-4-OHB. The first dechlorination step of 3,4-DCB was catalyzed by the 4-CB dehalogenase, while a soluble dehalogenase was responsible for dechlorination of 3-C-4-OHB. Both enzymes were inducible by the respective chlorinated substrates, as indicated by oxygen uptake experiments. The dehalogenase activity on 3-C-4-OHB, observed in crude cell extracts, was 109 and 44 nmol of 3-C-4-OHB min-1 mg of protein-1 under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 3-Chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate served as a pseudosubstrate for the 4-hydroxybenzoate monooxygenase by effecting oxygen and NADH consumption without being hydroxylated. Contrary to 4-CB metabolism, the results suggest that 3-C-4-OHB was not metabolized via the protocatechuate pathway. Despite the ability of resting cells grown on 4-CB or 3-C-4-OHB to carry out all of the necessary steps for dehalogenation and catabolism of 3,4-DCB, it appeared that 3,4-DCB was unable to induce the necessary 4-CB dehalogenase for the initial p-dehalogenation step.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2036004

  13. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Martinez, C

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requirements of these thymocytes were characterized and related to the T3-receptor complex and IL-2 pathways, thought to be used by mature lymphocytes. The results show that addition of recombinant IL-2 promotes, in a dose-dependent way, proliferation and acquisition of effector functions by cultured T3+4-8- thymocytes, the growth being inhibitable by monoclonal antibody 33B73 (anti-Tac). Furthermore, cytolytic activity of T3+4-8- cells induced by recombinant IL-2 is specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody OKT3, showing that it operates via the T3-receptor complex and does not require either T4 or T8 molecules. The finding of in vitro responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 in T3+4-8- thymocytes suggests a role of IL-2 in the growth and maturation of cells committed to the T-cell lineage, during intrathymic differentiation, prior to expression of T4 and T8 molecules. PMID:3929254

  14. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channel: muscling in on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2007-09-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 665), Pannacione et al. provide evidence of a role for the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha subunit Kv3.4 and its ancillary subunit MiRP2 in beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-mediated neuronal death. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 channel complex-previously found to be important in skeletal myocyte physiology-is now argued to be a molecular correlate of the transient outward potassium current up-regulated by Abeta peptide, considered a significant step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. The authors conclude that MiRP2 and Kv3.4 are up-regulated by Abeta peptide in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent fashion at the transcriptional level, and the sea anemone toxin BDS-I is shown to protect against Abeta peptide-mediated cell death by specific blockade of Kv3.4-generated current. The findings lend weight to the premise that specific channels, such as MiRP2-Kv3.4, could hold promise as future therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-01

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L1), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L4). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L3) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1 M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  16. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-25

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(1)), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(4)). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(3)) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  17. High cervical C3-4 'disc' compression associated with basilar invagination.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  18. Differentiation of human mature thymocytes: existence of a T3+4-8- intermediate stage.

    PubMed

    De la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Marcos, M A; Cabrero, E; Martinez-A, C

    1986-06-01

    A T3 complex-bearing subpopulation was characterized within an in vivo cycling T4-8- early thymocyte compartment which contains cells constitutively expressing interleukin 2 and transferrin receptors. We show differentiation in vitro of both mature subsets of thymocytes (T3+4+8- and T3+4-8+) from the above T4-8- compartment, their appearance being preceded by cells in a T3+4-8- intermediate stage. Furthermore, those mature thymocytes generated in vitro contain functionally competent cells which use T3, T4 and T8 structures for their cytolytic activity. The finding of T3+4-8- thymocytes in vivo, together with the observation that T3 antigen expression precedes that of T4 or T8 molecules in vitro, shows that T3 (and presumably Ti) is present early in ontogeny, and suggests that T3+4-8- cells constitute an "intermediate" stage relevant to the connection between early precursors and mature thymocytes during T lymphocyte ontogeny.

  19. Characterization of aluminum resistant Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Chun; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2015-04-01

    The Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4, previously isolated from a hot spring, was screened for its heavy metals resistance (Al(3+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+)) and the strain was found to be most resistant to aluminum. Significant growth of the strain was observed when it was grown in medium containing aluminum (200 mg L(-1)-800 mg L(-1)) with relative growth rates ranging between 77% and 100%. A gene encoding the aluminum resistance protein (accession number: WP_021095658.1) was found in genome of strain SK 3-4, which revealed high sequence identity (>95%) to its homologues from Anoxybacillus species. Sequence comparisons with two functionally characterized aluminum resistance proteins, namely G2alt and ALU1-P, showed 97% and 81% of sequence identity, respectively. Four putative metal binding sites were detected in SK 3-4 aluminum resistance protein and G2alt at same amino acid residue positions of 186, 195, 198, and 201. Strain SK 3-4 was found to be able to remove aluminum from aqueous solution. This study demonstrated that Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 could be applied in the treatment of aluminum contaminated wastewater. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Atypical Antidepressant Activity of 3,4-Bis(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Furan-2,5-Dione Isolated from Heart Wood of Cedrus deodara, in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitesh; Dhayabaran, Daniel; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Puratchikody, A; Lalani, Natasha; Dawood, Karima; Ghosh, Aanesha

    2014-10-01

    Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) has been used traditionally in Ayurveda for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) was isolated from heart wood of Cedrus deodara and was shown to have antiepileptic and anxiolytic activity. Thus, the present study was aimed to explore its anti-depressant effect and to correlate the effect with serotonin and nor adrenaline levels of brain. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. Animals were divided in to three groups; vehicle control, imipramine (30 mg/kg i.p.), BDFD (100 mg/kg i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) was performed to evaluate antidepressant effect of BDFD. BDFD (100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant decrease in immobility time when subjected to FST whereas immobility time was not significantly altered in TST. BDFD treatment increased serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the brain which is indicative of BDFD having possible atypical antidepressant action.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PEDOT-DMcT) Hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.; Conte, Sean; Lowe, Michael A.; Gao, Jie; Kiya, Yasuyuki; Henderson, Jay C.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2015-06-01

    Organosulfur Compounds (OSCs) represent an attractive alternative as organic cathode materials for electrochemical energy storage (EES) applications. They intrinsically have high gravimetric capacity (although low volumetric) and are typically inexpensive, since they are composed of abundant elements (i.e. C, N, O, and S). However, OSCs, specifically thiolate-containing OSCs generally suffer from slow charge transfer kinetics. To mitigate the charge transfer limitations, conducting polymers (CPs) such as poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) have been employed as electrocatalysts. In this manuscript, we have covalently modified a PEDOT film with an OSC (i.e. 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole di-lithium salt (Li2DMcT)). We have developed a synthetic strategy that employs, for the first time, a post-polymerization modification reaction as a tractable and viable technique to modify organic materials for EES electrodes. Electrochemical characterization, via cyclic voltammetry showed the expected pseudocapacitive response of PEDOT with the superimposed faradaic processes of the covalently bound DMcT. Moreover, spectroscopic characterization using Raman spectroscopy provided mechanistic insights into the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, we electropolymerized films onto coin-cell electrodes and tested them in half-cell configurations and found that the capacity retention of the films was significantly enhanced, when compared with the PEDOT/DMcT composites (mixed but not covalently bound).

  2. Comparing behavioral and chronic endpoints to evaluate the response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl sediment exposures.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) was examined with feeding behavior and changes in carbon assimilation by using stable carbon isotopes at 22 and 10 degrees C. The classical measure of feeding behavior determined on a subset of sediment for which the biological burial rate was determined in a companion study allowed direct method comparison. This comparison helped address relationships between biological burial rate, feeding rate, and bioaccumulation. The change in stable isotope composition reflects the total metabolic activity by measuring carbon assimilation rate and was compared to feeding rate, biological burial rate (as determined in the companion study), and reproduction. Decreasing the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C resulted in a twofold reduction in feeding rate and carbon assimilation. The fractional decline in feeding rate relative to the control mimicked the decline in the biological burial rate with increasing TCBP concentration that was found in the companion study. The bioaccumulation factor declined with increasing TCBP sediment concentration, tracking the feeding rate decline. Stable isotope measures showed differences in metabolic rates between the exposure temperatures but did not distinguish a metabolic rate change at 22 degrees C among TCBP treatments. Likewise, reproduction declined from 22 to 10 degrees C, with no reproduction at 10 degrees C. Like the stable isotope measure, no dose response was found among TCBP treatments at 22 degrees C. The reduction in carbon assimilation rate tracked the reduction in reproduction with lower temperature.

  3. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, 1,2,4-triazoles and Mannich bases.

    PubMed

    Megally Abdo, Nadia Youssef; Kamel, Mona Monir

    2015-01-01

    A series of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amines (3a-d), 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amines (4a-d) and 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (5a-d) were obtained by the cyclization of hydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives 2a-d derived from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Aminoalkylation of compounds 5a-d with formaldehyde and various secondary amines furnished the Mannich bases 6a-p. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines and normal fibroblast cells. Sixteen of the tested compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against most cell lines. Among these derivatives, the Mannich bases 6j, 6m and 6p were found to exhibit the most potent activity. The Mannich base 6m showed more potent cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer NUGC (IC50=0.021 µM) than the standard CHS 828 (IC50=0.025 µM). Normal fibroblast cells WI38 were affected to a much lesser extent (IC50>10 µM).

  4. Vibrational spectra and theoretical calculations (dimerization, UV-Vis, multinuclear NMR and pes analyses) of 3,4-dimethylbenzamide and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzamide.

    PubMed

    Muniappan, P; Meenakshi, R; Rajavel, G; Arivazhagan, M

    2014-01-03

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-dimethyl benzamide (DMBA) and 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzamide (THBA) have been measured in the regions 400-4000 and 50-3500 cm(-1), respectively. Utilizing the observed FT-IR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the title compounds were carried out. The vibrational frequencies which were determined experimentally are compared with those theoretical frequencies from force field calculation based on B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods. Stability of the compound arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. UV-Vis analysis of the title compounds has also been done using TD-DFT method. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the compounds were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. HOMO-LUMO and MEP analyses have been done for the title compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative sorption and desorption of benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in natural lake water containing dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Akkanen, Jarkko; Tuikka, Anita; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2005-10-01

    The sorption and desorption of two model compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP), were studied in natural lake water with high dissolved organic matter (DOM) content using the equilibrium dialysis and Tenax extraction methods. The sorption of TCBP was lower and reached steady value more slowly than did BaP. Tenax extraction revealed at least two differently desorbing fractions for both model compounds, which also supported the conclusion that DOM-HOC associations may involve several mechanisms. The rapidly desorbing fraction may be attributed to freely dissolved and loosely sorbed compound, whereas the more strongly sorbed fraction may indicate the presence of specific binding sites. The data indicated that the association between hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) and DOM is not simply absorption that is solely driven by the lipophilicity of the sorbates. Although contact time had a rather negligible effect on the sorption of BaP, the proportion of desorption resistant fraction increased with time, whereas the desorption of TCBP was less affected by contact time. Steric factors may be the cause of the lower sorption and smaller desorption resistant fraction of TCBP. The results indicate potential differences in the behavior of PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic environment.

  6. Confocal microscopy reveals thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16) in the classical secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Garrido, P A; Vandenbulcke, F; Ramjaun, A R; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Ferro, E; Beaudet, A

    1999-04-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are closely related enzymes involved in the metabolic inactivation of bioactive peptides. Both of these enzymes were previously shown to be secreted from a variety of cell types, although their primary sequence lacks a signal peptide. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this secretion, we examined by confocal microscopy the subcellular localization of these two enzymes in the neuroendocrine cell line AtT20. Both EP24.15 and EP24.16 were found by immunohistochemistry to be abundantly expressed in AtT20 cells. Western blotting experiments confirmed that the immunoreactivity detected in the soma of these cells corresponded to previously cloned isoforms of the enzymes. At the subcellular level, both enzymes colocalized extensively with the integral trans-Golgi network protein, syntaxin-6, in the juxtanuclear region. In addition, both EP24.15 and EP24.16 were found within small vesicular organelles distributed throughout the cell body. Some, but not all, of these organelles also stained positively for ACTH. These results demonstrate that both EP24.15 and EP24.16 are present within the classical secretory pathway. Their colocalization with ACTH further suggests that they may be targeted to the regulated secretory pathway, even in the absence of a signal peptide.

  7. N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) is a selective persistent inhibitor of glycine transport

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of glycine concentrations within excitatory synapses is poorly understood and it has been proposed that the GLYT1 subtypes of glycine transporters play a critical role in determining resting concentrations of glycine. Selective GLYT1 inhibitors may provide pharmacological tools to probe the dynamics of synaptic glycine concentrations, which may influence the activation properties of NMDA receptor activity.We have characterized the selectivity and mechanism of action of the glycine transport inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS). The glycine transporters, GLYT1a, b and c and GLYT2a were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode voltage clamp techniques and radiolabelled 3H-glycine flux measurements were used to characterize the effects of NFPS on glycine transport.NFPS inhibits glycine transport by the GLYT1a, b and c subtypes of glycine transporters, but has no effect on the GLYT2a subtype of transporter. We show that NFPS does not attain its specificity via an interaction with the Na+, Cl− or glycine site, nor does it act at an intracellular site. NFPS inhibition of glycine transport is time and concentration dependent and inhibition of transport by NFPS persists after washout of NFPS from the bath solution, which suggests that inhibition by NFPS is long lasting. PMID:11724748

  8. Synthesis and theoretical studies of non‒covalent interactions within a newly synthesized chiral 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Uzma; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Chahkandi, Mohammad; Bhatti, Moazzam H.; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2017-02-01

    In this work the synthesis of a new compound formulated as C12H12N4OS, ((S)-1-(6-Phenyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl)ethanol) (5) reported and theoretical studies of the non‒covalent interactions constructed the related crystalline network described. It has been characterized by IR, Mass, and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X‒ray diffraction analysis. The binding energy of the non‒covalent interactions constructing the network of 5 have been calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT‒D). The optimization of the formed network using H‒bonding and π‒stacking revealed that 1‒D coordination chain has been composed of neutral monomeric compound. For this purpose, the independent smallest fragment (monomer) and subsequently the related network, including seven monomers, having all non‒covalent interactions have been optimized. The results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds, especially Osbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N, and Csbnd H⋯S interactions, govern the network formation. The calculated results of electronic transition in agreement with the experiment ones show eleven major bands derived from σ → π, n → n/σ*/π* aromatic rings to hydroxyl, inter‒atomic of oxygen, and thiadiazine to phenyl ring charge transfer transitions.

  9. Equivalent weight loss with marked metabolic benefit observed in a matched cohort with and without type 2 diabetes 12 months following gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Yip, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie; Giegerich, Victoria; Schauer, Philip R; Kashyap, Sangeeta R

    2012-11-01

    Bariatric surgery results in dramatic weight loss and improves metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, previous studies have noted that morbidly obese patients with T2DM experience less weight loss benefits than non-diabetic patients following bariatric surgery. We sought to determine longitudinal effects of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) on percent excess body mass index (BMI) loss (%EBMIL) and clinical metabolic syndrome parameters in patients with T2DM compared with appropriately matched cohort without T2DM. Retrospective cohort analysis of T2DM patients (n = 126) to non-T2DM patients (n = 126) matched on age (M = 48.1 ± 9.5), sex (81 % female), race (81 % Caucasian), and pre-surgical BMI (M = 49.3 ± 9.5). Lipids, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, co-morbidities of obesity, medications for co-morbidities, and T2DM medications were collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months post-surgery. %EBMIL was collected at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-surgery. One-way analyses of variance with effect sizes estimates were conducted to compare the two groups. As expected, T2DM subjects had significantly greater pre-surgical HbA1c, blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid parameters at baseline vs. non-T2DM (all p values of<0.05). At 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after LRYRB, both groups had similar reduction in %EBMIL (p > 0.10). At 6 months, there was a significant reduction in HbA1c, blood glucose, and lipid in the T2DM cohort compared with pre-surgical levels (p < 0.0001). At 12 months, these values were not different to that of the non-T2DM subjects (p > 0.10). When matched on appropriate factors associated with weight loss outcomes, severely obese patients with T2DM have similar post-LRYGB weight loss outcomes in the first 12 months following surgery compared with non-T2DM patients. Furthermore, T2DM surgical patients achieved significant improvement in metabolic syndrome components.

  10. Celebration Time: Black History Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkney, Andrea Davis

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, more students, teachers, and librarians are aware of African-American History Month and try to give it greater attention. However, the author questions herself if people do really "celebrate" African-American History Month or is it just something folks feel obligated to do, so they "celebrate" by displaying a collection of books about…

  11. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  14. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Haida Months of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  19. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read to the child. Encourage play dates with children of the same age. Avoid television and other screen time before age 2. Play simple games together, such as puzzles and shape sorting. Use a transitional object to help with separation anxiety. ... milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; ...

  20. Haida Months of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in…

  1. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Left behind by Birth Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Norway I investigate long-term birth month effects. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are larger for low-SES children. Furthermore, I find that the youngest children in class are lagging significantly…

  3. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  4. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  5. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  9. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  10. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  11. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  12. Microbial Hydroxylation of 5-Anilino-1,2,3,4-Thiatriazole

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Robert J.; Longfield, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five fungi, including 100 basidiomycetes and 35 yeasts, 75 actinomycetes, and 40 bacteria were screened for their ability to convert 5-anilino-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (AT) to 5-(p-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (p-HT). Eleven cultures were found that formed p-HT, which was isolated and whose structure was determined. Aspergillus tamarii NRRL 3280 formed 8.6 g of p-HT/liter from 10 g of AT/liter (78.9% conversion) in shaken flasks and 4.57 g of p-HT/liter from 6 g of AT/liter (69.8% conversion) in 30-liter fermentors. Washed cells of A. tamarii NRRL 3280 also carried out this conversion. 5-(o-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (o-HT) was identified as a second product formed by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960. PMID:4699219

  13. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  14. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  15. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C6H2O5)(C6H3O5)(H2O)]n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented.

  16. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  17. The expression and activity of KV3.4 channel subunits are precociously upregulated in astrocytes exposed to Aβ oligomers and in astrocytes of Alzheimer's disease Tg2576 mice.

    PubMed

    Boscia, Francesca; Pannaccione, Anna; Ciccone, Roselia; Casamassa, Antonella; Franco, Cristina; Piccialli, Ilaria; de Rosa, Valeria; Vinciguerra, Antonio; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2017-06-01

    Astrocyte dysfunction emerges early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to its pathology and progression. Recently, the voltage gated potassium channel KV3.4 subunit, which underlies the fast-inactivating K(+) currents, has been recognized to be relevant for AD pathogenesis and is emerging as a new target candidate for AD. In the present study, we investigated both in in vitro and in vivo models of AD the expression and functional activity of KV3.4 potassium channel subunits in astrocytes. In primary astrocytes our biochemical, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological studies demonstrated a time-dependent upregulation of KV3.4 expression and functional activity after exposure to amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers. Consistently, astrocytic KV3.4 expression was upregulated in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of 6-month-old Tg2576 mice. Further, confocal triple labeling studies revealed that in 6-month-old Tg2576 mice, KV3.4 was intensely coexpressed with Aβ in nonplaque associated astrocytes. Interestingly, in the cortical and hippocampal regions of 12-month-old Tg2576 mice, plaque-associated astrocytes much more intensely expressed KV3.4 subunits, but not Aβ. More important, we evidenced that the selective knockdown of KV3.4 expression significantly downregulated both glial fibrillary acidic protein levels and Aβ trimers in the brain of 6-month-old Tg2576 mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the expression and function of KV3.4 channel subunits are precociously upregulated in cultured astrocytes exposed to Aβ oligomers and in reactive astrocytes of AD Tg2576 mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica palearctica serobiotype O:3/4--a successful group of emerging zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Batzilla, Julia; Antonenka, Uladzimir; Höper, Dirk; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rakin, Alexander

    2011-07-06

    High-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica caused several human outbreaks in Northern America. In contrast, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 is responsible for sporadic cases worldwide with asymptomatic pigs being the main source of infection. Genomes of three Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 human isolates (including the completely sequenced Y11 German DSMZ type strain) were compared to the high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica 8081 O:8/1B to address the peculiarities of the O:3/4 group. Most high-pathogenicity-associated determinants of Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica (like the High-Pathogenicity Island, yts1 type 2 and ysa type 3 secretion systems) are absent in Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 genomes. On the other hand they possess alternative putative virulence and fitness factors, such as a different ysp type 3 secretion system, an RtxA-like and insecticidal toxins, and a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) PTS system (aga-operon). Horizontal acquisition of two prophages and a tRNA-Asn-associated GIYep-01 genomic island might also influence the Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 pathoadaptation. We demonstrated recombination activity of the PhiYep-3 prophage and the GIYep-01 island and the ability of the aga-operon to support the growth of the Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica O:8/1B on GalNAc. Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 experienced a shift to an alternative patchwork of virulence and fitness determinants that might play a significant role in its host pathoadaptation and successful worldwide dissemination.

  19. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  20. Outcome after stroke thrombolysis in patients >80 years treated within 3 hours vs >3-4.5 hours.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Niaz; Lees, Kennedy R; Ringleb, Peter A; Bladin, Christopher; Collas, David; Toni, Danilo; Ford, Gary A

    2017-10-10

    To determine outcomes and risks of IV thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) >80 years of age within 3 hours compared to >3 to 4.5 hours recorded in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke (SITS) International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry. A total of 14,240 (year 2003-2015) patients >80 years of age with AIS were treated with IVT ≤4.5 hours of stroke onset (3,558 in >3-4.5 hours). Of these, 8,658 (2,157 in >3-4.5 hours) were treated otherwise according to the European Summary of Product Characteristics (EU SmPC) criteria for alteplase. Outcomes were 3-month functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), mortality, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH)/SITS. Results were compared between the groups treated in >3 to 4.5 and ≤3 hours. Median age was 84 years; 61% were female in both groups. Median NIH Stroke Scale score was 12 vs 14 in the >3- to 4.5- and ≤3-hour group, respectively. Three-month functional independence was 34% vs 35% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.89, p < 0.001); mortality was 31% vs 32% (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.25, p = 0.13); and SICH/SITS was 2.7% vs 1.6% (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.25-2.35, p = 0.001). In EU SmPC-compliant patients, 3-month functional independence was 36 vs 37% (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92, p = 0.002), mortality was 29% vs 29.6% (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 0.95-1.28, p = 0.20), and SICH/SITS was 2.7% vs 1.6% (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2.34, p = 0.01). In this observational study, unselected patients >80 years of age treated with IVT after 3 hours vs earlier had a slightly higher rate of SICH and similar unadjusted functional outcome but poorer adjusted outcome. The absolute difference between the treatment groups is small, and elderly patients should not be denied IVT in the later time window solely because of age without other contraindications. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. 3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Cornice and corbels; cement exterior grilles; wood interior grilles; ceiling beams; exterior wall section. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 10, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section and plan of center part of ceiling. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside California. Sheet 11, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  4. [Kv3.4 channel is involved in rat pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Bi, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Da-Ling

    2006-02-25

    We have reported that hypoxia increases the activation of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), which converts arachidonic acid (AA) into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in small pulmonary arteries (PAs). Through inhibition of Kv channels, 15-HETE causes more robust concentration-dependent contraction of PA rings from the hypoxic compared to the normoxic controls. However, the subtypes of Kv channels inhibited by 15-HETE are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of Kv3.4 channel in the process of pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-HETE using the tension studies of PA rings from rat with Kv3.4 channel blocker in tissue bath; to explore the role of vascular endothelium in15-HETE-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction through denuded endothelia of PA rings; and to define the downregulation of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with RT-PCR and Western blot. In the present study, healthy Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: Group A with normal oxygen supply and group B with hypoxia. Six days later, the rats were killed. Pulmonary artery rings were prepared for organ bath experiments. Firstly, different concentrations of 15-HETE (10~1 000 nmol/L) were added to the Krebs solution. The isometric tension was recorded using a four-channel force-displacement transducer. Then Kv3.4 channel blocker, 100 nmol/L BDS-I, was added, followed by adding 1 mumol/L 15-HETE, and the isometric tension was recorded. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to identify the influence of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured rat PASMCs.The results showed the PA tension was significantly increased both in groups A and B by 15-HETE in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), especially in group B (P<0.05 compared to control); denuded endothelia enhanced 15-HETE concentration-related constrictions in rat PA rings; Kv3.4 channel blocker, BDS

  5. Selective synthesis of 1-substituted 4-chloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Babu, Suresh; Morrill, Christie; Almstead, Neil G; Moon, Young-Choon

    2013-04-19

    Strategies for carrying out the reaction of 4,6-dichloropyrimidine-5-carboxaldehyde with various hydrazines to generate 1-substituted 4-chloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in a selective and high-yielding manner are presented. For aromatic hydrazines, the reaction is performed in the absence of an external base, which promotes exclusive hydrazone formation. The hydrazones subsequently cyclize at an elevated temperature to form the desired pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine products. For aliphatic hydrazines, the reaction sequence proceeds as a single step in the presence of an external base.

  6. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  7. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  8. Syntheses and Degradations of Fluorinated Heterocyclics. 3; Perfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L.; Kaufman, J.; Nakahara, J. H.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-, 2-perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoro-n- heptyl- , and 2 , 5-bisperfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and characterized. 2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole was thermally and hydrolytically stable at 325 C; however, in the presence of air, degradation took place at 235 C. The perfluoroalkylether analogue exhibited thermal and hydrolytic stability at 325 C; it was found to be unaffected by jet-A fuel and air at 235 C. At 325 C in air some degradation occurred as evidenced by volatiles production, oxygen consumption, and 96% starting material recovery.

  9. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyran-oside.

    PubMed

    Mönch, Bettina; Emmerling, Franziska; Kraus, Werner; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2013-02-01

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-(acet-oxy-meth-yl)-6-propoxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C(17)H(26)O(10), was formed by a Koenigs-Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant inter-actions such as hydrogen bonds.

  10. Syntheses and Degradations of Fluorinated Heterocyclics. 3; Perfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L.; Kaufman, J.; Nakahara, J. H.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-, 2-perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoro-n- heptyl- , and 2 , 5-bisperfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and characterized. 2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole was thermally and hydrolytically stable at 325 C; however, in the presence of air, degradation took place at 235 C. The perfluoroalkylether analogue exhibited thermal and hydrolytic stability at 325 C; it was found to be unaffected by jet-A fuel and air at 235 C. At 325 C in air some degradation occurred as evidenced by volatiles production, oxygen consumption, and 96% starting material recovery.

  11. Design of smart window based on electrochromic polymers: new derivatives of 3,4-alkylenedioxythiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Xu, Chunye; Legenski, Susan E.; Ning, Dai; Taya, Minoru

    2004-07-01

    The synthesis, characterization and polymerization of two new electrochromic (EC) monomers based on 3, 4-alkylenedioxythiophene are reported. One is 3, 4-bis-(2, 2, 2-trifluoro-ethoxy)-thiophene which contains electron withdrawing group. Another is 6, 6-dimethy-6, 7-dihydro-5H-4, 8-dioxa-2-thia-6-sila-azulene which contains an electron donating group. Primary experiment results show that the new monomers have potential to form EC materials with new colors after polymerization. Color mixing of two EC polymers with blue and red color was studied. The principle of subtractive color mixing for achieving new color EC materials is also demonstrated.

  12. Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1

    PubMed Central

    Manka, Jason T.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Venable, Daryl F.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of SAR in an octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole series of negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1 using a functional cell-based assay is described in this Letter. The octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole scaffold was chosen as an isosteric replacement for the piperazine ring found in the initial hit compound. Characterization of selected compounds in protein binding assays was used to identify the most promising analogs, which were then profiled in P450 inhibition assays in order to further assess the potential for drug-likeness within this series of compounds. PMID:23932792

  13. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  14. 5-(Adamantan-1-yl)-3-[(4-benzyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; El-Brollosy, Nasser R.; Attia, Mohamed I.; Said-Abdelbaky, Mohammed; García-Granda, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C24H32N4OS, is a functionalized 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione with substituted piperazine and adamantanyl substituents attached at the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, of the oxadiazole spacer with an approximately C-shaped conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules form dimers via C—H⋯S inter­action. The piperazine ring has a chair conformation; the substituents S, methyl­ene C and adamantane C of the essentially planar oxadiazole ring are approximately in the same plane, with distances of −0.046 (2), −0.085 (5) and 0.003 (4) Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl and oxadiazole rings is 31.3 (3)°. PMID:22798843

  15. Natural gas monthly, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month feature is on the value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry.

  16. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  17. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  18. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  1. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of the "bath salts" constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Goldberg, Steven R; Lehner, Kurt R; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Brandt, Simon D; Baumann, Michael H

    2016-05-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) are synthetic drugs found in so-called "bath salts" products. Both drugs exert their effects by interacting with monoamine transporter proteins. MDPV is a potent uptake blocker at transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine while methylone is a non-selective releaser at transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (5-HT). We hypothesized that prominent 5-HT-releasing actions of methylone would render this drug less reinforcing than MDPV. To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral effects of MDPV and methylone using intravenous (i.v.) self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in male rats. Additionally, neurochemical effects of the drugs were examined using in vivo microdialysis in nucleus accumbens, in a separate cohort of rats. MDPV self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inj) was acquired rapidly and reached 40 infusions per session, similar to the effects of cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/inj), by the end of training. In contrast, methylone self-administration (0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg/inj) was acquired slowly, and response rates only reached 20 infusions per session by the end of training. In dose substitution studies, MDPV and cocaine displayed typical inverted U-shaped dose-effect functions, but methylone did not. In vivo microdialysis revealed that i.v. MDPV (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine while i.v. methylone (1 and 3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine and 5-HT. Our findings support the hypothesis that elevations in extracellular 5-HT in the brain can dampen positive reinforcing effects of cathinone-type drugs. Nevertheless, MDPV and methylone are both self-administered by rats, suggesting these drugs possess significant abuse liability in humans.

  4. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of the “bath salts” constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Charles W.; Thorndike, Eric B.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Lehner, Kurt R.; Cozzi, Nicholas V.; Brandt, Simon D.; Baumann, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) are synthetic drugs found in so-called “bath salts” products. Both drugs exert their effects by interacting with monoamine transporter proteins. MDPV is a potent uptake blocker at transporters for dopamine and norepinephrine while methylone is a non-selective releaser at transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT). Objectives We hypothesized that prominent 5-HT-releasing actions of methylone would render this drug less reinforcing than MDPV. Methods To test this hypothesis, we compared behavioral effects of MDPV and methylone using intravenous (i.v.) self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in male rats. Additionally, neurochemical effects of the drugs were examined using in vivo microdialysis in nucleus accumbens, in a separate cohort of rats. Results MDPV self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inj) was acquired rapidly, and reached 40 infusions per session, similar to the effects of cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/inj), by the end of training. By contrast, methylone self-administration (0.3 & 0.5 mg/kg/inj) was acquired slowly, and response rates only reached 20 infusions per session by the end of training. In dose substitution studies, MDPV and cocaine displayed typical inverted U-shaped dose-effect functions, but methylone did not. In vivo microdialysis revealed that i.v. MDPV (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine while i.v. methylone (1 and 3 mg/kg) increased extracellular dopamine and 5-HT. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that elevations in extracellular 5-HT in the brain can dampen positive reinforcing effects of cathinone-type drugs. Nevertheless, MDPV and methylone are both self-administered by rats suggesting these drugs possess significant abuse liability in humans. PMID:26319160

  6. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M.; Rice, Kenner C.; Gannon, Brenda M.; Fantegrossi, William E.; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.

    2016-01-01

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4- methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as “bath salts.” These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5 mM - 2.5 mM) for 24 hours. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5 mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5 mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1 mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1 mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5 mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1 mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥ 0.5 mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5 mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. PMID:27320055

  7. Contrasting effects of d-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and 4-methylmethcathinone on wheel activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pai-Kai; Aarde, Shawn M; Angrish, Deepshikha; Houseknecht, Karen L; Dickerson, Tobin J; Taffe, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Reports from U.S., U.K. and European drug policy entities, and ongoing media accounts, show increasing recreational use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Severe sympathomimetic symptoms, hallucinations, psychoses, and even deaths have been reported, yet little scientific information is available on the effects of these compounds in laboratory models. Available studies on the neurochemistry of these drugs show that 4-MMC and MDPV enhance DA neurotransmission, while 4-MMC additionally enhances 5-HT neurotransmission--a pattern much like that reported for methamphetamine versus 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As is the case for designer amphetamines, these neurochemical distinctions may predict differential potential for repetitive versus episodic abuse and distinct lasting toxicities. This study determined relative locomotor stimulant effects of 4-MMC (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDPV (0.5-5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), in comparison with d-methamphetamine (MA; 0.5-5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDMA (1-7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on a measure of locomotor activity--voluntary wheel running--in male Wistar rats (N=8). Compared to counts of wheel rotations after saline, a biphasic change in the pattern of counts was observed after injections of MA and MDPV, with relatively higher counts following lower doses and lower counts following the highest dose. However, monophasic, dose-dependent reductions in counts were observed in response to injections of MDMA and 4-MMC. Thus, voluntary wheel running yielded the same categorical distinctions for these drugs as did prior experiments testing the effects of these drugs on monoaminergic neurotransmission. These data indicate that MDPV produces prototypical locomotor stimulant effects whereas 4-MMC is more similar to the entactogen MDMA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S; Farrell, Bianca; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F; Ermolinsky, Boris S; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

    2011-01-12

    Voltage gated K(+) channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (ΔΔCT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  9. Chronic deficit in the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 subunit in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F.; Skinner, Frank; Oliveira, Mauro S.; Dotson, Bianca Farrel; Arshadmansab, Massoud F.; Pandari, Tarun; Garcia, Ileana; Robles, Leslie; Rosas, Gerardo; Mello, Carlos F.; Ermolinsky, Boris S.; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage gated K+ channels (Kv) are a highly diverse group of channels critical in determining neuronal excitability. Deficits of Kv channel subunit expression and function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, we investigate whether the expression of the specific subunit Kv3.4 is affected during epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. For this purpose, we used immunohistochemistry, Western blotting assays and comparative analysis of gene expression using TaqMan-based probes and delta-delta cycle threshold (Δ ΔCT) method of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in samples obtained from age-matched control and epileptic rats. A marked down-regulation of Kv3.4 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum lucidum and hilus of dentate gyrus in areas corresponding to the mossy fiber system of chronically epileptic rats. Correspondingly, a 20% reduction of Kv3.4 protein levels was detected in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression revealed that a significant 33% reduction of transcripts for Kv3.4 (gene Kcnc4) occurred after 1 month of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and persisted during the chronic phase of the model. These data indicate a reduced expression of Kv3.4 channels at protein and transcript levels in the epileptic hippocampus. Down-regulation of Kv3.4 in mossy fibers may contribute to enhanced presynaptic excitability leading to recurrent seizures in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:20971086

  10. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 15 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  11. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  12. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  13. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  14. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  15. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 9 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ... bye" starts pointing to objects Movement and Physical Development sits without support, pulls to stand, and walks ...

  16. Electric power monthly, July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); Department of Energy. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information. The EPM presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and retail prices of electricity. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and retail prices data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison.

  17. Electric Power Monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  18. Seven Months of the Sun

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This multi-wavelength movie of the Sun covers seven months of activity (April 25 - Nov. 30, 2011), the majority of the SDO mission to date. The frames combine images taken at the same time in three...

  19. Atlantic Richfield Monthly Progress Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Last three monthly progress reports submitted by Atlantic Richfield Company on cleanup activities at the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area Superfund Site, as required by the Butte Priority Soils UAO, Docket No. CERCLA 08-2011-0011.

  20. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  1. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate as a mediator of neuronal death in ischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tsubokawa, H; Oguro, K; Robinson, H P; Masuzawa, T; Rhee, T S; Takenawa, T; Kawai, N

    1994-03-01

    Selective death of CA1 pyramidal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia has attracted interest for its possible relation to the pathogenesis of memory deficits and dementia. Using whole cell patch-clamp recording from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices of gerbils after ischemia we studied the intracellular signaling mechanisms related to the phosphoinositide cycle. Intracellular application of an antibody against phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate rescued ischemic neurons from stimulus-induced irreversible depolarization. Furthermore, application of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in normal cells caused an irreversible depolarization in response to synaptic input, which mimicked the deterioration of ischemic neurons. Depolarization of both ischemic and normal neurons in the presence of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate was prevented by the addition of the Ca2+ chelator, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetate. Application of antibody against inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 3-kinase, which blocks formation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, also protected against cell deterioration. Our results suggest that the vulnerability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons following ischemia is caused by a disturbed phosphoinositide cascade, with one metabolite, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, playing a key role in the induction of Ca2+ accumulation, which leads to neuronal death.

  2. 3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING CAST-IRON RETORTS AND TURNED HEAD (WHERE RAW MATERIALS WERE LOADED INTO FURNACE). - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  3. Synthesis and polymerization of new monomers derived from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schottland, P.; Stéphan, O.; Le Gall, P.-Y.; Chevrot, C.

    1998-06-01

    We report here the results of the synthesis of soluble polymers derived from 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene. Starting from a 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene monomer functionalized by an hydroxymethyl group, we synthesized several monomers bearing different side groups. The influence of alkyl chain length of side groups was studied in order to improve the solubility of the resulting polymer obtained by chemical oxidation. The optical properties of some chemically polymerized materials are also reported. Nous présentons ici la synthèse et certaines propriétés optiques de polymères solubles dérivés du 3,4-éthylènedioxythiophène. A partir d'un monomère 3,4-éthylènedioxythiophène fonctionnalisé par un groupement hydroxyméthyl, nous avons synthétisé des composés possédant des groupes latéraux de natures différentes. Nous avons examiné l'influence de la longueur de la chaîne d'un substituant alkyl sur la solubilité du polymère correspondant obtenu par oxydation chimique. D'autre part, les propriétés optiques de certains matériaux obtenus chimiquement sont également abordées.

  4. 33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  5. 32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM FILM SHOT PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  6. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the Nicta; CycD3; 4 gene demonstrate accelerated growth rates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Myeong Hyeon

    2008-07-31

    D-type cyclins control the onset of cell division and the response to extracellular signals during the G1 phase. In this study, we transformed a D-type cyclin gene, Nicta;CycD3;4, from Nicotiana tabacum using an Agrobacterium-mediated method. A predicted 1.1 kb cyclin gene was present in all of the transgenic plants, but not in wild-type. Northern analyses showed that the expression level of the Nicta;CycD3;4 gene in all of the transgenic plants was strong when compared to the wild-type plants, suggesting that Nicta;CycD3;4 gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was being overexpressed. Our results revealed that transgenic plants overexpressing Nicta;CycD3;4 had an accelerated growth rate when compared to wild-type plants, and that the transgenic plants exhibited a smaller cell size and a decreased cell population in young leaves when compared to wild-type plants.

  7. Vapor phase growth of group 3, 4, and 5 compounds by HCl transport of elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Debnam, W. J., Jr.; Mcnear, M. F.; Crouch, R. K.; Breckenridge, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Technique has been devised for vapor-phase epitaxial growth of group 3, 4, and 5 binary, ternary, or quaternary compounds by HCl transport of the constituent elements or dopants. Technique uses all the constituents of the alloy system in their elemental form. Transport of these elements by an HCl + H2 carrier gas facilitates their transport as subchlorides.

  8. Carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Sun, Zongtao; Xu, Zhenjian; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Hu; Hua, Yuejin

    2008-12-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1 synthesizes deinoxanthin, a unique carotenoid product, which contributes to cell resistance following various stresses. The biosynthetic pathway of deinoxanthin is unclear, although several enzymes are presumed to be involved. The gene (dr2250) predicted by gene homologue analysis to encode carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (CrtD) was deleted to investigate its function. A mutant deficient in the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) was also constructed to verify the catalytic function of the gene product in the native host. Carotenoid analysis of the resultant mutants verified that DR2250 encodes carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase, which catalyses the C-3',4'-desaturation of the monocyclic precursor of deinoxanthin but not acyclic carotenoids. Mutation of the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) resulted in accumulation of lycopene, confirming that it encodes the lycopene cyclase in the native host. The lack of CrtD decreased the antioxidant capacity of the mutant deficient in dr2250 compared with the wild-type, indicating that the C-3',4'-desaturation step contributes to the antioxidant capacity of deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans.

  9. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks...

  10. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks...

  11. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks...

  12. Facile synthesis, characterization and pharmacological activities of 3,6-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles and 5,6-dihydro-3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Chidananda, N; Poojary, Boja; Sumangala, V; Kumari, N Suchetha; Shetty, Prashanth; Arulmoli, T

    2012-05-01

    Two new series of compounds namely, 3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizoles (5a-j) and 5,6-dihydro-3,6-disubstituted-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizoles (7a-j) were prepared. In continuation of a previously reported study, the first series (5a-j) were synthesized by the cyclocondensation of 4-amino-5-(2-bromo-5-methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (4) with various substituted aromatic carboxylic acids in phosphorus oxychloride and the second series (7a-j) by the reaction of (4) with various substituted aromatic aldehydes in the presence of p-Toluene sulfonic acid. Reaction of (4) with the aldehyde (9) afforded the Schiff's base (10) and not the cyclised product (11) on treatment with p-Toluene sulfonic acid. Synthesized compounds were structurally confirmed by spectral analysis and studied for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities. Some of the tested compounds showed significant pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  14. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  15. 5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF THE IOWA RIVER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. PIERS FROM THE OLD BENTON STREET BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN THE WATER TO THE LEFT OF THE BRIDGE Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  16. Polyimides from 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride and Aromatic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to polyimides. It relates particularly to novel polyimides prepared from 2,3, 3',4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and aromatic diamines. These novel polyimides have low color, good solubility, high thermal emissivity, low solar absorptivity and high tensile strength.

  17. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE AND STERN IN DRYDOCK SLIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE AND STERN IN DRY-DOCK SLIP PRIOR TO LIFTING. VIEWED FROM ELEVATED POSITION TO SHOW AFT DECK. FLOATING DRY-DOCK CAN BE SEEN IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter TANEY, Pier 5, Pratt Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO3-4 adsorption on blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ensar

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of PO(3-)(4) by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO(3-)(4) on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption, 10.31 kJ mol(-1), was calculated from the D-R adsorption isotherm. The rate constants were calculated for 293, 298, 303, and 308 K using a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the activation energy (E(a)) was derived using the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), and DeltaG(0) were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnK(D) against 1/T. The DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values of PO(3-)(4) adsorption on the blast furnace slag show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of PO(3-)(4) adsorption is favored at high temperatures.

  19. High-temperature heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. M.; Denisova, L. T.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Volkov, N. V.; Patrin, G. S.; Chumilina, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    The molar heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4 has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range 339-1086 K. It has been found that the dependence C p = f( T) exhibits an extremum at a temperature of 401 K due to the structural transition.

  20. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  1. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  2. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  3. Inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS3.4A protease 2. Warhead SAR and optimization.

    PubMed

    Perni, Robert B; Pitlik, Janos; Britt, Shawn D; Court, John J; Courtney, Lawrence F; Deininger, David D; Farmer, Luc J; Gates, Cynthia A; Harbeson, Scott L; Levin, Rhonda B; Lin, Chao; Lin, Kai; Moon, Young-Choon; Luong, Yu-Ping; O'Malley, Ethan T; Rao, B Govinda; Thomson, John A; Tung, Roger D; Van Drie, John H; Wei, Yunyi

    2004-03-22

    The alpha-ketoamide warhead (e.g., 15) was found to be a practical replacement for aliphatic aldehydes in a series of HCV NS3.4A protease inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships and prime side optimization are discussed.

  4. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book I: Grades 3, 4, and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets suitable for supplementing social studies units in grades 3, 4, and 5 are presented. Each set lists appropriate resources, concepts, general objectives and instructional objectives for each activity within the set. Grade 3 sets are "You Can Help Conserve Our Natural Resources,""Urban Decay and Urban…

  5. 1. 3/4 view of the E & N (front) elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 view of the E & N (front) elevations, showing the building's siting at the intersection of Rodman and East Avenues and its relationship to Shop G, Buildings 108, & Building 109; looking SW. (Harms) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 110, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. [Reactive oxygen species and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in pathogenesis of Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Rybakowska, Iwona; Szreder, Grzegorz; Kaletha, Krystian; Barwina, Małgorzata; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, which plays a role in pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, seems to be important also in pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease. Experiments performed recently, revealed in the cerebrum of patients suffering from this disease (induced by the oxidative stress) elevated levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL)--a strong endogenous neurotoxin to dopamine neurons.

  7. 7. 3/4 view of sugar mill looking NW showing entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 view of sugar mill looking NW showing entry ramp, S and E elevations. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  8. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks adequate...

  9. 18. Photocopy of circa 1890 photograph (6' x 7 3/4') ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of circa 1890 photograph (6' x 7 3/4') (Original print in the Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania) FIRST FLOOR, SOUTHWEST ROOM, WEST WALL, CIRCA 1890 - Warrenpoint, State Route 83 (Warwick Township), Knauertown, Chester County, PA

  10. 3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the creek. Note the 1965 concrete block addition to the main oyster house. Lifting derrick can be seen at left in front of the building and next to the hoist house. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  11. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  12. Novel isocyanide-based three-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2-amine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Ahmad; Maleki, Ali; Mofakham, Hamid; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of a novel class of highly substituted 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2-amine derivatives including spirocyclic compounds from three-component condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamines, diverse carbonyl compounds, and isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of p-toluenesulfonic acid in good to excellent yields at room temperature is described.

  13. 3/4-Fractional Superdiffusion in a System of Harmonic Oscillators Perturbed by a Conservative Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, Cédric; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton

    2016-05-01

    We consider a harmonic chain perturbed by an energy conserving noise and show that after a space-time rescaling the energy-energy correlation function is given by the solution of a skew-fractional heat equation with exponent 3/4.

  14. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  15. Transport of 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, an analogue of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Z; Engel, R; Tropp, B E

    1977-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate (DHBP), an analogue of glycerol 3-phosphate, is actively transported by the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli strain 8. The Km for the transport of DHBP is 200 microM. PMID:400804

  16. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  17. The orphan nuclear receptor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase for Oct-3/4 silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Noriko . E-mail: nrksato@rinshoken.or.jp; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Arai, Ken-ichi

    2006-06-09

    Somatic DNA methylation patterns are determined in part by the de novo methylation that occurs after early embryonic demethylation. Oct-3/4, a pluripotency gene, is unmethylated in the blastocyst, but undergoes de novo methylation and silencing during gastrulation. Here we show that the transcriptional repressor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase to the Oct-3/4 promoter and facilitates its methylation. Although acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (K9) and/or 14 (K14) and methylation of H3 at lysine 4 (K4) decrease during this period, as do Oct-3/4 transcript levels, H3K9 and H3K27 methylation levels remain constant, indicating that DNA methylation does not require repressive histone modifications. We found that GCNF interacts directly with Dnmt3 molecule(s) and verified that this interaction induces the methylation of the Oct-3/4 promoter. Our finding suggests a model in which differentiation-induced GCNF recruits de novo DNA methyltransferase and facilitates the silencing of a pluripotency gene.

  18. 3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing showing E and N elevations; N elevation of Building 69, Plating and Tinning Shop; looking SW. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 66, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. Participation of OCT3/4 and beta-catenin during dysgenetic gonadal malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Palma, Icela; Peña, Rocio-Yolanda; Contreras, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Coyote, Ninel; Eraña, Luis; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana; Queipo, Gloria

    2008-05-18

    Gonadoblastoma (GB) is an in situ tumor consisting of a heterogeneous population of mature and immature germ cells, other cells resembling immature Sertoli/granulosa cells, and Leydig/lutein-like cells, may also be present. GB almost exclusively affects a subset of patients with intersex disorders and in 30% of them overgrowth of the germinal component of the tumor is observed and the lesion is term dysgerminoma/seminoma. Several pathways have been proposed to explain the malignant process, and abnormal OCT3/4 expression is the most robust risk factor for malignant transformation. Some authors have suggested that OCT3/4 and beta-catenin might both be involved in the same oncogenic pathway, as both genes are master regulators of cell differentiation and, overexpression of either gene may result in cancer development. The mechanism by which beta-catenin participates in GB transformation is not completely clear and exploration of the E-cadherin pathway did not conclusively show that this pathway participated in the molecular pathogenesis of GB. Here we analyze seven patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and GB, in an effort to elucidate the participation of beta-catenin and E-cadherin, as well as OCT3/4, in the oncogenic pathways involved in the transformation of GB into seminoma/dysgerminoma. We conclude that the proliferation of immature germ cells in GB may be due to an interaction between OCT3/4 and accumulated beta-catenin in the nuclei of the immature germ cells.

  20. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Triptorelin embonate (6-month formulation).

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2010-02-12

    A 6-month formulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin embonate (designed to deliver 22.5 mg of triptorelin over a 6-month period) has been developed for use in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Following intramuscular administration of the 6-month formulation of triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg to men with advanced prostate cancer (subset of 15 patients from the pivotal clinical trial), serum testosterone levels initially increased, followed by a rapid, sustained decrease. Castrate serum testosterone levels (i.e. < or =1.735 nmol/L) were achieved in a geometric mean time of 18.8 days. The 6-month formulation of triptorelin embonate achieved and maintained castrate serum testosterone levels in patients with advanced prostate cancer (n = 120), according to the results of the pivotal, noncomparative, multicentre trial (patients received intramuscular triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg on day 1 and at month 6 [week 24]). By day 29, 97.5% of patients had castrate serum testosterone levels. Castrate serum testosterone levels were maintained from months 2 to 12 in 93.0% of patients. Prior to the second injection at month 6, 98.3% of patients had castrate serum testosterone levels, and 98.3% of patients had castrate serum testosterone levels at study completion. The 6-month formulation of triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg was generally well tolerated in patients with advanced prostate cancer; adverse events were of mild severity in the majority of patients. Drug-related adverse events (e.g. hot flushes) were consistent with the pharmacological action of triptorelin. Injection-site reactions occurred in 6.7% of triptorelin embonate recipients.

  14. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Natural gas monthly: September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    NASA Astronaut and Expeditions 23 and 24 Flight Engineer, Tracy Caldwell Dyson, far left, speaks at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Caldwell Dyson recently returned from a six-month stay aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Women's History Month at NASA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-14

    NASA Astronaut and Expeditions 23 and 24 Flight Engineer, Tracy Caldwell Dyson, speaks at a Women's History Month event at NASA Headquarters, Wednesday, March 16, 2011 in Washington. The event entitled Women Inspiring the Next Generation to Reveal the Unknown is a joint venture with NASA and the White House Council on Women and Girls. Caldwell Dyson recently returned from a six-month stay aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  18. Natural gas monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-20

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  20. A 52-month follow-up on the transvaginal mesh surgery in vaginal cuff eversion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tsia-Shu; Yusoff, Faridah Mohd; Kao, Chuan-Chi; Jaili, Sukanda; Uy Patrimonio, Ma Clarissa

    2017-06-01

    Transvaginal mesh anterior-posterior (TVM-AP) provides better cure rates in the surgical treatment of vaginal cuff eversion than anterior transvaginal mesh combined with sacrospinous ligament fixation (TVM-A). We determine the outcomes after TVM-A and TVM-AP surgeries in advanced vaginal cuff prolapse. The charts of 796 women who underwent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery from July 2006 to January 2012 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospitals were reviewed. We included women who presented with advanced cuff eversion and treated with TVM surgery. Data were analysed after three years post-surgery. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic and perioperative data. The paired-samples t test was used for comparison of preoperative and postoperative continuous data. The outcomes measured were objective cure (POP-Q stage ≤ 1) and subjective cure (negative response to question 2 and 3 on POPDI-6). A total of 97 patients was analysed. 61 patients had TVM-A and 36 patients had TVM-AP insertion. Mean follow-up was 52 months. The objective cure rate for TVM-AP was significantly higher than TVM-A, 94.4% versus 80.3%. TVM-AP also showed a higher subjective cure rate (91.7%) though there was no significant difference from TVM-A (p = 0.260). The mesh extrusion rate was low at 3.1% with no major complications seen. In TVM-A the blood loss was lesser and the operation time was shorter. TVM-AP showed better objective cure rate than TVM-A at 52 months. However, TVM-A is less invasive in comparison with an acceptably good cure rates. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Early detection of drought impact on rice paddies in Indonesia by means of Niño 3.4 index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmaini, Elza; Hadi, Tri Wahyu; Subagyono, Kasdi; Puspito, Nanang Tyasbudi

    2015-08-01

    El Niño events have been frequently marked by drought occurrences with severe consequences for agricultural production in Indonesia. Paddy drought occurs almost every year and extends during El Niño phenomena. The Niño 3.4 index is commonly used as an important tool for managing a food security policy. However, there are no details regarding the impact of El Niño on drought-induced paddy damage. We developed the Paddy Drought Impact Index (PDII), which is the ratio of drought-induced paddy damaged area to the total paddy area planted in order to investigate the impact of drought on paddies among 335 districts in Indonesia. Unlike other agricultural drought indices, this index represents real-life percentage of drought-induced paddy damage to indicate each district's relative severity to drought, which can be easily understood by practical users. The connection between the Niño 3.4 index and PDII was assessed using cross correlation analysis. Scatter plots of best lag time Niño 3.4 index against PDII were examined. The findings show that with 2 months lag of Niño 3.4 prior to PDII, March and June Niño 3.4 indices can be used to predict May-July and August-October PDII, respectively. Critical thresholds of the March Niño 3.4 index were found to range from 0.0 to 0.5 °C, which is associated with a 0.57 probability of weak El Niño occurrence during the subsequent 5 months. On the other hand, a higher probability of 0.67 for occurrences of moderate El Niño is associated with the critical thresholds of June Niño 3.4 index, which ranges from 0.5-1.0 °C. This study has found that the potential impact of drought due to the weak and moderate El Niño occurrences in Indonesia is such that yields are reduced by about 40 % in average. We also found that the most drought-prone areas are located in West Java for both May-July and August-October and in South Sulawesi for August-October.

  2. Neurotoxic thioether adducts of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine identified in human urine after ecstasy ingestion.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion approximately 0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans.

  3. Molecular and electronic structure of Re2Br4(PMe3)4

    DOE PAGES

    Johnstone, Erik V.; Poineau, Frederic; Todorova, Tanya K.; ...

    2016-07-07

    The dinuclear rhenium(II) complex Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was prepared from the reduction of [Re2Br8]2– with (n-Bu4N)BH4 in the presence of PMe3 in propanol. The complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and UV–visible spectroscopy. It crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group and is isostructural with its molybdenum and technetium analogues. The Re–Re distance (2.2521(3) Å) is slightly longer than the one in Re2Cl4(PMe3)4 (2.247(1) Å). The molecular and electronic structure of Re2X4(PMe3)4 (X = Cl, Br) were studied by multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods. The computed ground-state geometry is in excellent agreement with the experimental structure determined by SCXRD. The calculatedmore » total bond order (2.75) is consistent with the presence of an electron-rich triple bond and is similar to the one found for Re2Cl4(PMe3)4. The electronic absorption spectrum of Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was recorded in benzene and shows a series of low-intensity bands in the range 10 000–26 000 cm–1. The absorption bands were assigned based on calculations of the excitation energies with the multireference wave functions followed by second-order perturbation theory using the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. As a result, calculations predict that the lowest energy band corresponds to the δ* → σ* transition, while the next higher energy bands were attributed to the δ* → π*, δ → σ*, and δ → π* transitions.« less

  4. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  5. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  6. [Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl].

    PubMed

    Koga, N; Kanamaru, T; Oishi, N; Kato, Y; Kimura, R; Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y

    2001-05-01

    In vitro Metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB138) was studied using liver microsomes from rats, hamsters and guinea pigs. Guinea pig liver microsomes formed four metabolites named as M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 and these metabolites were all increased to about 4-5 fold of untreated microsomes by pretreatment of phenobarbital. Liver microsomes of rats and hamsters showed much less activity to metabolize CB138 than those of guinea pigs. Only phenobarbital-treated microsomes produced very small amounts of M-3 in rats and M-1, M-2 and M-3 in hamsters, but untreated and MC-treated microsomes did not. When mass spectra of the methylated derivatives of M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 were measured in GC/MS, the former two possess the molecular ion of 354 and the latter two had the molecular ion of 388. In addition, the mass fragmentation pattern indicated that M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 are 2-OH-4,5,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 5-OH-2,4,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3-OH-CB138 and 2-OH-3,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl, respectively. Of four metabolites, the chemical structures of M-3 and M-4 were supported by the synthesized authentic compounds. From these results, it is suggested that the metabolism of CB138 in guinea pig liver proceeds mainly via 2,3-epoxide as an intermediate and a PB-inducible P450, CYP2B18, is the most important isozyme in CB138 metabolism.

  7. Reinforcing Effects of Binary Mixtures of Common Bath Salt Constituents: Studies with 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 3,4-Methylenedioxymethcathinone (Methylone), and Caffeine in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Brenda M; Galindo, Kayla I; Mesmin, Melson P; Rice, Kenner C; Collins, Gregory T

    2017-07-05

    'Bath salts' use is associated with high rates of abuse, toxicity, and death. bath salt preparations often contain mixtures of drugs including multiple synthetic cathinones (eg, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) or 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone)) or synthetic cathinones and caffeine; however, little is known about whether interactions among bath salt constituents contribute to the abuse-related effects of bath salts preparations. This study used male Sprague-Dawley rats responding under a progressive ratio schedule to quantify the reinforcing effectiveness of MDPV, methylone, and caffeine, administered alone and as binary mixtures (n=12 per mixture). Each mixture was evaluated at four ratios (10 : 1, 3 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 3) relative to the mean ED50 for each drug alone. Dose-addition analyses were used to determine the predicted, additive effect for each dose pair within each drug mixture. MDPV, methylone, and caffeine maintained responding in a dose-dependent manner, with MDPV being the most potent and effective, and caffeine being the least potent and effective of the three bath salts constituents. High levels of responding were also maintained by each of the bath salts mixtures. Although the nature of the interactions tended toward additivity for most bath salts mixtures, supra-additive (3 : 1 MDPV : caffeine, and 3 : 1 and 1 : 1 methylone : caffeine) and sub-additive (3 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 3 MDPV : methylone) interactions were also observed. Together, these findings demonstrate that the composition of bath salts preparations can have an impact on both their reinforcing potency and effectiveness, and suggest that such interactions among constituent drugs could contribute to the patterns of use and effects reported by human bath salts users.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 2 August 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.141.

  8. Antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Painful neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperglycemia clearly plays a key role in the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy. Current therapeutic approaches are only partially successful and they are only thought to reduce the pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Some natural products offer combined antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties that may help to treat in a more integrative manner this condition. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and mice without glucose control as well as the possible mechanism of action involved in this effect. Methods Rats and mice were injected with 50 or 200 mg/kg streptozotocin, respectively, to produce hyperglycemia. The formalin test and von Frey filaments were used to assess the nociceptive activity. Rota-rod was utilized to measure motor activity and malondialdehyde assay to determine anti-oxidative properties. Results After 3 weeks of diabetes induction, chemical hyperalgesia was observed in streptozotocin-injected rats. Oral acute administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (0.3–30 mg/kg) decreased in a dose-dependent manner formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. In addition, methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and ODQ (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.), prevented 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin-induced antihyperalgesic effect. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin was similar to that produced by pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Furthermore, oral acute administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (30 mg/kg) reduced streptozotocin-induced changes in malondialdehyde concentration from plasma samples. Unlike pregabalin, 7-hydroxy-3,4

  9. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A; Grinstein, Sergio; Fairn, Gregory D

    2016-04-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report thatA. fumigatusescapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. Aspergillus fumigatusis the most frequent cause of human infections in theAspergillusgenus. In immunocompromised

  10. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  11. Can Contemporary Patients with Biopsy Gleason Score 3+4 Be Eligible for Active Surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ohseong; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, In Jae; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed whether expansion of existing active surveillance (AS) protocols to include men with biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3+4 prostate cancer (PCa) would significantly alter pathologic and biochemical outcomes of potential candidates of AS. Methods Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our center between 2006 and 2013, we identified 577 patients (group A) who preoperatively fulfilled at least one of 6 different AS criteria. Also, we identified 217 patients (group B) with biopsy GS 3+4 but fulfilled non-GS criteria from at least one of 6 AS criteria. Designating group C as expanded group incorporating all patients in group A and B, we compared risk of unfavorable disease (pathologic GS ≥4+3 and/or pathologic T stage ≥pT3a) and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival between groups. Results Rates of unfavorable disease were not significantly different between patients of group A and C who met AS criteria from 5 institutions (all p>0.05), not including University of Toronto (p<0.001). Also BCR-free survivals were not significantly different between patients in group A and C meeting each of 6 AS criteria (all p>0.05). Among group B, PSAD>0.15 ng/mL/cm3 (p = 0.011) and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core>4 mm (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease. When these two criteria were newly applied in defining group B, rates of unfavorable disease in group A and B was 15.6% and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.886). Conclusion Overall rate of pathologically aggressive PCa harbored by potential candidates for AS may not be increased significantly with expansion of criteria to biopsy GS 3+4 under most contemporary AS protocols. PSAD and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core may be useful predictors of more aggressive disease among potential candidates for AS with biopsy GS 3+4. PMID:25268898

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazines carrying thioalkyl and sulphonyl phenoxy moieties.

    PubMed

    Karabasanagouda, T; Adhikari, Airody Vasudeva; Shetty, N Suchetha

    2007-04-01

    Thirty one new 6-aryl-3-{(4-substituted phenoxy) methyl}-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (6a-s) and 6-aryl-3-[(4-substituted phenoxy methyl]-7H-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazines (7a-l) have been synthesized from 4-thioalkyl phenols (1a-b) through a multi-step reaction sequence. Compounds 1a-b reacted with ethyl chloroacetate in presence of acetone and potassium carbonate to give ethyl [4-(thioalkyl) phenoxy] acetates (2a-b). Further, 2a was oxidized to [4-(methyl sulphonyl) phenoxy] acetate (2c) using hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid. Reactions of (2a-c) with hydrazine hydrate in alcoholic medium furnished 2-[4-thiosubstituted phenoxy] acetohydrazides (3a-b) and 2-[4-methyl sulphonyl phenoxy] acetohydrazide (3c) which on treatment with carbon disulphide and methanolic potassium hydroxide yielded corresponding potassium dithiocarbazates (4a-c). They were then converted to 4-amino-5-[(4-thioalkyl phenoxy) methyl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols (5a-b) and 4-amino-5-[(4-methyl sulphonyl phenoxy) methyl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (5c) by refluxing them with aqueous hydrazine hydrate. The title compounds 6a-s were prepared by condensing 5a-c with various aromatic carboxylic acids in presence of phosphorus oxychloride. The intermediates 5a-c, on condensation with various substituted phenacyl bromides afforded a series of title compounds (7a-l). The structures of new compounds 2a-7l were established on the basis of their elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. All the title compounds were subjected to in vitro antibacterial testing against four pathogenic strains and antifungal screening against three fungi. Preliminary results indicate that some of them exhibited promising activities and they deserve more consideration as potential antimicrobials.

  13. Changes in physical activity after total hip or knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 6 and 12 month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Thomas; Simonian, Aram; Austin, Monica; Butler, Robert; Allen, Kelli D; Ledbetter, Leila; Goode, Adam P

    2017-09-12

    Little is known about the extent to which physical activity (PA) changes following total knee or hip joint replacement relative to pain, physical function and quality of life. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on changes in PA relative to pain, quality of life and physical function after total knee or hip joint replacement. We searched PubMed (Medline), Embase and Cinahl, for peer-reviewed, English-language cohort studies measuring PA with an accelerometer from pre-surgery to post-surgery. Random-effects models were used to produce standardized mean differences (SMDs) for PA, quality of life, pain, and physical function outcomes. Heterogeneity was measured with I(2) . Seven studies (336 participants) met eligibility criteria. No significant increase in PA was found at 6-months (SMD 0.14; 95% CI -0.05 to 0.34; I(2) =0%) and a small-moderate significant effect was found for increasing PA at 12-months (SMD 0.43; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.64; I(2) =0%). Large improvements at 6-months in physical function (SMD 0.97; 95% CI 0.12 to 1.82; I(2) =92.3%), pain (SMD -1.47; 95% CI -2.28 to -0.65; I(2) =91.6%), and quality of life (SMD 1.02; 95% CI 0.30 to 1.74; I(2) =83.2%) were found. Physical activity did not change at 6-months and a small-moderate improvement was found at 12-months post-surgery, despite large improvements in quality of life, pain, and physical function. Reasons for the lack of increased PA are unknown but may be behavioral in nature as sedentary lifestyle is difficult to change. Changing sedentary behavior should be a future focus among this subgroup. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrically controlled release of benzoic acid from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/alginate matrix: effect of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) morphology.

    PubMed

    Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2014-08-07

    A drug-loaded conductive polymer/hydrogel blend, benzoic acid-loaded poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/alginate (BA-loaded PEDOT/Alg) hydrogel, was used as a carrier/matrix for an electrical stimuli transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). The effects of cross-linking ratio, PEDOT particle size, and electric field strength on the release mechanism and the diffusion coefficient (D) of BA were examined by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell. The diffusion scaling exponent value of BA is close to 0.5 which refers to the diffusion controlled mechanism, or the Fickian diffusion as the BA release mechanism. The D increased when there was a decrease in the cross-linking ratio due to the mesh size-hindering effect. When increasing electric field strength, the D of BA-loaded PEDOT/Alg hydrogel increased because the cathode-BA(-) electrorepulsion, electroinduced alginate expansion, and PEDOT electroneutralization simultaneously occurred. The highest D belonged to a blend with the smallest PEDOT particle and highest electrical conductivity. The D of BA was a function of the matrix mesh size except when drug size/mesh size was lower than 2.38 × 10(-3), where D of BA became mesh size independent as the matrix mesh size was extremely large. Thus, the fabricated conductive polymer hydrogel blends have a great potential to be used in TDDS under electrical stimulation.

  15. Determination of the magnetic structure of SmFe3(BO3)4 by neutron diffraction: comparison with other RFe3(BO3)4 iron borates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Pankrats, A.; Gudim, I.; Vorotynov, A.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature dependent neutron diffraction studies were performed on SmFe3(BO3)4. The crystallographic structure was determined to stay as R32 over the whole studied temperature range of 2 K < T < 300 K. A magnetic phase transition characterized by the magnetic propagation vector κ = [0 0 3/2] takes place at TN = 34 K. The magnetic structure sees an easy-plane arrangement within the trigonal basal a-b-plane of ferromagnetic layers of iron and samarium having a canting angle of about 70° relative to each other. Neighbouring layers in the c-direction are antiferromagnetically coupled; at 2 K the magnetic moment values amount to μFe = 4.2(1) μB and μSm = 0.8(2) μB. The non-Brillouin type increase of the iron magnetic moment below TN points to a strong Fe-Sm exchange and to the simultaneous appearance of long range magnetic order on both sublattices.

  16. Molecular structure, spectroscopic properties, NLO and NBO analysis of 3,4-Lutidine and [Ag(3,4-Lutidine)2NO3] complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Saied M.

    2013-09-01

    The molecular structure and electronic properties of 3,4-Lutidine (34Lut) and its silver(I) complex; [Ag(34Lut)2NO3] have been reported. The geometry of the titled compounds was optimized using HF and DFT/B3LYP methods. The calculations predicted a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry around the Ag(I) ion. The complete vibrational assignments of the 34Lut and [Ag(34Lut)2NO3] complex have been made on the basis of Total Energy Distribution (TED). The vibrational frequencies calculated using DFT/B3LYP method showed better agreement with the experimental values compared to HF method. For [Ag(34Lut)2NO3] complex, the calculations predicted the presence of intramolecular CH⋯O interactions between the oxygen of the nitrate and the neighboring hydrogen atoms of the coordinated 34Lut which is confirmed by the TED analysis of the CH stretching modes. Unexpected blue shift is predicted for the CH stretching modes involved in such interactions. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies as well as the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed using the same level of theory. Natural charges and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses of the studied molecules were also calculated and interpreted. The dipole moment, linear polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values were used to describe the NLO properties of the studied compounds.

  17. Teen Programs with Punch: A Month-by-Month Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating selection of year-round program ideas that appeal to teens between the ages of 12 and 18. Organized by month, the programs represent a broad range of interests, from arts and crafts workshops to educational programs to purely recreational activities--from serious to serious fun. A few representative ideas: "Goth…

  18. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  19. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  20. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.