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Sample records for 3-4 nx m0

  1. Thermal stability and hydrogenation behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx and Ti/TiNx coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Vilkhivskaya, O. V.; Zakharchenko, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Titanium nitride coatings were deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) to protect Zr-1Nb alloys from hydrogen embrittlement. Dense titanium (Ti) interlayer was prepared between TiNx protection film and a Zr substrate to improve thermal stability and adhesion between the TiNx and the substrate at high temperatures. Hydrogen absorption of Zr- 1Nb with TiNx and Ti/TiNx at 623 K was reduced in comparison with uncoated Zr-1Nb. No peeling or cracks of Ti/TiNx coatings is observed after thermal cycling up to 1073 K. The high temperature (1073 K) hydrogenation behaviour differs from the hydrogenation at lower temperature by increasing the amount of dissolved hydrogen in the β-phase of zirconium. The higher rate of hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb with TiNx was observed due to the coating delamination as a result of differences in thermal expansion coefficients, while Ti/TiNx demonstrates the lower hydrogen absorption at 1073 K and good adhesion strength.

  2. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Yasmin; Ikeme, Arinze; Bhogal, Navjyot; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT) during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD) machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age. PMID:26949554

  3. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  4. Barrier Properties of Thin ZrNx Films Prepared by Radical-Assisted Surface Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaru; Takeyama, Mayumi B.; Hayasaka, Yuichirou; Aoyagi, Eiji; Noya, Atsushi

    2011-05-01

    We have prepared thin ZrNx films at low temperatures without substrate heating. In the proposed process, radical species generated by the catalytic decomposition of NH3 molecules react on the sputtered Zr film to form ZrNx. The barrier performance of the obtained 5-nm-thick ZrNx film is as good as that prepared by reactive sputtering at 350 °C, indicating the usefulness of the proposed method in forming ZrNx films at low temperatures. We have also demonstrated the general effectiveness of the method for ZrNx preparation in addition to the previous result of TiNx.

  5. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  6. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  7. The M0:mb Discriminant in the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.

    2001-05-01

    We develop M0:mb relationships for the eastern Arabian peninsula using regional waveform data. We use recordings of earthquakes in the Zagros mountains of southern Iran by the permanent broad band station at RAYN and the 1995--1997 Passcal deployment in the surrounding region. We follow a similar procedure to Priestley and Patton (1997). We obtain seismic moments by applying the Bolt and Herraiz (1983) method, which uses the amplitude decay of the Lg phase, calibrated by the using Harvard CMT moments of the larger events. We establish the regional magnitude scales mb(P_n) and mb(L_g) by determining the attenuation rates of Pn and Lg waves, calibrating the mb(P_n) against the teleseismic mb, and applying the Nuttli (1973) method to determine mb from Lg waves. Preliminary results show that the calibration curve for M0( CMT) against M0(L_g) for the Arabian peninsula is approximately parallel to that for central Asia, but offset by an extra 0.25~mu. We also find that M0 vs mb values for Arabia plot consistently above those for central Asia by 0.25~mu.

  8. Stability of SiNX/SiNX double stack antireflection coating for single crystalline silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngseok; Gong, Daeyeong; Balaji, Nagarajan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-05

    Double stack antireflection coatings have significant advantages over single-layer antireflection coatings due to their broad-range coverage of the solar spectrum. A solar cell with 60-nm/20-nm SiNX:H double stack coatings has 17.8% efficiency, while that with a 80-nm SiNX:H single coating has 17.2% efficiency. The improvement of the efficiency is due to the effect of better passivation and better antireflection of the double stack antireflection coating. It is important that SiNX:H films have strong resistance against stress factors since they are used as antireflective coating for solar cells. However, the tolerance of SiNX:H films to external stresses has never been studied. In this paper, the stability of SiNX:H films prepared by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system is studied. The stability tests are conducted using various forms of stress, such as prolonged thermal cycle, humidity, and UV exposure. The heat and damp test was conducted for 100 h, maintaining humidity at 85% and applying thermal cycles of rapidly changing temperatures from -20°C to 85°C over 5 h. UV exposure was conducted for 50 h using a 180-W UV lamp. This confirmed that the double stack antireflection coating is stable against external stress.

  9. Stability of SiNX/SiNX double stack antireflection coating for single crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngseok; Gong, Daeyeong; Balaji, Nagarajan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-01

    Double stack antireflection coatings have significant advantages over single-layer antireflection coatings due to their broad-range coverage of the solar spectrum. A solar cell with 60-nm/20-nm SiNX:H double stack coatings has 17.8% efficiency, while that with a 80-nm SiNX:H single coating has 17.2% efficiency. The improvement of the efficiency is due to the effect of better passivation and better antireflection of the double stack antireflection coating. It is important that SiNX:H films have strong resistance against stress factors since they are used as antireflective coating for solar cells. However, the tolerance of SiNX:H films to external stresses has never been studied. In this paper, the stability of SiNX:H films prepared by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system is studied. The stability tests are conducted using various forms of stress, such as prolonged thermal cycle, humidity, and UV exposure. The heat and damp test was conducted for 100 h, maintaining humidity at 85% and applying thermal cycles of rapidly changing temperatures from -20°C to 85°C over 5 h. UV exposure was conducted for 50 h using a 180-W UV lamp. This confirmed that the double stack antireflection coating is stable against external stress.

  10. Stability of SiNX/SiNX double stack antireflection coating for single crystalline silicon solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Double stack antireflection coatings have significant advantages over single-layer antireflection coatings due to their broad-range coverage of the solar spectrum. A solar cell with 60-nm/20-nm SiNX:H double stack coatings has 17.8% efficiency, while that with a 80-nm SiNX:H single coating has 17.2% efficiency. The improvement of the efficiency is due to the effect of better passivation and better antireflection of the double stack antireflection coating. It is important that SiNX:H films have strong resistance against stress factors since they are used as antireflective coating for solar cells. However, the tolerance of SiNX:H films to external stresses has never been studied. In this paper, the stability of SiNX:H films prepared by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system is studied. The stability tests are conducted using various forms of stress, such as prolonged thermal cycle, humidity, and UV exposure. The heat and damp test was conducted for 100 h, maintaining humidity at 85% and applying thermal cycles of rapidly changing temperatures from -20°C to 85°C over 5 h. UV exposure was conducted for 50 h using a 180-W UV lamp. This confirmed that the double stack antireflection coating is stable against external stress. PMID:22221389

  11. Computation of contour integrals on {{M}}_{0,n}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Gomez, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Contour integrals of rational functions over {{M}}_{0,n} , the moduli space of n-punctured spheres, have recently appeared at the core of the tree-level S-matrix of massless particles in arbitrary dimensions. The contour is determined by the critical points of a certain Morse function on {{M}}_{0,n} . The integrand is a general rational function of the puncture locations with poles of arbitrary order as two punctures coincide. In this note we provide an algorithm for the analytic computation of any such integral. The algorithm uses three ingredients: an operation we call general KLT, Petersen's theorem applied to the existence of a 2-factor in any 4-regular graph and Hamiltonian decompositions of certain 4-regular graphs. The procedure is iterative and reduces the computation of a general integral to that of simple building blocks. These are integrals which compute double-color-ordered partial amplitudes in a bi-adjoint cubic scalar theory.

  12. Electron Energization During m=0 Magnetic Bursts in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    MST reversed-field pinch plasmas develop magnetic modes with both a core-resonant poloidal mode m=1 structure and edge-resonant m=0 structure on the reversal surface. The impact of the m=0 modes on electron energization has been observed with Thomson scattering under plasma conditions with suppressed m=1 modes. Under such conditions, the m=0 modes undergo brief (~100 μs) bursts of localized magnetic activity. These bursts show a localized 4% heating of electrons above a 600-900 eV background temperature, associated with a reduction of magnetic energy. An inward propagating cold pulse follows after the heating as a result of reduced confinement. Ensembles of hundreds of bursts are required to measure small relative heating, however single-shot results from MST's high repetition Thomson scattering diagnostic support the ensemble results. Analysis of Thomson scattering data also provides constraints on non-Maxwellian distributions and upcoming upgrades will improve the ability to resolve electron currents associated with the magnetic bursts. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  13. Structural Analysis Using NX Nastran 9.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolewicz, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    NX Nastran is a powerful Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package used to solve linear and non-linear models for structural and thermal systems. The software, which consists of both a solver and user interface, breaks down analysis into four files, each of which are important to the end results of the analysis. The software offers capabilities for a variety of types of analysis, and also contains a respectable modeling program. Over the course of ten weeks, I was trained to effectively implement NX Nastran into structural analysis and refinement for parts of two missions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, the Restore mission and the Orion mission.

  14. Novel TiNx-based biosignal electrodes for electroencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, P.; Cunha, L. T.; Pedrosa, P.; Brodkorb, S.; Fonseca, C.; Vaz, F.; Haueisen, J.

    2011-12-01

    A composition, structural, morphological and electrochemical study of two titanium nitride (TiNx) thin films, sample A and sample B, obtained by dc reactive sputtering on titanium substrates was carried out in this paper. In order to assess their applicability to be used as dry electrodes, several EEG signal acquisition tests were performed using the TiNx electrodes and compared to signals acquired with conventional silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes. The two films displayed some compositional differences, as sample B was over-stoichiometric (x = 1.34, x = N/Ti atomic ratio) and sample A was close-stoichiometric (x = 0.94). XRD diffractograms showed that both samples developed a similar fcc crystalline structure (δ-TiN phase). XRD peak fitting showed that sample B (over-stoichiometric) has a more oriented structure (highly [1 1 1] textured), with larger grains. A columnar-type structure with pyramid-like shape at column's top was common to both TiNx films. This morphology, in addition to some columnar disaggregation, gives rise to a rather rough surface and porous structure. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results in artificial sweat showed that the electric properties of the samples remain unchanged, even after prolonged contact with sweat. The comparison of EEG signals, simultaneously recorded using the novel TiNx electrodes and conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes, showed very similar results. The root mean square deviation, which was computed for different electrode-electrolyte combinations and signal sequences of 5 s, was in the range of 4.5-9.4 µV and 6.7-20.4 µV for samples A and B, respectively. An additional test with two sets of Ag/AgCl electrodes revealed similar results, thus indicating most of the signal differences are related to the spatial distance of the compared electrodes as well as environmental noise. Therefore, our results lead to the conclusion that the novel TiNx electrodes show promising signal quality for application in EEG

  15. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses. II. Witnessing entanglement in 4Nx4N systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna

    2010-11-15

    We provide a class of optimal nondecomposable entanglement witnesses for 4Nx4N composite quantum systems or, equivalently, another construction of nondecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 4Nx4N complex matrices. This construction provides natural generalization of the Robertson map. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels.

  16. Self-organization during growth of ZrN/SiNx multilayers by epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallqvist, A.; Ghafoor, N.; Fager, H.; Hultman, L.; Persson, P. O. A.˚.

    2013-12-01

    ZrN/SiNx nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiNx thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiNx is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiNx—known to take place on TiN(001)—on ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiNx deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiNx thicknesses ≤6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiNx precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiNx in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiNx layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1-3 nm large SiNx precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN.

  17. The enigma of the apparent disappearance of Eurasian highly pathogenic H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Scott; Stallknecht, David E; Slemons, Richard D; Bowman, Andrew S; Poulson, Rebecca L; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Knowles, James P; Webster, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    One of the major unresolved questions in influenza A virus (IAV) ecology is exemplified by the apparent disappearance of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 (H5Nx) viruses containing the Eurasian hemagglutinin 2.3.4.4 clade from wild bird populations in North America. The introduction of Eurasian lineage HP H5 clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 IAV and subsequent reassortment with low-pathogenic H?N2 and H?N1 North American wild bird-origin IAVs in late 2014 resulted in widespread HP H5Nx IAV infections and outbreaks in poultry and wild birds across two-thirds of North America starting in November 2014 and continuing through June 2015. Although the stamping out strategies adopted by the poultry industry and animal health authorities in Canada and the United States-which included culling, quarantining, increased biosecurity, and abstention from vaccine use-were successful in eradicating the HP H5Nx viruses from poultry, these activities do not explain the apparent disappearance of these viruses from migratory waterfowl. Here we examine current and historical aquatic bird IAV surveillance and outbreaks of HP H5Nx in poultry in the United States and Canada, providing additional evidence of unresolved mechanisms that restrict the emergence and perpetuation of HP avian influenza viruses in these natural reservoirs. PMID:27457948

  18. IR spectra of ICPCVD SiNx thin films for MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, G.; Reshetnikov, I.

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties of non-stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiNx) films for thermo sensitive membranes of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microoptomechanical systems (MOMS) has been studied applying infrared (IR) spectroscopy. For the structures SiNx/Si and (thin metal layer)/SiNx/Si transmission and reflection spectra in the region of wave numbers of 500-7000 cm-1 has been investigated. For the investigated structures analysis of optical properties observed in the IR spectra both in the form of selective absorption bands and interference modulation of a baseline was conducted.

  19. Anomalous epitaxial stability of (001) interfaces in ZrN/SiNx multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, Naureen; Lind, Hans; Tasnádi, Ferenc; Abrikosov, Igor A.; Odén, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Isostructural stability of B1-NaCl type SiN on (001) and (111) oriented ZrN surfaces is studied theoretically and experimentally. The ZrN/SiNx/ZrN superlattices with modulation wavelength of 3.76 nm (dSiNx˜0.4 nm) were grown by dc-magnetron sputtering on MgO(001) and MgO(111). The results indicate that 0.4 nm thin SiNx layers utterly influence the preferred orientation of epitaxial growth: on MgO(001) cube-on-cube epitaxy of ZrN/SiNx superlattices were realized whereas multilayers on MgO(111) surface exhibited an unexpected 002 texture with a complex fourfold 90°-rotated in-plane preferred orientation. Density functional theory calculations confirm stability of a (001) interface with respect to a (111) which explains the anomaly.

  20. Electrical properties of the SiNx/InP interface passivated using H2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, A.; Si, X.; Malhotra, V.

    1993-05-01

    Passivation of the electronic defect states at the SiNx/InP interface has been achieved using gaseous H2S treatments of the InP surface. Al/SiNx/InP capacitors, fabricated by depositing silicon nitride films on the H2S-treated InP, exhibit good capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. The SiNx layer is deposited at 200 °C using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique. A minimum trap density of 3.5×1011 cm-2 eV-1 is estimated using the high-frequency C-V characteristics. These devices appear to be more uniform and reproducible than ammonium/phosphorous polysulfide-passivated SiNx/InP interfaces.

  1. Hydrogenation of Si from SiNx(H) films: Characterization of H introduced into the Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fan; Stavola, Michael; Rohatgi, A.; Kim, D.; Holt, J.; Atwater, H.; Kalejs, J.

    2003-08-01

    A promising method to introduce H into multicrystalline Si solar cells in order to passivate bulk defects is by the postdeposition annealing of a H-rich, SiNx surface layer. It has previously been difficult to characterize the small concentration of H that is introduced by this method. Infrared spectroscopy has been used together with marker impurities in the Si to determine the concentration and depth of H introduced into Si from an annealed SiNx film.

  2. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  3. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexander F; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices. PMID:26049497

  4. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, Alexander F; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices.

  5. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; Hu, Chaohao; Oganov, Artem R.; Somayazulu, Maddury; Stavrou, Elissaios; Pickard, Chris J.; Berlie, Adam; Yen, Fei; Mahmood, Mahmood; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2015-06-01

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first-principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds [see also D. K. Spaulding et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5739 (2014)] above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.5 < x < 1.5) compounds transform abruptly to new oligomeric materials through barochemistry above 47 GPa and photochemistry at pressures as low as 10 GPa. These oligomeric compounds can be recovered to ambient pressure at T < 130 K, whereas at room temperature, they can be metastable on pressure release down to 3.5 GPa. Extensive theoretical calculations show that such oligomeric materials become thermodynamically more stable in comparison to mixtures of N2, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices.

  6. Infrared study of the concentration of H introduced into Si by the postdeposition annealing of a SiNx coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleekajai, S.; Wen, L.; Peng, C.; Stavola, M.; Yelundur, V.; Nakayashiki, K.; Rohatgi, A.; Kalejs, J.

    2009-12-01

    The postdeposition annealing of a SiNx antireflection coating is commonly used to introduce hydrogen into a multicrystalline Si solar cell to passivate defects in the Si bulk. A quantitative comparison has been made of the concentrations of H that are introduced into a Si model system from SiNx coatings with high and low density that have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Experiments have also been performed in which the processing of the SiNx/Si interface was modified to compare how the preparation of the interface and properties of the SiNx film itself affect the concentration of H that is introduced into the Si bulk.

  7. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy; Proctor, Robert H; Belzile, Francois; Chulze, Sofia N; Clear, Randall M; Cowger, Christina; Elmer, Wade; Lee, Theresa; Obanor, Friday; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F. graminearum. NX-2 isolates were only found in southern Canada and the northern U.S., where they were observed at low frequency (1.8%), but over a broader geographic range and set of cereal hosts than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analyses of TRI1 and adjacent genes produced gene trees that were incongruent with the history of species divergence within FSAMSC-1, indicating trans-species evolution of ancestral polymorphism. In addition, placement of NX-2 strains in the TRI1 gene tree was influenced by the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions associated with the evolution of the NX-2 chemotype, and a significant (P<0.001) change in selection pressure was observed along the NX-2 branch (ω=1.16) in comparison to other branches (ω=0.17) in the TRI1 phylogeny. Parameter estimates were consistent with positive selection for specific amino-acid changes during the evolution of NX-2, but direct tests of positive selection were not significant. Phylogenetic analyses of fourfold degenerate sites and intron sequences in TRI1 indicated the NX-2 chemotype had a single evolutionary origin and evolved recently from a type B ancestor. Our results indicate the NX-2 chemotype may be indigenous, and possibly endemic, to southern Canada and the northern U.S. In addition, we demonstrate that the evolution of TRI1 within FSAMSC-1 has been complex, with evidence of trans-species evolution and chemotype-specific shifts in selective

  8. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy; Proctor, Robert H; Belzile, Francois; Chulze, Sofia N; Clear, Randall M; Cowger, Christina; Elmer, Wade; Lee, Theresa; Obanor, Friday; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F. graminearum. NX-2 isolates were only found in southern Canada and the northern U.S., where they were observed at low frequency (1.8%), but over a broader geographic range and set of cereal hosts than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analyses of TRI1 and adjacent genes produced gene trees that were incongruent with the history of species divergence within FSAMSC-1, indicating trans-species evolution of ancestral polymorphism. In addition, placement of NX-2 strains in the TRI1 gene tree was influenced by the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions associated with the evolution of the NX-2 chemotype, and a significant (P<0.001) change in selection pressure was observed along the NX-2 branch (ω=1.16) in comparison to other branches (ω=0.17) in the TRI1 phylogeny. Parameter estimates were consistent with positive selection for specific amino-acid changes during the evolution of NX-2, but direct tests of positive selection were not significant. Phylogenetic analyses of fourfold degenerate sites and intron sequences in TRI1 indicated the NX-2 chemotype had a single evolutionary origin and evolved recently from a type B ancestor. Our results indicate the NX-2 chemotype may be indigenous, and possibly endemic, to southern Canada and the northern U.S. In addition, we demonstrate that the evolution of TRI1 within FSAMSC-1 has been complex, with evidence of trans-species evolution and chemotype-specific shifts in selective

  9. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher S; DeDiego, Marta L; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  10. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher S.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  11. Charge transport mechanisms and memory effects in amorphous TaNx thin films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous semiconducting materials have unique electrical properties that may be beneficial in nanoelectronics, such as low leakage current, charge memory effects, and hysteresis functionality. However, electrical characteristics between different or neighboring regions in the same amorphous nanostructure may differ greatly. In this work, the bulk and surface local charge carrier transport properties of a-TaNx amorphous thin films deposited in two different substrates are investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy. The nitride films are grown either on Au (100) or Si [100] substrates by pulsed laser deposition at 157 nm in nitrogen environment. For the a-TaNx films deposited on Au, it is found that they display a negligible leakage current until a high bias voltage is reached. On the contrary, a much lower threshold voltage for the leakage current and a lower total resistance is observed for the a-TaNx film deposited on the Si substrate. Furthermore, I-V characteristics of the a-TaNx film deposited on Au show significant hysteresis effects for both polarities of bias voltage, while for the film deposited on Si hysteresis, effects appear only for positive bias voltage, suggesting that with the usage of the appropriate substrate, the a-TaNx nanodomains may have potential use as charge memory devices. PMID:24134740

  12. [Construction of infectious clone of subgroup J avian leukosis virus strain NX0101 and its pathogenicity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-yuan; Cui, Zhi-zhong; Ding, Jia-bo; Jiang, Shi-jin

    2005-06-01

    By using PCR, 3 fragments of provirus cDNA of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) strain NXO101 were amplified from the genomic DNA of ALV-J infected cells,and then combined in the right direction and sequences into recombinant plasmid pALV-J-NX, containing the whole genome of NX0101. After transfection of chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells with plasmid pALV-J-NX DNA, the rescued virus was identified in CEF by indirect fluorescence antibody test with ALV-J specific monoclonal antibody JE9. The rescued virus could replicate in CEF at a titer of 10(5.6)/mL. The chicken experiment demonstrated that the rescued virus was still able to induce tumors in commercial meat-type broilers.

  13. NxStage dialysis system-associated thrombocytopenia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sekkarie, Mohamed; Waldron, Michelle; Reynolds, Texas

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in hemodialysis patients has recently been reported to be commonly caused by electron-beam sterilization of dialysis filters. We report the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in the first two patients of a newly established home hemodialysis program. The 2 patients switched from conventional hemodialysis using polysulfone electron-beam sterilized dialyzers to a NxStage system, which uses gamma sterilized polyehersulfone dialyzers incorporated into a drop-in cartridge. The thrombocytopenia resolved after return to conventional dialysis in both patients and recurred upon rechallenge in the patient who opted to retry NxStage. This is the first report of thrombocytopenia with the NxStage system according to the authors’ knowledge. Dialysis-associated thrombocytopenia pathophysiology and clinical significance are not well understood and warrant additional investigations. PMID:26521886

  14. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlN/SiNx passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tan; Yuanjie, Lü; Guodong, Gu; Li, Wang; Shaobo, Dun; Xubo, Song; Hongyu, Guo; Jiayun, Yin; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2015-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 5 nm AlN passivation by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) were fabricated, covered by 50 nm SiNx which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). With PEALD AlN passivation, current collapse was suppressed more effectively and the devices show better subthreshold characteristics. Moreover, the insertion of AlN increased the RF transconductance, which lead to a higher cut-off frequency. Temperature dependence of DC characteristics demonstrated that the degradations of drain current and maximum transconductance at elevated temperatures for the AlN/SiNx passivated devices were much smaller compared with the devices with SiNx passivation, indicating that PEALD AlN passivation can improve the high temperature operation of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60890192).

  15. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  16. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  17. Isotropic plasma etching of Ge Si and SiNx films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henry, Michael David; Douglas, Erica Ann

    2016-08-31

    This study reports on selective isotropic dry etching of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Ge thin film, release layers using a Shibaura chemical downstream etcher (CDE) with NF3 and Ar based plasma chemistry. Relative etch rates between Ge, Si and SiNx are described with etch rate reductions achieved by adjusting plasma chemistry with O2. Formation of oxides reducing etch rates were measured for both Ge and Si, but nitrides or oxy-nitrides created using direct injection of NO into the process chamber were measured to increase Si and SiNx etch rates while retarding Ge etching.

  18. I-deas TMG to NX Space Systems Thermal Model Conversion and Computational Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan

    2011-01-01

    CAD/CAE packages change on a continuous basis as the power of the tools increase to meet demands. End -users must adapt to new products as they come to market and replace legacy packages. CAE modeling has continued to evolve and is constantly becoming more detailed and complex. Though this comes at the cost of increased computing requirements Parallel processing coupled with appropriate hardware can minimize computation time. Users of Maya Thermal Model Generator (TMG) are faced with transitioning from NX I -deas to NX Space Systems Thermal (SST). It is important to understand what differences there are when changing software packages We are looking for consistency in results.

  19. Roles of SiNx layers in light trapping and carrier collection of nanostructured crystalline Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    We investigated optical properties and photovoltaic (PV) performance of nanostructured Si solar cells with and without SiNx dielectric layers. The SiNx layer contributed to the enhancement of internal quantum efficiency of the nanostructured cells at both short and long wavelengths. In contrast, the surface passivation of SiNx layers on flat cells helped the carrier collection mainly at short wavelength. The surface nanopatterned array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range, revealed by experimental data and optical simulation results. As a result, the nanostructured cells had high density of photo-generated carriers near the surface. This could lead to significant recombination loss of the cells without SiNx layers. Our work suggested that the SiNx layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured Si PV devices.

  20. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. Defect termination on crystalline silicon surfaces by hydrogen for improvement in the passivation quality of catalytic chemical vapor-deposited SiNx and SiNx/P catalytic-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham Thi, Trinh; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen (H) in the improvement in the passivation quality of silicon nitride (SiNx) prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and Cat-CVD SiNx/phosphorus (P) Cat-doped layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) by annealing. Both structures show promising passivation capabilities for c-Si with extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) on n-type c-Si. Defect termination by H is evaluated on the basis of defect density (Nd) determined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and interface state density (Dit) calculated by the Terman method. The two parameters are found to be drastically decreased by annealing after SiNx deposition. The calculated average Dit at midgap (Dit-average) is 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si sample with a SRV of 2 cm/s, which is equivalent to 3.1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/c-Si sample with a SRV of 5 cm/s after annealing. The results indicate that H atoms play a critical role in the reduction in Dit for SiNx/c-Si and SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si, resulting in a drastic reduction in SRV by annealing.

  2. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    F. graminearum and 21 related species form a species complex (FSAMSC-1) characterized by production of type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce NX-2, a novel type A trichothecene, resulting from variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1...

  3. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  4. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx particles with easy-plane anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guoguo; Zhang, Yongbo; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Fashen

    2015-11-01

    The microwave magnetic properties of the soft magnetic Y2Fe17Nx (x≈3) particles with easy-plane anisotropy were reported. The high MS and out-of-plane anisotropy result in the high permeability in GHz frequency band. The complex permeability of the Y2Fe17Nx particles/paraffin composite was further enhanced by inducing the easy magnetization planes of the particles to be parallel to each other through a rotational orientation. The calculated reflection loss (RL) properties of the orientated Y2Fe17Nx composite revealed that this composite can be used as high-performance absorber in S band.

  5. Minimally differentiated acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M0) granulocytic sarcoma presenting in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kay S; Ehsan, Aamir; McGuff, H Stan; Albright, Steven C

    2002-07-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia with minimal differentiation (AML-M0) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia in which blasts fail to show morphologic differentiation and conventional cytochemical stains and myeloid markers are negative. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) presents primarily with peripheral blood and/or bone marrow involvement. Presentation in extramedullary sites, including the head and neck region, is not uncommon. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) and acute monocytic leukemia (AML-M5) have had the highest incidence of associated oral infiltrates. We report a case of a 58-year-old gentleman, with no prior history of acute leukemia, presenting with a solitary palatal swelling. Initial morphologic examination favored high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Conventional cytochemical and immunohistochemical stains were negative for lymphoid and myeloid markers. Subsequent immunophenotyping via flow cytometry performed on peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate demonstrated myeloid lineage without lymphoid differentiation, confirming the diagnosis of AML-M0.To our knowledge, this subtype of AML-M0 has not been previously reported involving the oral cavity. With absence of morphologic differentiation, and negative findings on conventional cytochemical and immunohistochemical stains, this subtype of leukemia may be misdiagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Flow cytometry is useful in detecting the myeloid lineage of this leukemia. PMID:12110349

  6. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  7. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the veteran died before return to military jurisdiction or within 120 days thereafter. (See § 3.5(d... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section 3.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  8. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the veteran died before return to military jurisdiction or within 120 days thereafter. (See § 3.5(d... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section 3.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION...

  9. A new fabrication method for low stress PECVD - SiNx layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Poh Lam; Wei, Jiashen; Tay, Francis E. H.; Iliescu, Ciprian

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a new method of depositing low stress silicon nitride (SiNx) with high deposition rate using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system (STS, Multiplex Pro-CVD). By increasing the operating power of the PECVD system at the high frequency mode (13.56MHz), the deposition rate also increases while that the level of intrinsic stress within the SiNx film decreases. The relationships between some of the key deposition parameters of the experiment such as chamber pressure, silane (SiH4), ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen (N2) flow rates and the two important response variables namely the level of intrinsic stress and deposition rate are established within this investigation.

  10. Memristor and selector devices fabricated from HfO2-xNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Partridge, J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Monoclinic HfO2-xNx has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO2-xNx films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.

  11. Linear Analysis of the m=0 Instability for a Visco-resistive Hall MHD Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    2006-01-05

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear dispersion relation for the axisymmetric (m=0) compressible interchange instability of Bennett equilibria in a visco-resistive, Hall MHD plasma. The full anisotropic stress tensor with Braginskii viscous coefficients is considered. The eigenvalues are obtained numerically. For small axial mode number, Hall currents enhance the growth rates, whereas in the limit of high mode number the growth rates are suppressed, eventually resulting in wave cutoff, even in the ideal limit. For the visco-resistive plasma the unstable spectra are weakly dependent on the off-diagonal elements of the stress tensor.

  12. Fabrication of Si heterojunction solar cells using P-doped Si nanocrystals embedded in SiNx films as emitters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated on p-type single-crystal Si (sc-Si) substrates using phosphorus-doped Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiNx (Si-NCs/SiNx) films as emitters. The Si-NCs were formed by post-annealing of silicon-rich silicon nitride films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition. We investigate the influence of the N/Si ratio in the Si-NCs/SiNx films on their electrical and optical properties, as well as the photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterojunction devices. Increasing the nitrogen content enhances the optical gap E04 while deteriorating the electrical conductivity of the Si-NCs/SiNx film, leading to an increased short-circuit current density and a decreased fill factor of the heterojunction device. These trends could be interpreted by a bi-phase model which describes the Si-NCs/SiNx film as a mixture of a high-transparency SiNx phase and a low-resistivity Si-NC phase. A preliminary efficiency of 8.6% is achieved for the Si-NCs/sc-Si heterojunction solar cell. PMID:24188725

  13. Mechanical strains in pecvd SiNx:H films for nanophotonic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, O.; Kozelskaya, A.; Li, Zhi-Yong; Yu, Yu-De

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films (SiNx:H) are deposited at low temperature by high-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF PECVD). The main effort is to investigate the roles of plasma frequency and plasma power density in determining the film properties particularly in stress. Information about chemical bonds in the films is obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The stresses in the SiNx:H film are determined from substrate curvature measurements. It is shown that plasma frequency plays an important role in controlling the stresses in SiNx:H films. For silicon nitride layers grown at plasma frequency 40.68 MHz initial tensile stresses are observed to be in a range of 400 MPa-700 MPa. Measurements of the intrinsic stresses of silicon nitride films show that the stress quantity is sufficient for film applications in strained silicon photonics. Project supported by RFBR (Grant No. 14-03-91154 NNSF) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61411130212).

  14. Al-enhanced PECVD SiNx induced hydrogen passivation in string ribbon silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelundur, V.; Rohatgi, A.; Ebong, A.; Gabor, A. M.; Hanoka, J.; Wallace, R. L.

    2001-05-01

    The effectiveness of manufacturable gettering and passivation technologies is investigated for their ability to improve the quality of a promising Si photovoltaic material. The results of this study indicate that a lifetime enhancement of 30 μs is attained when a backside screen-printed aluminum layer and a thin film of SiNx, applied by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), are simultaneously annealed at 850°C in a lamp-heated belt furnace. Based on the results of this study, a model is proposed to describe the Al-enhanced SiNx induced hydrogen defect passivation in String Ribbon silicon due to the simultaneous anneal. According to this model, three factors play an important role: i) the release of hydrogen from the SiNx film into the substrate; ii) the retention of hydrogen at defect sites in silicon; and iii) the generation of vacancies at the Al-Si interface due to the alloying process which increases the incorporation of hydrogen and creates a chemical potential gradient which enhances the migration of hydrogen in the substrate. A PC1D device simulation indicates that screen-printed cell efficiencies approaching 16% can be achieved if the gettering and passivation treatments examined in this study are employed, the substrate thickness is reduced, and a high-quality surface passivation scheme is applied.

  15. NX-PVKA levels before and after hepatectomy of hepatocellular carcinoma as predictors of patient survival: a preliminary evaluation of an improved assay for PIVKA-II.

    PubMed

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Abo, Takafumi; Taura, Naota; Shibata, Hideki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Takagi, Katsunori; Arai, Junichi; Oyama, Shousaburou; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Although the protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is used as a prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a newly-improved assay, NX-PVKA (PIVKA-II measured using P-11 and P-16 antibodies) and NX-PVKA-R (ratio of PIVKA-II and NX-PVKA), are more accurate markers of PIVKA-II. We conducted a prospectively preliminary analysis of the relationship between NX-PVKA-R and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in 22 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy and measured changes of this marker's levels after treatment. Median value of PIVKA-II (80 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA (60 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA-R (1.5) and NX-PVKA-D (difference of markers, 15 mAU/ml) were determined. Tumor relapse was observed in six patients, and the one year relapse-free survival rate was 88%. Correlation between PIVKA-II or alpha-fetoprotein levels and NX-PVKA, NX-PVKA-R or -D levels was significant (p<0.001). NX-PVKA-R was significantly correlated with tumor size (p<0.05). In patients who underwent pre-treatment before hepatectomy, PIVKA-II, NX-PVKA and NX-PVKA-R tended to be higher than in patients without pre-treatment, but this difference was not significant (p>0.10). For macroscopic findings, NX-PVKA-R for the confluent-nodular type was significantly higher than that for the simple-nodular type (p<0.05). The tumor-free survival rate in the group with a high NX-PVKA-R was significantly lower than that in the group with a low NX-PVKA-R group (p<0.05). In patients with tumor recurrence, postoperative NX-PVKA-R increased again. We conclude that a high value of NX-PVKA-R after hepatectomy for HCC reflects malignant potential and predicts early recurrence in patients with HCC.

  16. Geomagnetic paleointensity and direct age determination of the ISEA (M0r?) chron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Nomade, Sébastien; Renne, Paul R.; Shi, Ruiping; Pan, Yongxin; Shi, Guanghai

    2004-01-01

    A combined paleomagnetic and geochronologic study has been conducted on an andesite lava sequence at Jianguo (Liaoning province, northeastern China). Thermal demagnetization and thermomagnetic analysis revealed that natural remanent magnetization is carried by both magnetite and hematite. Stepwise thermal demagnetization up to 675°C isolated well-defined reverse characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) in three time-independent lava flows with a mean direction of D/ I=179.2°/-59.7° with α95=3.0°. It also showed that a high-temperature component (>585°C) has the same ChRM direction as that of the low- to medium-temperature (ca. 170/300-585°C) components. A modified version of the Thellier-Thellier paleointensity method [Coe, J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262] with systematic partial thermoremanent magnetization checks was used for paleointensity determinations. Twelve out of 39 samples yielded reliable results in the temperature interval of 170-550°C. Virtual dipole moment values range from 3.9 to 4.7×10 22 Am 2 with an average of 4.2±0.1×10 22 Am 2. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determination on one lava flow is 116.8±3.0 Myr (2σ error, relative to Fish Canyon sanidine: 28.02±0.28 Myr). The magnetic reversed polarity with well-defined age could correspond to the 'ISEA' within the older part of the Cretaceous normal superchron (CNS), but we cannot rule out the possibility that this reversal interval could also correspond to the M0r due to many ambiguities on previous published ages on ISEA and M0r intervals as well as the new monitor age correction we applied. It also suggests that a weak magnetic field nature already documented before the CNS extended at least into the very beginning of the CNS.

  17. Treatment of relapsed undifferentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) with Ayurvedic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Balendu

    2011-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy was detected with acute myeloid leukemia (AML – M0) with bone marrow pathology showing 85% blasts in February 07, 1997. He received two cycles of induction chemotherapy (3+7 protocol) with daunomycin and cytosar, following which he achieved incomplete remission with bone marrow aspirate showing 14% blasts. Subsequently, the patient received two cycles of high-dose cytosine arabinoside Ara-C and achieved remission. However, his disease relapsed on August 29, 1997. Peripheral blood smear showed 6% blast cells and bone marrow showed 40% blast cells. The patient refused further chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplant and volunteered for Ayurvedic therapy (AYT) advocated by the author from September 09, 1997. Bone marrow studies done after six months of AYT indicated that the disease was in remission. The AYT was continued for five years and stopped. Thereafter, the patient received intermittent maintenance AYT for three months in the next two years. At present, the patient is normal and healthy and has completed 12 years of disease-free survival with AYT. PMID:21897645

  18. Reduction of Hg1 - xCdxTe native oxide during the SiNx deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, G.; Kajihara, N.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tanikawa, K.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition enables low-temperature SiNx deposition on Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT). The SiNx film has an excellent interface on MCT with a low surface state density of 1.0×1011 cm-2 eV-1 and a low fixed charge of -1.4×1011 cm-2. A detailed analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy spectra of Te, Cd, and Si at the SiNx/MCT interface indicated that the SiNx deposition reduces the naturally grown MCT native oxide. The oxygen taken from Te oxidizes SiH4 and produces silicon oxides which remain in the SiNx film. Since a chemical shift caused by oxidized Cd at the fresh surface of MCT is very slight, intentionally oxidized samples were used to confirm the above reaction. The analysis of the shape of the Si(2p) peak at the interface indicated that the silicon oxides are composed of SiO and SiO2. Thermodynamic considerations support such a mechanism.

  19. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  20. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal Acquisition..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype...

  1. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal Acquisition..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype...

  2. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal Acquisition..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC). The individual identified by the military department or defense agency as its POC for prototype...

  3. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC... prototype projects and make related determinations and findings. Approving Official. The official... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal...

  4. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC... prototype projects and make related determinations and findings. Approving Official. The official... make related determinations and findings as defined in Chapter 1 of Title 48, CFR, Federal...

  5. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  6. Observation of helicon wave with m = 0 antenna in a weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingboe, Bert; Sirse, Nishant; Moloney, Rachel; McCarthy, John

    2015-09-01

    Bounded whistler wave, called ``helicon wave,'' is known to produce high-density plasmas and has been exploited as a high density plasma source for many applications, including electric propulsion for spacecraft. In a helicon plasma source, an antenna wrapped around the magnetized plasma column launches a low frequency wave, ωce/2 >ωhelicon >ωce/100, in the plasma which is responsible for maintaining high density plasma. Several antenna designs have been proposed in order to match efficiently the wave modes. In our experiment, helicon wave mode is observed using an m = 0 antenna. A floating B dot probe, compensated to the capacitively coupled E field, is employed to measure axial-wave-field-profiles (z, r, and θ components) in the plasma at multiple radial positions as a function of rf power and pressure. The Bθ component of the rf-field is observed to be unaffected as the wave propagates in the axial direction. Power coupling between the antenna and the plasma column is identified and agrees with the E, H, and wave coupling regimes previously seen in M =1 antenna systems. That is, the Bz component of the rf-field is observed at low plasma density as the Bz component from the antenna penetrates the plasma. The Bz component becomes very small at medium density due to shielding at the centre of the plasma column; however, with increasing density, a sudden ``jump'' occurs in the Bz component above which a standing wave under the antenna with a propagating wave away from the antenna are observed.

  7. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  8. Valence x-ray-emission bands of a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nithianandam, Jeyasingh; Schnatterly, Stephen E.

    1990-11-01

    Si L2,3 x-ray-emission spectra from amorphous superlattices made with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H are presented and interpreted using a two-phase linear superposition model for the valence-band region. The average thickness of buried interfaces in these superlattices was found to be 1.8 Å and the interfaces were shown to be of silicon-nitride character. A direct measurement of the fluorescence yield ratio in the soft-x-ray spectral range for any two materials is also presented.

  9. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS.

  10. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS. PMID:27414283

  11. Oxidation and thermal fatigue of coated and uncoated NX-188 nickel-base alloy in a high velocity gas stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Young, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    A cast nickel-base superalloy, NX-188, coated and uncoated, was tested in a high-velocity gas stream for resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue by cycling between room temperature and 980, 1040, and 1090 C. Contrary to the behavior of more conventional nickel-base alloys, uncoated NX-188 exhibited the greatest weight loss at the lowest test temperature. In general, on the basis of weight change and metallographic observations a coating consisting of vapor-deposited Fe-Cr-Al-Y over a chromized substrate exhibited the best overall performance in resistance to oxidation and thermal fatigue.

  12. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  13. Deposition of SiNx Thin Film Using µ-SLAN Surface Wave Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying-Yu; Ogishima, Takuya; Korzec, Dariusz; Nakanishi, Yoichiro; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    1999-07-01

    A slot antenna (µ-SLAN) microwave surface wave plasma source was developed for SiNx thin film preparation. A µ-SLAN-produced argon plasma density up to 1011 cm-3 has been achieved at an axial position of about 43 cm from the ring cavity at a microwave power of 500 W and a chamber pressure of 0.5 Torr. High-speed deposition of SiNx thin film was performed using the µ-SLAN-assisted remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method incorporating tris(dimethylamino)silane (TDMAS) as a monomer source. The film deposition rate increased rapidly up to 270 nm/min when some hydrogen was mixed in the nitrogen gas and increased from 0 to 1%. A further increase of hydrogen content, however, only slightly increased the film deposition rate. A high deposition rate of 280 nm/min was obtained when 15% hydrogen was mixed in the nitrogen gas, with the chamber pressure and microwave power at 1.5 Torr and 500 W, respectively.

  14. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  15. Molecular metal–Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt–nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt–N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s−1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols. PMID:26250525

  16. Molecular metal-Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt-nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt-N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s-1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols.

  17. Multitasking in signal transduction by a promiscuous human Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) 1-kinase/Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Shears, S B

    2000-11-01

    We describe a human cDNA encoding 1-kinase activity that inactivates Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4), an inhibitor of chloride-channel conductance that regulates epithelial salt and fluid secretion, as well as membrane excitability. Unexpectedly, we further discovered that this enzyme has alternative positional specificity (5/6-kinase activity) towards a different substrate, namely Ins(1,3,4)P(3). Kinetic data from a recombinant enzyme indicate that Ins(1,3,4)P(3) (K(m)=0.3 microM; V(max)=320 pmol/min per microg) and Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) (K(m)=0.1 microM; V(max)=780 pmol/min per microg) actively compete for phosphorylation in vivo. This competition empowers the kinase with multitasking capability in several key aspects of inositol phosphate signalling.

  18. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Large Storage Window in a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Sandwiched Structure for Nanocrystalline Silicon Floating Gate Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Gao; Yu, Lin-Wei; Huang, Xin-Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kun-Ji

    2008-07-01

    An a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon [(nc-Si)/a-SiNx] sandwiched structure is fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system at low temperature (250° C). The nc-Si layer is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane mixture gas by using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Atom force microscopy measurement shows that the density of nc-Si is about 2 × 1011 cm-2. By the pretreatment of plasma nitridation, low density of interface states and high-quality interface between the Si substrate and a-SiNx insulator layer are obtained. The density of interface state at the midgap is calculated to be 1 × 1010 cm-2eV-1 from the quasistatic and high frequency C - V data. The charging and discharging property of nc-Si quantum dots is studied by capacitance-voltage (C - V) measurement at room temperature. An ultra-large hysteresis is observed in the C - V characteristics, which is attributed to storage of the electrons and holes into the nc-Si dots. The long-term charge-loss process is studied and ascribed to low density of interface states at SiNx/Si substrate.

  19. The use of PEEK nanorod arrays for the fabrication of nanoporous surfaces under high temperature: SiNx example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jaime; Martín-González, Marisol

    2012-08-01

    Large area silicon nitride (SiNx) nanoporous surfaces are fabricated using poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) nanorod arrays as a template. The procedure involves manipulation of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates in order to form an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars with high temperature resistant characteristics. In this context, self-ordered AAO templates are infiltrated with PEEK melts via the ``precursor film'' method. Once the melts have been crystallized in the porous structure of AAO, the basis alumina layer is removed, yielding an ordered array of PEEK nanopillars. The resulting structure is a high temperature and chemical resistant polymeric nanomold, which can be utilized in the synthesis of nanoporous materials under aggressive conditions. Such conditions are high temperatures (up to 320 °C), vacuum, or extreme pH. For example, SiNx nanopore arrays have been grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 300 °C, which can be of interest as mold for nanoimprint lithography, due to its hardness and low surface energy. The SiNx nanopore array portrays the same characteristics as the original AAO template: 120 nm diameter pores and an interpore distance of 430 nm. Furthermore, the aspect ratio of the SiNx nanopores can be tuned by selecting an AAO template with appropriate conditions. The use of PEEK as a nanotemplate extends the applicability of polymeric nanopatterns into a temperature regime up to now not accessible and opens up the simple fabrication of novel nanoporous inorganic surfaces.

  20. Thermal conductivity reduction by interface roughness in AlNx-GaNy superlattices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan Koh, Yee; Cao, Yu; Cahill, David; Jena, Debdeep

    2008-03-01

    A reduction of cross-plane thermal conductivity λ by a factor of two is achieved in AlN4 nm-GaN52 nm superlattices by varying the plasma power during growth. This reduction is attributed to interface roughness, introducing a new parameter to be considered in the design and fabrication of superlattices for thermoelectric applications. Thermal conductivity of AlNx-GaNy superlattices, x ˜ 4 nm and 2 < y < 1000 nm, with rough interfaces is then measured by time-domain thermoreflectance. λ decreases monotonically as the GaN thickness y decreases, λ = 6.35 W m-1 K-1 at y = 2.2 nm. We observe no minimum thermal conductivity as a function of period for these rough superlattices. A continuum model incorporating the effects of interface roughness indicates that diffuse scattering is dominant when y > 20 nm, and significant coherent transmission occurs when y < 20 nm.

  1. Evolution of superclusters and delocalized states in GaAs1–xNx

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fluegel, B.; Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Crooker, S. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-11-21

    The evolution of individual nitrogen cluster bound states into an extended state infinite supercluster in dilute GaAs1–xNx was probed through temperature and intensity-dependent, time-resolved and magnetophotoluminescence (PL) measurements. Samples with compositions less than 0.23% N exhibit PL behavior that is consistent with emission from the extended states of the conduction band. Near a composition of 0.23% N, a discontinuity develops between the extended state PL peak energy and the photoluminescence excitation absorption edge. The existence of dual localized/delocalized state behavior near this composition signals the formation of an N supercluster just below the conduction band edge. The infinite supercluster ismore » fully developed by 0.32% N.« less

  2. Aerosol-Assisted Synthesis of Porous TiNx Oy @C Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Vincent; Clavel, Guylhaine; Antonietti, Markus; Giordano, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Porous TiNx Oy -based particles were synthesized by an aerosol spray process. At first, the starting sol solution containing the metal precursor and the nitrogen source is sprayed to form an aerosol that is subsequently pyrolysed at different temperatures. The obtained dried particles are an amorphous coordination "polymer" rich in carbon and nitrogen. These "glassy" particles are finally thermally treated at 800 °C, promoting the crystallization of the particles and the release of a major part of the carbon. As the particles keep their original shape, carbon loss and density increase during the crystallization step and lead to the development of an accessible pore structure. The process was analyzed and extended to the synthesis of other metal nitrides, such as VN and W2 N, thereby showing its general validity for the production of functional nanocrystalline nitride ceramics with high porosity still occupying a relatively small volume, and otherwise not easily accessible. PMID:27380832

  3. Theoretical study on intermolecular interactions in BrF/H nX adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junyong; Zhang, Jingchang; Wang, Zhaoxu; Cao, Weiliang

    2007-09-01

    Equilibrium geometries, interaction energies, and charge transfer for the intermolecular interactions between BrF and H nX (HF, H 2O, and NH 3) were studied at the MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p) level. The halogen-bonded geometry and hydrogen-bonded geometry are observed in these interactions. The calculated interaction energies show that the halogen-bonded structures are more stable than the corresponding hydrogen-bonded structures. To study the nature of the intermolecular interactions, symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) calculations were carried out and the results indicate that the halogen bonding interactions are dominantly inductive energy in nature, while electrostatic energy governs the hydrogen bonding interactions.

  4. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  5. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  6. Physical properties of NxTiO2 prepared by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahimi, Razika; Bessekhouad, Yassine; Trari, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    The compounds NxTiO2(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) with the anatase structure have been synthesized by Sol-Gel method using Tri-ethyl Amine as nitrogen source and their optical, electrical and electrochemical properties are investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power are measured in the temperature rang 300-600 K. The samples exhibit p-type behavior in contrast to TiO2. The doped-samples exhibit two optical transitions (2.35≤Eh-Vis(eV)≤2.55; 1.97≤El-Vis (eV)≤2.06) directly allowed in the visible region, while only one transition is observed in UV region (EUV∼3.00 eV). Pure TiO2 shows direct band gap transition of 3.17 eV. The results confirm experimentally the calculations of Di. Valentin et al. [42]. The transitions Eh-Vis and El-Vis are attributed respectively to the promotion of electrons from the localized N 2p and π* N-O bond to the conduction band. In all cases, EUV is associated to the forbidden band energy. Though that the conductivity is generally improved by doping process, only N0.05TiO2 and N0.1TiO2 shows an enhanced mobility. The mechanism of conduction takes place by small polaron hopping. The band edge positions of NxTiO2 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) at room temperature is predicted from the obtained physical properties. This study proves experimentally the principal role of nitrogen in doping process and permits the electronic states localization associated with N-impurities in TiO2 anatase.

  7. Synthesis of 2-vinyl-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene and 3,4,5-trichlorothenyl acrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Akopyan, A.N.; Saakyan, A.A.; Gavalyan, V.B.; Smbatyan, A.G.; Darbinyan, E.G.

    1988-12-20

    Preparative methods were developed for the production of 2-vinyl-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene from 2-chloromethyl-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene by the Wittig reaction of a two-phase system and by catalytic dehydration of 2-(/alpha/-hydroxyethyl)-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene. In reaction with an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the two-phase water-chloroform system in the presence of sodium carbonate 3,4,5-trichloroenyltrihenylphosphonoium chloride gives vinylthiophene (I) with an almost quantitative yield (93-95%). The process takes place under mild conditions (40/degree/C) and without a specially added phase-transfer catalyst, since the role of latter is evidently played by the phosphonium salt itself. 2-(/alpha/-Hydroxylethyl)-3,4,5-trichlorothiophene is formed by the reduction of the ketone (III) with sodium borohydride in methanol at 40/degree/C with a yield of 87%. The dehydration of the alcohol takes place at 180-200/degree/C in the presence of potassium bisulfate. The methods developed for the production of 2-vinylthiophene can be recommended as preparative methods on account of their simplicity, mild conditions, and high yields.

  8. Fatal intoxication from 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Poklis, A; Mackell, M A; Drake, W K

    1979-01-01

    The symptoms of MDA intoxication exhibited by the decedent prior to death closely mimic those of acute amphetamine poisoning: profuse sweating, violent and irrational behavior, and stereotypically compulsive behavior. Therefore, if amphetamines are not detected in specimens from a person displaying classic symptoms of amphetamine poisoning, hallucinogenic amphetamine derivatives may be considered. In the case described, a divided dose of 850 mg of MDA ingested within 2 h and 15 min was sufficient to cause the death of a 24-year-old male, 4 h after the final dose. While the methaqualone may have contributed to the demise of the decedent, the authors think that the MDA itself was sufficient to cause death. Results of limited recovery studies of MDA extraction from blood and elution from TLC plates supported the observations of Cimbura [13]. Approximately 85% of MDA is extracted by the method described and its elution from TLC plates is quantitative. This case points out once again the dangers of false advertising in the illicit market. The decedent, himself a dealer in the illicit drug market, and all present at the party believed the ingested white powder to be a mixture of morphine, LSD, and amphetamine, hence MDA. They were totally unfamiliar with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA. PMID:512617

  9. Study of enhanced photovoltaic behavior in InGaN-based solar cells by using SiNx insertion layer: Influence of dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunga; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Jang, Jongjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2016-03-01

    Using a SiNx insertion layer to reduce dislocations, enhanced photovoltaic properties could be obtained in p-i-n InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cell. To investigate the influence of the dislocations on the photovoltaic behaviors, a sample grown without SiNx insertion layer was identically prepared for comparison. From optical properties measurements, the reduction in the number of non-radiative centers and a stronger In localization effect was shown in the sample with SiNx insertion layer. However, the quantum confined stark effect was almost negligible in both the samples. Electrical properties measurement showed reduced saturation current and increased shunt resistance in the sample with SiNx insertion layer due to the reduced dislocation density. By comparing these results and using a numerical model, the influence of the dislocation density on the different photovoltaic properties such as open-circuit voltage and fill factor has been confirmed.

  10. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  11. Improved performance of semi-polar (11-22) GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on SiNx interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Joocheol; Jang, Jongjin; Hwang, Jungwhan; Jung, Chilsung; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Lim, Hyoungjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2013-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of the in-situ SiNx nanomask in reducing defects in semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane sapphire. The properties of the semipolar InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) LEDs were improved with a high-quality (11-22) GaN epilayer grown on the SiNx interlayer. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum of both on-axis and off-axis planes on SiNx interlayer. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) band-edge emission intensity of (11-22) GaN grown on the SiNx interlayer was approximately 4 times higher than that of GaN without the SiNx interlayer, which suggests reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers. The optical power of LEDs with the SiNx interlayer was 200% and 270% higher at injection currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively, compared to the reference LEDs.

  12. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  13. Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Su, Sheng-Pin; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Bo-Ji; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Wu, Chih-I; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonic interconnection on chip is the emerging issue for next-generation integrated circuits. With the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring based optical Kerr switch, we demonstrate for the first time the wavelength and format conversion of optical on-off-keying data with a bit-rate of 12 Gbit/s. The field-resonant nonlinear Kerr effect enhances the transient refractive index change when coupling the optical data-stream into the micro-ring through the bus waveguide. This effectively red-shifts the notched dip wavelength to cause the format preserved or inversed conversion of data carried by the on-resonant or off-resonant probe, respectively. The Si quantum dots doped Si-rich SiNx strengthens its nonlinear Kerr coefficient by two-orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Si or Si3N4. The wavelength-converted and cross-amplitude-modulated probe data-stream at up to 12-Gbit/s through the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring with penalty of −7 dB on transmission has shown very promising applicability to all-optical communication networks. PMID:25923653

  14. In-situ SiNx/InN structures for InN field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervos, Ch.; Adikimenakis, A.; Beleniotis, P.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G.; Georgakilas, A.

    2016-04-01

    Critical aspects of InN channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been investigated. SiNx dielectric layers were deposited in-situ, in the molecular beam epitaxy system, on the surface of 2 nm InN layers grown on GaN (0001) buffer layers. Metal-insulator-semiconductor Ni/SiNx/InN capacitors were analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage measurements and were used as gates in InN FET transistors (MISFETs). Comparison of the experimental C-V results with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations indicates the presence of a positive charge at the SiNx/InN interface of Qif ≈ 4.4 - 4.8 × 1013 cm-2, assuming complete InN strain relaxation. Operation of InN MISFETs was demonstrated, but their performance was limited by a catastrophic breakdown at drain-source voltages above 2.5-3.0 V, the low electron mobility, and high series resistances of the structures.

  15. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce2Fe17NX and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Z.; Wei, J. Z.; Xia, Y. H.; Wu, R.; Yun, C.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, W. Y.; Du, H. L.; Han, J. Z.; Liu, S. Q.; Yang, Y. C.; Wang, C. S.; Yang, J. B.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce2Fe17NX have been investigated. The Ce2Fe17NX compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce2Fe17NX paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ ' = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of -26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and -60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  16. A transparent diode with high rectifying ratio using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide/SiNx coupled junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Jea; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a transparent diode that shows both high rectifying ratio and low leakage current at process temperature below 250 °C. This device is clearly distinguished from all previous transparent diodes in that the rectifying behavior results from the junction between a semiconductor (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)) and insulator (SiNx). We systematically study the properties of each junction within the device structure and demonstrate that the a-IGZO/SiNx junction is the source of the outstanding rectification. The electrical characteristics of this transparent diode are: 2.8 A/cm2 on-current density measured at -7 V; lower than 7.3 × 10-9 A/cm2 off-current density; 2.53 ideality factor; and high rectifying ratio of 108-109. Furthermore, the diode structure has a transmittance of over 80% across the visible light range. The operating principle of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/a-IGZO/SiNx/ITO device was examined with an aid of the energy band diagram and we propose a preliminary model for the rectifying behavior. Finally, we suggest further directions for research on this transparent diode.

  17. Static and unsteady pressure measurements on a 50 degree clipped delta wing at M = 0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. W.; Wynne, E. C.; Cazier, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Static and unsteady pressures were measured on a 50.45 degree clipped delta wing in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with Freon as the test medium. Data taken at M = 0.9 is presented for static and oscillatory deflections of the trailing edge control surface and for the wing in pitch. Comparisons of the static measured data are made with results computed using the Bailey-Ballhaus small disturbance code.

  18. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60–86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5–100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0–1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was –0.1 (–0.8–0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  19. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60-86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5-100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0-1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was -0.1 (-0.8-0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC. PMID:26983978

  20. Hydrogen plasma induced modification of photoluminescence from a-SiNx:H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommali, R. K.; Ghosh, S.; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Gao, K.; Zhou, S.; Khan, S. A.; Srivastava, P.

    2014-02-01

    Low temperature (250-350 °C) hydrogen plasma annealing (HPA) treatments have been performed on amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) thin films having a range of compositions and subsequent modification of photoluminescence (PL) is investigated. The PL spectral shape and peak positions for the as deposited films could be tuned with composition and excitation energies. HPA induced modification of PL of these films is found to depend on the N/Si ratio (x). Upon HPA, the PL spectra show an emergence of a red emission band for x ≤ 1, whereas an overall increase of intensity without change in the spectral shape is observed for x > 1. The emission observed in the Si rich films is attributed to nanoscale a-Si:H inclusions. The enhancement is maximum for off-stoichiometric films (x ˜ 1) and decreases as the compositions of a-Si (x = 0) and a-Si3N4 (x = 1.33) are approached, implying high density of non-radiative defects around x = 1. The diffusion of hydrogen in these films is also analyzed by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis technique.

  1. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  2. Deposition of SiNx Thin Film Using μ-SLAN Surface Wave Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying-Yu, Xu; Takuya, Ogishima; Dariusz, Korzec; Yoichiro, Nakanishi; Yoshinori, Hatanaka

    1998-10-01

    Remote plasma CVD method has been used in fabrication of high quality thin films. It is a useful method in decreasing damage from ion bombardment and in analysis of film formation mechanism. In our research, as the film deposition rate depends on neutral radical density, hence high-density plasma is needed for high-speed deposition. In this research, a μ-SLAN (Slot ANtenna) microwave surface wave plasma source was adapted for thin film deposition. The μ-SLAN is an efficient plasma generator in which microwave power is coupled from a ring cavity with several slots around quartz discharge tube. We measured parameters of argon plasma along the discharge tube by a double Langmuir probe. The electron density was measured as about 10^11 cm-3 at an axial position of 43 cm from ring cavity, a microwave power of 500 W and a pressure of 0.5 torr. Using μ-SLAN, SiNx thin film was deposited and high deposition rate was obtained. The highest deposition rate of 280 nm/min was obtained for plasma gas containing 15% of hydrogen in nitrogen with the pressure and power of 1.5 torr and 500 W respectively.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Cai, Heng; Qing, Yujia; Ren, Ben; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Hongyang; Yao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The sucrose isomerase (SIase) gene from an efficient strain of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Protein sequence alignment revealed that SIase was a member of the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The molecular mass of the purified recombinant protein was estimated at 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The SIase had an optimal pH and temperature of 5.0 and 30 °C, respectively, with a K (m) of 257 mmol/l and V (max) of 48.09 μmol/l/s for sucrose. To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant SIase has the most acidic optimum pH for isomaltulose synthesis. When the recombinant E. coli (pET22b- palI) cells were used for isomaltulose synthesis, almost complete conversion of sucrose (550 g/l solution) to isomaltulose was achieved in 1.5 h with high isomaltulose yields (87%). The immobilized E. coli cells remained stable for more than 30 days in a "batch"-type enzyme reactor. This indicated that the recombinant SIase could continuously and efficiently produce isomaltulose.

  4. Purification and characterization of a highly selective sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ben; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hai; Cai, Heng; Ye, Qi

    2011-06-01

    A highly selective sucrose isomerase (SIase) was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free extract of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 with a recovery of 27.7% and a fold purification of 213.6. The purified SIase showed a high specific activity of 427.1 U mg(-1) with molecular weight of 65.6 kDa. The K (m) for sucrose was 222 mM while V (max) was 546 U mg(-1). The optimum pH and temperature for SIase activity were 6.0 and 30 °C, respectively. The purified SIase was stable in the temperature range of 10-40 °C and retained 65% of the enzyme activity after 2 weeks' storage at 30 °C. The SIase activity was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), inhibited by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+), completely inhibited by Hg(2+) and Ag(2+). The purified SIase was strongly inhibited by SDS, while partially inhibited by dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and PMSF. Additionally, glucose and fructose acted as competitive inhibitors for purified SIase.

  5. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  6. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  7. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  8. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  9. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to sewage sludge that is not used or disposed through a practice regulated in 40 CFR part 503 may... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  15. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  16. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  17. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  18. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  19. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M = 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plume's axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 4/3. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path. Keywords: column number density, plume flows, outgassing, free molecule flow.

  20. Regulation of Macrophage Motility by the Water Channel Aquaporin-1: Crucial Role of M0/M2 Phenotype Switch

    PubMed Central

    Tyteca, Donatienne; Nishino, Tomoya; Debaix, Huguette; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'Kuli, Francisca; Hoffmann, Delia; Cnops, Yvette; Rabolli, Virginie; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Huaux, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Courtoy, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) promotes migration of many cell types. Although AQP1 is expressed in macrophages, its potential role in macrophage motility, particularly in relation with phenotype polarization, remains unknown. We here addressed these issues in peritoneal macrophages isolated from AQP1-deficient mice, either undifferentiated (M0) or stimulated with LPS to orientate towards pro-inflammatory phenotype (classical macrophage activation; M1). In non-stimulated macrophages, ablation of AQP1 (like inhibition by HgCl2) increased by 2–3 fold spontaneous migration in a Src/PI3K/Rac-dependent manner. This correlated with cell elongation and formation of lamellipodia/ruffles, resulting in membrane lipid and F4/80 recruitment to the leading edge. This indicated that AQP1 normally suppresses migration of resting macrophages, as opposed to other cell types. Resting Aqp1-/- macrophages exhibited CD206 redistribution into ruffles and increased arginase activity like IL4/IL13 (alternative macrophage activation; M2), indicating a M0-M2 shift. In contrast, upon M1 orientation by LPS in vitro or peritoneal inflammation in vivo, migration of Aqp1-/- macrophages was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that AQP1 oppositely regulates macrophage migration, depending on stimulation or not by LPS, and that macrophage phenotypic and migratory changes may be regulated independently of external cues. PMID:25719758

  1. Development of broadband antireflection of high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings are commonly required in many silicon or III-V compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, and image sensors so as to enhance light conversion efficiency. Conventional approach using a single-layer antireflection coating is simple and commonly used in industry but it has a limited working bandwidth. To achieve broadband or even omni-directional characteristics, structures using thick graded refractive index (GRIN) multilayers or nanostructured surfaces which have equivalent graded refractive index profile have been proposed and demonstrated. In this paper, we will show our development of broadband antireflection for high index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 via inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICPCVD). Global optimization of thin-film broadband antireflection coating using adaptive simulated annealing is presented. Unlike the conventional optical coating design which uses the refractive index of available materials, the optimization approach used here decides the optimal values of the refractive index as well as the thickness of each layer. The first thin-film material optimization is carried out on the ICP-CVD machine operating at low temperature of 250°C by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The demonstrated double layer antireflection thin film reduces the average reflectance of Si surface from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. This optical thin-film design and material development can be extended to optical wavelength filters and integrated micro-GRIN devices.

  2. Enhanced axial confinement in a monolithically integrated self-rolled-up SiNx vertical microring photonic coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    We report an efficient method to introduce enhanced axial confinement in the self-rolled-up SiNx vertical microtube coupler by depositing a thin layer of high refractive index material strip within the coupling section and effectively forming a vertical microring. Three times wider mode spacing is observed in such a vertical microring coupler monolithically integrated with a silicon nitride ridge waveguide as compared to the one without such axial confinement. More importantly, single mode operation within the telecomm C-band and S-band is achieved.

  3. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  4. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  5. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  6. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  7. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  8. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  9. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  10. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... officer. All costs over and above the normal plugging and abandonment expense will be paid by the...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742...

  16. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT... safety and effectiveness with regard to the combination product as a whole. When there are no...

  17. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT... safety and effectiveness with regard to the combination product as a whole. When there are no...

  18. Probing the Role of an Atomically Thin SiNx Interlayer on the Structure of Ultrathin Carbon Films

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J.; Goohpattader, Partho S.; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement ~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  19. The simultaneous production of sphingan Ss and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) in Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengmeng; Li, Guoqiang; Huang, Haidong; Chen, Sibin; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Keran; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sphingans and poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) are both widely used biopolymers produced by bacteria. In the batch fermentation of Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02 in a 5L fermenter using glucose as carbon source, ivory colored sphingan Ss production was a growth-associated process with a maximum purified production of 14.88 ± 0.83 g/L, while 6.08 ± 0.23 g/L PHB was simultaneously produced. Sphingan Ss and PHB were separated by a simple dilution, heating and centrifugation or filtration process, and sphingan Ss can be cost-effectively extracted using a small amount of acid rather than multi-fold volumes of alcohols. From ultrathin sections of S. sanxanigenens NX02, we found that the interior space of the cells was filled with PHB granules, and the outside was surrounded by abundant Ss. The purified sphingan Ss can be used as an excellent gelling and emulsifying agent in biotechnology applications such as food, personal care and production processes. Proposed pathways of Ss and PHB biosynthesis from glucose are also presented.

  20. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-01

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid-liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna21, Zn2NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO2 type, and Zn2NI is closely related. Each N3- is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X- anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn4] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn2NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  1. Probing the role of an atomically thin SiNx interlayer on the structure of ultrathin carbon films.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J; Goohpattader, Partho S; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S; Bhatia, C S

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  2. Comparison of external beam treatment techniques for T1-2, N0, M0 glottic cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Camingue, Pamela; Christian, Rochelle; Ng, Davin; Williams, Preston; Amin, Mayankkumar; Roniger, Dominique L.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 different external beam radiation therapy treatment techniques for the treatment of T1-2, N0, M0 glottic cancers: traditional lateral beams with wedges (3D), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and proton therapy. Treatment plans in each technique were created for 10 patients using consistent planning parameters. The photon treatment plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sub 3} v.9 and the IMRT and VMAT plans used the Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. The proton treatment plans were optimized using Varian Eclipse Proton v.8.9. The prescription used for each plan was 63 Gy in 28 fractions. The contours for spinal cord, right carotid artery, left carotid artery, and normal tissue were created with respect to the patient's bony anatomy so that proper comparisons of doses could be made with respect to volume. An example of the different isodose distributions will be shown. The data collection for comparison purposes includes: clinical treatment volume coverage, dose to spinal cord, dose to carotid arteries, and dose to normal tissue. Data comparisons will be displayed graphically showing the maximum, mean, median, and ranges of doses.

  3. ARGUS laser plasma experiments at 1. 06. mu. m, 0. 53. mu. m and 0. 35. mu. m

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.; Ze, F.; Max, C.; Phillion, D.W.; Lee, P.; Pruett, B.; Tirsell, G.; Lasinski, B.F.

    1982-01-01

    ARGUS wavelength scaling experiments have been performed on low (Be) and high (Au) Z disk targets, with laser wavelengths of 1.06 ..mu..m, 0.53 ..mu..m and 0.35 ..mu..m. The laser provided a 700 psec pulse, with up to 100J and 1.06 ..mu..m; 200J at 0.53 ..mu..m; and 40J at 0.35 ..mu..m. Laser intensities on target ranged from 3 x 10/sup 13/ to over 3 x 10/sup 15/W/cm/sup 2/, using an f/2.2 focusing system. Box calorimeter measurements show the expected increasing fractional absorption at shorter laser wavelengths; absolutely calibrated hard x-ray detectors show the number of suprathermal electrons to be greatly decreased. Scattered light measurements concentrated on stimulated Raman scattering, and the 3/2 harmonic. The SRS was spectrally and temporally resolved during 0.53 ..mu..m irradiations; our measurements showed the scattering to be principally from the convective instability, near tenth critical density. Near ..omega../2, a double peaked spectral feature is observed. The time resolved data show a number of interesting features, which are discussed.

  4. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXVI. Two giant planets around M0 dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forveille, T.; Bonfils, X.; Lo Curto, G.; Delfosse, X.; Udry, S.; Bouchy, F.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Moutou, C.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Perrier, C.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N.

    2011-02-01

    Fewer giants planets are found around M dwarfs than around more massive stars, and this dependence of planetary characteristics on the mass of the central star is an important observational diagnostic of planetary formation theories. In part to improve on those statistics, we are monitoring the radial velocities of nearby M dwarfs with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6 m telescope. We present here the detection of giant planets around two nearby M0 dwarfs: planets, with minimum masses of respectively 5 Jupiter masses and 1 Saturn mass, orbit around Gl 676A and HIP 12961. The latter is, by over a factor of two, the most massive planet found by radial velocity monitoring of an M dwarf, but its being found around an early M-dwarf is in approximate line with the upper envelope of the planetary vs stellar mass diagram. HIP 12961 ([Fe/H] = -0.07) is slightly more metal-rich than the average solar neighborhood ([Fe/H] = -0.17), and Gl 676A ([Fe/H] = 0.18) significantly so. The two stars together therefore reinforce the growing trend for giant planets being more frequent around more metal-rich M dwarfs, and the 5 Jupiter mass Gl 676Ab being found around a metal-rich star is consistent with the expectation that the most massive planets preferentially form in disks with large condensate masses. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory under program ID 072.C-0488Tables 3 and 4 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/526/A141

  5. Influence of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on benthic invertebrates in indoor experimental streams.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Nagel, R

    1995-02-01

    The influence of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) on benthic invertebrates has been examined. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with the following species: Pristina longiseta, Aelosoma variegatum (Oligochaeta), Hydrozetes lacustris (Acarina), Planorbarius corneus, and Gyraulus albus (Planorbidae). LC50 values (96 hr) were obtained for Pri. longiseta (2.5 mg/liter) and for Hy. lacustris (4.7 mg/liter). For all other species ranges of toxicity (maximal concentration with 0% dead to minimum concentration with 100% dead) were determined. These ranges were 0.8-20 mg/liter 3,4-DCA for Pri. longiseta, 1.6-20 mg/liter, 3,4-DCA for Hy. lacustris, 10-20 mg/liter 3,4-DCA for G. albus, 50-100 mg/liter 3,4-DCA for Pl. corneus, and 10 mg/liter 3,4-DCA (maximal concentration with 0% dead; minimum concentration with 100% dead was not determined) for Ae. variegatum. In two experimental streams, the recolonization of benthic organisms into defined sample areas was studied. Therefore, a phase without chemical treatment was compared with a following exposure phase. Test concentrations were 0.2 and 1.4 mg/liter 3,4-DCA (nominal concentrations). Significant effects were the complete extinction of Pri. longiseta in 0.2 mg/liter 3,4-DCA within the first 3 weeks of exposure, as well as the reduction of immigrating individuals of another species of Pristina in both test concentrations, and of Hy. lacustris and Stentor sp. in 1.4 mg/liter 3,4-DCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7540538

  6. Survival benefit of surgery with radiotherapy vs surgery alone to patients with T2-3N0M0 stage esophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guangzhou; Wang, Wanwei; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims This study is designed to analyze survival benefit of (neo-) adjuvant radiotherapy to patients with T2-3N0M0 stage esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Methods T2-3N0M0 stage EAC patients from 2004 to 2012 were searched from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Clinical factors including age, sex, race were summarized. Univariate, multivariate analysis, and stratified cox analysis based on different T stages were performed to explore the survival effect of (neo-)adjuvant radiotherapy to T2-3N0M0 stage EAC. Results T2-3N0M0 stage EAC patients with surgery were more likely to be white race, T3 stage. Univariate analysis showed sex, age, and T stage were the prognostic factors of survival (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis proved (neo-)adjuvant radiotherapy can prolong survival time of T2-3N0M0 stage EAC (P<0.05). Further analysis based on different T stages showed that both neoadjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.615; 95% CI 0.475-0.797) and adjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.597; 95% 0.387-0.921) significantly reduced the risk of death of T3N0M0 stage EAC, but neither of which significantly reduced death risk of T2N0M0 stage EAC (P>0.05). Conclusions sex, age are the independent prognostic factors of T2-3N0M0 EAC. Significant survival benefit of (neo-)adjuvant radiotherapy is only observed in patients with T3N0M0 stage EAC, but not in those with T2N0M0 stage. PMID:26870996

  7. Optimal design of light trapping in thin-film solar cells enhanced with graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin-film solar cell. The structural parameters are optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimal design result demonstrates that the nonlinear profile of dielectric constant is superior to the linear profile, and discrete multilayer graded antireflection coatings can outperform near continuously graded antireflection coatings. What's more, the electric field intensity distributions clearly demonstrate the proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure can remarkably increase the magnitude of electric field of a-Si:H layer and hence, enhance the light trapping of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells in the whole visible and near-infrared spectrum. Finally, we have compared the optical absorption enhancements of proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure with nanoparticles structure, and demonstrated that it can result in higher enhancements compared to the dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that the optimal graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure optimized by differential evolution can reach 33.31% enhancement which has exceeded the ideal limit of 32% of nanoparticles structure including plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles. PMID:22565735

  8. Optimal design of light trapping in thin-film solar cells enhanced with graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin-film solar cell. The structural parameters are optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimal design result demonstrates that the nonlinear profile of dielectric constant is superior to the linear profile, and discrete multilayer graded antireflection coatings can outperform near continuously graded antireflection coatings. What's more, the electric field intensity distributions clearly demonstrate the proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure can remarkably increase the magnitude of electric field of a-Si:H layer and hence, enhance the light trapping of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells in the whole visible and near-infrared spectrum. Finally, we have compared the optical absorption enhancements of proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure with nanoparticles structure, and demonstrated that it can result in higher enhancements compared to the dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that the optimal graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure optimized by differential evolution can reach 33.31% enhancement which has exceeded the ideal limit of 32% of nanoparticles structure including plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles.

  9. 17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  10. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  11. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  12. Spatially resolving the accretion shocks on the rapidly-rotating M0 T-Tauri star MN Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Rice, J. B.; Ritter, A.; Küker, M.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Hubrig, S.; Shobbrook, R.

    2005-09-01

    We obtained high-resolution, high-quality VLT/UVES spectra to reconstruct the two-dimensional surface structure of the rapidly-rotating classical T-Tauri star MN Lupi on two separate nights. Both surface maps show a structured warm (5000 K) band centered around the pole at a latitude of ≈65°. Located within the band are two hot spots with temperatures of approximately or possibly even in excess of 5800 K, i.e. 2000 K above the effective photospheric temperature. Both maps appear with an adjacent equatorial band of temperature 3400 K, some 400-500 K below the effective photospheric temperature. While we interpret the two hot spots and the warm high-latitude band to be the heating points from two accretion impacts at the time of our observations and their redistributed energy trailed due to the fast stellar rotation, respectively, the cool equatorial band may not be cool after all but due to obscuration of the stellar surface by the innermost region of the disk. The fact that the hot spots appear at high stellar latitude is in agreement with the magnetospheric accretion model that proposes material funnelling onto the star along a predominantly dipolar magnetic field at roughly 50° latitude. The evidence of ongoing disk accretion, together with the very fast rotation of MN Lupi of just 3-4 times below its break-up velocity, suggests that the accretion mechanism is the cause of its rapid surface rotation. We present a model of magnetic star-disk coupling for MN Lupi that predicts a polar surface magnetic field of ≈3 kG.

  13. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay.

  14. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay. PMID:27401400

  15. Self-organized ZnO nanodot arrays: Effective control using SiNx interlayers and low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Y.; Cheng, Q. J.; Xu, S.; Wei, D. Y.; Zhou, H. P.; Long, J. D.; Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-02-01

    An advanced inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-assisted rf magnetron sputtering deposition method is developed to synthesize regular arrays of pear-shaped ZnO nanodots on a thin SiNx buffer layer pre-deposited onto a silicon substrate. It is shown that the growth of ZnO nanodots obey the cubic root-law behavior. It is also shown that the synthesized ZnO nanodots are highly-uniform, controllable by the experimental parameters, and also feature good structural and photoluminescent properties. These results suggest that this custom-designed ICP-based technique is very effective and highly-promising for the synthesis of property- and size-controllable highly-uniform ZnO nanodots suitable for next-generation light emitting diodes, energy storage, UV nanolasers, and other applications.

  16. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  17. Fundamental properties of a-SiNx:H thin films deposited by ICP-PECVD for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergez, D.; Schalko, J.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the impact of deposition conditions on the properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films using an inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (ICP-CVD) is evaluated. Due to the large number of experiments - even when taking only the most important synthesization parameters into account such as the total pressure in the deposition chamber, the substrate temperature, the ICP power and the flow rate ratio of N2/SiH4 - a design of experiments-based approach is chosen. As expected, the deposition rate strongly depends on the ICP power and the N2/SiH4 flow rate ratio, respectively. Films in the field of investigation deposited with a high flow rate of N2 labeled as Type I show relatively low mechanical stress values between -50 and +200 MPa, but exhibit a strong drift behavior toward compressive stress. Layers deposited at low nitrogen flow rates (Type II), however, yield large compressive stress and are stable as a function of time. The wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid shows a gap of over two orders of magnitude when comparing the two a-SiNx:H types, indicating strong differences in the chemical composition. Fourier-transform infrared measurements demonstrate that in Type I films the hydrogen is mainly bonded to nitrogen, in contrast to Type II films, where Si-H bonds dominate. Surface related X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that Type II layers have higher relative silicon content, while depth profiles yield that the oxygen content Type I films is above 10 at.%. This high oxygen content is proposed to be the result of diffusion of H2O into the layer, causing oxidation, and, as a consequence, the drifting behavior of the intrinsic film stress.

  18. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  19. Taming of 3,4-Di(nitramino)furazan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-12-30

    Highly energetic 3,4-di(nitramino)furazan (1, DNAF) was synthesized and confirmed structurally by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Its highly sensitive nature can be attributed to the shortage of hydrogen-bonding interactions and an interactive nitro chain in the crystal structure. In order to stabilize this structure, a series of corresponding nitrogen-rich salts (3-10) has been prepared and fully characterized. Among these energetic materials, dihydrazinium 3,4-dinitraminofurazanate (5) exhibits a very promising detonation performance (νD = 9849 m s(-1); P = 40.9 GPa) and is one of the most powerful explosives to date. To ensure the practical applications of 5, rather than preparing the salts of 1 through acid-base reactions, an alternative route through the nitration of N-ethoxycarbonyl-protected 3,4-diaminofurazan and aqueous alkaline workup was developed. PMID:26669520

  20. Theoretical study of elastic properties and phase stability of M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin Rotert, Soo; Music, Denis; to Baben, Moritz; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of oxygen content and transition metal valence electron concentration on the phase stability and elastic properties of cubic M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr; x = 0 - 0.5) was studied using ab initio calculations. The negative value of enthalpy of mixing was observed for all phases indicating full miscibility of M0.5Al0.5N with the hypothetical M0.5Al0.5O. Bulk moduli are decreased as x in M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx is increased. This can be understood based on the electronic structure. As N is substituted by O, there are no noticeable changes in the chemical bonding nature. However, O is more electronegative than N, giving rise to an increase in the ionic character of the overall bonding. In spite of that, the M - O bond in M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx is longer than the corresponding M-N bond, which implies that this bond becomes weaker. Hence, we propose that the decrease of bulk moduli upon O incorporation into M0.5Al0.5N1-xOx is caused by weaker M-O bonds.

  1. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  2. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  3. 26 CFR 3.4 - Establishment of accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 3.4 Establishment of accounts. (a) In general. Section 607(e)(1) of the Act...: the capital account, the capital gain account, and the ordinary income account. Deposits of the... under section 607(e) of the Act and this section. (b) Capital account. The capital account shall...

  4. Isomers of 3-(4-nitrophenyl)acrolein oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Leitis, L.Ya.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Yansone, D.P.; Dreibante, I.I.; Shimanskaya, M.V.; Maslii, L.K.; Nikol'skaya, G.S.

    1986-06-10

    The Z and E isomers of 3-(4-nitrophenyl)acrolein oxime were obtained and characterized. The assignment was made on the basis of the geminal hetero constants /sup 2/J(/sup 15/N = C-/sup 1/H) and /sup 2/J(/sup 15/N = C-/sup 13/C).

  5. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  6. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  7. Dithieno[3,4-b:3',4'-d]thiophene-annelated antiaromatic planar cyclooctatetraene with olefinic protons.

    PubMed

    Aita, Kazunari; Ohmae, Takeshi; Takase, Masayoshi; Nomura, Kotohiro; Kimura, Hideaki; Nishinaga, Tohru

    2013-07-19

    The design and synthesis of a new planar cyclooctatetraene (COT) with protons directly connected to the COT ring was attained by monoannelation with dithieno[3,4-b:3',4'-d]thiophene. The planar structure of the COT core was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The magnetic antiaromaticity of the COT core was found to be higher than that of the previously synthesized planar COTs with olefinic protons, according to the results of (1)H NMR and absorption spectra as well as NICS calculations.

  8. 3,4,6-Trimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Hamri, Salha; Hafid, Abderrafia; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Khouili, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3, the 1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine system and the phenyl ring are each individually planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.017 (2) and 0.011 (2) Å, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two aromatic systems is 9.33 (10)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between parallel pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine ring systems [face-to-face distance = 3.449 (6) Å]. PMID:21588287

  9. Nitrogen-activated bowing of dilute InyGa1-yAs1-xNx based on photoreflectance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, M. M. E.; Khan, Arif; Griffin, J. A.; Harris, G. L.; Robins, Lawrence H.; Birdwell, A. G.; Kang, Youn-Seon; Smith, David J.; Steiner, Todd; Mohammad, S. Noor

    2003-12-01

    The dependence of the fundamental band gap and higher-lying critical-point energies of dilute-nitrogen Ga1-yInyAs1-xNx epilayers on nitrogen mole fraction (x), for x⩽0.0125, and temperature, from 20 to 300 K, was investigated by photoreflectance spectroscopy. The band gap, EG, was found to decrease with increasing x in a highly nonlinear manner. The bowing parameter (the second-order parameter b in a quadratic expression for the dependence of EG on x) was found to become less negative with increasing x; the value of b changed from -50 eV, at very low nitrogen fraction, to -20 eV, at x>0.01. These results strongly suggest that nitrogen-related impurity levels arise within the band gap of dilute-nitrogen Ga1-yInyAs1-xNx alloys.

  10. Electrical evaluation of crack generation in SiNx and SiOxNy thin-film encapsulation layers for OLED displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Kil; Kim, Sungmin; Heo, Jaeyeong; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2016-05-01

    By measuring leakage current density, we detected crack generation in silicon nitride (SiNx) and silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) thin-film encapsulation layers, and correlated with the films' water vapor permeability characteristics. After repeated bending cycles, both the changes in water vapor transmission rate and leakage current density were directly proportional to the crack density. Thick SiNx films had better water vapor barrier characteristics in their pristine state, but cyclic loading led to fast failure. Varying the atomic concentration of the SiOxNy films affected their bending reliability. We attribute these differences to changes in the shape of the crack tip as the oxygen content varies.

  11. Magnetotransport in thin films of La{sub n{minus}nx}Ca{sub 1+nx}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n = 2, 3, and {infinity})

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, H.; Hayakawa, J.; Matsui, M.

    1998-12-31

    With a use of the epitaxial a-axis thin films of perovskite series La{sub n{minus}nx}Mn{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n = 2, 3, and {infinity}) with a fixed carrier concentration (x = 0.3), the transport properties of the series compounds have been examined to be associated with the difference in the number of the MnO{sub 2} layers. Results have indicated that a reduction in the number of layers results in systematic changes in the various features. These include an increase in resistivity, a decrease in resistivity peak temperature {Tc}{sup {rho}} corresponding to the metal-insulator transition, an enhancement of the maximum MR near {Tc}{sup {rho}}, and an increase in low temperature intrinsic MR. In order to explain the variation in these features with the number of MnO{sub 2} layers, it is necessary to take both anisotropic c-axis transfer interaction and two-dimensional spin fluctuation into account.

  12. High-performance resin-bonded magnets produced from zinc metal-coated Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx fine powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Machida, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Nishimura, M.; Adachi, G.

    1999-09-01

    Fine powders of Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx (x=˜3) with particle sizes (d) around 1 μm as coated with zinc metal produced via the photodecomposition of diethylzinc [Zn(C2H5)2], which still provided high remanence (Br) and coercivity (Hcj) values of ˜1.43 T and ˜0.85 MAm-1, were molded to compression-type resin bonded Zn/Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx magnets with density values of ˜6.33 g cm-3. By optimizing the preparation conditions such as grinding, surface coating, and molding for them, the highest maximum energy product of (BH)max=186 kJm-3 for Hcj=0.73 MAm-1 was recorded among all kinds of the Sm-Fe-N based magnets reported to date. Furthermore, the excellent aging behavior of the bonded Zn/Sm2(Fe0.9Co0.1)17Nx magnets was observed after standing in air at ˜393 K and the thermal coefficient for permanent magnet was evaluated to be α(Br)=-0.04% K-1.

  13. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-28

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p(+)-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  14. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV.

  15. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I–V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I–V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole–Frenkel (P–F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM. PMID:26508086

  16. SCO-Spondin Derived Peptide NX210 Induces Neuroprotection In Vitro and Promotes Fiber Regrowth and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Lalloué, Fabrice; Duval, Amélie; Chazal, Jean; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Meiniel, Annie; Monnerie, Hubert; Gobron, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the limited regenerating potential of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults contrasts with the plasticity of the embryonic and perinatal periods. SCO (subcommissural organ)-spondin is a protein secreted early by the developing central nervous system, potentially involved in the development of commissural fibers. SCO-spondin stimulates neuronal differentiation and neurite growth in vitro. NX210 oligopeptide was designed from SCO-spondin's specific thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) sequences that support the main neurogenic properties of the molecule. The objective of this work was to assess the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of NX210 in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). In vitro studies were carried out on the B104 neuroblastoma cell line demonstrating neuroprotection by the resistance to oxidative damage using hydrogen peroxide and the measure of cell viability by metabolic activity. In vivo studies were performed in two rat models of SCI: (1) a model of aspiration of dorsal funiculi followed by the insertion of a collagen tube in situ to limit collateral sprouting; white matter regeneration was assessed using neurofilament immunostaining; (2) a rat spinal cord contusion model to assess functional recovery using BBB scale and reflex testing. We demonstrate for the first time that NX210 (a) provides neuroprotection to oxidative stress in the B104 neuroblastoma cells, (b) stimulates axonal regrowth in longitudinally oriented neofibers in the aspiration model of SCI and (c) significantly improves functional recovery in the contusive model of SCI. PMID:24667843

  17. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  18. Static and unsteady pressure measurements on a 50 degree clipped delta wing at M = 0.9. [conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. W.; Wynne, E. C.; Cazier, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Pressures were measured with Freon as the test medium. Data taken at M = 0.9 is presented for static and oscillatory deflections of the trailing edge control surface and for the wing in pitch. Comparisons of the static measured data are made with results computed using the Bailey-Ballhaus small disturbance code.

  19. An improved radiative plasma focus model calibrated for neon-filled NX2 using a tapered anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, D.; Lee, P.; Zhang, T.; Patran, A.; Tan, T. L.; Rawat, R. S.; Lee, S.

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a 4-phase radiative plasma focus model, where the dynamics of the current sheath is represented using Lee's model. The model is based on the snowplow model in the axial phase and the slug model in the radial phase, complemented with sensible estimations made for the plasma parameters. The x-ray emission characteristics are investigated using a corona plasma equilibrium model. A refinement to the code was made, firstly by taking into account the tapering of the anode in the axial phase and secondly by including the energy loss due to recombination radiation in the slow compression (radiative) phase. Our improved code was calibrated for the NX2, a 3 kJ plasma focus device, operated in neon at a pressure range of 4-7 mbar with a tapered copper anode. An additional macro was programmed to the code in order to automate the curve fitting of the simulated current traces with those obtained experimentally. The resulting theoretical x-ray yield predictions are compared against experimental data, showing good agreement in terms of pressure dependence trends. The model, however, appears to consistently underestimate the absolute x-ray yield when compared with the experimentally obtained values.

  20. Estimates of in situ deformability with an NX borehole jack, Spent Fuel Test - Climax, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    A series of borehole modulus measurements was obtained at the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) facility following removal of heat sources and a subsequent 1-year cooling period. A total of 212 measurements were obtained using a standard hardrock NX borehole (Goodman) jack. The results of 64 measurements made at the site before heating were reanalyzed for comparison with the post-heat data. Modulus values were calculated from the straight-line portion of the pressure vs displacement curves. Although the deformation modulus was observed to be highly variable, models were developed to explain much of this variability. Typically, spacial effects, anisotropy, and heating effects were present. The test results indicate that the deformation modulus tended to increase in the pillars between the underground openings where temperatures increased about 10{sup 0}C above the ambient 24{sup 0}C during the SFT-C. Conversely, a decrease in modulus was observed where temperatures were near 60{sup 0}C for a three-year period. In most cases, we found the modulus values to be slightly higher for vertical than for horizontal loading. There was a tendency for the modulus to be lower near excavated openings. While this effect was not ubiquitous, it was statistically significant.

  1. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production. PMID:27376835

  2. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production.

  3. Preparation and electromagnetic wave absorption properties of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jinwen; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Xianfu; Yao, Mingying

    2013-06-01

    Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17Nx composites were prepared in situ by hydrogenation-disproportionation-oxygen-desorption-recombination and nitrogen process, and their electromagnetic wave absorption properties were measured in the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz. The result showed that saturation magnetization and coercivity of as-prepared powder with 25.3 wt% Sm2O3, 64.4 wt% α-Fe and 10.3 wt% Sm2Fe17N3 were 134.57 emu/g and 654.5 G, respectively. The dielectric constant of composites was low over the frequency range of 0.5-18 GHz, and their resonance frequencies were at a high frequency range. The resin composite of Sm2O3/α-Fe/Sm2Fe17N3 exhibited effective electromagnetic wave absorption (RL≤20 dB) in a frequency range 3-9 GHz, for absorber thickness ranging from 3 to 8 mm, respectively. A minimum reflection loss of -53 dB from the samples was observed at 7 GHz with an absorber thickness of 3.59 mm.

  4. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  5. WISE 3.4 micron Detection of PTF10acbp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Hoffman, D.; Masci, F.; Conrow, T.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Helou, G.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Surace, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ 140, 1868) scanned the position of PTF10acbp (ATEL #3094), the luminous red nova in the spiral galaxy UGC 11973, 23 times between 2010 June 17 and June 23, and again 30 times between 2010 December 12 and December 16, just five days after the transient's discovery. The June observations were made during the WISE cryogenic survey yielding images at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns.

  6. Possible identifications of the 3.4 micrometer feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danks, Anthony C.; Lambert, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A feature at 3.4 micrometer was first detected in Comet Halley by the IKS spectrometer on board the Vega 1 probe; and subsequently from the ground. The feature has since been reported in Comet Wilson. The presence of the feature is of considerable interest for a number of reasons. First, it may represent the detection of a new parent molecule, and when combined with data from Giotto and Vega yield new information on cometary chemistry and the early solar system composition. Secondly, it may represent a link to the interstellar medium, the feature corresponds in wavelength and shape with an interstellar feature seen in absorption in a luminous star, towards the Galactic center known as GC-IRS7. The feature in turn is thought to be related with a growing family of unidentified infrared emission features seen in stellar objects, planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae, HII regions and extra galactic sources. These features occur at wavelengths 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.25 micrometers. Further identification theory is given.

  7. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  8. A comparison between experimental and authentic blood/serum ratios of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Boy, Regine Garcia; Henseler, Joerg; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Mattern, Rainer; Skopp, Gisela

    2009-06-01

    This paper compares the blood-to-serum distribution (B/S ratio) of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its major metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). B/S ratios were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis following liquid-liquid extraction as a function of the hematocrit value (experimental specimens) and in blood and corresponding serum samples (n = 63) from 16 healthy volunteers participating in a controlled driving experiment (authentic specimens). A regression analysis to calculate the B/S ratio was performed followed by an analysis of covariances (ANCOVA). A linear relationship between the hematocrit value and the B/S ratio of both MDMA and MDA could be established from the experimental data. For MDMA, the regressions provided mean B/S ratios of 1.22 and 1.26 for the experimental setting and the authentic samples, respectively. For MDA, the analysis determined slopes of 1.15 and 1.27 for the experimental setting and field study, respectively. ANCOVA revealed that the method of determination (experimental vs. authentic specimens) did not influence the resulting slopes. A conversion factor of 0.80 may give an adequate estimate to derive the serum concentration for MDMA if only the concentration in whole blood is known, whereas such a definitive factor could not be established for MDA because of its very low levels in authentic samples. PMID:19671249

  9. Interactions between 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and σ1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Brammer, Matthew K.; Gilmore, Deborah L.; Matsumoto, Rae R.

    2006-01-01

    Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are structurally similar and represent a serious and growing health threat. Earlier studies in our laboratory have shown that methamphetamine interacts with σ receptors and that antagonism of these receptors can attenuate methamphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation and neurotoxicity. However, no research exists which characterizes the interaction between σ receptors and MDMA. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to determine whether σ receptors are involved in the actions of MDMA. In the first part of the study, competition and saturation binding assays were performed to measure the interaction of MDMA with σ receptors. The receptor binding assays revealed that MDMA interacts preferentially with the σ1 subtype, as compared to the σ2 subtype, and that this interaction occurs in a competitive manner. The second part of the study focused on behavioral measurements in male, Swiss Webster mice to determine whether a selective σ1 receptor antagonist, BD1063 (1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine, 0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) could attenuate the locomotor stimulant actions of MDMA (0-50 mg/kg, i.p.). BD1063 alone had no effect on locomotor activity, but dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor stimulant effects of (+)-MDMA and produced a significant shift to the right in the MDMA dose response curve. Together, the data support the functional relevance of the interaction of MDMA with σ1 receptors, and suggest that these receptors are involved in the stimulant actions of MDMA. PMID:17070798

  10. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties.

  11. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties. PMID:24674438

  12. Effect of SiNx diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol–gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiNx) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol–gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiNx diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiNx diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol–gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiNx barrier diffusion. The SiNx barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed. PMID:26665074

  13. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  14. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  15. The "ecstasy" hangover: hyponatremia due to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Traub, Stephen J; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2002-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or "ecstasy") has gained an undeserved reputation as a "safe" drug among its users. However, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, disseminated intravascular coagulation, long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity, and death are all associated with MDMA use. Hyponatremia is also reported, and its manifestations are frequently delayed several hours after the drug is ingested. The etiology of this hyponatremia is unclear; both the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH) and free-water intoxication are advanced as explanations. We describe a 19-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with altered mental status 1 day after using MDMA. Her initial serum sodium was 121 mmol/L, and computerized tomography (CT) of her head demonstrated cerebral edema. She was treated with hypertonic saline and fluid restriction, and her serum sodium increased to 132 mmol/L over the next 24 hours. She regained consciousness completely within 48 hours of presentation and recovered uneventfully. MDMA toxicity, particularly the pathophysiology and treatment of MDMA-induced hyponatremia, are discussed.

  16. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  17. Localization-delocalization transition of electrons at the percolation threshold of semiconductor GaAs1–xNx alloys: The appearance of a mobility edge

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Beaton, D. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2012-07-09

    Electrons in semiconductor alloys have generally been described in terms of Bloch states that evolve from constructive interference of electron waves scattering from perfectly periodic potentials, despite the loss of structural periodicity that occurs on alloying. Using the semiconductor alloy GaAs₁₋xNx as a prototype, we demonstrate a localized to delocalized transition of the electronic states at a percolation threshold, the emergence of a mobility edge, and the onset of an abrupt perturbation to the host GaAs electronic structure, shedding light on the evolution of electronic structure in these abnormal alloys.

  18. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  19. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  20. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  1. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  2. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg−1) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1  μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  3. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Yahyawi, Amjad M; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Al-Blewi, Fawzia F; Aouad, Mohamed R

    2015-09-02

    In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  4. Regioisomeric products of propranolol metabolism. The monomethyl ethers of 3,4-dihydroxypropranolol and of 3,4-dihydroxypropranolol glycol.

    PubMed

    Gustavson, L M; Nelson, W L

    1988-01-01

    Regioisomeric monomethyl ethers of the 3,4-catechol of propranolol (1) and its 3-aryloxypropane-1,2-diol (glycol) metabolite were prepared to prove the structures of these putative products of oxidative metabolism. The ring regioisomer 4-methoxy-3-hydroxypropranolol (3) was prepared from 1-acetoxy-3-acetyl-4-methoxynaphthalene (8). Baeyer-Villiger oxidation was the key step in converting the 3-acetyl functionality to the desired 3-naphthol. The ring regioisomer 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypropranolol (4) was prepared from 3-methoxy-1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene (13) by selective 1-O-acylation with trimethylacetyl chloride. 4-O-Benzylation, followed by hydrolysis, and side chain elaboration afforded the 4-O-benzyl ether of 4. Similar methods afforded glycols 5 and 6, with the side chain obtained by osmium tetroxide oxidation of an O-allyl group. GC/MS analysis using the trifluoroacetyl derivatives of these known standards showed both 3 and 4 were metabolites of 1 in the rat. From a single dose study in man, 4 was identified as a minor urinary metabolite, and both regioisomeric glycol metabolites 5 and 6 were observed. In addition, another regioisomeric hydroxymethoxyglycol metabolite was found.

  5. Ion mobility, conductivity, structure, and phase transitions in K0.7M0.3SbF4 compounds with M=Rb, NH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, V. Ya.; Gerasimenko, A. V.; Uvarov, N. F.; Polyantsev, M. M.; Zemnukhova, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    Ion mobility, phase transitions, structure, and conductivity in the K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) compounds were studied by NMR spectroscopy, DSC, X-ray, and conductivity measurements. The predominant form in the ion motions resulting from the phase transition of high modification was diffusion of fluoride and ammonium ions above 450 K. The high-temperature phases of K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) are superionic, while their conductivity attains the values of ~10-2-10-4 S/cm at 450-500 K. The structures of α- and β-modifications of the K0.7Rb0.3SbF4 are monoclinic (space group P21/m). The main structural units in them are statistically substituting each other K+ and Rb+ cations and complex ∞1[ SbF4]- anions linked into zigzag-like chains by bridge fluorine atoms. The nearest surrounding of each antimony atom contains five fluorine atoms, so that the antimony coordination polyhedron can be described, taking into account the lone electron pair, as a distorted SbF5E octahedron (ψ-octahedron).

  6. Ion mobility, conductivity, structure, and phase transitions in K0.7M0.3SbF4 compounds with M=Rb, NH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavun, V. Ya.; Gerasimenko, A. V.; Uvarov, N. F.; Polyantsev, M. M.; Zemnukhova, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    Ion mobility, phase transitions, structure, and conductivity in the K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) compounds were studied by NMR spectroscopy, DSC, X-ray, and conductivity measurements. The predominant form in the ion motions resulting from the phase transition of high modification was diffusion of fluoride and ammonium ions above 450 K. The high-temperature phases of K0.7M0.3SbF4 (M=Rb, NH4) are superionic, while their conductivity attains the values of ~10-2-10-4 S/cm at 450-500 K. The structures of α- and β-modifications of the K0.7Rb0.3SbF4 are monoclinic (space group P21/m). The main structural units in them are statistically substituting each other K+ and Rb+ cations and complex 1[ SbF4 ]- ∞ anions linked into zigzag-like chains by bridge fluorine atoms. The nearest surrounding of each antimony atom contains five fluorine atoms, so that the antimony coordination polyhedron can be described, taking into account the lone electron pair, as a distorted SbF5E octahedron (ψ-octahedron).

  7. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  8. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    PubMed

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, P<.0001), and had more unplanned pregnancies compared to 122 pregnant nonusers (84.2% vs. 54.3%, P<.05). MDMA users were also more likely to be single (57.0% vs. 18.3%, P<.001), and to be White (82.2% vs. 56.0%, P<.05). Comparably more MDMA users smoked cigarettes (53.8% vs. 19.7%, P<.0001), drank alcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, P<.0001), and had significantly more episodes of binge drinking during pregnancy (mean 2.12 vs. 0.05, P<.001). Illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, ketamine, gamma-hydroxy butyrate, and psilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of

  9. Effect of interface and bulk traps on the C-V characterization of a LPCVD-SiNx/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Qilong; Huang, Sen; Wang, Xinhua; Wei, Ke; Zheng, Yingkui; Li, Yankui; Yang, Chengyue; Jiang, Haojie; Li, Junfeng; Hu, Anqi; Yang, Xuelin; Shen, Bo; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Silicon nitride (SiNx) film grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is utilized as a gate dielectric for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs). Trap distribution at the gate-dielectric/III-nitrides interface is characterized by a temperature-dependent ac-capacitance technique. The extracted interface state density D it decreases from 2.92 × 1013 to 1.59 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1 as the energy level depth (E C-E T) increases from 0.29 to 0.50 eV, and then levels off to E C-E T = 0.80 eV. Capacitance-mode deep level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) and energy band diagram simulations reveal that deep levels with E C-E T > 0. 83 eV are responsible for the dispersion of capacitances at high temperature (>125 °C) and low frequencies (<1 kHz). A high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that re-oxidation of the RCA-treated AlGaN barrier surface may be responsible for the relatively high density of shallow states at the LPCVD-SiNx/III-nitride interface.

  10. Multi-functional TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx coatings for low-emissivity and hydrophilic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Park, Kyoung Ryeol; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Multi-functional (coatings with some additional functional properties such as high transparency, antireflection, hydrophilicity and antifogging) coatings are indispensable for the modern energy saving systems. In this regard, we deposited TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx multilayer thin films on soda-lime glass by using RF and DC magnetron sputtering to achieve a multi-functional thin film stack with the combination low-emissivity (low-e) and hydrophilicity properties in addition to the high transparency. Primary deposition of Ag(Cr)/TiNx was tried for the low-e effect and successfully obtained a very low emissivity value of 0.067, and then Si and TiO2 films with different bandgap were subsequently deposited to provide the hydrophilic properties. X-ray diffraction results revealed the anatase phase formation of TiO2 after annealing the films at 673 K by using the rapid thermal annealing system. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was carried out to determine the chemical composition and elemental depth distribution. The multilayer stack exhibited superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle of about 5° after irradiation by UV light. A Heterojunction film with wide and narrow bandgap semiconductor materials was effective to improve the hydrophilicity. The films exhibited a high visible transmittance (∼85.5%, at 550 nm) and low infrared transmittance (7%, at 2000 nm) including low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  11. First-Principle Study of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Cubic InNxP1-x Ternary Alloys under Hydrostatic Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattabi, I.; Abdiche, A.; Moussa, R.; Riane, R.; Hadji, K.; Soyalp, F.; Varshney, Dinesh; Syrotyuk, S. V.; Khenata, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InNxP1-x in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InNxP1-x compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  12. Tunable inverse topological heterostructure utilizing (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 and multichannel weak-antilocalization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahlek, Matthew J.; Koirala, Nikesh; Liu, Jianpeng; Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Salehi, Maryam; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhu, Yimei; Vanderbilt, David; Oh, Seongshik

    2016-03-01

    In typical topological insulator (TI) systems the TI is bordered by a non-TI insulator, and the surrounding conventional insulators, including vacuum, are not generally treated as part of the TI system. Here, we implement a material system where the roles are reversed, and the topological surface states form around the non-TI (instead of the TI) layers. This is realized by growing a layer of the tunable non-TI (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 in between two layers of the TI B i2S e3 using the atomically precise molecular beam epitaxy technique. On this tunable inverse topological platform, we systematically vary the thickness and the composition of the (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 layer and show that this tunes the coupling between the TI layers from strongly coupled metallic to weakly coupled, and finally to a fully decoupled insulating regime. This system can be used to probe the fundamental nature of coupling in TI materials and provides a tunable insulating layer for TI devices.

  13. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  14. Reliable Predictions of the Thermochemistry of Boron-Nitrogen Hydrogen Storage Compounds: BxNxHy, x=2,3

    SciTech Connect

    Matus, Myrna H; Anderson, Kevin; Camaioni, Donald M; Autrey, Thomas; Dixon, David A

    2007-05-24

    Thermochemical data calculated using ab initio molecular orbital theory are reported for 16 BxNxHy compounds with x = 2, 3 and y ≥ 2x. Accurate gas phase heats of formation were obtained using coupled cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) valence electron calculations extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit with additional corrections including core/valence, scalar relativistic, and spin-orbit corrections to predict the atomization energies and scaled harmonic frequencies to correct for zero point and thermal energies and estimate entropies. Computationally cheaper calculations were also performed using the G3MP2 and G3B3 variants of the Gaussian-3 method, as well as density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional. The G3MP2 heats of formation are too positive by up to ~6 kcal/mol as compared to CCSD(T)/CBS values. The more expensive G3B3 method predicts heats of formation that are too negative as compared to the CCSD(T)/CBS values by up to 3 to 4 kcal/mol. Density functional theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional and 6-311+G** basis set predict isodesmic reaction energies to within a few kcal/mol compared to the CCSD(T)/CBS method so isodesmic reactions involving BN compounds and the analogous hydrocarbons can be used to estimate heats of formation. Heats of formation of cyclo-B3N3H12 and cyclo-B3N3H6 are, in kcal/mol at 298 K, -95.5 and -115.5, respectively using our best calculated CCSD(T)/CBS approach. The experimental value for cyclo-B3N3H6 appears to be ~7 kcal/mol too negative. Enthalpies, entropies and free energies are calculated for many dehydrocoupling and dehydrogenation reactions that convert BNH6 to alicyclic and cyclic oligomers and H2(g). Generally, the reactions are highly exothermic, and exorgonic as well, due to the release of 1 or more equivalents of H2(g). For cyclo-B3N3H12 and cyclo-B3N3H6, available experimental data for sublimation and vaporization lead to estimates of their

  15. MC3T3-E1 Cell Response to Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx Electrodes Deposited on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Substrates for Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Marques, S M; Rico, P; Carvalho, I; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Fialho, L; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Henriques, M; Carvalho, S

    2016-02-17

    In the sensors field, titanium based coatings are being used for the acquisition/application of electrical signals from/to piezoelectric materials. In this particular case, sensors are used to detect dynamic mechanical loads at early stages after intervention of problems associated with prostheses implantation. The aim of this work is to select an adequate electrode for sensor applications capable, in an initial stage to avoid bone cell adhesion, but at a long stage, permit osteointegration and osteoinduction. This work reports on the evaluation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells behavior in terms of proliferation, adhesion and long-term differentiation of two different systems used as sensor electrodes: Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx deposited by d.c. and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The results indicated an improved effect of Ag-TiNx electrodes compared with Ti1-xAgx and TiN, in terms of diminished cell adhesion and proliferation at an initial cell culture stage. Nevertheless, when cell culture time is longer, cells grown onto Ag-TiNx electrodes are capable to proliferate and also differentiate at proper rates, indicating the suitability of this coating for sensor application in prostheses devices. Thus, the Ag-TiNx system was considered the most promising electrode for tissue engineering applications in the design of sensors for prostheses to detect dynamic mechanical loads.

  16. MC3T3-E1 Cell Response to Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx Electrodes Deposited on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Substrates for Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Marques, S M; Rico, P; Carvalho, I; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Fialho, L; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Henriques, M; Carvalho, S

    2016-02-17

    In the sensors field, titanium based coatings are being used for the acquisition/application of electrical signals from/to piezoelectric materials. In this particular case, sensors are used to detect dynamic mechanical loads at early stages after intervention of problems associated with prostheses implantation. The aim of this work is to select an adequate electrode for sensor applications capable, in an initial stage to avoid bone cell adhesion, but at a long stage, permit osteointegration and osteoinduction. This work reports on the evaluation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells behavior in terms of proliferation, adhesion and long-term differentiation of two different systems used as sensor electrodes: Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx deposited by d.c. and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The results indicated an improved effect of Ag-TiNx electrodes compared with Ti1-xAgx and TiN, in terms of diminished cell adhesion and proliferation at an initial cell culture stage. Nevertheless, when cell culture time is longer, cells grown onto Ag-TiNx electrodes are capable to proliferate and also differentiate at proper rates, indicating the suitability of this coating for sensor application in prostheses devices. Thus, the Ag-TiNx system was considered the most promising electrode for tissue engineering applications in the design of sensors for prostheses to detect dynamic mechanical loads. PMID:26840928

  17. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  18. Topochemical fluorination of Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper phases.

    PubMed

    Romero, Fabio Denis; Bingham, Paul A; Forder, Susan D; Hayward, Michael A

    2013-03-18

    Reaction of the appropriate Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper oxide with CuF2 under flowing oxygen results in formation of the oxide-fluoride phases Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5) via a topochemical anion insertion/substitution process. Analysis indicates the titanium and manganese phases have Ti(4+), Ru(6+) and Mn(4+), Ru(6+) oxidation state combinations, respectively, while Mössbauer spectra indicate an Fe(3+), Ru(5.5+) combination for the iron phase. Thus, it can be seen that the soft fluorination conditions employed lead to formation of highly oxidized Ru(6+) centers in all three oxide-fluoride phases, while oxidation states of the other transition metal M cations remain unchanged. Fluorination of Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 to Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 leads to suppression of magnetic order as the fluorinated material approaches metallic behavior. In contrast, fluorination of Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 lifts the magnetic frustration present in the oxide phases, resulting in observation of long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperature in Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5). The influence of the topochemical fluorination on the magnetic behavior of the Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(x)F(y) phases is discussed on the basis of changes to the ruthenium oxidation state and structural distortions.

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with stage III/IV (M(0)) advanced gastric cancer, according to HER2 status assessed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Min A; Jordan, Bruce; Pickl, Marlene; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Lee, Hyuk Joon; Kim, Tae-You; Kim, Woo Ho; Yang, Han-Kwang; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2011-06-01

    Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, the prognosis for patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) or gastroesophageal junction cancer remains poor. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a novel target for biologic therapy in metastatic GC. We analyzed the association between HER2 overexpression and the clinicopathologic characteristics of advanced GC. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were collected from patients with stage III or to IV (M(0)) GC who subsequently underwent curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. All the samples were analyzed for HER2 status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 142 samples analyzed, 7.1% scored IHC 2+ and 8.6% scored IHC 3+, whereas 9.3% were HER2-amplified. Of HER2-amplified cases, 76.9% (10/13) scored IHC 3+, showing the correlation between HER2 amplification and overexpression (P=0.01). HER2 IHC 3+ cases were more common in the intestinal-type tumors compared with diffuse-type tumors (16.7% vs. 5.1%, respectively; P=0.049), and a nonsignificant trend was observed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (14.3% vs. 9.2%, respectively; P=0.399). HER2 gene amplification was more frequent in stage IV (M(0)) than stage III disease (15.4% vs. 4.0%, respectively; P=0.037). Interestingly, HER2-amplified disease was more common than nonamplified disease in patients with nodal stage 3 tumors (76.9% vs. 38.6%, respectively; P=0.009); a similar pattern was observed using IHC. HER2 overexpression correlated with nodal stage, and a lymph node ratio greater than 0.5 was more common in HER2-amplified tumors than HER2-nonamplified tumors (69.2% vs. 43.3%, respectively; P=0.086). These findings suggest that further investigations of adjuvant therapy with HER2-targeted therapy for advanced GC are warranted.

  20. Prognostic Value of Microvascular Density in Dukes A and B (T1–T4, N0, M0) Colorectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Uribarrena A, Rafael; Ortego, Javier; Fuentes, Javier; Raventós, Nuria; Parra, Pilar; Uribarrena E, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background. Aproximatelly 30% of patients operated on for colorectal cancer (CRC), with an expectedly favourable prognosis (Dukes A-B/T1–T4, N0, M0) suffer recurrence and/or die. Method. In order to determine if tumor microvascular density (MVD) is a prognostic factor in CRC, samples from tumors of 104 Dukes A-B CRC patients were retrospectively studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for anti-CD34 antibody to visualize tumor vascularisation. MVD was expressed as the total number of vessels and as the percentage of microvascular area. We calculated MVD with a morphometry program and performed descriptive, bivariate, and survival statistics. Results. The mean number of vessels was 37.37/200x field, and the mean vascular area was the 3.972%. 30% of the patients with < 37 vessels/field, and 21% of the patients with > 37 vessels/field, experienced recurrence/death. The 35% of patients with < 4% of vascular area died following recurrence, compared with 14% of patients with ≥4% of vascular area. These differences in % of vascular area were statistically significant. Conclusion. MVD expressed as the total number of vessels had no a statistically significant influence on the evolution of CRC. However, neoplasias with a greater % of vascular were associated to a better outcome. PMID:19902004

  1. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  2. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement...

  4. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  5. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  6. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  7. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  8. Research of the relations between monolayer SiNx optical thin film processing techniques and laser-induced damage properties prepared by PECVD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Hang, Lingxia; Li, Linjun; Huang, Fabin

    2015-02-01

    The monolayer SiNx optical thin films were prepared by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technology on the BK7 glass substrate, the laser-induced damage threshold was measured by laser damage testing equipment, and we also investigated the relations between processing techniques and laser-induced damage properties. The study and analysis to orthogonal experiment results show that PECVD processing techniques have an effect on the laser-induced damage properties. Among them,radio frequency has the biggest effection, temperature is the main factor, working pressure is the unimportant factor, and we also achieve the optimal processing parameters (Temperature is 350°; RF power is 250W; Working pressure is 60Pa).

  9. Porous Fe-Nx/C hybrid derived from bi-metal organic frameworks as high efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yijin; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Tu, Tengxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Haifeng; Chen, Dejian; Li, Shunxing

    2016-04-01

    A simple, low-cost and large-scale synthesis method for the carbonized porous cubes (CPCs) containing Fe and N co-doped porous carbon hybrid (Fe-Nx/C) with controlled-morphology, uniform elemental distribution and well-defined pore size is developed by pyrolyzing bimetallic FeIII-modified IRMOF-3 cubes in Argon atmosphere at 800 °C. Furtherly, the CPCs are used as the electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution. Impressively, the CPCs hybrid exhibits a superior electrocatalytic activity with high onset potential (0.93 V) and half-wave potential (0.78 V), and excellent stability, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of its high the surface to volume ratio, well-defined pore size, multi-active composition and high exposed catalytic active sites. We believe the materials based on earth-abundant elements have a huge potential to apply in catalysis, energy, and environment.

  10. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  11. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  12. Radical Prostatectomy versus External Beam Radiotherapy for cT1-4N0M0 Prostate Cancer: Comparison of Patient Outcomes Including Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Satoru; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Morikawa, Teppei; Kakutani, Shigenori; Takeshima, Yuta; Miyazaki, Hideyo; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Background Although radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) have been considered as comparable treatments for localized prostate cancer (PC), it is controversial which treatment is better. The present study aimed to compare outcomes, including mortality, of RP and EBRT for localized PC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 891 patients with cT1-4N0M0 PC who underwent either RP (n = 569) or EBRT (n = 322) with curative intent at our single institution between 2005 and 2012. Of the EBRT patients, 302 (93.8%) underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Related to these, other-cause mortality (OCM) was also calculated. Biochemical recurrence-free survival was assessed as a secondary endpoint. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Results Median follow-up durations were 53 and 45 months, and median ages were 66 and 70 years (P <0.0001), in the RP and EBRT groups, respectively. As a whole, significantly better prognoses of the RP group than the EBRT group were observed for both OS and CSS, although OCM was significantly higher in the EBRT group. There was no death from PC in men with low and intermediate D’Amico risks, except one with intermediate-risk in the EBRT group. In high-risk patients, significantly more patients died from PC in the EBRT group than the RP group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the RP group to be an independent prognostic factor for better CSS. On the other hand, the EBRT group had a significantly longer biochemical recurrence-free survival than the RP group. Conclusions Mortality outcomes of both RP and EBRT were generally favorable in low and intermediate risk patients. Improvement of CSS in high risk patients was seen in patients receiving RP over those receiving EBRT. PMID:26506569

  13. Thermoelectric Properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) Alloys: First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yamani, H.; Hamad, B.

    2016-02-01

    Ab initio investigations of the structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of stoichiometric Fe2VAl full-Heusler alloy and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) nonstoichiometric alloys have been performed using density functional theory on the basis of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the generalized gradient approximation. The thermoelectric properties are calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation. Fe2VAl, Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al, and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al alloys are found to exhibit a semimetallic behavior, while Fe2V0.75Mo0.25Al acts as a metal. We found that Fe2VAl has a pseudogap of about -0.13 eV, whereas Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al are characterized by a zero energy gap around the Fermi level. Thermoelectric calculations showed that Fe2VAl has both p- and n-type thermoelectric properties, where the p-type thermopower values are found to be higher than those of n-type. The Seebeck coefficient S has maximum values from 20 μV K-1 to 125 μV K-1 and from 19 μV K-1 to 90 μV K-1 in the temperature range of 100 K to 800 K for p- and n-type, respectively. The maximum thermoelectric properties can be obtained at carrier concentration of the order of 1020 cm-3 for p- or n-type doping. Substitution of Nb and Ta atoms enhanced the thermoelectric properties to 150 μV K-1 at 800 K. The optimum concentrations for the three partially substituted alloys were found to be between 1020 cm-3 and 1021 cm-3.

  14. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad F; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-15

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  15. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohammad F.; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  16. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of some 3-(4,6-disubtituted-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl) propanoic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mokale, Santosh N; Shinde, Sandeep S; Elgire, Rupali D; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Shinde, Devanand B

    2010-08-01

    A series of 3-(4,6-disubtituted-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl) propanoic acid derivatives has been synthesized by condensation of thiourea, 5-(4-subtituted phenyl)-5-oxopentanoic acid and substituted aldehyde. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity using rat paw edema method. Most of the compounds from the series showed significant (p <0.05) anti-inflammatory activity.

  17. Inhibition of dual-specificity phosphatase 26 by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin: Ethyl-3,4-dephostatin as a multiphosphatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Huiyun; Cho, Sayeon

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate protein function by dephosphorylating phosphorylated proteins in many signaling cascades and some of them have been targets for drug development against many human diseases. There have been many reports that some chemical inhibitors could regulate particular phosphatases. However, there was no extensive study on specificity of inhibitors towardss phosphatases. We investigated the effects of ethyl-3,4-dephostatin, a potent inhibitor of five PTPs including PTP-1B and Src homology-2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), on thirteen other PTPs using in vitro phosphatase assays. Of them, dual-specificity protein phosphatase 26 (DUSP26), which inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p53 tumor suppressor and is known to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, was inhibited by ethyl-3,4-dephostatin in a concentration-dependent manner. Kinetic studies with ethyl-3,4-dephostatin and DUSP26 revealed competitive inhibition, suggesting that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin binds to the catalytic site of DUSP26 like other substrate PTPs. Moreover, ethyl-3,4-dephostatin protects DUSP26-mediated dephosphorylation of p38, a member of the MAPK family, and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that ethyl-3,4-dephostatin functions as a multiphosphatase inhibitor and is useful as a therapeutic agent for cancers overexpressing DUSP26. PMID:27209699

  18. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  19. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds. PMID:27589713

  20. Biological and Electrophysiologic Effects of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on Regenerating Peripheral Nerve Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Baghmanli, Ziya; Sugg, Kristoffer B.; Wei, Benjamin; Shim, Bong S.; Martin, David C.; Cederna, Paul S.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Uninjured peripheral nerves in upper-limb amputees represent attractive sites for connectivity with neuroprostheses because their predictable internal topography allows for precise sorting of motor and sensory signals. The inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) reduces impedance and improves charge transfer at the biotic-abiotic interface. This study evaluates the in vivo performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–coated interpositional decellularized nerve grafts across a critical nerve conduction gap, and examines the long-term effects of two different poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) formulations on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers. Methods In 48 rats, a 15-mm gap in the common peroneal nerve was repaired using a nerve graft of equivalent length, including (1) decellularized nerve chemically polymerized with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (dry); (2) decellularized nerve electrochemically polymerized with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (wet); (3) intact nerve; (4) autogenous nerve graft; (5) decellularized nerve alone; and (6) unrepaired nerve gap controls. All groups underwent electrophysiologic characterization at 3 months, and nerves were harvested for histomorphometric analysis. Results Conduction velocity was significantly faster in the dry poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) group compared with the sham, decellularized nerve, and wet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) groups. Maximum specific force for the dry poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) group was more similar to sham than were decellularized nerve controls. Evident neural regeneration was demonstrated in both dry and wet poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) groups by the presence of normal regenerating axons on histologic cross-section. Conclusions Both poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) formulations were compatible with peripheral nerve regeneration at 3 months. This study supports poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as a promising adjunct for peripheral nerve interfaces for

  1. 3,4-DGE is cytotoxic and decreases HSP27/HSPB1 in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Poveda, Jonay; Sanz, Ana Belen; Carrasco, Susana; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Selgas, Rafael; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is the key driver of diabetic complications and increased concentrations of glucose degradation products. The study of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility has highlighted the adverse biological effects of glucose degradation products. Recently, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as the most toxic glucose degradation product in peritoneal dialysis fluids. In addition, 3,4-DGE is present in high-fructose corn syrup, and its precursor 3-deoxyglucosone is increased in diabetes. The role of 3,4-DGE in glomerular injury had not been addressed. We studied the effects of 3,4-DGE on cultured human podocytes and in vivo in mice. 3,4-DGE induced apoptosis in podocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3,4-DGE promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3. While high glucose concentrations increased the levels of the podocyte intracellular antiapoptotic protein HSP27/HSPB1, 3,4-DGE decreased the expression of podocyte HSP27/HSPB1. Apoptosis induced by 3,4-DGE was caspase-dependent and could be prevented by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Antagonism of Bax by a Ku-70-derived peptide also prevented apoptosis. Intravenous administration of 3,4-DGE to healthy mice resulted in a decreased expression of HSP27/HSPB1 and caspase-3 activation in whole kidney and in podocytes in vivo. In conclusion, 3,4-DGE induces apoptotic cell death in cultured human podocytes, suggesting a potential role in glomerular injury resulting from metabolic disorders. PMID:24337777

  2. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn{sub 2}NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-15

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn{sub 2}NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid–liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna2{sub 1}, Zn{sub 2}NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO{sub 2} type, and Zn{sub 2}NI is closely related. Each N{sup 3−} is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X{sup −} anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn{sub 4}] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn{sub 2}NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional. - Graphical abstract: Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been synthesized, and their crystal structures (Cl and Br phases: Pna2{sub 1}; I phase: Pnma) have been determined from XRD; the direct band gap of Zn{sub 2}NCl is theoretically (HSE06 hybrid functional) predicted as 3.7 eV. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been synthesized from solid–liquid reactions. • The crystal structures of Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. • Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr crystallize in the acentric space group Pna2{sub 1} whereas Zn{sub 2}NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma. • Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr are stable up to 750 °C whereas Zn{sub 2}NI decays at 600 °C already. • The direct band gap of Zn{sub 2}NCl is theoretically predicted as 3.7 eV using the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  3. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF... reports of injury or damage. A person may not knowingly give any false or fictitious report concerning...

  4. The Phenolic, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, is an Endogenous Regulator of Rooting in Protea Cynaroides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays indicated the presence of allelochemicals in Protea cynaroides stem cuttings. Analysis of stem extracts identified large quantities of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and other simlar phenolics. Phytotoxicity bioassay showed that 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid both stimulated and inhibited root gro...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay...

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of micronucleus induction in rat bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes by 1,2;3,4-diepoxybutane, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, and 1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol.

    PubMed

    Lähdetie, J; Grawé, J

    1997-07-01

    Automation of the analysis of micronucleus induction with flow cytometry was developed by using mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood. In the present study, we report the use of flow cytometry for the identification and quantification of micronuclei (MN) induced in rat bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. Three metabolites of the industrial chemical 1,3-butadiene, namely 1,2;3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB) and 1,2-epoxybutane-3,4-diol (diol-EB), were studied in addition to mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide, which served as positive controls. DEB showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MN, whereas EB was completely negative and diol-EB only weakly positive at one dose level. The effect of the positive control compounds was observed 48 h after a single injection in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry was an effective method to quantitate bone marrow MN induction in the rat when density gradient separation of polychromatic erythrocytes is used. The results are compatible with the theory that oxidation of EB to the mutagenic metabolite DEB occurs at a low rate in rat bone marrow and that EB is detoxified by epoxide hydrolase and by conjugation with glutathione by glutathione transferase yielding nonmutagenic metabolites. Thus, the reported lack of MN induction by 1,3-butadiene inhalation in rat bone marrow is explained.

  7. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  8. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Labanauskas, L; Brukstus, A; Udrenaite, E; Bucinskaite, V; Susvilo, I; Urbelis, G

    2005-03-01

    New 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dialkoxybenzene derivatives 17-31 were synthesized by the acylation of amines 9-16 with acyl chlorides. Amines 9-16 were obtained from aryl ketones 1-8. Aryl ketones 1-8 were synthesized by the acylation of corresponding aromatic compounds. As it was preliminary predicted by PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substance) program, all 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxy- and 3,4-diethoxybenzene derivatives possess anti-inflammatory activity. Activity of compounds 18, 19, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29 was similar to that of acetylsalicylic acid or ibuprofen however their acute toxicity was less than that of mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. A series of 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-dimethoxybenzene, 1-acylaminoalkyl-3,4-diethoxybenzene and 6-acylaminoalkyl-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine derivatives have been synthesized. These compounds possess moderate or strong anti-inflammatory activity and low toxicity.

  9. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  10. Atypical Membrane-embedded Phosphatidylinositol 3,4-Bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2)-binding Site on p47phox Phox Homology (PX) Domain Revealed by NMR*

    PubMed Central

    Stampoulis, Pavlos; Ueda, Takumi; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Terasawa, Hiroaki; Miyano, Kei; Sumimoto, Hideki; Shimada, Ichio

    2012-01-01

    The Phox homology (PX) domain is a functional module that targets membranes through specific interactions with phosphoinositides. The p47phox PX domain preferably binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) and plays a pivotal role in the assembly of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. We describe the PI(3,4)P2 binding mode of the p47phox PX domain as identified by a transferred cross-saturation experiment. The identified PI(3,4)P2-binding site, which includes the residues of helices α1 and α1′ and the following loop up to the distorted left-handed PPII helix, is located at a unique position, as compared with the phosphoinositide-binding sites of all other PX domains characterized thus far. Mutational analyses corroborated the results of the transferred cross-saturation experiments. Moreover, experiments with intact cells demonstrated the importance of this unique binding site for the function of the NADPH oxidase. The low affinity and selectivity of the atypical phosphoinositide-binding site on the p47phox PX domain suggest that different types of phosphoinositides sequentially bind to the p47phox PX domain, allowing the regulation of the multiple events that characterize the assembly and activation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. PMID:22493288

  11. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  12. Hidden phases revealed at the surface of double-layered S r3(Ru1-xM nx) 2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Kim, Jisun; Nascimento, V. B.; Diao, Zhenyu; Teng, Jing; Hu, Biao; Li, Guorong; Liu, Fangyang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2016-08-01

    Double-layered S r3R u2O7 has received phenomenal consideration because it exhibits a plethora of exotic phases when perturbed. New phases emerge with the application of pressure, magnetic field, or doping. Here, we show that creating a surface is an alternative and effective way to reveal hidden phases that are different from those seen in the bulk by investigating the surface properties of S r3(Ru1-xM nx) 2O7 . Driven by the tilt distortion of Ru O6 octahedra, the surface of S r3R u2O7 is less metallic than the bulk. In contrast, because of the vanishing of tilt and enhanced rotation with Mn doping, the surface of S r3(Ru0.84Mn0.16 ) 2O7 is metallic, while the bulk is insulating. Our result demonstrates that the electronic and structural properties at the surface are intimately coupled and consistent with quasitwo-dimensional character.

  13. Nonpolar a-plane ZnO films grown on GaN/sapphire templates with SiNx interlayer by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiangyun; Gao, Yihua; Dai, Jiangnan; Yu, Chenhui; Wu, Zhihao; Chen, Changqing; Fang, Guojia

    2010-04-01

    Nonpolar a-plane ZnO films were deposited for the first time on nearly lattice-matched a-plane GaN templates using an in situ SiNx interlayer by the pulsed laser deposition method. The symmetric and asymmetric reciprocal space mappings reveal the broadening effects of the reciprocal lattice points and the residual biaxial in-plane tensile strain of a-plane ZnO to be 0.335% and 0.055% along the [0 0 0 1] c-axis and [{1\\,\\bar {1}\\,0\\,0}] p-axis, respectively. The photoluminescence spectrum at 85 K is dominated by neutral donor-bound excitons and free-electron-to-bound (e-A0) emissions; relatively intense LO-phonon replicas of (e-A0) have also been observed in a-plane ZnO. Temperature-dependent PL spectra have also been discussed to identify the origin of the emission peaks. Up to fourth A1(LO) phonon mode can be observed to be enhanced significantly from the resonant Raman spectrum.

  14. Broadband antireflection sub-wavelength structure of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cell with composition-graded SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Chen; Lo, Hsiao-Chieh; Lin, Yen-Ku; Yu, Hung-Wei; Tinh Tran, Binh; Lin, Kung-Liang; Chen, Yung Chang; Quan, Nguyen-Hong; Chang, Edward Yi; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2015-05-01

    This work reports a fabrication strategy to improve the antireflective ability of a InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell, by combining a nano-templating technique and a chemical-synthesis approach. SiH4 and N2 were used as ammonia-free reaction gases in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to prepare Si3N4 as an original antireflective coating (ARC) layer with better chemical stability. Composition-graded SiNx was successfully integrated with sub-wavelength structure by modulating SiH4/N2 ratio during PECVD deposition, and followed by a controllable gold-nanoparticle masking technique on top of the solar cell. Finite-difference time-domain solution was employed to simulate and optimize the aspect-ratio of the ARC, under the condition of variable refractive index over a broad wavelength window, and followed by the masking technique to obtain the desired ARC dimension. This enabled a low light reflectance (<10%) over a broad spectral bandwidth (300-1800 nm) for the solar cell with excellent stability, because of the triple advantages of structural optimization, better chemical stability and graded refractive index of the ARC. The solar cell’s performance was tested and showed great competitiveness to those of forefront studies, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed technology.

  15. Nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films by use of laser ablation of ZnO(1-x)Nx targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okato, Takeshi; Osada, Takenori; Obara, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    ZnO is inherently a strong n-type semiconductor due to its intrinsic defects. Among the group V elements (N, As, P, Sb), nitrogen is considered as teh most hopeful dopant for p-type ZnO, because substitute N (N0) is a relatively shallow acceptor. However, technical issues of the low solubility for the desirable defect and compensations from undesirable donor-like defects are imposed on the development of high mobility and low resistivity p-type ZnO. Breaking through these issues is accompanied by the optimization of dopant concentration and reduction of intrinsic defects. In this study, we have investigated the dependence of the nitrogen concentration on its electrical properties. Home-made ZnO1-xNx targets were prepared and used for KrF excimer pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at precisely controlled growth conditions. Thin films were deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates. The nitrogen concentration was tuned by adjusting the amount of nitrogen in the ablation targets. The film properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The electrical properties were measured by van der Pauw method. The as-grown ZnO:N films showed n-type conductivity, however, they were converted to p-type upon post-deposition thermal treatment. Further improvement was demonstrated by introducing a ZnO low-temperature buffer layer which realized the lattice mismatch relaxation.

  16. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai

    2015-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues.

  17. Electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhi-Gang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Wei-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) are investigated using the 16-band k ṡ p model with constant strain. The optical gain is calculated taking both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings into consideration. The effective band gap falls as we increase the composition of nitrogen (N) and bismuth (Bi) and with an appropriate choice of composition we can tune the emission wavelength to span within 1.3 μm-1.55 μm, for device application in fiber technology. The extent of this red shift is more profound in QDs compared with bulk material due to quantum confinement. Other factors affecting the emission characteristics include virtual crystal, strain profile, band anticrossing (BAC), and valence band anticrossing (VBAC). The strain profile has a profound impact on the electronic structure, specially the valence band of QDs, which can be determined using the composition distribution of wave functions. All these factors eventually affect the optical gain spectrum. With an increase in QD size, we observe a red shift in the emission energy and emergence of secondary peaks owing to transitions or greater energy compared with the fundamental transition.

  18. Effects of nitrogen impurities on the microstructure and electronic properties of P-doped Si nanocrystals emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deng-Hao; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Luo, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Zhao-Yi; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Deng-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus doped Si nanocrystals (SNCs) emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx:H films were prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, and the effects of nitrogen incorporation on the microstructure and electronic properties of the thin films have been systematically studied. Transmission electron microscope and Raman observation revealed that nitrogen incorporation prevents the growth of Si nanocrystals, and that their sizes can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of NH3. The reduction of photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the range of 2.1-2.6 eV of photon energy was observed with increasing nitrogen impurity, and a maximal PL intensity in the range 1.6-2.0 eV was obtained when the incorporation flow ratio NH3/(SiH4+H2+PH3) was 0.02. The conductivity of the films is improved by means of proper nitrogen impurity doping, and proper doping causes the interface charge density of the heterojunction (H-J) device to be lower than the nc-Si:H/c-Si H-J device. As a result, the proper incorporation of nitrogen could not only reduce the silicon banding bond density, but also fill some carrier capture centers, and suppress the nonradiative recombination of electrons.

  19. Nonstructural protein 3-4A: the Swiss army knife of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, K; Lange, C M; Gouttenoire, J; Meylan, E; Brass, V; Penin, F; Moradpour, D

    2011-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3-4A (NS3-4A) is a complex composed of NS3 and its cofactor NS4A. It harbours serine protease as well as NTPase/RNA helicase activities and is essential for viral polyprotein processing, RNA replication and virion formation. Specific inhibitors of the NS3-4A protease significantly improve sustained virological response rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C when combined with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin. The NS3-4A protease can also target selected cellular proteins, thereby blocking innate immune pathways and modulating growth factor signalling. Hence, NS3-4A is not only an essential component of the viral replication complex and prime target for antiviral intervention but also a key player in the persistence and pathogenesis of HCV. This review provides a concise update on the biochemical and structural aspects of NS3-4A, its role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C and the clinical development of NS3-4A protease inhibitors.

  20. Nuclear Ptdlns(3,4,5)P3 signaling: an ongoing story.

    PubMed

    Déléris, Paul; Gayral, Stéphanie; Breton-Douillon, Monique

    2006-06-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3)) is linked to a variety of cellular functions, such as growth, cell survival, and differentiation. Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3) is primarily synthesized by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases and its hydrolysis by two 3-phosphoinositide 3-phosphatases, PTEN and SHIP proteins, leads to the production of two other second messengers, Ptdlns(4,5)P(2) and Ptdlns(3,4)P(2), respectively. Evidence accumulated over the last years strongly suggest that Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3) is an important component of signaling pathway operating within the nucleus. Moreover, recent advances indicated that nuclear translocation of cell surface receptors could activate nuclear phosphoinositide 3-kinase suggesting a new mode of signal transduction. The aim of this review is intended to summarize the state of our knowledge on nuclear Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3) and its metabolizing enzymes, and to highlight the emerging roles for intranuclear Ptdlns(3,4,5)P(3). PMID:16645993

  1. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  2. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  3. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels.

  4. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-01

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  5. Copolyimides Prepared from 3,4'-Oxydianiline and 1,3-Bis(3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene with 3,3', 4,4'-Biphenylcarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Polyimide copolymers were prepared by reacting different ratios of 3,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 1,3-bis(3- aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) with 3,3',4,4'- biphenylcarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and endcappfng with an effective amount of a non-reactive endcapper. Within a narrow ratio of diamines, from -50% ODA/50% APB to -95% ODA/5% APB, the copolyimides prepared with BPDA have a unique combination of properties that make them very attractive for various applications. This unique combination of properties includes low pressure processing (200 psi and below), long term melt stability (several hours at 390 C.), improved toughness, improved solvent resistance, improved adhesive properties, and improved composite mechanical properties.

  6. Thyroid-vitamin A interactions in Chicks exposed to 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl: influence of low dietary vitamin A and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, P.A.; Moon, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    Poultry chicks receiving a low vitamin A semipurified diet and exposed to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl became hypothyroid in comparison with unexposed controls. Metabolic rate, total serum thyroxine, total serum triiodothyronine, and food intake decreased significantly while thyroid weight increased. Unexpectedly, growth rate was not affected on this diet. In the case of chicks receiving a low vitamin A-low iodine semipurified diet and exposed to the PCB congener, the hypothyroid response was apparently antagonized. Comparing exposed chicks with unexposed controls, metabolic rate and the proportion of free T/sub 3/ (i.e., %T/sub 3/ resin uptake) increased while total serum thyroxine and thyroid weight were unchanged. In addition, growth rate, food consumption, and serum retinol decreased on this diet. These results are interpreted to mean that (i) growth rate may have been altered by circulating levels of retinol, and (ii) vitamin A insufficiency may predispose birds to the hypothyroid effects of PCBs.

  7. Direct injection LC-MS/MS method for identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M; Gustavsson, E; Stephanson, N; Beck, O

    2008-01-01

    A method based on direct injection of diluted urine for the identification and quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in human urine by electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated for use as a confirmation procedure in urine drug testing. Two deuterium labelled analogues, amphetamine-D5 and 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine-D5, were used as internal standards. Twenty microliter aliquots of urine were mixed with 80 microL internal standard solution in autosampler vials and 10 microL was injected. The chromatographic system consisted of a 2.0 mmx100 mm C18 column and the gradient elution buffers used acetonitrile and 25 mmol/L formic acid. Two product ions produced from the protonated molecules were monitored in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The intra- and inter-assay variability (coefficient of variation) was between 5 and 16% for all analytes at 200 and 6000 ng/mL levels. Ion suppression occurred early after injection but did not affect the identification and quantification of the analytes in authentic urine samples. The method was further validated by comparison with a reference gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method using 479 authentic urine samples. The two methods agreed almost completely (99.8%) regarding identified analytes when applying a 150 ng/mL reporting limit. Four deviating results were observed for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and this was due to uncertainty in quantification around the reporting limit. For the quantitative results the slope of the regression lines were between 0.9769 and 1.0146, with correlation coefficients>0.9339. We conclude that the presented liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method is robust and reliable, and suitable for use as a confirmation method in urine drug testing for amphetamines.

  8. 4. 3/4 VIEW DETAIL, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SEMICIRCULAR 'ICE BREAKER' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW DETAIL, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SEMICIRCULAR 'ICE BREAKER' AT CENTER SPAN OF WEST ELEVATION - Mulladay Hollow Bridge, Spanning Mulladay Hollow Creek at County Road No.61, Eureka Springs, Carroll County, AR

  9. 9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station looking southeast - Sinclair Service Station, Natchez Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, southeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  10. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING AFT. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK. WATER INTAKE PORTS ARE LOCATED AMIDSHIP UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  11. 3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF PORT SIDE ELEVATION LOOKING FORWARD. FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT CAN BE SEEN ON DECK AND PROPS AND RUDDER UNDER THE WATERLINE. - Fireboat JOHN J. HARVEY, Pier 63, North River, New York County, NY

  12. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  13. 3/4 VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE AND BOW AFTER LIFTING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE AND BOW AFTER LIFTING FROM WATER. RAILS AND CARRIAGE ON LIFT PLATFORM CAN BE SEEN UNDER SHIP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter TANEY, Pier 5, Pratt Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. 7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SIDE OF LIFT SPAN AND THE ABUTMENT AND LIFT TOWER OF RAILROAD BRIDGE ADJACENT TO CARTER ROAD BRIDGE. - Carter Road Lift Bridge, Spanning Cuyahoga River at Carter Road, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) influence mushroom tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P; Makowiecka, E

    1987-02-15

    A series of phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) were synthesized in order to study their interaction with mushroom tyrosinase. 1-Amino-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid and 1-amino-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid turned out to be substrates for mushroom tyrosinase with Km values of 3.3 mM and 9.3 mM respectively. Shortening of the alkyl chain by one methylene group gave amino-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonic acid, one of the most powerful known inhibitors of this enzyme. This compound, racemic as well as in its optically active forms, exerts a mixed type of inhibition with an affinity for the enzyme one order of magnitude greater than that of the natural substrate. PMID:3109385

  16. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  18. Phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) influence mushroom tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P; Makowiecka, E

    1987-01-01

    A series of phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) were synthesized in order to study their interaction with mushroom tyrosinase. 1-Amino-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid and 1-amino-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid turned out to be substrates for mushroom tyrosinase with Km values of 3.3 mM and 9.3 mM respectively. Shortening of the alkyl chain by one methylene group gave amino-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonic acid, one of the most powerful known inhibitors of this enzyme. This compound, racemic as well as in its optically active forms, exerts a mixed type of inhibition with an affinity for the enzyme one order of magnitude greater than that of the natural substrate. PMID:3109385

  19. 3/4 view, looking SW from north bank, showing spans over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view, looking SW from north bank, showing spans over back channel, with Pennsylvania Turnpike in background. - Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, Allegheny River Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River, East of Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-76), Oakmont, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 12. Building H9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Building H-9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing relationship of blast barricade to building. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  1. 14. Building 09; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Building 0-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of blast barricades to building. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  2. 2. Building D9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building D-9; 3/4 view, looking NE; showing relationship of reactor leg to building proper. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  3. 11. Building H9; 3/4 view, looking NW; showing relationship of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Building H-9; 3/4 view, looking NW; showing relationship of wheeling ramp to building. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  4. 3/4 view of elliptical stern looking forward along starboard side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of elliptical stern looking forward along starboard side - horizontal composition with Mike Vlahovich working on deck. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  5. 3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER SWAY BRACE AT CENTER SPAN, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM, AND LATERAL BRACING - Achmun Creek Bridge, Spanning Achmun Creek at County Road 222, Ola, Yell County, AR

  6. 3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier photos taken from the tower atop this structure. - Vermilion Life Saving Station, Shore of Lake Superior, 10 miles west of Whitefish Point, Paradise, Chippewa County, MI

  7. 4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END OF SPAN, LOOKING SW, SHOWING RIBBED ARCH CONSTRUCTION. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Peacock's Lock Viaduct, Spanning Schuykill River at Reading Railroad, Reading, Berks County, PA

  8. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  9. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  10. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  11. Radioluminescence properties of Ce 3+-activated MGd(PO 3) 4 (M = Li, Na, K, Cs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jiuping; Liang, Hongbin; Su, Qiang; Zhou, Jianying; Khodyuk, Ivan V.; Dorenbos, Pieter

    2009-12-01

    Rare-earth phosphates MGd(PO 3) 4:1.0 mol% Ce 3+ (M = Li, Na, K, Cs) powder samples were prepared by a solid-state reaction technique at high temperature. The radioluminescence spectra and light-yield characteristic of MGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+ under X-ray irradiation were determined. It was found that, from LiGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+ to CsGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+, with the increasing of M + radius, the doublet emission energy of Ce 3+ ions decrease gradually but the light-yield increase significantly. Especially, CsGd(PO 3) 4:1.0 mol% Ce 3+ has the highest X-ray excited light-yield of 24,400 photons/MeV with maximal emission peaks at 337 nm and 358 nm at room temperature. Due to its suitable emission wavelength range, high light-yield, high chemical stability and fast luminescence decay of Ce 3+ emission, CsGd(PO 3) 4:Ce 3+ may be a promising scintillation material.

  12. Neutron diffraction structure study of Er and Yb doped YAl3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sváb, E.; Beregi, E.; Fábián, M.; Mészáros, Gy.

    2012-06-01

    Neutron diffraction structure study has been performed on YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB), on doped Y0.88Er0.12Al3(BO3)4, Y0.5Er0.5Al3(BO3)4, Y0.5Yb0.5Al3(BO3)4 and on co-doped Y0.84Er0.01Yb0.15Al3(BO3)4 compositions. It was established that the doped compounds are isostructural to YAB. The neutron diffraction pattern have been be fitted in space group R32 using the triple hexagonal Wyckoff notation. Both Er3+ and Yb3+ ions occupy the Y3+ (3a) sites and not the Al3+ (9d) sites, as it was suggested previously. The lattice parameters are decreasing with increasing amount of the dopant elements. Slight changes are revealed in the positional parameters and interatomic distances with increasing concentration of the dopant ions. For the co-doped Y0.84Er0.01Yb0.15Al3(BO3)4 the changes are more significant than for the doped YAB compounds with only one type of dopant element, Er or Yb.

  13. Chromatographic and mass spectral studies on methoxy methyl methamphetamines related to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Awad, Tamer; Deruiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2007-09-01

    The methoxy methyl methamphetamines are a unique set of compounds having an isobaric relationship with the controlled drug substance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (3,4-MDMA or Ecstasy). The various isomeric forms of the methoxy methyl methamphetamines have mass spectra essentially equivalent to 3,4-MDMA, all have molecular weight of 193 and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 58 and 135/136. Mass spectral differentiation of 3,4-MDMA from some of the methoxy methyl methamphetamines was possible after formation of the perfluoroacyl derivatives, pentafluoropropionamides (PFPA) and heptafluorobutyramides (HFBA). Perfluoroacyl derivatization provided unique and characteristic mass spectral fragment ions when the methoxy group is substituted at the 2- or 4-position of the aromatic ring relative to the alkylamine side chain group. Perfluoroacyl derivatization did not offer any characteristic ions for discrimination of 3,4-MDMA from the 3-methoxy ring substituted methyl methamphetamines. Gas chromatographic separation on non-polar stationary phases successfully resolved subsets of the methoxy methyl methamphetamines, based on ring position of the methoxy group, from 2,3- and 3,4-MDMA as the PFPA and HFBA derivatives.

  14. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound. PMID:2610989

  15. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  16. Modeling Li-ion conductivity in LiLa(PO3)4 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounir, Ferhi; Karima, Horchani-Naifer; Khaled, Ben Saad; Mokhtar, Férid

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline powder and single-crystal of LiLa(PO3)4 are synthesized by solid state reaction and flux technique, respectively. A morphological description of the obtained product was made based on scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Ionic conductivity of the LiLa(PO3)4 powder was measured and evaluated over a temperature range from 553 to 913 K. Single crystals of LiLa(PO3)4 are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The LiLa(PO3)4 structure was found to be isotypic with LiNd(PO3)4. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and cell parameters: a=16.635(6) Å, b=7.130(3) Å, c=9.913(3) Å, β=126.37(4)°, V=946.72(6) Å3 and Z=4. The LiLa(PO3)4 structure was described as an alternation between spiraling chains (PO3)n and (La3+, Li+) cations along the b direction. The small Li+ ions, coordinated to four oxygen atoms, were located in the large connected cavities created between the LaO8 polyhedra and the polyphosphate chains. The jumping of Li+ through tunnels of the crystalline network was investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The close value of the activation energies calculated through the analysis of conductivity data and loss spectra indicate that the transport in the investigated system is through hopping mechanism. The correlation between ionic conductivity of LiLa(PO3)4 and its crystallographic structure was investigated and the most probably transport pathway model was determined.

  17. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, the second messenger for intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/, which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/, while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ has any functional effects on Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from (/sup 3/H)-Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. (/sup 3/H)-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ up to 10 ..mu..M does not release Ca/sup 2 +/ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P/sub 4/ on plasma membrane Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes are presently being investigated.

  18. Prospective Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of Percutaneous Cryoablation for pT1NxMx Biopsy-Proven Renal Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Ronald; Cizman, Ziga; Hong, Kelvin; Koliatsos, Alexandra; Georgiades, Christos

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Our objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of image-guided, percutaneous cryoablation for American Joint Committee on Cancer pT1ANxMx and pT1BNxMx biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: Computed tomography (CT)-guided, percutaneous cryoablation was used to treat 117 renal lesions in 113 consecutive patients with pT1NxMx RCC. All 117 ablations were included in the safety analysis, and complications were categorized according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). Eighty-one lesions were biopsy-proven RCC and were included in the efficacy analysis. Technical success was defined as the 'ice-ball' covering the entire lesion plus a minimum 5-mm margin. Efficacy was defined as complete lack of enhancement and continuous decrease in size on subsequent follow-up imaging studies. Results: Technical success was 100%, with 15% of ablations requiring air or saline injection to prevent nontarget ablation. We recorded a 7% rate of clinically significant complications (CTCAE category {>=}2) and 0% mortality. Renal function was not adversely affected. Seventy percent of patients were discharged to home on the same day. Efficacy was 98.7% for a median follow-up of 67 weeks (range 7-172). For the subgroup of patients that reached a median follow-up of 2 (n = 59) and 3 years (n = 13), efficacy was 98.3 and 92.3%, respectively. Cancer specific survival was 100%. Conclusions: CT-guided, percutaneous cryoablation has an excellent safety and efficacy profile for stage T1A and T1B RCC; however, longer follow-up is needed to compare it with other nephron-sparing surgical treatments. It is a great option for nonsurgical patients, those in whom renal function cannot be further sacrificed, and those at risk for metachronous lesions.

  19. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A.; Russell, Charles J.; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E.; Krauss, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes

  20. Structure of Multiferroic RAl3 (BO3)4 and RFe3 (BO3)4 in the Region of High Electric Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Yu, Tian; Chen, Zhiqiang; Nelson, Christie; Bezmaternykh, Leonard; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Abeykoon, Milinda; Tyson, Trevor

    The multiferroic system RAl3(BO3)4 is known to exhibit a strong coupling of magnetic field to the electrical polarization at low temperature (below ~100 K). A giant magnetoelectric effect was found in this system. Recent work by us (PRB B 92 104108) reveals evidence for changes in the local structure at low temperature. In this work we explore the structural changes using single crystal diffraction and other structural probes. Comparisons between the Fe and Al based systems will be made. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-07ER46402.

  1. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  2. A new flavan-3,4-diol from Acacia auriculiformis by paper ionophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, S. E.; Roux, D. G.

    1966-01-01

    1. The heartwood of A. auriculiformis contains a typical mixture of analogues consisting of three isomeric flavan-3,4-diols, a dihydroflavonol, flavanone, flavonol and chalcone based on the 4′,7,8-trihydroxyl pattern. These were resolved by preparative paper chromatography and preparative paper ionophoresis. 2. Crystalline (−)-teracacidin [(2R,3R,4R)-4′,7,8-trihydroxy-2,3-cis-flavan-3,4-cis-diol] was obtained in high (10%) yield, and a new crystalline derivative of (−)-isoteracacidin [(−)-2,3-cis-3,4-trans isomer] was isolated. The crystalline methyl ether of a new (+)-2,3-trans-3,4-cis isomer was isolated. 3. The absolute configurations of (−)-isoteracacidin (2R,3R,4S) and of the (+)-2,3-trans-3,4-cis isomer (2R,3S,4S) were tentatively assigned on the basis of nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy, paper ionophoresis and paper-chromatographic comparison with the epimerization products of (−)-teracacidin. 4. Possible reasons for the absence of polymeric leuco-anthocyanidin tannins are discussed. 5. (±)-4′,7,8-Trihydroxydihydroflavonol and (±)-4′,7,8-trihydroxyflavanone were isolated for the first time. 6. The bark polyphenols consist mainly of polymeric leuco-delphinidins and leuco-cyanidins which redden exceptionally rapidly to light. The mechanism of this phenomenon is discussed. PMID:5941342

  3. Production of a chiral alcohol, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol, by mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Sarah J; Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Martin, Leona; Doyle, Evelyn M; O'Sullivan, Timothy; Guiry, Patrick J; Coulombel, Lydie; Li, Zhi; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2013-05-01

    1-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol was produced biocatalytically for the first time using mushroom tyrosinase. 4-Ethylphenol at 1 mM was consumed over 12 min giving 0.23 mM 4-ethylcatechol and 0.36 mM (R/S)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol (ee 0.5 %). Mushroom tyrosinase consumed 4-ethylphenol at 6.7 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) while the rates of formation of 4-ethylcatechol and 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol were 1.1 and 1.9 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1). Addition of the ascorbic acid, as a reducing agent to biotransformation reactions, increased 4-ethylcatechol formation by 340 %. However, accumulation of 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol was not observed in the presence of ascorbic acid. While the 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol was racemic, it is the first chiral product produced by tyrosinase starting from a non-chiral substrate.

  4. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Martinez, C

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requirements of these thymocytes were characterized and related to the T3-receptor complex and IL-2 pathways, thought to be used by mature lymphocytes. The results show that addition of recombinant IL-2 promotes, in a dose-dependent way, proliferation and acquisition of effector functions by cultured T3+4-8- thymocytes, the growth being inhibitable by monoclonal antibody 33B73 (anti-Tac). Furthermore, cytolytic activity of T3+4-8- cells induced by recombinant IL-2 is specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody OKT3, showing that it operates via the T3-receptor complex and does not require either T4 or T8 molecules. The finding of in vitro responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 in T3+4-8- thymocytes suggests a role of IL-2 in the growth and maturation of cells committed to the T-cell lineage, during intrathymic differentiation, prior to expression of T4 and T8 molecules. PMID:3929254

  5. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Letitia; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél

    2013-10-15

    In the present study, a series of 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. The 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone derivatives are structurally related to a series of coumarin (1-benzopyran-2-one) derivatives which have been reported to act as MAO-B inhibitors. The results document that the quinolinones are highly potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors with most homologues exhibiting IC50 values in the nanomolar range. The most potent MAO-B inhibitor, 7-(3-bromobenzyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, exhibits an IC50 value of 2.9 nM with a 2750-fold selectivity for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. An analysis of the structure-activity relationships for MAO-B inhibition shows that substitution on the C7 position of the 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone scaffold leads to significantly more potent inhibition compared to substitution on C6. In this regard, a benzyloxy substituent on C7 is more favourable than phenylethoxy and phenylpropoxy substitution on this position. It may be concluded that C7-substituted 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinones are promising leads for the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

  6. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-01

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L1), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L4). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L3) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1 M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  7. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-25

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(1)), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(4)). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(3)) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  8. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, 1,2,4-triazoles and Mannich bases.

    PubMed

    Megally Abdo, Nadia Youssef; Kamel, Mona Monir

    2015-01-01

    A series of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amines (3a-d), 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amines (4a-d) and 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (5a-d) were obtained by the cyclization of hydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives 2a-d derived from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Aminoalkylation of compounds 5a-d with formaldehyde and various secondary amines furnished the Mannich bases 6a-p. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines and normal fibroblast cells. Sixteen of the tested compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against most cell lines. Among these derivatives, the Mannich bases 6j, 6m and 6p were found to exhibit the most potent activity. The Mannich base 6m showed more potent cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer NUGC (IC50=0.021 µM) than the standard CHS 828 (IC50=0.025 µM). Normal fibroblast cells WI38 were affected to a much lesser extent (IC50>10 µM).

  9. Acute hepatotoxicity of the polycyclic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtaline (AHTN).

    PubMed

    Steinberg, P; Fischer, T; Arand, M; Park, E; Elmadfa, I; Rimkus, G; Brunn, H; Dienes, H P

    1999-12-20

    Synthetic musks are present in fine fragrances, cosmetics, soaps and laundry detergents. One of the most important synthetic musks is 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthaline+ ++ (AHTN; annual production: about 1500 metric tons). An increasing number of studies show that AHTN accumulates in surface water and fish and can be detected in human adipose tissue, as well in human milk. In the present report it is shown that a single high dose of AHTN leads to acute hepatic damage in rats, characterized by single cell necrosis, inflammation, swelling of liver parenchymal cells, and the presence of cytoplasmic condensations in the hepatocytes, while at the ultrastructural level disorganization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria as well as focal cytolysis is evident. Furthermore, evidence is presented that AHTN is not genotoxic, does not induce peroxisome proliferation, and does not lead to the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes as phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene do.

  10. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  11. Atypical Antidepressant Activity of 3,4-Bis(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Furan-2,5-Dione Isolated from Heart Wood of Cedrus deodara, in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitesh; Dhayabaran, Daniel; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Lalani, Natasha; Dawood, Karima; Ghosh, Aanesha

    2014-01-01

    Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) has been used traditionally in Ayurveda for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) was isolated from heart wood of Cedrus deodara and was shown to have antiepileptic and anxiolytic activity. Thus, the present study was aimed to explore its anti-depressant effect and to correlate the effect with serotonin and nor adrenaline levels of brain. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. Animals were divided in to three groups; vehicle control, imipramine (30 mg/kg i.p.), BDFD (100 mg/kg i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) was performed to evaluate antidepressant effect of BDFD. BDFD (100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant decrease in immobility time when subjected to FST whereas immobility time was not significantly altered in TST. BDFD treatment increased serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the brain which is indicative of BDFD having possible atypical antidepressant action. PMID:25352754

  12. 3,4-Diaminopyridine in the treatment of congenital (hereditary) myasthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Palace, J; Wiles, C M; Newsom-Davis, J

    1991-01-01

    Congenital or hereditary myasthenia describes a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the immune system is not implicated. Treatment has previously depended on anticholinesterase medication. The effectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), a preparation that enhances acetylcholine release from motor nerve terminals, has been evaluated using a series of standardised strength measures. Sixteen patients (aged seven to 47 years) were studied in an open prospective trial, and four of them in a double blind crossover trial; existing anticholinesterase medication was continued. For the group as a whole, there was a highly significant increase in muscle strength (p less than 0.001; n = 16). In individual paired comparisons, 13 out of 16 showed significant improvement in the open trial and four out of four in the blind crossover trial. In conclusion, 3,4-DAP, either alone or combined with anticholinesterase medication, may be a useful additional treatment in congenital myasthenia. PMID:1783919

  13. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    PubMed

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution.

  14. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C6H2O5)(C6H3O5)(H2O)]n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented.

  15. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy of UO2(CO3)3(4-).

    PubMed

    Jung, E C; Cho, H-R; Baik, M H; Kim, H; Cha, W

    2015-11-21

    The objective of the present study is to examine the luminescence characteristics of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in detail using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy. The peak wavelengths and lifetime of UO2(CO3)3(4-) were determined at room temperature using the two excitation laser wavelengths of 266 and 448 nm. The peak wavelengths in the luminescence spectrum exhibited hypsochromic shifts compared with those of UO2(2+). The lifetime determined from several samples containing various uranium concentrations was 8.9 ± 0.8 ns. Explanations for the hindrance to the observation of the luminescence spectrum of UO2(CO3)3(4-) in previous investigations are discussed. The representative experimental parameters, which might interrupt the measurement of weak luminescence, are the insertion delay time of the detection device, the overlapped luminescence of the background materials and the primary inner filter effect in the sample solution. PMID:26460936

  16. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.

  17. Rapid transformation of 1,2,3,4-TCDD by Pd/Fe catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Fennell, Donna E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) in the presence of Pd/Fe, Cu/Fe and Ni/Fe bimetallic catalysts or zero-valent iron (ZVI) under aqueous and ambient temperature conditions. It was found that the Pd/Fe catalyst can rapidly transform 1,2,3,4-TCDD to chlorine-free dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) with >95% of conversion and half lives on the order of 5h, whereas Cu/Fe, Ni/Fe and ZVI were not reactive over 10d. The dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD in the Pd/Fe systems was found to be stepwise, with 1,2,3-tri (TrCDD), 1,2-di (DCDD), and mono-(MCDD) chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins as the three intermediate products at low concentrations and DD as the final and dominant product. The reaction rate of 1,2,3,4-TCDD dechlorination appeared to decrease as the coverage of palladium on iron particle surface increases from 0.0060 mol% to 0.0228 mol%. Compared to our prior study of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD with zero valent zinc (ZVZ) as the reductant, the reactions with Pd/Fe bimetallic materials were relatively slower for TCDD, but much faster for TrCDDs and DCDDs, yielding DD as the major product. The study suggested that Pd/Fe bimetallic catalyst-based reactions may be suitable for rapid decontamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) polluted soils and sediments.

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 - a successful group of emerging zoonotic pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica caused several human outbreaks in Northern America. In contrast, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 is responsible for sporadic cases worldwide with asymptomatic pigs being the main source of infection. Genomes of three Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 human isolates (including the completely sequenced Y11 German DSMZ type strain) were compared to the high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica 8081 O:8/1B to address the peculiarities of the O:3/4 group. Results Most high-pathogenicity-associated determinants of Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica (like the High-Pathogenicity Island, yts1 type 2 and ysa type 3 secretion systems) are absent in Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 genomes. On the other hand they possess alternative putative virulence and fitness factors, such as a different ysp type 3 secretion system, an RtxA-like and insecticidal toxins, and a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) PTS system (aga-operon). Horizontal acquisition of two prophages and a tRNA-Asn-associated GIYep-01 genomic island might also influence the Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 pathoadaptation. We demonstrated recombination activity of the PhiYep-3 prophage and the GIYep-01 island and the ability of the aga-operon to support the growth of the Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica O:8/1B on GalNAc. Conclusions Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 experienced a shift to an alternative patchwork of virulence and fitness determinants that might play a significant role in its host pathoadaptation and successful worldwide dissemination. PMID:21733159

  19. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  20. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen. PMID:11539502

  1. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  2. 3.4-Billion-Year-Old Biogenic Pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: Sulfur Isotope Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Lowe, Donald R.

    1993-10-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (> > 10-13 of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  3. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  4. 3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section and plan of center part of ceiling. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside California. Sheet 11, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. 3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Cornice and corbels; cement exterior grilles; wood interior grilles; ceiling beams; exterior wall section. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 10, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Discovery of MK-5172, a Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4a Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors containing a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular modeling-derived strategy. Building on the profile of previous clinical compounds and exploring the P2 and linker regions of the series allowed for optimization of broad genotype and mutant enzyme potency, cellular activity, and rat liver exposure following oral dosing. These studies led to the identification of clinical candidate 15 (MK-5172), which is active against genotype 1–3 NS3/4a and clinically relevant mutant enzymes and has good plasma exposure and excellent liver exposure in multiple species. PMID:24900473

  7. Discovery of MK-5172, a Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4a Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Harper, Steven; McCauley, John A; Rudd, Michael T; Ferrara, Marco; DiFilippo, Marcello; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Koch, Uwe; Petrocchi, Alessia; Holloway, M Katharine; Butcher, John W; Romano, Joseph J; Bush, Kimberly J; Gilbert, Kevin F; McIntyre, Charles J; Nguyen, Kevin T; Nizi, Emanuela; Carroll, Steven S; Ludmerer, Steven W; Burlein, Christine; DiMuzio, Jillian M; Graham, Donald J; McHale, Carolyn M; Stahlhut, Mark W; Olsen, David B; Monteagudo, Edith; Cianetti, Simona; Giuliano, Claudio; Pucci, Vincenzo; Trainor, Nicole; Fandozzi, Christine M; Rowley, Michael; Coleman, Paul J; Vacca, Joseph P; Summa, Vincenzo; Liverton, Nigel J

    2012-04-12

    A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors containing a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular modeling-derived strategy. Building on the profile of previous clinical compounds and exploring the P2 and linker regions of the series allowed for optimization of broad genotype and mutant enzyme potency, cellular activity, and rat liver exposure following oral dosing. These studies led to the identification of clinical candidate 15 (MK-5172), which is active against genotype 1-3 NS3/4a and clinically relevant mutant enzymes and has good plasma exposure and excellent liver exposure in multiple species.

  8. Biochemical Decomposition of the Herbicide N-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-Methylpentanamide and Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Sharabi, Nagim El-Din; Bordeleau, Lucien M.

    1969-01-01

    Organisms capable of decomposing N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpentanamide (Karsil) were isolated, identified, and tested for their ability to hydrolyze this herbicide. Primary products of Karsil decomposition by cells and cell-free extracts of a Penicillium sp. were identified as 2-methyl-valeric acid and 3,4-dichloroaniline. The Karsil acylamidase (EC 3.5.1.a aryl acylamine amidohydrolase) was an induced enzyme. It was partially purified and tested for its ability to hydrolyze 25 related compounds. Some relations between the structures of these compounds and their susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis were discerned. PMID:5373674

  9. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  10. Breakthrough of the p-type doping bottleneck in ZnO by inserting an ultrathin ZnX (X  =  S, Se and Te) layer doped with NX or AgZn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Cao, Xiong; Wu, Meng; Liao, Zhi-min

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide problem of p-type doping in ZnO is investigated based on first-principles calculations by combining the standard density functional theory and hybrid functional methods. We find that p-type doping can be realized by inserting an ultrathin ZnX (X  =  S, Se and Te) layer, doped with NX or AgZn, into ZnO to form short-period (ZnO) m /(ZnX) n (m  >  n) superlattices. The formation energy is the lowest for NX or AgZn in the ZnX layer. The Zn-rich (Zn-poor) condition is favourable for the formation of the NX (AgZn) defect. Compensation by the native defects can be avoided for the Ag-doped (ZnO) m /(ZnX) n under the Zn-poor condition. The N (Ag) acceptor activation energy can be reduced from 0.45 (0.43) eV in ZnO to 0.33 (0.32) eV in (ZnO)5/(ZnS)1, 0.20 (0.24) eV in (ZnO)5/(ZnSe)1 and 0.12 (0.13) eV in (ZnO)5/(ZnTe)1, which is caused by the ZnX-monolayer modulation to the local structure around the NX or AgZn defect and the high-lying p-derived valence bands. Moreover, the band gaps can be tuned from 3.40 eV of ZnO to 3.21 eV of (ZnO)5/(ZnS)1, 2.41 eV of (ZnO)5/(ZnSe)1 and 2.26 eV of (ZnO)5/(ZnTe)1, which is promising for the integration of ZnO-based white light-emitting diodes.

  11. 5-(Adamantan-1-yl)-3-[(4-benzyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; El-Brollosy, Nasser R.; Attia, Mohamed I.; Said-Abdelbaky, Mohammed; García-Granda, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C24H32N4OS, is a functionalized 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione with substituted piperazine and adamantanyl substituents attached at the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, of the oxadiazole spacer with an approximately C-shaped conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules form dimers via C—H⋯S inter­action. The piperazine ring has a chair conformation; the substituents S, methyl­ene C and adamantane C of the essentially planar oxadiazole ring are approximately in the same plane, with distances of −0.046 (2), −0.085 (5) and 0.003 (4) Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl and oxadiazole rings is 31.3 (3)°. PMID:22798843

  12. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. PMID:27320055

  13. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic.

  14. Contrasting effects of d-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and 4-methylmethcathinone on wheel activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pai-Kai; Aarde, Shawn M.; Angrish, Deepshikha; Houseknecht, Karen L.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Taffe, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reports from US, UK and European drug policy entities, and ongoing media accounts, show increasing recreational use of 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC, mephedrone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Severe sympathomimetic symptoms, hallucinations, psychoses, and even deaths have been reported, yet little scientific information is available on the effects of these compounds in laboratory models. Available studies on the neurochemistry of these drugs show that 4-MMC and MDPV enhance DA neurotransmission, while 4-MMC additionally enhances 5-HT neurotransmission- a pattern much like that reported for methamphetamine vs. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As is the case for designer amphetamines, these neurochemical distinctions may predict differential potential for repetitive versus episodic abuse and distinct lasting toxicities. METHODS This study determined relative locomotor stimulant effects of 4-MMC (1–10 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDPV (0.5–5.6 mg/kg, s.c.), in comparison with d-methamphetamine (MA; 0.5–5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) and MDMA (1–7.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on a measure of locomotor activity – voluntary wheel running – in male Wistar rats (N=8). RESULTS Compared to counts of wheel rotations after saline, a biphasic change in the pattern of counts was observed after injections of MA and MDPV, with relatively higher counts following lower doses and lower counts following the highest dose. However, monophasic, dose-dependent reductions in counts were observed in response to injections of MDMA and 4-MMC. CONCLUSION Thus, voluntary wheel running yielded the same categorical distinctions for these drugs as did prior experiments testing the effects of these drugs on monoaminergic neurotransmission. These data indicate that MDPV produces prototypical locomotor stimulant effects whereas 4-MMC is more similar to the entactogen MDMA. PMID:22664136

  15. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 CFR subpart 1821). BLM will publish a notice in the Federal Register of the 60-day comment period... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental...

  16. Polyimides from 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride and Aromatic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to polyimides. It relates particularly to novel polyimides prepared from 2,3, 3',4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and aromatic diamines. These novel polyimides have low color, good solubility, high thermal emissivity, low solar absorptivity and high tensile strength.

  17. 39 CFR 3.4 - Matters reserved for decision by the Governors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Matters reserved for decision by the Governors. 3... SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.4 Matters reserved for decision by the Governors. The following matters are reserved for decision by the Governors: (a) Appointment, pay, term of service,...

  18. High-temperature heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. M.; Denisova, L. T.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Volkov, N. V.; Patrin, G. S.; Chumilina, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    The molar heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4 has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range 339-1086 K. It has been found that the dependence C p = f( T) exhibits an extremum at a temperature of 401 K due to the structural transition.

  19. 2,2\\',3,3\\',4,4\\',5,5\\',6,6\\'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,2 ' , 3,3 ' , 4,4 ' , 5,5 ' , 6,6 ' - Decabromodiphenyl ether ( BDE - 209 ) ; CASRN 1163 - 19 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process

  20. The Role of PI(3,4,5)P3 Signaling During Axonal Growth Cone Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henle, Steven J.

    Development of the nervous system is a remarkably complex process that involves the birth of billions of neurons leading to the formation of trillions of synapses. Many biological programs underlie the formation of a functional nervous system. I focused on trying to understand the process by which a newly formed axon navigates a series of signals in the environment that guide it to a synaptic partner. At the tip of the extending neurite is a conical expansion known as the growth cone that primarily is responsible for performing this pathfinding process. In order to do so it senses the environment, and induces a program of intracellular signaling that in turn leads to directed axon extension. My work has focused on understanding this signaling machinery. I have aimed to understand the role the phosphoinositde PI(3,4,5)P3 due to the critical role it plays in amoeboid chemotaxis. I discovered that PI(3,4,5)P3 and its downstream kinase Akt define the leading edge during growth cone chemotaxis and lead to activation of a TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) channel. Furthermore, I found that the PI(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase PTEN appears to be exclusively linked to guiding growth cone migration in response to a gradient of chemorepellent. Taken together my data demonstrate that PI(3,4,5)P3 functions as a key instructive mediator of growth cone chemotaxis.

  1. 3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the creek. Note the 1965 concrete block addition to the main oyster house. Lifting derrick can be seen at left in front of the building and next to the hoist house. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  2. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  3. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book I: Grades 3, 4, and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets suitable for supplementing social studies units in grades 3, 4, and 5 are presented. Each set lists appropriate resources, concepts, general objectives and instructional objectives for each activity within the set. Grade 3 sets are "You Can Help Conserve Our Natural Resources,""Urban Decay and Urban Renewal,""The Use of…

  4. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  5. Isopropyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyran­oside

    PubMed Central

    Mönch, Bettina; Emmerling, Franziska; Kraus, Werner; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C17H26O10, was formed by a Koenigs–Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and propan-2-ol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant inter­molecular inter­actions. PMID:23424447

  6. 23. Building N9; 3/4 view, looking NW at loading dock. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Building N-9; 3/4 view, looking NW at loading dock. The view also shows the relationship of the blast barricades to the building. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  7. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF HAWAII MARITIME CENTER WITH PORT 3/4 STERN VIEW OF OIL TANKER FALLS OF CLYDE REPLICA POLYNESIAN SAILING CRAFT ARE SEEN ALONGSIDE AND BEHIND HER. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM FILM SHOT PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  9. 33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  10. 6. 3/4 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF CENTRAL SPANS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 3/4 VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF CENTRAL SPANS, LOOKING FROM SLIGHTLY BELOW THE LEVEL OF THE BRIDGE. NOTE THE WATER PIPE ATTACHED TO LOWER LATERAL CHORD. - Jensen Bridge, Spanning Green River at Town of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

  11. QSAR analysis of antitumor activities of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastija, Vesna; Bajić, Miroslav; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Jukić, Marijana; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2015-12-01

    QSAR analysis was performed for the antitumor activity of 27 derivatives of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene against six carcinoma cell lines. The best models were obtained with surface area (SAG) in combination with lipohilicity (log P) as descriptors. Results have shown that molecules with smaller solvent accessible surface area and higher lipophilicy should have higher biological activity against carcinoma cell.

  12. 3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing showing E and N elevations; N elevation of Building 69, Plating and Tinning Shop; looking SW. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 66, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  14. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  15. 1. Building C9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing storage tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building C-9; 3/4 view, looking SE; showing storage tanks on the west side of the building and the railroad tracks in foreground. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  16. 7. Building G9; 3/4 view, looking SE. Storage tanks for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building G-9; 3/4 view, looking SE. Storage tanks for Building G-9 are in the foreground and the blast barricade for Building H-9 is in the background. (Ryan) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  17. A Review of Issues in Deaf Education under Nigeria's 6-3-3-4 Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eleweke, C. Jonah

    2002-01-01

    This article examines issues affecting the education of people with deafness under Nigeria's 6-3-3-4 system of education. The system was introduced in 1976 and serves all categories of learners in Nigeria. Evidence indicates that the implementation, including in schools for the deaf, has been unsatisfactory and problems are discussed. (Contains…

  18. Fuel compositions containing maleic derivatives of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a diesel fuel composition. It is characterized by improved wear properties. It comprises: a major portion of middle distillates boiling in the range of about 163{degrees}to 400{degrees}C. and a minor wear improving amount of a reaction product of a maleic compound and 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

  19. 3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING CAST-IRON RETORTS AND TURNED HEAD (WHERE RAW MATERIALS WERE LOADED INTO FURNACE). - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  20. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  1. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  2. Molecular and Electronic Structure of Re2Br4(PMe3)4.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Erik V; Poineau, Frederic; Todorova, Tanya K; Forster, Paul M; Sørensen, Lasse K; Fdez Galván, Ignacio; Lindh, Roland; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Sattelberger, Alfred P

    2016-07-18

    The dinuclear rhenium(II) complex Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was prepared from the reduction of [Re2Br8](2-) with (n-Bu4N)BH4 in the presence of PMe3 in propanol. The complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. It crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group and is isostructural with its molybdenum and technetium analogues. The Re-Re distance (2.2521(3) Å) is slightly longer than the one in Re2Cl4(PMe3)4 (2.247(1) Å). The molecular and electronic structure of Re2X4(PMe3)4 (X = Cl, Br) were studied by multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods. The computed ground-state geometry is in excellent agreement with the experimental structure determined by SCXRD. The calculated total bond order (2.75) is consistent with the presence of an electron-rich triple bond and is similar to the one found for Re2Cl4(PMe3)4. The electronic absorption spectrum of Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was recorded in benzene and shows a series of low-intensity bands in the range 10 000-26 000 cm(-1). The absorption bands were assigned based on calculations of the excitation energies with the multireference wave functions followed by second-order perturbation theory using the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. Calculations predict that the lowest energy band corresponds to the δ* → σ* transition, while the next higher energy bands were attributed to the δ* → π*, δ → σ*, and δ → π* transitions. PMID:27387436

  3. Quantum mechanically guided design of transition metal doped SrCo0.875M0.125O3-δ (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, Bernd M.; Music, Denis; Emmerlich, Jens; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2011-12-01

    Perovskites are employed during energy conversion as membranes in conventional power plants or as fuel cell electrodes. To enable future materials design a quantum-mechanical model was developed to describe vacancy formation and the resulting chemical expansion. Cubic strontium cobaltite (SrCo0.875M0.125O3-δ) was doped with all 3d transition elements. A strong correlation between calculated energies of formation for vacancies and experimental oxygen flux literature data was identified.

  4. Antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Painful neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperglycemia clearly plays a key role in the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy. Current therapeutic approaches are only partially successful and they are only thought to reduce the pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Some natural products offer combined antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties that may help to treat in a more integrative manner this condition. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and mice without glucose control as well as the possible mechanism of action involved in this effect. Methods Rats and mice were injected with 50 or 200 mg/kg streptozotocin, respectively, to produce hyperglycemia. The formalin test and von Frey filaments were used to assess the nociceptive activity. Rota-rod was utilized to measure motor activity and malondialdehyde assay to determine anti-oxidative properties. Results After 3 weeks of diabetes induction, chemical hyperalgesia was observed in streptozotocin-injected rats. Oral acute administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (0.3–30 mg/kg) decreased in a dose-dependent manner formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. In addition, methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and ODQ (guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.), prevented 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin-induced antihyperalgesic effect. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin was similar to that produced by pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Furthermore, oral acute administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (30 mg/kg) reduced streptozotocin-induced changes in malondialdehyde concentration from plasma samples. Unlike pregabalin, 7-hydroxy-3,4

  5. High reflectance dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors for near ultra-violet planar microcavities: SiO2/HfO2 versus SiO2/SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réveret, F.; Bignet, L.; Zhigang, W.; Lafosse, X.; Patriarche, G.; Disseix, P.; Médard, F.; Mihailovic, M.; Leymarie, J.; Zúñiga-Pérez, J.; Bouchoule, S.

    2016-09-01

    SiO2/SiNx and SiO2/HfO2 distributed Bragg reflectors for the ultra-violet (λ = 360 nm-380 nm) are compared through their structural and optical properties. The SiO2/HfO2 system exhibits a lower interface roughness, higher reflectance, larger stop band, and lower penetration depth than SiO2/SiNx. A cavity quality factor of 3700 at about 360 nm is measured on a passive SiO2/HfO2-based planar microcavity. Compared with values obtained in the literature for the near UV range, the latter is rather large. Micro-reflectance measurements have been performed on a series of passive microcavities with increasing cavity thickness to determine the residual absorption in the SiO2 and HfO2 layers. Absorption coefficients of 30 (k = 0.86 × 10-4) and 160 cm-1 (k = 4.59 × 10-4) near λ ˜ 360 nm have been extracted for SiO2 and HfO2, respectively. Transfer-matrix simulations taking into account the residual absorption show that microcavity quality factors up to 8000 can be expected at 360-380 nm with this material system. Such values are well-suited for the fabrication of UV-vertical cavity surface emitting lasers or microcavity polariton lasers operating at room temperature.

  6. Evaluation of the oral subchronic toxicity of AHTN (7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Smith, Robert L; Pipino, Sandra; Marczylo, Timothy; De Matteis, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) is used as a fragrance material in a wide variety of consumer products. Because of its widespread exposure, a 90-day oral feeding study, with 4-week recovery periods for selected rats, was conducted. AHTN was added to the diet of rats at levels calculated to result in mean daily doses of 1.5, 5, 15 or 50 mg AHTN/kg body weight/day. On completion of the treatment period, 3 males and 3 females from each of the high dose groups and controls were maintained for a treatment free period of 4 weeks. There were no adverse effects revealed upon clinical examination or following extensive histopathological examinations. Histopathological examination of the prostate, seminal vesicles, mammary gland and testes of males and ovaries, mammary gland, uterus and vagina of females, undertaken on all animals in all test groups, revealed no evidence of hormonal effects of AHTN. A statistically significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in both sexes in the high dose group only. Statistically significant effects were observed in hematology and blood chemistry, although these effects were all within the range for historical controls and were not proportional to dose. A green to dark brown coloration in the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes was also seen in high dose animals. At the end of the treatment-free period, the color change was almost completely reversed; one high dose male still had green colored lymph nodes, but the liver appeared normal. A green coloration of the lacrimal glands in females, but not males, was also seen in 8/12, 4/15 and in 1 female given 50, 15 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. This green color was still present in 2/3 of the high dose females after the treatment-free period. Microscopic examination of unstained sections of frozen livers under UV illumination did not reveal any fluorescence that might have been consistent with porphyrin accumulation. These findings were

  7. 40 CFR 3.4 - How does this part affect enforcement and compliance provisions of Title 40?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does this part affect enforcement and compliance provisions of Title 40? 3.4 Section 3.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING General Provisions § 3.4 How does this part...

  8. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of...

  9. Dax1 binds to Oct3/4 and inhibits its transcriptional activity in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanhai; Nakatake, Yuhki; Akagi, Tadayuki; Ura, Hiroki; Matsuda, Takahiko; Nishiyama, Akira; Koide, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S H; Niwa, Hitoshi; Yokota, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Transcription factor Oct3/4 is an indispensable factor in the self-renewal of ES cells. In this study, we searched for a protein that would interact with Oct3/4 in ES cells and identified an orphan nuclear hormone receptor, Dax1. The association of Dax1 with Oct3/4 was mediated through the POU-specific domain of Oct3/4. Ectopic expression of Dax1 inhibited Oct3/4-mediated activation of an artificial Oct3/4-responsive promoter. Expression of Dax1 in ES cells also reduced the activities of Nanog and Rex1 promoters, while knockdown of Dax1 increased these activities. Pulldown and gel shift assays revealed that the interaction of Dax1 with Oct3/4 abolished the DNA binding activity of Oct3/4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay results showed that Dax1 inhibited Oct3/4 binding to the promoter/enhancer regions of Oct3/4 and Nanog. Furthermore, overexpression of Dax1 resulted in ES cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest that Dax1, a novel molecule interacting with Oct3/4, functions as a negative regulator of Oct3/4 in ES cells. PMID:19528230

  10. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  11. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 °C < T < -11 °C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 °C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was

  12. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins Based on 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Yokota, R.; Criss, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop materials for resin transfer molding (RTM) processes to fabricate high performance/high temperature composite structures, phenylethynyl containing imides have been under investigation. New phenylethynyl containing imide compositions were prepared using 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) and evaluated for cured glass transition temperature (Tg), melt flow behavior, and for processability into flat composite panels via RTM. The a-BPDA imparts a unique combination of properties that are desirable for high temperature transfer molding resins. In comparison to its symmetrical counterpart (i.e. 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride), a-BPDA affords oligomers with lower melt viscosities and when cured, higher Tgs. Several candidates exhibited the appropriate combination of properties such as a low and stable melt viscosity required for RTM processes, high cured Tg, and moderate toughness. The chemistry, physical, and composite properties of select resins will be discussed.

  13. Synthesis of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl derivatives as factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiabin; Su, Guoqiang; Ren, Yu; Chen, Yang

    2015-08-28

    The coagulation factor Xa (FXa) plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent studies have shown that FXa is a particularly attractive target for the development of oral antithrombotic agents. In view of the excellent pharmaceutical properties of 1,2-phenylenediamine-based FXa inhibitors and the reported structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of FXa inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a series of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-based FXa inhibitors. Intensive SAR studies on this new series led to the discovery of 3,4-dimethoxyl substituted compound 7b. 7b is a highly potent, selective, direct FXa inhibitor with excellent in vivo antithrombotic activity. PMID:26114810

  14. Fragrance material review on 3,4,5,6,6-pentamethylheptan-2-ol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3,4,5,6,6-pentamethylheptan-2-ol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3,4,5,6,6-Pentamethylheptan-2-ol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  15. Denigrins A-C: new antitubercular 3,4-diarylpyrrole alkaloids from Dendrilla nigra.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna Kumar, Muthyala; Devilal Naik, Jarpula; Satyavathi, Kancherla; Ramana, Hechhu; Raghuveer Varma, Pemmadi; Purna Nagasree, Kurre; Smitha, Desaraju; Venkata Rao, Desaraju

    2014-01-01

    Chemical diversity is vital to antitubercular drug discovery as it ensures a novel bioactivity profile. Marine sponges have so far provided more than 1000 new bioactive molecules. Ethyl acetate extract of the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra on bioactivity-guided screening yielded three new compounds denigrins A-C, with potent antitubercular activity. Spectral and chemical analyses confirmed that these three compounds belong to the 3,4-diaryl pyrrole alkaloid category. The presence of monohydroxy substitution on benzene rings is not very common in lamellarin and related 3,4-diaryl pyrrole alkaloids isolated from marine invertebrates. Among these, denigrin C showed highest potency (minimum inhibitory concentration 4 μg/mL) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

  16. Regulation of Aldosterone Biosynthesis by the Kir3.4 (KCNJ5) Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Velarde-Miranda, Carolina; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P.; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir3.4 is expressed in the zona glomerulosa cell membrane and transports potassium out of the cell. Angiotensin II stimulation of aldosterone secretion is mediated in part by suppression of the transcription of KCNJ5, the gene coding for Kir3.4, and blocking channel activity. This results in membrane depolarization, mobilization of intracellular calcium, activation of the calcium-calmodulin pathway, and increasing gene transcription of steroidogenic enzymes required for aldosterone secretion. In 40–60% of aldosterone-producing adenomas there is a somatic mutation in the region of the KCNJ5 gene that codes for the selectivity filter that decreases potassium selectivity, allowing sodium to leak into the cells, thus depolarizing the membrane and initiating events that result in increased aldosterone synthesis. The mechanism by which mutated KCNJ5 induces cell proliferation and adenoma formation remains unclear. PMID:23829355

  17. Raman spectroscopic study of the mineral shattuckite Cu 5(SiO 3) 4(OH) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei

    2012-02-01

    Shattuckite Cu 5(SiO 3) 4(OH) 2 is a copper hydroxy silicate and is commonly known as a 'healing' mineral. Three shattuckite mineral samples from three different origins were analysed by Raman spectroscopy. Some Raman bands are common in the spectra of the minerals. Raman bands at around 890, 1058 and 1102 are described as the ν 3 -SiO 3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The Raman band at 670 cm -1 is assigned to the ν 4 bending modes of the -SiO 3 units and the band at around 785 cm -1is due to Si-O-Si chain stretching mode. Raman (and infrared) spectroscopy proves that water is in the molecular structure of shattuckite; thus the formula is better written as Cu 5(SiO 3) 4(OH) 2· xH 2O.

  18. Hopping conduction in 3,4-cycloalkylpolypyrrole perchlorates: A model study of conductivity in polymers:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquerra, T. A.; Rühe, J.; Wegner, G.

    1988-02-01

    The conductivity of 3,4-cycloalkyl-substituted polypyrrole perchlorates has been analyzed using hopping theory. The localization length of the charge carriers was found to be 0.8 nm, the actual conductivity at constant temperature being exponentially dependent on the minimum distance, R, between adjacent chains. R can be reasonably estimated from molecular models and was systematically varied between 0.38 nm (unsubstituted polypyrrole) and 1.38 nm (decamethylene chain attached in 3,4-position). The conduction is activated in the temperature range 150-300 K, the activation energy varying systematically from 0.012 to 0.066 eV on increasing R from 0.38 to 1.38 nm.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of NH4Dy(PO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemingui, S.; Ferhi, M.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline powders of NH4Dy(PO3)4 polyphosphate have been grown by the flux method. This compound was found to be isotopic with NH4Ce(PO3)4 and RbHo(PO3)4. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with unit cell parameters a=10.474(6) Å, b=9.011(4) Å, c=10.947(7) Å and β=106.64(3)°. The title compound has been transformed to triphosphate Dy(PO3)3 after calcination at 800 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the differential thermal analysis have been used to identify these materials. The spectroscopic properties have been investigated through absorption, excitation, emission spectra and decay curves of Dy3+ ion in both compounds at room temperature. The emission spectra show the characteristic emission bands of Dy3+ in the two compounds, before and after calcination. The integrated emission intensity ratios of the yellow to blue (IY/IB) transitions and the chromaticity properties have been determined from emission spectra. The decay curves are found to be double-exponential. The non-exponential behavior of the decay rates was related to the resonant energy transfer as well as cross-relaxation between the donor and acceptor Dy3+ ions. The determined properties have been discussed as function of crystal structure of both compounds. They reveal that NH4Dy(PO3)4 is promising for white light generation but Dy(PO3)3 is potential candidates in field emission display (FED) and plasma display panel (PDP) devices.

  20. New 3,4-seco-Grayanane Diterpenoids from the Flowers of Pieris japonica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lang; Li, Yanping; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Dan; Li, Rongtao

    2016-01-01

    Three new 3,4-seco-grayanane diterpenoids, neopierisoids D-F (2-4), and a new natural one, neopierisoid C (1), were isolated from the flowers of Pieris japonica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including one and two dimensional (1- and 2D)-NMR, as well as high resolution-electron ionization (HR-EI)-MS. PMID:27477663

  1. Identification of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine analogs encountered in clandestine tablets.

    PubMed

    Furnari, C; Ottaviano, V; Rosati, F; Tondi, V

    1998-03-01

    Recently, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine derivatives have been encountered in the Italian illicit market, mainly in form of tablets. Among this class of substances small modifications of the molecule may result in a wide range of derivatives and analogs some of which are not yet listed as controlled substances in the Italian schedules. Due to the structural similarity some of these molecules have a gas chromatographic behavior and mass spectra that only slightly differ. In the present work, an analytical strategy is proposed to achieve the identification of analogs within this class of molecules. In seized material sent by the Court of Law of Rome to our laboratories a number of tablets engraved with different symbols (e.g., 'Dollar', 'Fido Dido' and 'Bomb') were submitted to analysis in order to establish whether they contained drugs of abuse. The analytical techniques employed for this purpose were UV spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography which provided information suggesting that the tablets contained a methylenedioxyamphetamine. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection indicated that the main ingredient differed from the molecules of the same class already known. Finally, capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the native molecules and their pentafluoropropionic acid derivatives, performed with both, electron impact and chemical ionization, allowed the identification, in each tablet, of three molecules: the N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MDP-2-MB, MBDB), the 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MDP-2-B) and the N,N-dimethyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MDP-2-MMB). PMID:9627975

  2. Synthesis of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rakesh; Arora, Anshu; Parameswaran, Manoj Kumar; Chan, Prabodh; Sharma, Der; Michael, Sukumar; Ravi, Thengungal Kochupappy

    2010-01-01

    Some new 3-acetyl-5-(3-chloro-1-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-substituted phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 2-(3-chloro-1-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-substituted phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles have been synthesized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Initially, 3-chloro-1-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl chloride (1) was prepared from cinnamic acid in the presence of chlorobenzene and thionyl chloride. This compound (1) was treated with hydrazine hydrate to afford 3-chloro-1-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazine (2) which was further reacted with various aromatic aldehydes to yield hydrazones (3a-h). Further reaction of these hydrazones (3a-h) with acetic anhydride gave 3-acetyl-5-(3-chloro-1-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-2-substituted phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (4a-h). Reaction of the same compounds (3a-h) in the presence of chloramine-T afforded 2-(3-chloro-1-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-substituted phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (5a-h). The structures of newly synthesized compounds (4a-h) and (5a-h) have been confirmed by spectroscopic techniques such as IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Asperigillus niger. The compounds exhibited significant antibacterial and moderate antifungal activities. Compounds 4c and 4e were found to be most potent with activities, even better than standard drug ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and B. subtilis. PMID:20524426

  3. In vivo Loads in the Lumbar L3-4 Disc during a Weight Lifting Extension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobai; Park, Won Man; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Cha, Thomas; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of in vivo human lumbar loading is critical for understanding the lumbar function and for improving surgical treatments of lumbar pathology. Although numerous experimental measurements and computational simulations have been reported, non-invasive determination of in vivo spinal disc loads is still a challenge in biomedical engineering. The object of the study is to investigate the in vivo human lumbar disc loads using a subject-specific and kinematic driven finite element approach. Methods Three dimensional (3D) lumbar spine models of three living subjects were created using MR images. A 3D finite element model of the L3-4 disc, including the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, was built for each subject. The endplate kinematics of the L3-4 segment of each subject during a dynamic weight lifting extension was determined using a dual fluoroscopic imaging technique. The endplate kinematics was used as displacement boundary conditions of the subject specific finite element model of the L3-4 disc to calculate the in-vivo disc forces and moments during the weight lifting activity. Findings During the weight lifting extension, the L3-4 disc experienced maximum shear load of about 230 N or 0.34 bodyweight at the flexion position and maximum compressive load of 1500 N or 2.28 bodyweight at the upright position. The disc experienced a primary flexion-extension moment during the motion which reached a maximum of 4.2 Nm at upright position with stretched arms holding the weight. Interpretation This study provided quantitative data on in vivo disc loading that could help understand intrinsic biomechanics of the spine and improve surgical treatment of pathological discs using fusion or arthroplasty techniques. PMID:24345591

  4. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Traynor-Kaplan, A E; Thompson, B L; Harris, A L; Taylor, P; Omann, G M; Sklar, L A

    1989-09-15

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation. PMID:2549071

  5. Electroproduction of strangeness on (Lambda)H-3,4 bound states on helium

    SciTech Connect

    F. Dohrmann; D. Abbott; A. Ahmidouch; P. Ambrozewicz; C. S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; S. Beedoe; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D. S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; G. Collins; C. Cothran; J. Crowder; W. J. Cummings; S. Danagoulian; F. Duncan; J. Dunne; D. Dutta; T. Eden; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; L. Ewell; H. Fenker; H. T. Fortune; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Gustafsson; K. Hafidi; J. O. Hansen; W. Hinton; H. E. Jackson; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; Y. Liang; J. H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; R. Madey; P. Markowitz; C. J. Martoff; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Mohring; S. K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; T. G. O'Neill; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; J. W. Price; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; P. Roos; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; G. Savage; R. Sawafta; R. E. Segel; A. Yu. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; S. Tajima; L. Tang; B. Terburg; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; C. Yan; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; B. Zeidman; B. Zihlmann

    2005-05-01

    The A(e,eK+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q{sup 2} approx. 0.35 GeV{sup 2} at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for Lambda-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  6. Electroproduction of strangeness on {sub {lambda}}{sup 3,4}H bound states on Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, F.; Abbott, D.; Carlini, R.; Dunne, J.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Garrow, K.; Lung, A.; Mack, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Wood, S.; Yan, C.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Martoff, C.J.; Armstrong, C.S.; Arrington, J.; Bailey, K.; Cummings, W.J.

    2005-05-06

    The A(e,e'K+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q2 {approx_equal} 0.35 GeV2 at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for {lambda}-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  7. Electrocatalytic properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in Li-O2 battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Gu, Meng; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-04-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/carbon composite was prepared by in situ chemical polymerization of EDOT monomer in carbon matrix. PEDOT has electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in Li-O2 battery significantly lowering charging voltage. The electrocatalytic effect is probably due to the redox activity of PEDOT which apparently acts as a mediator in electron transfer during discharge and charge processes.

  8. Syntheses of 3,4-benzotropolones by ring-closing metatheses.

    PubMed

    Arican, Deniz; Brückner, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Ortho-lithiated styrenes or ortho-lithiated benzaldehyde dimethyl acetals were added to 2,2-dimethoxypent-4-enals 7. The resulting alcohols were carried on to the aromatic dienones 10. These were ring-closed by olefin metathesis. Hydrolysis of the dimethyl ketal moiety and enolization provided the 3,4-benzotropolones 5. Overall, this access comprises 4-6 steps and totaled a 22-81% yield.

  9. Metallicity evolution, metallicity gradients, and gas fractions at z ~ 3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso, P.; Maiolino, R.; Sommariva, V.; Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Marconi, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Grazian, A.; Cimatti, A.; Fontana, A.; Nagao, T.; Pentericci, L.

    2014-03-01

    We used near-infrared integral field spectroscopic observations from the AMAZE and LSD ESO programs to constrain the metallicity in a sample of 40 star-forming galaxies at 3 < z < 5 (most of which are at z ~ 3.4). We measured metallicities by exploiting strong emission-line diagnostics. We found that a significant fraction of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 3.4 deviate from the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR), with a metallicity of up to a factor of ten lower than expected according to the FMR. This deviation does not correlate with the dynamical properties of the galaxy or with the presence of interactions. To investigate the origin of the metallicity deviation in more detail, we also inferred information on the gas content by inverting the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation, assuming that the latter does not evolve out to z ~ 3.4. In agreement with recent CO observational data, we found that in contrast with the steeply rising trend at 0 < z < 2, the gas fraction in massive galaxies remains constant, with an indication of a marginal decline at 2 < z < 3.5. When combined with the metallicity information, we infer that to explain the low metallicity and gas content in z ~ 3.4 galaxies, both prominent outflows and massive pristine gas inflows are needed. In ten galaxies we can also spatially resolve the metallicity distribution. We found that the metallicity generally anticorrelates with the distribution of star formation and with the gas surface density. We discuss these findings in terms of pristine gas inflows toward the center, and outflows of metal-rich gas from the center toward the external regions. Based on data obtained at the VLT through the ESO programs 178.B-0838, 075.A-0300 and 076.A-0711.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Inelastic Neutron Scattering on Multiferroics NdFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Shohei; Soda, Minoru; Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ohgushi, Kenya; Kawana, Daichi; Masuda, Takatsugu

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiment is performed on single crystals of multiferroics NdFe3(11BO3)4 to explore the magnetic excitations. Fe-centered dispersive excitation with the band width of 5 meV is observed along the crystallographic c∗ direction and that of 3 meV is along the a∗ direction. The energy gap of 0.57 meV due to an axial-type anisotropy is ob- served at the AF zone center. The energy of Nd-centered flat excitation is 1 meV. Furthermore, anticrossing of the Fe- and Nd-centered excitations is observed, meaning the existence of the f -d coupling, i.e., the interaction between the Nd3+ and Fe3+ moments. Spin-wave analysis on the observed neutron spectrum revealed the underlying magnetic Hamiltonian in NdFe3(11BO3)4. Discussion on the axial-type anisotropy in the ab - plane based on the magnetic model leads to the conclusion that the anisotropy of the Nd3+ ion plays a main role in the determination of the structures of both magnetic moment and electric polarization in NdFe3(BO3)4.

  11. Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-10-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones. The common characteristic structural element of the group members is a cyclopentanone or cyclopentenone ring with a straight or branched chain alkane or alkene substituent. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one were evaluated, then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones in fragrances.

  12. Regioselective Reactions of 3,4-Pyridynes Enabled by the Aryne Distortion Model

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Adam E.; Garg, Neil K.

    2012-01-01

    The pyridine heterocycle continues to play a vital role in the development of human medicines. More than 100 currently-marketed drugs contain this privileged unit, which remains highly sought after synthetically. We report an efficient means to access di- and tri-substituted pyridines in an efficient and highly controlled manner using transient 3,4-pyridyne intermediates. Previous efforts to employ 3,4-pyridynes for the construction of substituted pyridines have been hampered by a lack of regiocontrol or the inability to later manipulate an adjacent directing group. The newly developed strategy relies on the use of proximal halide or sulfamate substituents to perturb pyridyne distortion, which in turn governs regioselectivities in nucleophilic addition and cycloaddition reactions. Following trapping of in situ-generated pyridynes, the neighboring directing groups may be removed or exploited using versatile metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. This methodology now renders 3,4-pyridynes useful synthetic building blocks for the creation of highly decorated derivatives of the medicinally privileged pyridine heterocycle. PMID:23247178

  13. Probing magnetostructural correlations in multiferroic HoA l3(BO3) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, T.; Chen, Z.; Nelson, C. S.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Tyson, T. A.

    2015-09-01

    The system HoA l3(BO3) 4 has recently been found to exhibit a large magnetoelectric effect. To understand the mechanism, macroscopic and atomic level properties of HoA l3(BO3) 4 were explored by temperature and magnetic field dependent heat capacity measurements, pressure and temperature dependent x-ray diffraction measurements, as well as temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The experimental work was complemented by density functional theory calculations. An anomalous change in the structure is found in the temperature range where large magnetoelectric effects occur. No significant structural change or distortion of the Ho O6 polyhedra is seen to occur with magnetic field. However, the magnetic field dependent structural measurements reveal enhanced correlation between neighboring Ho O6 polyhedra. This observed response is seen to saturate near 3 T. A qualitative atomic level description of the mechanism behind the large electric polarization induced by magnetic fields in the general class of RA l3(BO3) 4 systems (R = rare earth) is developed.

  14. The spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies of 3,4-difluoroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose, Etem; Karabacak, Mehmet; Atac, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Spectroscopic and structural investigations of 3,4-difluoroaniline molecule are presented by using experimental (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H and 13C NMR, and UV-Vis) techniques and theoretical (DFT approach) calculations. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline molecule are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-10 cm-1 in the liquid phase, respectively. The NMR chemical shifts (1H and 13C) are recorded in chloroform-d solution. The UV absorption spectra of 3,4-difluoroaniline dissolved in ethanol and water are recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. Experimental results are supported with the following theoretical calculations; the optimized geometry and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra are carried out by DFT (B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H and 13C NMR) are obtained by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital method. Moreover, electronic characteristics, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, density of state diagrams, and molecular electrostatic potential surface are investigated. Nonlinear optical properties and thermodynamic features are also outlined theoretically. An excellent correlation of theoretical and experimental results provides a detailed description of the structural and physicochemical properties of the molecule. Thus, this work leads to a deep understanding of the characteristics of di-substituted aniline derivatives.

  15. Toxicity of sodium chromate and 3,4-dichloroaniline to crustaceans

    SciTech Connect

    van der Meer, C.; Teunissen, C.; Boog, T.F.M.

    1988-02-01

    Small adult and larval crustaceans are important components of a number of food webs. Therefore, it is important on the one hand to determine the sensitivity of these crustaceans to environmental contaminants and on the other hand to select the most sensitive species as test organisms to help establish the permissible contamination. In brackish water adults as well as larvae of the species Palaemonetes pugio and Uca pugilator have been most frequently investigated. These species can also be studied in sea water. The marine species Carcinus maenas, Crangon septemspinosa and Homarus americanus have also been studied relatively intensively. The present paper describes the toxicity, at different salinities, of Na/sub 2/, CrO/sub 4/, (chromate) and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) to a number of relatively small adult and larval crustaceans. Chromate was chosen as a model of a heavy metal since, although its toxicity may be relatively low, it may under certain circumstance have considerable environmental effects. Moreover, bichromate has been recommended as a standard in Daphnia tests. 3,4-dichloroaniline was chosen as a model of a chlorinated hydrocarbon, the handling of which does not need special precautions.

  16. Substituent effect on photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Tian, Taiji; Zhao, Chengxiao; Bai, Binglian; Li, Min; Wang, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenyl substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized; the effect of substituent on the photophysical properties and molecular electronic structures was fully studied by the combination of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. Compared to parent compound without any substituent (BOXD), fluoro-substituent shows little effect on the absorption and emission spectra, whilst a little larger spectral red-shift could be observed for methoxy-, nitro-substituted derivatives and thienyl-substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TBOXD). These spectral changes can be well explained by theoretically calculated HOMO and LUMO energy level changes. All these molecules show high fluorescence quantum yield except for nitro-substituted derivative in dilute solutions. The quantum yield of BOXD changes with the concentration and exhibits a high value at the concentrated solution. This work revealed the influence of substituent on the photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadizaole derivatives in dilute solutions and provided guidance for designing molecules with potential application.

  17. Improvement of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines pharmacokinetic properties: nanosystem approaches for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vignaroli, Giulia; Calandro, Pierpaolo; Zamperini, Claudio; Coniglio, Federica; Iovenitti, Giulia; Tavanti, Matteo; Colecchia, David; Dreassi, Elena; Valoti, Massimo; Schenone, Silvia; Chiariello, Mario; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines are a class of compounds with a good activity against several cancer cell lines. Despite the promising anticancer activity, these molecules showed a poor aqueous solubility. This issue could threat the future development of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines as clinical drug candidates. With the aim of improving their solubility profile and consequently their pharmacokinetic properties, we have chosen four compounds (1–4) on the base of their anti-neuroblastoma activity and we have developed albumin nanoparticles and liposomes for the selected candidates. Albumin nanoparticles and liposomes were prepared and characterized regarding size and ζ-potential distribution, polidispersity index, entrapment efficiency and activity against SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. The most promising nanosystem, namely LP-2, was chosen to perform further studies: confocal microscopy, stability and drug release in physiological conditions, and biodistribution. Altogether, the obtained data strongly indicate that the encapsulation of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in liposomes represent an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility. PMID:26898318

  18. Expression and characterization of recombinant human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn) cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Morais, V A; Serpa, J; Palma, A S; Costa, T; Maranga, L; Costa, J

    2001-01-01

    The human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III (Fuc-TIII) participates in the synthesis of Lewis determinants. The enzyme from human sources is scarce and heterogeneous. In this paper we describe the expression of a secreted form of Fuc-TIII (SFT3) in two insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn), using the baculovirus expression system. The Sf9 cells secreted approx. 0.4 unit/l (1 mg/l) of the enzyme. The Tn cells secreted approx. 3-fold this amount. A large proportion of active protein was accumulated in the two cell lines (50 and 75% respectively for Sf9 and Tn cells, on the fourth day after infection) indicating a possible limitation not only of the folding machinery, but also a saturation of the secretory pathway. SFT3 was purified by cation-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography. The enzyme from the Tn cell line had a lower global charge, possibly due to post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or sulphation. The two glycosylation sites from SFT3 were occupied. SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells was completely deglycosylated by peptide-N-glycanase F, whereas 50% of SFT3 secreted by Tn cells was resistant to deglycosylation by this enzyme. The apparent kinetic parameters determined with the type I acceptor were k(cat)=0.4 s(-1) and K(m)=0.87 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Tn cells, and k(cat)=0.09 s(-1) and K(m)=0.76 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells, indicating that the enzymes had substrate affinities within the same order of magnitude as their mammalian counterpart. Furthermore, SFT3 secreted by either cell type showed a clear preference for type 1 carbohydrate acceptors, similarly to human Fuc-TIII. PMID:11171070

  19. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fonsart, Julien; Menet, Marie-Claude; Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier

    2009-12-15

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC{sub last} and C{sub max} were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC{sub last} and t{sub 1/2} were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC{sub last} of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  20. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  1. An algorithm for nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical finite-nuclear-mass variational calculations of nitrogen atom in L = 0, M = 0 states using all-electrons explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-05-07

    An algorithm for quantum-mechanical nonrelativistic variational calculations of L = 0 and M = 0 states of atoms with an arbitrary number of s electrons and with three p electrons have been implemented and tested in the calculations of the ground {sup 4}S state of the nitrogen atom. The spatial part of the wave function is expanded in terms of all-electrons explicitly correlated Gaussian functions with the appropriate pre-exponential Cartesian angular factors for states with the L = 0 and M = 0 symmetry. The algorithm includes formulas for calculating the Hamiltonian and overlap matrix elements, as well as formulas for calculating the analytic energy gradient determined with respect to the Gaussian exponential parameters. The gradient is used in the variational optimization of these parameters. The Hamiltonian used in the approach is obtained by rigorously separating the center-of-mass motion from the laboratory-frame all-particle Hamiltonian, and thus it explicitly depends on the finite mass of the nucleus. With that, the mass effect on the total ground-state energy is determined.

  2. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; Lill, Daniel T. de

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  3. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains. PMID:27308017

  4. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its pharmacodynamic consequences in the rat.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Rothman, Richard B; Marrone, Gina F; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA's safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA's pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours, with simultaneous serotonin (5-HT) behavioral syndrome and core temperature monitoring. Plasma specimens were analyzed for MDMA and the metabolites (±)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), (±)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), and (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After 2.5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA Cmax was 164 ± 47.1 ng/ml, HHMA and HMMA were major metabolites, and <20% of MDMA was metabolized to MDA. After 5- and 10-mg/kg doses, MDMA areas under the curve (AUCs) were 3- and 10-fold greater than those after 2.5 mg/kg; HHMA and HMMA AUC values were relatively constant across doses; and MDA AUC values were greater than dose-proportional. Our data provide decisive in vivo evidence that MDMA and MDA display nonlinear accumulation via metabolic autoinhibition in the rat. Importantly, 5-HT syndrome severity correlated with MDMA concentrations (r = 0.8083; P < 0.0001) and core temperature correlated with MDA concentrations (r = 0.7595; P < 0.0001), suggesting that MDMA's behavioral and hyperthermic effects may involve distinct mechanisms. Given key similarities between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans, data from rats can be useful when provided at clinically relevant doses.

  5. Chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as highly selective FAAH inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayendra Z; Parkkari, Teija; Laitinen, Tuomo; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Saario, Susanna M; Savinainen, Juha R; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Cipriano, Mariateresa; Leppänen, Jukka; Koshevoy, Igor O; Poso, Antti; Fowler, Christopher J; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Nevalainen, Tapio

    2013-11-14

    In the present study, identification of chiral 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ones as potent and selective FAAH inhibitors has been described. The separated enantiomers showed clear differences in the potency and selectivity toward both FAAH and MAGL. Additionally, the importance of the chirality on the inhibitory activity and selectivity was proven by the simplification approach by removing a methyl group at the 3-position of the 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one ring. The most potent compound of the series, the S-enantiomer of 3-(1-(4-isobutylphenyl)ethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (JZP-327A, 51), inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM), whereas its corresponding R-enantiomer 52 showed only moderate inhibition toward hrFAAH (IC50 = 0.24 μM). In contrast to hrFAAH, R-enantiomer 52 was more potent in inhibiting the activity of hrMAGL compared to S-enantiomer 51 (IC50 = 4.0 μM and 16% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively). The FAAH selectivity of the compound 51 over the supposed main off-targets, MAGL and COX, was found to be >900-fold. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) indicated high selectivity over other serine hydrolases. Finally, the selected S-enantiomers 51, 53, and 55 were shown to be tight binding, slowly reversible inhibitors of the hrFAAH.

  6. Disturbed nights and 3-4 month old infants: the effects of feeding and thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Wailoo, M P; Petersen, S A; Whitaker, H

    1990-05-01

    Parents completed a prospective diary of a night's sleep for 87, 3-4 month old infants at home whose body temperatures were continuously recorded. We found that about half of the babies disturbed their parents in the night. Breast fed babies were more likely to wake parents in the middle of the night. The babies who disturbed their parents in the middle of the night were significantly more heavily wrapped in significantly warmer rooms. We suggest that discomfort from efforts at active thermoregulation in warm environments may lead some babies to disturb their parents at 'unsocial hours'.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase inhibition by 1-aroyl-3-(4-aminosulfonylphenyl)thioureas.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Al-Rashida, Mariya; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Mumtaz, Amara; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-12-01

    A series of 1-aroyl-3-(4-aminosulfonylphenyl)thioureas containing free sulfonamide group has been evaluated for their ability to inhibit bovine carbonic anhydrase II (bCA, EC 4.2.1.1). All compounds in the series were able to inhibit bCA II, the most active inhibitor had IC50 value of 0.26 ± 0.01 µM. Molecular docking studies and detailed structure-activity relationship studies were carried out. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) properties, as a predictor of oral absorption, were computationally calculated and compared with the clinically used drug acetazolamide. PMID:24666305

  8. Deformation and thermal histories of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3. 4) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The results of optical and TEM studies of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrite are presented. Results were obtained, using a microprobe, from quantitative microchemical analyses for Mg, Fe, Si, and Ca for the chondrule olivine and pyroxene, showing that chondrules in the Chainpur chondrite experienced varied degrees of annealing and deformation. It is suggested that Chainpur may be an agglomerate of a breccia that experienced little overall deformation or heating during and after the final accumulation and compaction of its constituents. 75 refs.

  9. Structure and lattice dynamics of PrFe3(BO3)4: Ab initio calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, V. A.; Nikiforov, A. E.; Petrov, V. P.

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structure and phonon spectrum of PrFe3(BO3)4 are ab initio calculated in the context of the density functional theory. The ion coordinates in the unit cell of a crystal and the lattice parameters are evaluated from the calculations. The types and frequencies of the fundamental vibrations, as well as the line intensities of the IR spectrum, are determined. The elastic constants of the crystal are calculated. A "seed" frequency of the vibration strongly interacting with the electron excitation on the praseodymium ion is obtained for low-frequency A 2 mode. The calculated results are in agreement with the known experimental data.

  10. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  11. Synthesis and biological activities of pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Laurent; Saugues, Emmanuelle; Alves, Georges; Debiton, Eric; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2010-11-01

    The synthesis of new pyrazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline derivatives, as well as their Pim kinases (Pim-1, Pim-2, Pim-3) inhibitory potencies and in vitro antiproliferative activities toward a human fibroblast primary culture and three human solid cancer cell lines (PA1, PC3 and DU145) are described. The results obtained in this preliminary structure-activity relationship study have pointed out that most of the compounds in this series exhibited interesting in vitro Pim-3 kinase inhibitory potencies. Moreover, some of the tested compounds have demonstrated favorable antiproliferative potencies.

  12. The Electrochemical Degradation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Films Electrodeposited from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Láng, Gyözö G.; Ujvári, Mária; Vesztergom, Soma; Kondratiev, Veniamin; Gubicza, Jenö; Szekeres, Krisztina J.

    2016-09-01

    In this review, results of recent studies on the electrochemical stability and degradation properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films are summarized, with particular emphasis on the structural changes induced by overoxidation and electrochemical degradation. The most important electrodeposition methods for the preparation of PEDOT films in surfactant free aqueous media have also been summarized, and several experimental techniques suitable for monitoring the degradation process have been discussed. Morphological changes in PEDOT films during overoxidation have been analyzed. Overoxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature have been surveyed.

  13. Analysis of spectrophotometric observations of Venus in the 3-4 micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martonchik, J. V.; Beer, R.

    1975-01-01

    Spectrophotometric data of Venus in the 3-4 micron region are analyzed in the context of current ideas concerning cloud properties. The results show that a homogeneous cloud model, using a unimodal particle size distribution compatible with the results of previous polarization studies, cannot satisfactorily explain the infrared observations. Assuming a composition of 75% H2SO4, agreement is possible if an upper layer of smaller particles is added to the homogeneous cloud. This inhomogeneous cloud structure, however, is not in agreement with the polarization results. Other models, involving bimodal particle size distributions, were also unsuccessful in explaining both sets of observations in a consistent manner.

  14. Heat increases 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration and social effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Jennifer L; Shahnawaz, Zeeshan; Thompson, Murray R; Wong, Suzanna; Morley, Kirsten C; Hunt, Glenn E; McGregor, Iain S

    2003-12-15

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") is a drug frequently used under hot conditions in nightclubs. In rats tested in the social interaction paradigm, greater prosocial effects of MDMA (5.0 mg/kg) were seen at a hot temperature (30 degrees C) relative to normal laboratory temperature (21 degrees C). In the intravenous drug self-administration paradigm, hot temperature (30 degrees C) increased the number of MDMA infusions (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/infusion) self-administered by rats. Hot temperatures thus appear to affect both the social and reinforcing effects of MDMA. PMID:14660042

  15. Kinetics of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats and humans after dermal application

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Ute M.D.; Voelkel, Wolfgang; Heusener, Alexander; Colnot, Thomas; Broschard, Thomas H.; Landenberg, Friedrich von; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    The toxicokinetics of 4-MBC after dermal administration were investigated in human subjects and in rats. Humans (3 male and 3 female subjects) were exposed to 4-MBC by topical application of a commercial sunscreen formulation containing 4% 4-MBC (w/w), covering 90% of the body surface and resulting in a mean dermal 4-MBC dose of 22 mg/kg bw. In rats, dermal 4-MBC doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg bw were applied in a formulation using an occlusive patch for 24 h. Concentrations of 4-MBC and its metabolites were monitored over 96 h in plasma (rats and humans) and urine (humans). In human subjects, plasma levels of 4-MBC peaked at 200 pmol/ml in males and 100 pmol/ml in females 6 h after application and then decreased to reach the limit of detection after 24 h (females), respectively, 36 h (males). After dermal application of 4-MBC, peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 50-80 pmol/ml at 12 h and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 100-200 pmol/ml at 24 h. In male and female rats, peak plasma levels of 4-MBC were 200 (dose of 400 mg/kg bw) and 1 200 pmol/ml (dose of 2000 mg/kg bw). These levels remained constant for up to 24-48 h after dermal application. Peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 18,000 pmol/ml (males) and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 55,000 pmol/ml (females) between 48 and 72 h after application of the high dose of 4-MBC. In human subjects, only a small percentage of the dermally applied dose of 4-MBC was recovered in the form of metabolites in urine, partly as glucuronides. The obtained results suggest a more intensive biotransformation of 4-MBC in rats as compared to humans after dermal application and a poor absorption of 4-MBC through human skin.

  16. Na + concentration dependence of intermolecular distance in 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    We have discussed the Na + concentration dependence of the intermolecular distance of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) dimers in aqueous solution of NaOH. We have particularly focused on the S10-S00 transition of the PTCDA dimers which is sensitive to the intermolecular distance and we have found that the S10 state is split for the higher lying sublevel and the lower lying sublevel with the increase of the Na + concentrations. From the energy shift of the lower lying sublevel, we have estimated the intermolecular distance of the PTCDA dimer, that changes from 7.5 to 4.9 Å by the Na + concentration.

  17. [Substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase from Deinococcus radiodurans].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zongtao; Tian, Bing; Shen, Shaochuan; Hu, Yuejin

    2010-10-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (DR2250) from Deinococcus radiodurans, we amplified the dr2250 gene by using PCR methods. The PCR products were digested by Hind III-BamH I and ligated into the vector pUC19, yielding recombinant vector pUC-CRTD. We analyzed the carotenoids of E. coli transformants containing pACCRT-EBI(Eu) and (or) pRK-CRTC and (or) pUC-CRTD. Our results demonstrated that DR2250 had substrate specificity on the carotenoids with hydroxyl group at C1 (1').

  18. Highly soluble 3,4-(dimethoxyphenylthio) substituted phthalocyanines: synthesis, photophysical and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Cansu; Erdoğmuş, Ali; Durmuş, Mahmut; Uğur, Ahmet Lütfi; Kılıçarslan, Fatma Aytan; Erden, Ibrahim

    2012-02-01

    The synthesis of a new 3,4-(dimethoxyphenylthio) substituted phthalonitrile (1) and its soluble metal free (2), zinc (II) (3), oxo-titanium (IV) (4) and nickel (II) (5) phthalocyanine derivatives are reported for the first time. The new compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopies and mass spectra. General trends are described for fluorescence, photodegradation and singlet oxygen quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes of oxo-titanium (IV) and zinc (II) phthalocyanine compounds in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The effects of the metal ion on the photophysical and photochemical parameters for these phthalocyanines (3 and 4) are also reported. PMID:22112573

  19. Deformation and thermal histories of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzicka, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The results of optical and TEM studies of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrite are presented. Results were obtained, using a microprobe, from quantitative microchemical analyses for Mg, Fe, Si, and Ca for the chondrule olivine and pyroxene, showing that chondrules in the Chainpur chondrite experienced varied degrees of annealing and deformation. It is suggested that Chainpur may be an agglomerate of a breccia that experienced little overall deformation or heating during and after the final accumulation and compaction of its constituents.

  20. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  1. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Influence of SSTs over Nino-3.4 Region on the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. S.; Gleixner, S.; K, M.

    2014-12-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) is sensitive to SST variations in the Pacific Ocean. In this study, the correlation coefficients between the SST in the Nino-3.4 region of season (June-August) and ISMR are evaluated using the datasets ERSST v3b and ISMR data (www.tropmet.res.in). An analysis of the mean monthly data of 64 years (1955-2013) reveals that the relationship between the SST in the Nino-3.4 region in June-August and the ISMR is changed after 1983. Seven drought years were reported between 1955 and 1983 and the warmest SST is in the equatorial eastern Pacific. After 1983, the warmest SST is shifted towards the central Pacific region during drought years. The coldest region in the central Pacific during wet years is shifted towards the eastern Pacific after 1983. The position of the sensitive area in the Pacific Ocean thus influences the drought/wet which is found to be changed in the recent epoch.

  3. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  4. Highly Aligned Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Nano- and Microscale Fibers and Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinghang; Cho, Whirang; Martin, David C.; Feng, Zhang-Qi; Leach, Michelle K.; Franz, Eric W.; Naim, Youssef I.; Gu, Zhong-Ze; Corey, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a facile method for the fabrication of aligned Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) fibers and tubes based on electrospinning and oxidative chemical polymerization. Discrete PEDOT nano- and microfibers and nano- and microtubes are difficult to fabricate quickly and reproducibly. We employed poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymers that were loaded with polymerizable 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer to create aligned nanofiber assemblies using a rotating glass mandrel during electrospinning. The EDOT monomer/PLGA polymer blends were then polymerized by exposure to an oxidative catalyst (FeCl3). PEDOT was polymerized by continuously dripping a FeCl3 solution onto the glass rod during electrospinning. The resulting PEDOT fibers were conductive, aligned and discrete. Fiber bundles could be easily produced in lengths of several centimeters. The PEDOT sheath/PLGA core fibers were immersed in chloroform to remove the PLGA and any residual EDOT resulting in hollow PEDOT tubes. This approach made it possible to easily generate large areas of aligned PEDOT fibers/tubes. The structure and properties of the aligned assemblies were measured using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and DC conductivity measurements. We also demonstrated that the aligned PEDOT sheath/PLGA core fiber assemblies could be used in supporting and directing the extension of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro. PMID:25678719

  5. Single-crystal poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowires with ultrahigh conductivity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Boram; Park, Kyung S; Baek, Jangmi; Oh, Hyun S; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Sung, Myung M

    2014-06-11

    We developed single-crystal poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopene) (PEDOT) nanowires with ultrahigh conductivity using liquid-bridge-mediated nanotransfer printing with vapor phase polymerization. The single-crystal PEDOT nanowires are formed from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) monomers that are self-assembled and crystallized during vapor phase polymerization process within nanoscale channels of a mold having FeCl3 catalysts. These PEDOT nanowires, aligned according to the pattern in the mold, are then directly transferred to specific positions on a substrate to generate a nanowire array by a direct printing process. The PEDOT nanowires have closely packed single-crystalline structures with orthorhombic lattice units. The conductivity of the single-crystal PEDOT nanowires is an average of 7619 S/cm with the highest up to 8797 S/cm which remarkably exceeds literature values of PEDOT nanostructures/thin films. Such distinct conductivity enhancement of single-crystal PEDOT nanowires can be attributed to improved carrier mobility in PEDOT nanowires. To demonstrate usefulness of single-crystal PEDOT nanowires, we fabricated an organic nanowire field-effect transistor array contacting the ultrahigh conductive PEDOT nanowires as metal electrodes.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Chirico, R.D.

    1991-04-01

    Removal of carbazole and its derivatives from heavy petroleum has proved to be particularly difficult using present technology. Studies have shown carbazole and its alkyl-homologs are the dominant nitrogen-containing components in clarified slurry oils, thereby indicating their low reactivity and/or formation during cat-cracking processes. The results reported here will point the way to the development of new methods of nitrogen removal from carbazole and its derivatives. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 9-methylcarbazole and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole. For studies on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-methylcarbazole experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Adiabatic heat-capacity and combustion calorimetric studies were reported previously for 9-methylcarbazole. Vapor pressures by comparative ebulliometry and inclined-piston gauge manometry, and heat-capacities for the liquid phase by d.s.c. are reported here. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and near 700 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathway of the initial hydrogenation step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} hydrodenitrogenation network. 52 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. The Discriminative Properties of N-ETHYL-3,4-METHYLENE Dioxyamphetamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boja, John William

    The goal of this dissertation was to gain insight into the discriminative effects of N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE). In order to examine the possibility that MDE acts via both serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, MDE was administered to three groups of rats trained to discriminate either (1) the serotonergic agent norfenfluramine from vehicle, (2) norfenfluramine from the dopaminergic agent amphetamine or (3) amphetamine from vehicle. The results of these discrimination studies are evidence that MDE expresses serotonergic and dopaminergic properties in a temporal pattern in which MDE initially activates the serotonergic system, followed by dopaminergic system activation. To examine additional discriminative effects of MDE, a separate group of rats was trained to discriminate 2.0 mg/kg MDE from vehicle. Various drugs were administrated to these animals to determine their similarity or dissimilarity to MDE. The results of this study are additional evidence as to a dual serotonergic/dopaminergic mediation for MDE. In addition, the related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine produced similar effects but this drug was more potent and possessed a longer duration of action than MDE. Subsequently, administration of the known serotonergic synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) to the MDE trained rats reduced, but did not totally eliminate, MDE discrimination. This indicates that either reduced serotonin levels are still sufficient for MDE discrimination or that MDE discrimination is not solely mediated by serotonin. These experiments evidence a serotonergic/dopaminergic discriminative stimulus for MDE.

  8. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology. PMID:27470637

  9. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    PubMed

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.

  10. Effective separation of dopamine from bananas on 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Luliński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2012-04-01

    A 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted polymer (MIP(pt) ) was prepared via the precipitation polymerization together with a nonimprinted polymer (NIP). The morphology of particles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and the specific surface areas were estimated by methylene blue adsorption (60.5 ± 3.5 and 36.9 ± 1.2 m(2)/g for MIP(pt) and NIP, respectively). The binding experiments were performed to determine the binding capacity of MIP(pt)/NIP particles toward dopamine. Next, the effects of solvents on loading, washing, and eluting steps were examined on solid-phase extraction (SPE). Methanol-water 85:15 v/v (loading step), methanol (washing step), and 0.04 M aqueous ammonium acetate-methanol 30:70 v/v (eluting step) were selected as the most effective systems. Described SPE protocol was successfully applied for separation of dopamine on 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine imprinted particles. Finally, the molecularly imprinted polymer was used for determination of dopamine in spiked banana extract. The total recovery of dopamine from MIP(pt) was equal to 88.5 ± 4.6%, but from NIP was only 12.8 ± 2.3%. The developed material and method were demonstrated to be applicable for the separation of dopamine from bananas. The commercial sorbent C18 was not suitable to such application.

  11. Highly active, regioselective, and enantioselective hydroformylation with Rh catalysts ligated by Bis-3,4-diazaphospholanes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas P; Landis, Clark R; Freed, Susan L; Klosin, Jerzy; Abboud, Khalil A

    2005-04-13

    Azines made by the reaction of hydrazine with ortho-formylbenzoic acid react with 1,2-diphosphinobenzene and either succinyl chloride or phthaloyl chloride in ca. 30% yield to give rac-bis-3,4-diazaphospholanes bearing benzoic acid groups in the 2 and 5 positions. Condensation of the benzoic acid functionalities with enantiomerically pure amines affords diastereomeric benzoamides which can be separated by flash chromatography. Application of the resolved bis-3,4-diazaphosholanes to Rh-catalyzed enantioselective hydroformylation of styrene, allyl cyanide, and vinyl acetate under mild pressures (20-500 psig of CO/H2) and temperatures (40-120 degrees C) reveals high activities and selectivities for all three substrates. At 60 degrees C and 500 psig syn gas, the best ligand provides outstanding regio- and enantioselectivities (styrene, 89% ee, b:l = 30:1; allyl cyanide, 87% ee, b:l = 4.8:1; vinyl acetate, 95% ee, b:l = 40:1) while achieving turnover frequencies of ca. 3000 h-1. PMID:15810837

  12. Beyond paraquats: dialkyl 3,3'- and 3,4'-bipyridinium amphiphiles as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ator, Laura E; Jennings, Megan C; McGettigan, Amanda R; Paul, Jared J; Wuest, William M; Minbiole, Kevin P C

    2014-08-15

    Dialkyl 4,4'-bipyridinium compounds, known as 'paraquats' (PQs), have a long history of use as herbicides, as redox indicators, and more recently as potent antibacterial agents. However, due to their ability to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, PQs are also known to be toxic. We proposed that altering the electrochemical properties of PQ, specifically by preparing isomeric bipyridinium structures with 3,3'- and 3,4'-substitution of the nitrogen heteroatoms on the biaryl core, would maintain antibacterial activity, yet decrease toxicity. We have thus prepared a series of 17 amphiphiles, dubbed 'metaquat' (MQ) and 'parametaquat' (PMQ), respectively, and investigated their antibacterial and electrochemical properties. Optimal inhibition of bacterial growth was observed in symmetric, biscationic structures; minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values measured as low as 0.5 μM against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for the compound PMQ-11,11. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated the redox properties of the dialkyl 3,3'- and 3,4'-bipyridinium amphiphiles to be distinct from those of the 4,4'-bipyridinium isomer. Thus MQ and PMQ amphiphiles maintain the strong antibacterial activity of the PQ isomers, but show promise for reduced ROS toxicity. PMID:25082127

  13. Improving the Thermoelectric Properties of Polyaniline by Introducing Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Yang; Liu, Cheng Yan; Miao, Lei; Gao, Jie; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    By using the parent monomers, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and aniline, a series of nanocomposites consisting of different mass ratios of polyaniline (PANI) to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been successfully prepared in hydrochloric acid solution through oxidative polymerization, then redoped with p-toluenesulfonic acid ( p-TSA). Firstly, PEDOT nanoparticles were fabricated via chemical oxidation polymerization in reverse (water-in-oil) microemulsions. Then, PANI-doped PEDOT nanoparticles were formed by oxidative polymerization of aniline to form PANI/PEDOT nanofibers. The resulting nanostructured components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a series of spectroscopic methods. The presence of PEDOT increased the room-temperature electrical conductivity of the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison with the parent PANI. Moreover, the PANI/PEDOT nanocomposites showed better thermoelectric properties than PANI. Different concentrations of p-TSA also affected the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the nanocomposites. With increasing temperature, both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient increased.

  14. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5225 - Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl) (specific name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5225 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetra- hy-dro(1-phenylethyl... substance naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro(1-phenylethyl) (PMN P-85-1331) is subject to reporting under...

  19. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Desulfurative Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate Resin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Gong, Young-Dae

    2016-08-01

    A 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was constructed by solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step of this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazide resin using p-TsCl as the desulfurative agent, followed by the functionalization of the resin by alkylation, acylation, alkylation/acylation, and Suzuki coupling reactions. Both the alkylation and acylation reactions chemoselectively occurred at the 2-amide position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin and the 5-amine position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, these functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazole resins were treated with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane, affording diverse 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs in high yields and purities. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs show a different distribution of physicochemical and biological properties compared with our previously constructed 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries in a range of orally available drug properties. PMID:27362292

  20. Nanostructured Gd 0.8Sr 0.2Fe 0.8M 0.2O 3 (M=Cr, Ga) materials for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz de Larramendi, I.; Pinedo, R.; Ortiz-Vitoriano, N.; Ruiz de Larramendi, J. I.; Arriortua, M. I.; Rojo, T.

    Polycrystalline samples of Gd0.8Sr0.2Fe0.8M0.2O3 (M=Cr, Ga) are prepared by combustion route and pore wetting technique in order to compare the influence of the morphology in the performance of two cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. When polycarbonate membranes are used as templates nanowire arrays with a diameter of 50-70 nm are obtained. Comparing the results obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, it is clearly observed that the cathodic resistance considerably decreases when optimized synthesis parameters are used, obtaining a better performance for the Gd0.8Sr0.2Fe0.8Ga0.2O3 nanowires with an area specific resistance (ASR) value at 850 ∘C of 0.195 Ω cm2.

  1. The Feasibility of Predicting Nino 3.4 Index Using a Sparse Approximation Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Li, T.; Gu, Y.; Zhang, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is one of the principle factors that have significant influence on global climate variability. Due to large mass and great thermal capacity of the oceans, oceanic conditions change relatively slowly and dominant patterns are thus easy to detect. Most of the current research on SSTA make use of PCA methods like EOF or SVD. Though such methods are effective in reducing dimensions, it is always hard to give a physical interpretation of the results and difficult to distinguish the minor eigenvectors from noises. Instead of finding patterns, we put forward a framework for the direct prediction of SSTAs, using a sparse approximation method, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), to reduce the noises in global SST observation. Global SSTA time series in 5°×5° resolution were used to fit each target SSTA vector and the lasso method was utilized to avoid over-fitting. Taking the Nino 3.4 Index as an example, the predictability of the lasso model was studied and the results showed a relatively satisfying prediction skill in terms of correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error compared with the results obtained from LDEO 5. Moreover, by taking other climate variables into consideration, we discovered a stable relation between the Nino 3.4 Index and the sea-ice extent anomaly in South Pole at a lead time of around 2 years. In addition, the bootstrapping method was used to resample the coefficients in the sparse regression model so that we could study their statistical property. 14 regressors were reserved suggesting 10 potential indices which have relatively strong relations with the Nino 3.4 Index. Some of the potential indices corresponded well to known climate indices while the rest indicated an undiscovered index in tropical oceans of eastern South America. In conclusion, the lasso method approved its feasibility in climate prediction at a relatively low computation cost, and

  2. The pyrrolidine alkaloid, 2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine, inhibits glycoprotein processing.

    PubMed

    Elbein, A D; Mitchell, M; Sanford, B A; Fellows, L E; Evans, S V

    1984-10-25

    2,5-Dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DMDP) is a pyrrolidine alkaloid that was isolated from the plant, Lonchocarpus sericeus. In the present study, DMDP was tested as an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing. MDCK cells were infected with influenza virus and the virus was raised in the presence of various amounts of DMDP. The glycoproteins were labeled by the addition of [2-3H]mannose or [1-3H]galactose to the medium. The virus was isolated by differential centrifugation and treated with Pronase to obtain glycopeptides. These glycopeptides were isolated by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-4, then digested with endoglucosaminidase H (Endo H) and rechromatographed on the Bio-Gel P-4 column. In the control virus, more than 70% of the glycopeptides were resistant to Endo H and were previously characterized as complex types of oligosaccharides. The remaining 20-25% are sensitive to Endo H and are of the high-mannose type. However, in the presence of DMDP (250 micrograms/ml), more than 80% of the glycopeptides are susceptible to digestion by Endo H. The oligosaccharide released by this treatment sized like a hexose11-12GlcNAc on a calibrated column of Bio-Gel P-4, and was only slightly susceptible to alpha-mannosidase treatment. This oligosaccharide was also labeled in the glucose moieties by growing the virus in [1-3H]galactose in the presence of DMDP. Following isolation, the oligosaccharide was subjected to complete methylation. Acid hydrolysis of the methylated oligosaccharide gave three methylated glucose derivatives, corresponding to 2,3,4,6-tetramethylglucose, 3,4,6-trimethylglucose, and 2,4,6-trimethylglucose in almost equal amounts. These data indicate that the oligosaccharide is a Glc3Man8-9-GlcNAc and that DMDP inhibits glucosidase I. Similar results were obtained with the cellular glycoproteins. DMDP did not inhibit the incorporation of [3H]leucine into protein in MDCK cells, nor did it inhibit virus production as measured by plaque counts or

  3. In situ formation of oxygen vacancy in perovskite Sr(0.95)Ti(0.8)Nb(0.1)M(0.1)O3 (M = Mn, Cr) toward efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Xie, Kui; Wei, Haoshan; Qin, Qingqing; Qi, Wentao; Yang, Liming; Ruan, Cong; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-11-18

    In this work, redox-active Mn or Cr is introduced to the B site of redox stable perovskite Sr(0.95)Ti(0.9)Nb(0.1)O3.00 to create oxygen vacancies in situ after reduction for high-temperature CO2 electrolysis. Combined analysis using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirms the change of the chemical formula from oxidized Sr(0.95)Ti(0.9)Nb(0.1)O3.00 to reduced Sr(0.95)Ti(0.9)Nb(0.1)O2.90 for the bare sample. By contrast, a significant concentration of oxygen vacancy is additionally formed in situ for Mn- or Cr-doped samples by reducing the oxidized Sr(0.95)Ti(0.8)Nb(0.1)M(0.1)O3.00 (M = Mn, Cr) to Sr(0.95)Ti(0.8)Nb(0.1)M0.1O2.85. The ionic conductivities of the Mn- and Cr-doped titanate improve by approximately 2 times higher than bare titanate in an oxidizing atmosphere and 3-6 times higher in a reducing atmosphere at intermediate temperatures. A remarkable chemical accommodation of CO2 molecules is achieved on the surface of the reduced and doped titanate, and the chemical desorption temperature reaches a common carbonate decomposition temperature. The electrical properties of the cathode materials are investigated and correlated with the electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes. Direct CO2 electrolysis at composite cathodes is investigated in solid-oxide electrolyzers. The electrode polarizations and current efficiencies are observed to be significantly improved with the Mn- or Cr-doped titanate cathodes.

  4. A two-stage enzymatic synthesis of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Fang, Bai-Shan; Chou, Kuang-Ying; Chen, Chien-Chung; Gu, Yesong

    2014-01-10

    The conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), possesses attractive properties that show the potential applications in many fields. In this study, we have proposed a two-stage enzymatic synthesis of conductive PEDOT. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) acts as the catalyst to promote the generation of EDOT free radicals followed by the polymerization under the room temperature in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), then a mild heating process is employed for further chain extension. The final PEDOT:PSS is purified with n-butanol and subjected to various characterizations, which indicate that PEDOT with enzymatic approach exhibits a similar molecular structure to that with chemical method. However, the enzymatically synthesized PEDOT:PSS demonstrates advantages, such as stable integration of PEDOT with PSS and better electrochemical properties, suggesting its future prospective applications. PMID:24267567

  5. The ecstasy and the agony; compression studies of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

    PubMed

    Connor, Lauren E; Delori, Amit; Hutchison, Ian B; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Oswald, Iain D H

    2015-02-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a Class A substance that is usually found in a tableted form. It is only observed in one orthorhombic polymorph under ambient conditions. It shows slight positional disorder around the methlyenedioxy ring which persists during compression up to 6.66 GPa. The crystal quality deteriorates above 6.66 GPa where the hydrostatic limit of the pressure-transmitting medium is exceeded. The structure undergoes anisotropic compression with the a-axis compressing the greatest (12% cf. 4 and 10% for the b- and c-axes, respectively). This is due to the pattern of the hydrogen bonding which acts like a spring and allows the compression along this direction.

  6. Azole. 47. Uber 3-thiomorpholino- und 3-(4-methylpiperazino)-5-nitroindazole.

    PubMed

    Gzella, A; Wrzeciono, U

    2001-10-01

    The structures of 5-nitro-3-thiomorpholino-1H-indazole, C(11)H(12)N(4)O(2)S, (IIa), and 3-(4-methylpiperazino)-5-nitro-1H-indazole-methanol-water (2/1/1), 2C(12)H(15)N(5)O(2).CH(3)OH.H(2)O, (IIIa), are described. In the crystal lattice of (IIa), the molecules are linked into dimers by N-H...N hydrogen bonds. The asymmetric unit of (IIIa) contains two independent molecules of the indazole moiety, one molecule of methanol and one of water. The three components of (IIIa) are linked by hydrogen bonds to form double chains running along the x axis. pi-Stacking involving the indazole moieties occurs in both compounds. PMID:11600780

  7. Crystal structure of Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas G.; Kraus, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Di-μ-thio­cyanato-bis­[diamminesilver(I)], [Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4], was synthesized by the reaction of AgSCN with anhydrous liquid ammonia. In the binuclear mol­ecule, the AgI atom is coordinated by two ammine ligands and the S atom of one thio­cyanate ligand. Two of these [Ag(SCN)(NH3)2] units are bridged by the S atoms of the thio­cyanate anions at longer distances, leading to a dimer with point group symmetry C 2. The distance between the AgI atoms in the dimer is at 3.0927 (6) Å within the range of argentophilic inter­actions. The crystal structure displays N—H⋯N and N—H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter­actions that build up a three-dimensional network. PMID:27555922

  8. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Potential, and Computational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kajal, Anu; Saini, Vipin; Prasad, Deo Nanadan

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and biological assessment of 1,3,4-oxadiazole substituted 24 derivatives as novel, potential antibacterial agents. The structures of the newly synthesized derivatives were established by the combined practice of UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. Further these synthesized derivatives were subjected to antibacterial activity against all the selected microbial strains in comparison with amoxicillin and cefixime. The antibacterial activity of synthesized derivatives was correlated with their physicochemical and structural properties by QSAR analysis using computer assisted multiple regression analysis and four sound predictive models were generated with good R2, R adj 2, and Fischer statistic. The derivatives with potent antibacterial activity were subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the active derivatives and amino acid residues existing in the active site of peptide deformylase to assess their antibacterial potential as peptide deformylase inhibitor. PMID:25147788

  9. Anisotropic laser properties of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lisha; Xu, Honghao; Pan, Zhongben; Han, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Liu, Junhai; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-08-01

    A study is carried out experimentally on the anisotropy in the laser action of Yb:Ca3La2(BO3)4 disordered crystal, demonstrated with the output coupling changed over a wide range from 0.5% to 40%. Complex polarization state variation with output coupling and evolution with pump power are observed in the laser operation achieved with a- and c-cut crystal samples. A maximum output power of 8.2 W is produced at wavelengths around 1043 nm, with an incident pump power of 24.9 W, the optical-to-optical efficiency being 33%. The polarized absorption and emission cross section spectra are also presented.

  10. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, N; Barrionuevo, M; Ramírez, M J; Del Río, J; Lasheras, B

    1999-11-26

    A single administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 20 mg/kg, i.p.), induced significant hyperthermia in rats and reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content and [3H]paroxetine-labeled 5-HT transporter density in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus by 40-60% 1 week later. MDMA treatment also increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. Repeated administration of the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg, i.p., b.i.d. for 2 consecutive days) 30 min prior to MDMA did not prevent the acute hyperthermia induced by the drug; however, it fully prevented the serotonergic deficits and the changes in the glial response induced by MDMA. These results further support the hypothesis that free radical formation is responsible for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  11. Evidence for PQQ as cofactor in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) decarboxylase of pig kidney.

    PubMed

    Groen, B W; van der Meer, R A; Duine, J A

    1988-09-12

    Pig kidney 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.28) was purified to homogeneity. Treatment of the enzyme with phenylhydrazine (PH) according to a procedure developed for analysis of quinoproteins gave products which were identified as the hydrazone of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and the C(5)-hydrazone of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ). This method failed, however, in quantifying the amounts of cofactor. Direct hydrolysis of the enzyme by refluxing with hexanol and concentrated HCl led to detachment of PQQ from the protein in a quantity of 1 PQQ per enzyme molecule. In view of the reactivity of PQQ towards amines and amino acids, we postulate that it participates as a covalently bound cofactor in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme, in interplay with PLP. Since several other enzymes have been reported to show the atypical behaviour of dopa decarboxylase, it seems that the PLP-containing group of enzymes can be subdivided into pyridoxoproteins and pyridoxo-quinoproteins.

  12. Lattice and magnetic excitations in NdFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Ricardo

    We measured the temperature dependent polarized infrared spectra of multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4. The spectra is mostly temperature independent except for the lowest energy phonon in the hexagonal plane. This phonon splits into two at around 60 K, a temperature sensibly larger than the system Néel temperature of 31 K. X-ray scattering indicates that the lattice parameters have an anomaly at the same temperature that the phonon splits. Using inelastic neutron scattering we looked for magnetic excitations that could explain be coupled to phonons. Momentum and energy dispersion curves around the magnetic Bragg peaks show magnetic excitations at energies comparable to the split phonon. We will discuss these results in terms of magnetic fluctuations and activation of Brillouin zone boundary modes.

  13. Admittance spectroscopy of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) based organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, Mario; Rubino, Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    Admittance spectroscopy of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-polyfluorene-Al organic light emitting diodes is analyzed by varying PEDOT dispersion. Loss-frequency diagrams show one or two peaks. The results have been interpreted by using the Nicollian and Brews admittance model. Single level and multi level interface state distributions are found for each kind of PEDOT. Surface state density is about 1011 eV-1cm-2 for all distributions while the interface time constant varies between 471 μs and 220 ns. Good agreement is found between experimental data and analytical model. The combined effect of PEDOT conductivity and the inferred interface state density is analyzed and discussed.

  14. 3.4 GHz composite thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator for miniaturized atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Artieda, Alvaro; Muralt, Paul

    2011-06-27

    Triple layer SiO{sub 2}/AlN/SiO{sub 2} composite thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (TFBARs) were studied for applications in atomic clocks. The TFBAR's were tuned to 3.4 GHz, corresponding to half the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of rubidium {sup 87}Rb atoms. The quality factor (Q) was equal to 2300 and the temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency f{sub r} amounted to 1.5 ppm/K. A figure of merit Qf{sub r} of {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 13} Hz and a thickness mode coupling factor of 1% were reached. Such figures are ideal for frequency sources in an oscillator circuit that tracks the optical signal in atomic clocks.

  15. 3,4-Methylenedioxy analogues of amphetamine: defining the risks to humans.

    PubMed

    Hegadoren, K M; Baker, G B; Bourin, M

    1999-03-01

    The 3,4-methylenedioxy analogues of amphetamine [MDMA ("Ecstasy", "Adam"), MDA ("Love") and MDE ("Eve")] are recreational drugs that produce feelings of euphoria and energy and a desire to socialize, which go far to explain their current popularity as "rave drugs". In addition to these positive effects, the drugs are relatively inexpensive to purchase and have the reputation of being safe compared to other recreational drugs. Yet there is mounting evidence that these drugs do not deserve this reputation of being safe. This review examines the relevant human and animal literature to delineate the possible risks MDMA, MDA and MDE engender with oral consumption in humans. Following a summary of the behavioral and cognitive effects of MDMA, MDA and MDE, risks will be discussed in terms of toxicity, psychopathology, neurotoxicity, abuse potential and the potential for drug-drug interactions associated with acute and chronic use.

  16. Biodegradation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by Sinorhizobium meliloti NM.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomi; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Dick, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    A rhizobial strain, Sinorhizobium meliloti NM, could use 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloro-biphenyl (PCB 77) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth in mineral salt medium. The degradation efficiency of PCB 77 by strain NM and the bacterial growth increased with a decrease in PCB 77 concentration (5-0.25mgL(-1)). The addition of secondary carbon sources, phenolic acids and one surfactant influenced PCB 77 degradation, rhizobial growth and biofilm formation. The highest degradation efficiency was observed in the presence of caffeic acid. Benzoate and chloride ions were detected as the PCB 77 metabolites. The up-regulation of benzoate metabolism-related gene expression was also observed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This report is the first to demonstrate Sinorhizobium using coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source, indicating the potential wide benefit to the field of rhizobia-assisted bioremediation. PMID:26679048

  17. Synthesis, antimicrobial, anticancer evaluation and QSAR studies of 3/4-bromo benzohydrazide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Mani, Vasudevan; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2015-01-01

    A series 3/4-bromo-N'-(substituted benzylidene/furan-2-ylmethylene/5-oxopentylidene/3- phenylallylidene)benzohydrazides (1-23) was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectral means. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and anticancer potentials. Antimicrobial activity results indicated that compound 12 (pMICam = 1.67 μM/ml) was the most potent antimicrobial agent. The synthesized benzohydrazides were also having good anticancer potential and compound 22 (IC50 = 1.20 μM μM) was found to be the most potent anticancer agent which was more potent than standard drugs, tetrandrine (IC50 = 1.53) and 5- fluorouracil (IC50 = 4.6 μM). QSAR studies indicated that antimicrobial activity of synthesized compounds was best described by electronic parameter, total energy (Te) and topological parameters, valance zero order molecular connectivity index ((0)χ(v)) and Wiener index (W). PMID:25860177

  18. Synthesis and biological activities of novel 1,3,4-thiadiazole-containing pyrazole oxime derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong; Li, Gang; Chen, Jia; Shi, Yujun; Ge, Shushan; Fan, Chongguang; He, Haibing

    2016-08-01

    A new library of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-containing pyrazole oximes was designed and synthesized. Their acaricidal and insecticidal activities were evaluated. Bioassay results indicated that some target compounds exhibited good acaricidal and insecticidal properties. Especially, compound 8m had 80% acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus at the concentration of 50μg/mL, compound 8f displayed 100% insecticidal activities against Aphis craccivora at the concentration of 50μg/mL, compounds 8r and 8w showed 100% insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella at the concentration of 50μg/mL. Furthermore, compounds 8r (LC50=19.61μg/mL) and 8w (LC50=9.78μg/mL) possessed comparable or even better insecticidal activities than the control Pyridalyl (LC50=17.40μg/mL) against P. xylostella. PMID:27324978

  19. New Paradigms for Developing Peta-scalable Codes Workshop - May 3-4, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Levine

    2005-04-30

    On May 3 & 4, 2004, sixty-two of North America's finest computational scientists gathered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to discuss the future of high-performance computing. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the Hewlett-Packard Corporation, New Methods for Developing Peta-scalable Codes introduced the tools and techniques that will be required to efficiently exploit the next generation of supercomputers. This workshop provided an opportunity for computational scientists to consider parallel programming methods other than the currently prevalent one in which they explicitly and directly manage all parallelism via MPI. Specifically, the question is how best to program the upcoming generation of computer systems that will use massive parallelism and complex memory hierarchies to reach from the terascale into the petascale regime over the next five years. The presentations, by leading computer scientists, focused on languages, runtimes and libraries, tool collections and I/O methods.

  20. Sorption of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by microplastics: A case study of polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhiwei; Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Xie, Qilai; Huang, Ying; Gao, Yifan

    2016-09-15

    Though plastics show good chemical inertness, they could sorb polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other toxic pollutants from the surrounding environment. Thus, ingestion of microplastics by marine organisms potentially enhances the transport and bioavailability of toxic chemicals. However, there is lack of studies on the sorption capacity, mechanism and factors affecting the sorption behavior. Here, sorption of PCBs by microplastics in the simulated seawater was studied using the batch oscillation equilibration technique, in which polypropylene (PP) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) acted as model plastic and PCB, respectively. Factors including particle size, temperature and solution environment were investigated. Results showed that, equilibrium sorption time is about 8h and sorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size and temperature. Different sorption capacity in three solution environments was observed. Equilibrium data in three solution environments fitted very well to the Langmuir sorption model, indicating chemical sorption is the predominant mechanism. PMID:27230985

  1. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) growth on the surface of horizontally aligned MWCNT electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Bulmer, John S.; Janas, Dawid; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.; Zak, Jerzy K.

    2015-04-01

    The process of conjugated polymer deposition on the surface of horizontally aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube, HA-CNT, electrode is described. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, was grown electrochemically under variable conditions in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions of selected electrolytes. It is shown that the mechanism of nucleation highly depends on the reaction environment. The presence of a surfactant or non-aqueous medium favors the process of progressive nucleation in which the polymer growth is uniform and a homogeneous film of PEDOT is formed. It is demonstrated that the conditions make it is possible to cover the outer walls of individual HA-CNTs instead of forming thick polymer layer. The application of overpotential is proven to be a necessary condition to generate radical cations and cause relatively fast growth of polymer layer.

  2. Improved electrical and optical properties of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) via ordered microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Li, Yu; Wu, Jun; Noda, Hideki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2007-05-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanorods (80-150 nm in diameter) and nanospheres were synthesized through a self-assembly method using ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidants, respectively, and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) as the dopant. The PEDOT nanorods showed broader absorption bands, higher crystallinity and much higher room-temperature conductivity (approximately 300 S cm-1) than the PEDOT nanospheres. Such obviously distinct properties of these products were considered to be due to the much lower rate of polymerization with FeCl3 than APS, which made the growth of PEDOT according to the suggested cylinder micelles more moderate and regular; as a result, the morphology of the microstructure changed and the crystallinity, the doping level, the molecular orderliness and the conductivity of PEDOT synthesized under lower rate of polymerization improved intensely at the same time.

  3. Hydrogen Deuteride to 3.4 Megabar Mixed Isotopes and New Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ranga; Noked, Ori; Silvera, Isaac

    We present infrared absorption studies of solid hydrogen deuteride to pressures as high as 3.4 megabar in a diamond anvil cell and temperatures in the range 5 to 295 K. Above 198 GPa the sample transforms to a mixture of , and, interpreted as a process of dissociation and recombination.Three new phases-lines are observed, two of which differ remarkably from those of the high-pressure homonuclear species, but none are metallic. The time-dependent spectral changes are analyzed to determine the molecular concentrations as a function of time.y. The NSF, Grant DMR-1308641 and the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656 supported this research.

  4. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforgue, Alexis

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 ± 10 S cm -1, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions.

  5. Metabolism of tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in Corynebacterium sp. strain C125.

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, J; de Bont, J A

    1993-01-01

    Corynebacterium sp. strain C125, originally isolated on o-xylene, was selected for its ability to grow on tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The catabolism of tetralin in Corynebacterium sp. strain C125 was shown to proceed via initial hydroxylation of the benzene nucleus at positions C-5 and C-6, resulting in the formation of the corresponding cis-dihydro diol. Subsequently, the dihydro diol was dehydrogenated by a NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2-naphthalene diol. The aromatic ring was cleaved in the extradiol position by a catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. The ring fission product was subject to a hydrolytic attack, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid-substituted cyclohexanone. This is the first report of the catabolism of tetralin via degradation of the aromatic moiety. PMID:8434923

  6. Sorption of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by microplastics: A case study of polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhiwei; Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Xie, Qilai; Huang, Ying; Gao, Yifan

    2016-09-15

    Though plastics show good chemical inertness, they could sorb polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other toxic pollutants from the surrounding environment. Thus, ingestion of microplastics by marine organisms potentially enhances the transport and bioavailability of toxic chemicals. However, there is lack of studies on the sorption capacity, mechanism and factors affecting the sorption behavior. Here, sorption of PCBs by microplastics in the simulated seawater was studied using the batch oscillation equilibration technique, in which polypropylene (PP) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) acted as model plastic and PCB, respectively. Factors including particle size, temperature and solution environment were investigated. Results showed that, equilibrium sorption time is about 8h and sorption capacity increase with decreasing particle size and temperature. Different sorption capacity in three solution environments was observed. Equilibrium data in three solution environments fitted very well to the Langmuir sorption model, indicating chemical sorption is the predominant mechanism.

  7. Electrical conduction mechanism of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber bundles at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutia, P.; Kumar, A.

    2015-09-01

    The nature of charge transport mechanism in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofiber bundles has been studied as a function of temperature, magnetic field and AC electric field. High-resolution transmission electron micrographs show the formation of nanofibers with an average diameter of 14 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis depicts the enhancement of polymer chains ordering with increasing dopant concentration. Analysis of the temperature dependence of resistivity reveals a three-dimensional variable range hopping electrical conduction mechanism in the synthesized nanofibers system. A large positive magnetoresistance has been observed at low temperature, which shows a decreasing trend with increasing temperature as well as dopant concentration. The high value of positive magnetoresistance at low temperature has been explained by the wave function shrinkage model. The decrease in frequency exponent s with increasing temperature suggests that the AC conduction takes place through correlated barrier hopping mechanism.

  8. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical electronic structure investigations of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Arivazhagan, M; Kavitha, R; Subhasini, V P

    2014-09-15

    A complete vibrational analysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin have been performed according to SQM force field method based on ab initio and DFT calculation 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their frequencies are compared. The influences of carbon-oxygen bond and methyl group to the vibrational frequencies of the title compounds have been discussed. The pronounced decrease of the lone pair orbital occupancy and the molecular stabilization energy show the hyperconjugation interaction from the NBO analysis. Calculations of molecular orbital geometry show that the visible absorption maxima of DHC and 3MC correspond to the electron transition between frontier orbitals such as translation from HOMO to LUMO. Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C chemical shift calculations have been calculated. Area of high, neutral and low electrostatic potential is determined for DHC and 3MC. PMID:24813279

  9. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical electronic structure investigations of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arivazhagan, M.; Kavitha, R.; Subhasini, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    A complete vibrational analysis of 3,4-dihydrocoumarin and 3-methylcoumarin have been performed according to SQM force field method based on ab initio and DFT calculation 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and their frequencies are compared. The influences of carbon-oxygen bond and methyl group to the vibrational frequencies of the title compounds have been discussed. The pronounced decrease of the lone pair orbital occupancy and the molecular stabilization energy show the hyperconjugation interaction from the NBO analysis. Calculations of molecular orbital geometry show that the visible absorption maxima of DHC and 3MC correspond to the electron transition between frontier orbitals such as translation from HOMO to LUMO. Gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C chemical shift calculations have been calculated. Area of high, neutral and low electrostatic potential is determined for DHC and 3MC.

  10. Crystal structure of Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas G; Kraus, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Di-μ-thio-cyanato-bis-[diamminesilver(I)], [Ag2(μ-SCN)2(NH3)4], was synthesized by the reaction of AgSCN with anhydrous liquid ammonia. In the binuclear mol-ecule, the Ag(I) atom is coordinated by two ammine ligands and the S atom of one thio-cyanate ligand. Two of these [Ag(SCN)(NH3)2] units are bridged by the S atoms of the thio-cyanate anions at longer distances, leading to a dimer with point group symmetry C 2. The distance between the Ag(I) atoms in the dimer is at 3.0927 (6) Å within the range of argentophilic inter-actions. The crystal structure displays N-H⋯N and N-H⋯S hydrogen-bonding inter-actions that build up a three-dimensional network. PMID:27555922

  11. Source of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene in asphaltenes from the Tarim Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanglu, Jia; Ping'an, Peng; Chiling, Yu; Zhongyao, Xiao

    2007-07-01

    1-Alkyl-2,3,6-trimethylbenzenes and a high relative amount of 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene (TTMB) have been previously detected in the marine oils and asphaltenes in the oils from the Tarim Basin. In the present study, the stable carbon isotopic compositions of TTMB and n-alkanes in the pyrolysates of asphaltenes in the marine oils from the northern Tarim Basin and Silurian tar sands from the Tarim Basin were determined. TTMB has stable carbon isotopic compositions in the range from -23‰ to -24‰ and are about 12‰ more enriched in 13C than concomitant n-alkanes (-35‰ to -37‰) in the pyrolysates. The results indicate a contribution from green sulfur bacteria ( Chlorobiaceae) to TTMB. Thus, the depositional environments of the source rocks for the marine oils and the bitumen in tar sands from the Tarim Basin are characterized by periods of euxinic conditions within the photic zone.

  12. Determination of carbon-14-labeled 3,4-benzopyrene adsorbed on different solids

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, F.; Kanij, J.

    1983-09-01

    Recovery studies for 3,4-benzopyrene (BaP) are necessary for quantifying polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on solid matrices. One of the main problems in recovery studies is the simulation of samples, on which a known quantity of BaP is adsorbed and homogeneously divided on solid substrates. In this study the samples were spiked by the addition of a toluene solution containing /sup 14/C-BaP, taking into account that BaP was not homogeneously divided on the adsorbent. The samples were treated by two destruction methods, i.e., a wet destruction with a potassium dichromate-sulfuric acid and orthophosphoric acid and a combustion with oxygen. The liberated CO/sub 2/ was adsorbed and the /sup 14/C radioactivity analyzed by means of liquid scintillation counting. 6 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  13. Limits on Venus' SO2 abundance profile from interferometric observations at 3.4 mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, J. C.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1983-01-01

    The role of SO2 in the chemistry of the clouds of Venus has been investigated by deducing its mixing ratio profile in the atmosphere through millimeter wavelength interferometric measurements of the planet's limb darkening. The first zero crossing of the Venus visibility function was measured to be 0.6221 + or - 0.0007 at a wavelength of 3.4 mm, using a reference radius for Venus of 6100 km. This measurement constrains the amount of limb darkening and shows that the high concentrations of SO2 found in the lower atmosphere do not persist above an altitude of 42 km. Thus, a sink for SO2 exists below the level of the lowest cloud deck.

  14. 3,4-Dihydroxyxanthone dioxygenase from Arthrobacter sp. strain GFB100.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C M; Tomasek, P H

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial extradiol ring-fission dioxygenases play a critical role in the transformation of multiring aromatic compounds to more readily biodegradable aromatic or aliphatic intermediates. Arthrobacter sp. strain GFB100 utilizes an extradiol meta-fission dioxygenase, 3,4-dihydroxyxanthone dioxygenase (DHXD), in the catabolism of the three-ring oxygen heterocyclic compound xanthone. In this paper, we show that DHXD is a cytosolic enzyme, induced by growth on xanthone and maximally expressed during the stationary phase of growth. In addition, we characterize the DHXD activity in terms of its basic enzymological properties. 1,10-Phenanthroline and H2O2 treatments eliminated DHXD activity, indicating that the enzyme required Fe2+ ions for activity. Other divalent cations were either inhibitory or had no effect on activity. DHXD had a temperature optimum of 30 degrees C and a pH optimum of 7.0. DHXD followed typical saturation kinetics and had an apparent Km of 10 microM for 3,4-dihydroxyxanthone. The dye celestine blue served as a noncompetitive DHXD inhibitor (Ki, 5 microM). Several other structural analogs served neither as substrates nor inhibitors. DHXD was thermally labile at temperatures above 40 degrees C. The half-life for thermal DHXD inactivation was 5 min at 40 degrees C. DHXD activity was completely stable through one freeze-thaw cycle, and about 80% of the DHXD activity remained after 2 days of incubation at 0 degree C. The apparent tight binding of the Fe2+ cofactor to DHXD may be a factor contributing to the stability of this extradiol dioxygenase when it is stored. PMID:1768091

  15. Modelling the biodegradation kinetics of the herbicide propanil and its metabolite 3,4-dichloroaniline.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ricardo; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-05-01

    This study models the biodegradation kinetics of two toxic xenobiotic compounds in enriched mixed cultures: a commonly applied herbicide (3,4-dichloropropionanilide or propanil) and its metabolite (3,4-dichloroaniline or DCA). The dependence of the metabolite degradation kinetics on the presence of the parent compound was investigated, as well as the influence of the feeding operation strategy. Model equations were proposed incorporating substrate inhibition of the parent compound and the metabolite during dump feed operation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The kinetic parameters of the biomass were compared to step feed degradation of the SBR. The relationship between propanil and DCA degradation rates with the concentration of each compound was studied. A statistical comparison was carried out between the model predictions and experimental results. Substrate inhibition by both propanil and DCA was prominent during dump feed operation but insignificant during step feed. With both feeding strategies, the metabolite degradation was found to be dependent on the concentration of both the parent compound and the metabolite, suggesting that the DCA degrading enzymatic activity was independent of the detachment of the propionate moiety from the propanil molecule. After incorporating this finding into the model equations, the model was able to describe well the propanil and DCA degradation profiles, with an r (2) correlation >0.95 for each case. A kinetic model was developed for the degradation of the herbicide propanil and its metabolite DCA. An exponential inhibition term was incorporated to describe the substrate inhibition during dump feeding. The kinetics of metabolite degradation was dependent of the sum of the concentrations of metabolite and parent compound, which could also be of relevance to future xenobiotic modelling applications from wastewater.

  16. New cation-exchange material based on a sulfonated 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene monomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stéphan, O.; Schottland, P.; Le Gall, P.-Y.; Chevrot, C.

    1998-06-01

    The electrochemical oxidation, in aqueous medium, of a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene monomer functionalized by a sulfonate group exhibiting cation-exchange properties, allows the synthesis of a new type of water-soluble material. In order to synthesize in water, by oxidative electropolymerization, polymer films of controlled thickness containing attached sulfonate groups, we have investigated the polymerization of the functionalized monomer in the presence of the unsubstituted one without supporting electrolyte. Using an equimolar mixture (0.01 mol/l) of both monomers, copolymers exhibiting cation exchange abilities have been synthesized. As an example, th easy incorporation of hexaamine-ruthenium(III) into one of these copolymers is briefly reported. L'oxydation électrochimique en milieu aqueux d'un monomère de type 3,4- éthylènedioxythiophène fonctionnalisé par un groupement sulfonate permet d'envisager la synthèse d'un nouveau type de polymère hydrosoluble. Afin d'obtenir électrochimiquement en milieu aqueux, un film de polymère d'épaisseur contrôlée contenant des groupements sulfonates, nous avons evisagé de polymériser ce monomère en présence de son homologue non substitué. En partant d'un mélange équimolaire (0.01 mol/l) des deux monomères et en l'absence d'électrolyte support, nous avons synthétisé un matériau possédant des propriétés d'échange de cations. A titre d'exemple, nous présentons brièvement l'incorporation d'un complexe hexaaminé du ruthénium(III) dans un de ces copolymères.

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Coated Magnesium for Nerve Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebaa, Meriam Amel

    In an attempt to develop conductive, biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible nerve conduits, pure magnesium (Mg) was used as the biodegradable substrate material to provide strength while the conductive polymer, poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was used as a conductive coating material to control Mg degradation and improve cytocompatibility of Mg substrates. A series of electrochemical deposition conditions were explored to produce a uniform, consistent PEDOT coating on Mg substrates. Five cycles of CV with the potential ranging from -0.5V to 2.0V were used to produce consistent coatings for further evaluation. Scanning electron micrographs showed the micro-porous structure of PEDOT coatings. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed the peaks of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon, indicating PEDOT coating. Adhesion strength of the coating was measured using ASTM-D 3359 standard tape test. The adhesion strength of PEDOT coating was within the classifications of 3B to 4B. Tafel tests of the PEDOT coated Mg showed a corrosion current (ICORR) of 6.14e-5A and critical voltage of -1.10V, as compared with ICORR of 9.08e-4A with a critical voltage of -1.35V for non-coated Mg. The calculated corrosion rate for the PEDOT coated Mg was 8.6 mm/year, much slower than 126.9mm/year for the non-coated Mg. H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture studies were conducted using magnesium (Mg) coated with a conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to study viability for potential neural applications. Stem cells cultured indirectly with the Mg coated with PEDOT for 2 cycles were viable for a about half the amount of time when compared with the stem cells cultured with the 5 cycle PEDOT coated Mg.

  18. Improved deposition and deprotection of silane tethered 3,4 hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) ligands on functionalized nanoporous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Joseph D.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Yantasee, Wasanna; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Pattamakomsan, Kanda

    2012-04-01

    An improved synthesis of a 3,4 hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) functionalized mesoporous silica is described. Higher 3,4-HOPO monolayer ligand loadings have been achieved, resulting in better performance. Performance improvements were demonstrated with the capture of U(VI) from human blood, plasma and filtered river water.

  19. Multicomponent Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy: Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel Spiro-Tethered Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline Hybrid Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Sumesh, Remani Vasudevan; Muthu, Muthumani; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Arumugam, Natarajan; Athimoolam, S; Jeya Yasmi Prabha, E Arockia; Kumar, Raju Ranjith

    2016-05-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of a library of novel spiro-tethered pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole/indolizine-oxindole/acenaphthene hybrid heterocycles have been achieved through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from α-amino acids and 1,2-diketones to dipolarophiles derived from pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives.

  20. Synthesis, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of novel 5-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kadi, Adnan A; Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S; Shehata, Ihsan A; Habib, Elsayed E; Ibrahim, Tarek M; El-Emam, Ali A

    2010-11-01

    New 1-adamanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives namely, 5-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoline-2-thione 3, 5-(1-adamantyl)-3-(benzyl- or 4-substituted benzyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoline-2-thione 4a-d, 5-(1-adamantyl)-3-(4-substituted-1-piperazinylmethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoline-2-thiones 5a-c, 2-[5-(1-adamantyl)-2-thioxo-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-3-yl]acetic acid 7, (±)-2-[5-(1-adamantyl)-2-thioxo-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-3-yl]propionic acid 9, 3-[5-(1-adamantyl)-2-thioxo-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-3-yl]propionic acid 11, N-[5-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N'-arylthioureas 15a-c and 5-(1-adamantyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazoline-2-one 16, were synthesized and tested for in vitro activities against a panel of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Compounds 7, 9, 15b and 15c displayed marked activity against the tested gram-positive bacteria, while compound 3 was highly active against the tested gram-negative bacteria. Compounds 4b, 7 and 15c were weakly or moderately active against C. albicans. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was determined using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in rats. The propionic acid derivative 9 produced good dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:20801553

  1. Infrared study of lattice dynamics and spin-phonon and electron-phonon interactions in multiferroic TbF e3(BO3) 4 and GdF e3(BO3) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimin, S. A.; Kuzmenko, A. B.; Kashchenko, M. A.; Popova, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a comparative far-infrared reflection spectroscopy study of phonons, phase transitions, spin-phonon, and electron-phonon interactions in isostructural multiferroic iron borates of gadolinium and terbium. The behavior of phonon modes registered in a wide temperature range is consistent with a weak first-order structural phase transition [Ts=143 for GdF e3(BO3) 4 and 200 K for TbF e3(BO3) 4 ] from a high-symmetry high-temperature R 32 structure into a low-symmetry low-temperature P 3121 one. The temperature dependences of frequencies, oscillator strengths, and damping constants of some low-frequency modes reveal an appreciable lattice anharmonicity. Peculiarities in the phonon mode behavior in both compounds at the temperature of an antiferromagnetic ordering [TN=32 K for GdF e3(BO3) 4 and 40 K for TbF e3(BO3) 4 ] evidence the spin-phonon interaction. In the energy range of phonons, GdF e3(BO3) 4 has no electronic levels, but TbF e3(BO3) 4 possesses several. We observe an onset of new bands in the excitation spectrum of TbF e3(BO3) 4 due to a resonance interaction between a lattice phonon and 4 f electronic crystal-field (CF) excitations of T b3 + . This interaction causes delocalization of the CF excitations, their Davydov splitting, and formation of coupled electron-phonon modes.

  2. Energy efficient microwave synthesis of mesoporous Ce0.5M0.5O2 (Ti, Zr, Hf) nanoparticles for low temperature CO oxidation in an ionic liquid – a comparative study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alammar, Tarek; Chow, Ying -Kit; Mudring, Anja -Verena

    2014-11-19

    Ce0.5M0.5O2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by microwave irradiation in the ionic liquid [C4mim][Tf2N] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide). The morphology, crystallinity, and chemical composition of the obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and N2–adsorption measurements. XRD and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirmed the formation of solid solutions with cubic fluorite structure. The catalytic activities of the Ce0.5M0.5O2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) nanoparticles were investigated in the low-temperature oxidation of CO. Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 nanospheres exhibit the best performance (100% conversion at 350 °C), followed by Ce0.5Hf0.5O2more » (55% conversion at 360 °C) and Ce0.5Ti0.5O2 (11% conversion at 350 °C). Heating the as-prepared Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 to 600 °C for extended time leads to a decrease in surface area and, as expected decreased catalytic activity. Depending on the ionic liquid the obtained Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 exhibits different morphologies, varying from nano-spheres in [C4mim][Tf2N] and [P66614][Tf2N] (P66614 = trishexyltetradecylphosphonium) to sheet-like assemblies in [C3mimOH][Tf2N] (C3mimOH = 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methylimidazolium). As a result, the microwave synthesis superiority to other heating methods like sonochemical synthesis and conventional heating was proven by comparative experiments where the catalytic activity of Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 obtained by alternate methods such as conventional heating was found to be poorer than that of the microwave-synthesised material.« less

  3. Synthesis and characterization of bicontinuous cubic poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) gyroid (PEDOT GYR) gels.

    PubMed

    Cho, Whirang; Wu, Jinghang; Shim, Bong Sup; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Mastroianni, Sarah E; Young, Wen-Shiue; Kuo, Chin-Chen; Epps, Thomas H; Martin, David C

    2015-02-21

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of bicontinuous cubic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymer gels prepared within lyotropic cubic poly(oxyethylene)10 nonylphenol ether (NP-10) templates with Ia3[combining macron]d (gyroid, GYR) symmetry. The chemical polymerization of EDOT monomer in the hydrophobic channels of the NP-10 GYR phase was initiated by AgNO3, a mild oxidant that is activated when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The morphology and physical properties of the resulting PEDOT gels were examined as a function of temperature and frequency using optical and electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Microscopy and SAXS results showed that the PEDOT gels remained ordered and stable after the UV-initiated chemical polymerization, confirming the successful templated-synthesis of PEDOT in bicontinuous GYR nanostructures. In comparison to unpolymerized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) gel phases, the PEDOT structures had a higher storage modulus, presumably due to the formation of semi-rigid PEDOT-rich nanochannels. Additionally, the storage modulus (G') for PEDOT gels decreased only modestly with increasing temperature, from ∼1.2 × 10(5) Pa (10 °C) to ∼7 × 10(4) Pa (40 °C), whereas G' for the NP-10 and EDOT gels decreased dramatically, from ∼5.0 × 10(4) Pa (10 °C) to ∼1.5 × 10(2) Pa (40 °C). EIS revealed that the impedance of the PEDOT gels was smaller than the impedance of EDOT gels at both high frequencies (PEDOT ∼10(2) Ω and EDOT 2-3 × 10(4) Ω at 10(5) Hz) and low frequencies (PEDOT 10(3)-10(5) Ω and EDOT ∼5 × 10(5) Ω at 10(-1) Hz). These results indicated that PEDOT gels were highly ordered, mechanically stable and electrically conductive, and thus should be of interest for applications for which such properties are important, including low impedance and compliant coatings for biomedical

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Bicontinuous Cubic Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Gyroid (PEDOT GYR) Gels

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Whirang; Wu, Jinghang; Shim, Bong Sup; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Mastroianni, Sarah E.; Young, Wen-Shiue; Kuo, Chin-Chen; Epps, Thomas H.; Martin, David C.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of bicontinuous cubic poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) conducting polymer gels prepared within lyotropic cubic poly(oxyethylene)10 nonylphenol ether (NP-10) templates with Ia3̄d (gyroid, GYR) symmetry. The chemical polymerization of EDOT monomer in the hydrophobic channels of the NP-10 GYR phase was initiated by AgNO3, a mild oxidant that is activated when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The morphology and physical properties of the resulting PEDOT gels were examined as a function of temperature and frequency using optical and electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Microscopy and SAXS results showed that the PEDOT gels remained ordered and stable after the UV-initiated chemical polymerization, confirming the successful templated-synthesis of PEDOT in bicontinuous GYR nanostructures. In comparison to unpolymerized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) gel phases, the PEDOT structures had a higher storage modulus, presumably due to the formation of semi-rigid PEDOT-rich nanochannels. Additionally, the G′ for PEDOT gels decreased only modestly with increasing temperature, from ~1.2 × 103 Pa (10 °C) to ~7 × 104 Pa (40 °C), whereas G′ for the NP-10 and EDOT gels decreased dramatically, from ~5.0 × 104 Pa (10 °C) to ~1.5 × 102 Pa (40 °C). EIS revealed that the impedance of the PEDOT gels was smaller than the impedance of EDOT gels at both high frequencies (PEDOT ~102 Ω and EDOT 2 – 3 × 103 Ω at 105 Hz) and low frequencies (PEDOT 103–105 Ω and EDOT ~5 × 105 Ω at 10−1 Hz). These results indicated that PEDOT gels were highly ordered, mechanically stable and electrically conductive, and thus should be of interest for applications for which such properties are important, including low impedance and compliant coatings for biomedical electrodes. PMID:25600651

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of 3,4,5-trimethoxytetraphenyl porphyrinoxovanadium (IV) complex.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swati; Kumar, Anil; Chand, Prem; Sharma, B K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2006-03-01

    3,4,5-Trimetoxytetraphenylporphyrinoxovanadium (IV) complex (3,4,5-TMVOTPP) was synthesized by a new one pot synthetic method. The complex was studied in the form of single crystal, powder (polycrystalline state), solution and frozen solution (glassy state) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) between room temperature (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). Interestingly a well-resolved octet in the EPR spectrum at RT is observed in the pure paramagnetic state of the crystal. This observation is attributed to a greatly reduced dipolar interaction between paramagnetic vanadyl ions due to the large size of the molecule and the resultant stacking in the crystalline state. The line width of the EPR signals in single crystal at RT is approximately 3.3 mT which is more than the usual line width in diluted paramagnets ( approximately 1.5 mT) and is attributed to some kind of broadening effect akin to slow motion broadening. The line width in solvents is more than the crystal value but decreases appreciably at low temperatures. The decrease in line width at low temperature is attributed to the increase in spin-lattice-relaxation time and quenching of RT broadening motion. Only one octet is observed in the crystal EPR spectra which suggests only one formula unit per unit cell or a parallel/antiparallel ordering of V=O vectors in case the formula units per unit cell are more than one. This result needs verification by a detailed X-ray investigation. The crystalline field symmetry around the V(4+) metal ion is revealed to be axial by the observed angular dependence of the EPR spectrum and the powder EPR spectrum. No super hyperfine splitting of the hyperfine lines of the vanadyl ion is observed in solid state or diluted glass up to liquid nitrogen temperature. This suggests an expected weak in-plane pi-bonding with ligands. The spin Hamiltonian parameters for vanadyl ion in crystal, powder, diluted solutions and frozen glasses are evaluated and discussed.

  6. Luminescence and energy transfer of white emitting phosphor YAl3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Dy3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fen; Wang, Di; Cao, He-ying; Li, Jing; Song, Hui-ling; Li, Pan-lai; Wang, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Kun; Pang, Li-bin

    2015-03-01

    A white emitting phosphor of YAl3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Dy3+ is synthesized by a solid state reaction, and its luminescent properties are investigated. Its phase formation is carried out with X-ray powder diffraction analysis, and there is no crystalline phase other than YAl3(BO3)4. YAl3(BO3)4:Ce3+ can produce 422 nm blue emission under 367 nm excitation. The emission spectrum of YAl3(BO3)4:Dy3+ shows several emission peaks under 350 nm excitation, and the peaks locate at 485 nm, 575 nm and 668 nm, respectively. Emission intensities of Ce3+ and Dy3+ in YAl3(BO3)4 are influenced by their concentrations, and the concentration quenching effect is observed. Energy transfer from Ce3+ to Dy3+ in YAl3(BO3)4 is validated and proved to be a resonant type via a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction, and the emission color can be tuned from blue to white by tuning the ratio of Ce3+/Dy3+. Moreover, the critical distance ( R c) of Ce3+ to Dy3+ in YAl3(BO3)4 is calculated to be 1.904 nm.

  7. 3,4-DHPEA-EA from Olea Europaea L. is effective against standard and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of 3,4-DHPEA-EA (methyl-4-(2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethoxy)-2-oxoethyl)-3-formyl-2-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-5-carboxylate), a derivate of oleuropein, against a range of Gram-positive bacteria, including ATCC strains, food and clinical isolates. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by the broth microdilution method and the Bioscreen C. Results 3,4-DHPEA-EA was effective against ATCC and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (MIC values between 125 and 250 μg/ml) and ATCC and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis (MIC values between 7.81 and 62.5 μg/ml). No significant differences were observed between the two solvents (methanol and DMSO) used to dissolve 3,4-DHPEA-EA. Conclusions The results obtained could be used to develop novel therapies for the treatment of skin infections. Further studies need to be performed to elucidate the formation of 3,4-DHPEA-EA by acid hydrolysis of oleuropein in the human stomach. PMID:24986240

  8. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  9. Functional differences in hepatitis C virus nonstructural (NS) 3/4A- and 5A-specific T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Holmström, Fredrik; Chen, Margaret; Balasiddaiah, Anangi; Sällberg, Matti; Ahlén, Gustaf; Frelin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus nonstructural (NS) 3/4A and NS5A proteins are major targets for the new direct-acting antiviral compounds. Both viral proteins have been suggested as modulators of the response to the host cell. We have shown that NS3/4A- and NS5A-specific T cell receptors confer different effector functions, and that killing of NS3/4A-expressing hepatocytes is highly dependent on IFN-γ. We here characterize the functional differences in the T cell responses to NS3/4A and NS5A. NS3/4A- and NS5A-specific T cells could be induced at various frequencies in wild-type-, NS3/4A-, and NS5A-transgenic mice. Priming of NS5A-specific T cells required a high DNA dose, and was unlike NS3/4A dependent on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, but less influenced by CD25+/GITR+ regulatory T cells. The presence of IL-12 greatly improved specific CD8+ T cell priming by NS3/4A but not by NS5A, suggesting a less dependence of IFN-γ for NS5A. This notion was supported by the observation that NS5A-specific T cells could eliminate NS5A-expressing hepatocytes also in the absence of IFN-γ-receptor-2. This supports that NS3/4A- and NS5A-specific T cells become activated and eliminate antigen expressing, or infected hepatocytes, by distinct mechanisms, and that NS5A-specific T cells show an overall less dependence of IFN-γ. PMID:27141891

  10. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a radio-quiet galaxy at redshift z = 3.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giavalisco, Mauro; Macchetto, F. Duccio; Madau, Piero; Sparks, William B.

    1995-01-01

    We have observed with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) a radio-quiet Ly alpha-emitting galaxy at redshift z = 3.428 (G2 below). The images probe the rest-frame UV light around 1250 A with an angular resolution of approx. = 0.1 sec, corresponding to 1.4 h(exp -1, sub 50) kpc at redshift z = 3.4 (in this Letter we use q(sub 0) = 0 and H(sub 0) = 50 h(exp -1, sub 50) km/s/Mpc). The light profile of the central approx. 10h(exp -1, sub 50) kpc region is well fitted by an r(exp 1/4) law with r(sub e) approx. = 1.3 h(exp -1, sub 50) kpc, suggesting a dynamically relaxed state. The outer regions are characterized by the presence of substructures, such as an elongated formation and low surface brightness nebulosities. The isophotal analysis shows no evidence of an active galactic nuclei (AGN)-like unresolved source in the center. The structural properties of G2 are consistent with a dynamically hot stellar system observed during an early phase of star formation, very likely the progenitor of an elliptical or the bulge of a spiral galaxy.

  11. Structural and Theoretical Investigation of Anhydrous 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo S; Almeida, Leonardo R; Araújo Neto, João H; Medina, Ana Carolina Q D; Menezes, Antonio C S; Sousa, José E F; Oliveira, Solemar S; Camargo, Ademir J; Napolitano, Hamilton B

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anhydrous form of 3,4,5-Triacetoxybenzoic acid (TABA) is reported. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, Thermal analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and DFT calculations were applied for TABA characterization. This anhydrous phase crystallizes in the triclinic [Formula: see text] space group (Z' = 1) and its packing shows a supramolecular motif in a classical [Formula: see text] ring formed by acid-acid groups association. The phase stability is accounted in terms of supramolecular architecture and its thermal behaviour. Conformation search at B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory shows the existence of three stable conformers and the most stable conformation was found experimentally. The reactivity of TABA was investigated using the molecular orbital theory and molecular electrostatic potential. The calculation results were used to simulate the infrared spectrum. There is a good agreement between calculated and experimental IR spectrum, which allowed the assignment of the normal vibrational modes. PMID:27355378

  12. Redox doping behaviour of poly(3,4-ethylenedithiothiophene) - The counterion effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagala, Wojciech; Palutkiewicz, Dawid; Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Skabara, Peter J.

    2011-07-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedithiothiophene) - PEDTT, an alkylene sulphur derivative of PEDOT, presents itself as an interesting polymer with a number of disparate redox and chromic properties compared to its close analogue - PEDOT. In this study we present the results of an investigation into the electrochemical doping process of PEDTT, using four different electrolyte solutions, differing in anion content of the chosen salt. The results show that the anion identity plays a key role in the redox reactions accompanying these processes in what could be interpreted as anion ionochromism. In situ UV-Vis spectroelectrochemical experiments reveal an intriguing double electrochromic transition of PEDTT films during their oxidative doping, going from golden-yellow through green to pomegranate - a quality not so common within the family of electroactive conjugated polymers. The evolution of each UV-Vis spectrum over a potential range indicates that different redox states of the polymer are responsible for the chromatic changes. In the reduction half-cycle, the dedoping process of PEDTT appears to follow a path dissimilar to the p-doping one, featuring only one, direct electrochromic transition of the film's colour, bypassing the green state, and a distinct two-step bleaching process of doping-induced charge carrier bands. The observed electrochemical and spectral phenomena have been accredited to the specific redox behaviour of doping-induced radical cation and cationic defect states interacting with the dithioalkylene sulphur atom.

  13. Scaffold Hopping Toward Agomelatine: Novel 3, 4-Dihydroisoquinoline Compounds as Potential Antidepressant Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Ang, Wei; Long, Haiyue; Chang, Ying; Li, Zicheng; Zhou, Liangxue; Yang, Tao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Youfu

    2016-10-01

    A scaffold-hopping strategy toward Agomelatine based on in silico screening and knowledge analysis was employed to design novel antidepressant agents. A series of 3, 4-dihydroisoquinoline compounds were selected for chemical synthesis and biological assessment. Three compounds (6a-1, 6a-2, 6a-9) demonstrated protective effects on corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Compound 6a-1 also displayed low inhibitory effects on the growth of HEK293 and L02 normal cells and it was further evaluated for its potential antidepressant effects in vivo. The forced swim test (FST) results revealed that compound 6a-1 remarkably reduced the immobility time of rats and the open field test (OFT) results indicated a better general locomotor activity of the rats treated with compound 6a-1 than those with Agomelatine or Fluoxetine. Mechanism studies implied that compound 6a-1 can significantly reduce PC12 cell apoptosis by up-regulation of GSH and down-regulation of ROS in corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of calcium ion concentration and up-regulation of BDNF level in PC12 cells may account for the neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, compound 6a-1 can increase cell survival and cell proliferation, promote cell maturation in the rat hippocampus after chronic treatment. The acute toxicity data in vivo indicated compound 6a-1 exhibited less hepatotoxicity than Agomelatine.

  14. Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Patient Utterances in a Psychotherapeutic Setting.

    PubMed

    Corey, Vicka Rael; Pisano, Vincent D; Halpern, John H

    2016-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) administered as an adjunct to talk therapy influences patient speech content and increases improvement in treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data came from the recordings of Mithoefer et al. (2011). In the third therapeutic session studied, patients were assigned, double blind, to an MDMA or a placebo group. Condition-blind scorers listened to therapy recordings and scored utterances where patients initiated topics that were empathic (regarding others' emotions), entactic (requesting or appreciating physical touch), or ensuic (describing a change in their sense of themselves). Patients who received MDMA produced high levels of ensuic, empathic, and entactic utterances compared with those who received the placebo. Interrater discourse scoring was reliable. The relationship between the number of scored utterances and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores measuring PTSD severity after the treatment was significant, and reanalysis grouped bimodally into "many" or "few" such utterances remained significant. MDMA assisted these patients in having meaningful and disorder-resolving thoughts and discourse in talk therapy.

  15. Protective effect 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol in subarachnoid hemorrhage provoked oxidative neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu-Wen; Wu, Juan; Hu, Hua-Long; Li, Wei-Xin; Zhong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have indicated that early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with fatal outcomes. Oxidative stress and brain edema are the characteristic pathological events in occurrence EBI following SAH. The present study aimed to examine the effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPET) against SAH-induced EBI, and to demonstrate whether the effect is associated with its potent free radical scavenging property. SAH was induced in rats using an endovascular perforation technique, and 24 h later the rats displayed diminished neurological scores and brain edema. Furthermore, elevated malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) and depleted levels of antioxidants were observed in the rat cerebral cortex tissue. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the upregulated mRNA expression of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and −9 in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly upregulated in SAH-induced rats. By constrast, treatment with DOPET significantly attenuated EBI by reducing brain edema, elevation of antioxidant status, inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation. In this context, DOPET may be a potent agent in the treatment of EBI following SAH, as a result of its free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:27588109

  16. Mephedrone, methylone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Louise; Andersson, Mikael; Kronstrand, Robert; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2014-11-01

    During the last decade, there has been a worldwide increase in popularity and abuse of synthetic cathinones. Common ingredients of the so-called bath salts include mephedrone, methylone and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Relatively little information about the pharmacology and addiction potential of these drugs is available. We used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to explore the reinforcing effects of three different synthetic cathinones. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether mephedrone, methylone and MDPV induce CPP in mice. The secondary aims were to investigate a possible dose-response CPP and whether the synthetic cathinones induce higher CPP than amphetamine at equal dose. C57BL/6 mice were conditioned to mephedrone, methylone, MDPV and amphetamine at doses of 0.5, 2, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (i.p.). During the conditioning, the mice received two training sessions per day for 4 days. All four tested drugs showed a significant place preference compared with controls. Mice conditioned with MDPV (5 and 10 mg/kg) displayed a greater preference score compared to mice conditioned with amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/kg). Our findings show that mephedrone, methylone and MDPV produce CPP equal or higher than amphetamine strongly suggesting addictive properties. Given the public health concern of abuse, future pharmacological studies are necessary to fully understand the effects of these drugs.

  17. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and pseudoephedrine in soils.

    PubMed

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    This work presents, for the first time, information on the adsorption-desorption characteristics of illicit drugs and precursors in soils and an estimation of their potential bioavailability. The experiment was conducted using a batch equilibrium technique for the parent drugs methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and the precursor pseudoephedrine in three South Australian soils varying in physiochemical properties. The individual compounds exhibited different adsorption mechanisms in the test soils, and the results fitted better with the Freundlich isotherm model (r (2) ≥ 0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity was recorded for pseudoephedrine (2,000 μg g(-1)). However, pseudoephedrine recorded lower organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient values (<250 mL g(-1)), lower magnitudes of Gibb's free energy change, and higher percent desorption (73-92 %) compared to methamphetamine and MDMA. The results thus showed pseudoephedrine to be the most mobile compound in the soils under study, to have the highest availability for degradation of the three compounds, and to have the highest susceptibility to biotic degradation in test soils.

  18. Facilitation and disruption by mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine of shock avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, D A; Bridger, W H

    1977-04-29

    The effects of mescaline hydrochloride (4.95-79.2 mg/kg i.p.) and its non-hallucinogenic analogue 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine hydrochloride (DMPEA) (12.5-100 mg/kg i.p.) on shock avoidance in a shuttlebox were studied in male Long-Evans rats trained to high (above 88%, good performers) or low (below 6%, poor performers) stable base-line avoidance rates. In good performers, mescaline and DMPEA caused a dose-dependent decrease in avoidance rate (ED 50's 44.6 and 39.2 mg/kg, respectively) without affecting presession (5-min adaptation period) or intertrial shuttlebox crossings. In poor performers, mescaline caused a dose-dependent increase in avoidance rate (ED 50 = 24.8 mg/kg) and intertrial crossings, without affecting presession crossings. The results suggest that mescaline, but not DMPEA, has dual facilitative and disruptive effects on avoidance behavior at similar dose ranges. The facilitative, but not the disruptive, effect may be related to changes in motor activity.

  19. Adsorption and thermal decomposition of 2-octylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Park, Joon B; Zong, Kyukwan; Jeon, Il Chul; Hahn, Jae Ryang; Stacchiola, Dario; Starr, David; Müller, Kathrin; Noh, Jaegeun

    2012-10-15

    The adsorption and thermal stability of 2-octylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene (OTTP) on the Au(111) surfaces have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UHV-STM studies revealed that the vapor-deposited OTTP on Au(111) generated disordered adlayers with monolayer thickness even at saturation coverage. XPS and TPD studies indicated that OTTP molecules on Au(111) are stable up to 450 K and further heating of the sample resulted in thermal decomposition to produce H(2) and H(2)S via C-S bond scission in the thieno-thiophene rings. Dehydrogenation continues to occur above 600 K and the molecules were ultimately transformed to carbon clusters at 900 K. Highly resolved air-STM images showed that OTTP adlayers on Au(111) prepared from solution are composed of a well-ordered and low-coverage phase where the molecules lie flat on the surface, which can be assigned as a (9×2√33)R5° structure. Finally, based on analysis of STM, TPD, and XPS results, we propose a thermal decomposition mechanism of OTTP on Au(111) as a function of annealing temperature. PMID:22818203

  20. Autotoxicity and allelopathy of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone isolated from Picea schrenkiana needles.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An; Wang, G Geoff

    2011-10-24

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.