Science.gov

Sample records for 3-4 nx m0

  1. Magnetic properties of Sm2(Fe0.95M0.05)17Nx (M=Cr and Mn) anisotropic coarse powders with high coercivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mikio; Majima, Kazuhiko; Shimuta, Toru; Katsuyama, Shigeru; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    Sm2(Fe0.95Cr0.05)17Nx and Sm2(Fe0.95Mn0.05)17Nx coarse powders 10-70 mum in size were synthesized by crushing mother alloy ingots into 32-74 mum in particle size and subsequent nitrogenation at 748 K in a flowing mixed gas of 60 vol % H2+40 vol % NH3. The effects of Cr or Mn substitution for Fe on the nitrogenation rate, magnetic properties, and microstructure of the Sm2Fe17Nx hard magnetic material were investigated. Cr and Mn substitution was quite effective for accelerating nitrogenation. When the powders were nitrogenated beyond x=3, amorphous phase formation was observed as the x value increased. The magnetic properties of the nitrogenated powders were significantly improved by Cr and Mn substitution, and these powders also possessed a satisfactory magnetic anisotropy. The maximum coercivity in this study, 0.59 MA/m, was obtained for the Sm2(Fe0.95Mn0.05)17N5.0 powder in spite of its large particle size. The high coercivity of the coarse powders was caused by a cell-like microstructure composed of fine 2-17 crystalline grains 20-30 nm in size surrounded by an amorphous phase.

  2. Tumor Size Is a Critical Factor in Adjuvant Chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 Gastric Cancer Patients after D2 Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shi; Ou-Yang, Li-Ying; Nie, Run-Cong; Li, Yuan-Fang; Xiang, Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether tumor size is a reasonable indication for adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Method. We performed a retrospective study of 269 patients with a histological diagnosis of T3-4aN0M0 stage gastric cancer who underwent D2 radical surgery at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center or the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between January 2006 and December 2010. The follow-up lasted until June of 2015. Chi-square tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were employed to compare the clinicopathological variables and prognoses. Result. For this group of patients, univariate analyses revealed that tumor size (p < 0.001), pathological T stage (p < 0.001), and tumor location (p = 0.025) were significant prognostic factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not exhibit prognostic benefits. For patients with tumors larger than 5 cm, univariate analysis revealed that tumor location (p = 0.007), Borrmann type (p = 0.039), postoperative chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and pathological T stage (p < 0.001) were significant prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and pathological T stage were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Our results imply that tumor size should be a critical factor in the decision to utilize adjuvant chemotherapy for T3-4aN0M0 gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy. Additional randomized controlled trials are required before this conclusion can be considered definitive. PMID:28331491

  3. Evolution, global spread, and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel subtypes of Eurasian-origin (Goose/Guangdong lineage) H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses belonging to clade 2.3.4 such as H5N2, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8 have been identified in China since 2008 and subsequently evolved into four genetically distinct groups (A – D) of clade 2.3.4.4...

  4. Evolution, global spread, and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Bertran, Kateri; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Swayne, David E

    2017-08-31

    Novel subtypes of Asian-origin (Goose/Guangdong lineage) H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses belonging to clade 2.3.4, such as H5N2, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8, have been identified in China since 2008 and have since evolved into four genetically distinct clade 2.3.4.4 groups (A-D). Since 2014, HPAI clade 2.3.4.4 viruses have spread rapidly via migratory wild aquatic birds and have evolved through reassortment with prevailing local low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Group A H5N8 viruses and its reassortant viruses caused outbreaks in wide geographic regions (Asia, Europe, and North America) during 2014-2015. Novel reassortant Group B H5N8 viruses caused outbreaks in Asia, Europe, and Africa during 2016-2017. Novel reassortant Group C H5N6 viruses caused outbreaks in Korea and Japan during the 2016-2017 winter season. Group D H5N6 viruses caused outbreaks in China and Vietnam. A wide range of avian species, including wild and domestic waterfowl, domestic poultry, and even zoo birds, seem to be permissive for infection by and/or transmission of clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses. Further, compared to previous H5N1 HPAI viruses, these reassortant viruses show altered pathogenicity in birds. In this review, we discuss the evolution, global spread, and pathogenicity of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses.

  5. Absence of clinical disease and contact transmission of North American clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX HPAI in experimentally infected pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the fall of 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 were introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. We sought to assess the susceptibility of pigs to North American HPAI cl...

  6. Global mapping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 viruses with spatial cross-validation

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Madhur S; Artois, Jean; Robinson, Timothy P; Linard, Catherine; Chaiban, Celia; Xenarios, Ioannis; Engler, Robin; Liechti, Robin; Kuznetsov, Dmitri; Xiao, Xiangming; Dobschuetz, Sophie Von; Claes, Filip; Newman, Scott H; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Global disease suitability models are essential tools to inform surveillance systems and enable early detection. We present the first global suitability model of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained at global scale. Best predictions are obtained using spatial predictor variables describing host distributions, rather than land use or eco-climatic spatial predictor variables, with a strong association with domestic duck and extensively raised chicken densities. Our results also support a more systematic use of spatial cross-validation in large-scale disease suitability modelling compared to standard random cross-validation that can lead to unreliable measure of extrapolation accuracy. A global suitability model of the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, a group of viruses that recently spread extensively in Asia and the US, shows in comparison a lower spatial extrapolation capacity than the HPAI H5N1 models, with a stronger association with intensively raised chicken densities and anthropogenic factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19571.001 PMID:27885988

  7. Pathobiology of clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza virus infections in minor gallinaceous poultry supports early backyard flock introductions in Western U.S., 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Bertran, Kateri; Lee, Dong-Hun; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Spackman, Erica; Balzli, Charles; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E

    2017-08-09

    In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intra-host evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses in the U.S. were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i.e. species for which the U.S. commercial industries are small): Japanese quail, Bobwhite quail, Pearl guinea fowl, Chukar partridges, and Ring-necked pheasants. Low mean bird infectious doses (<2 to 3.7 log10) support direct introduction and infection of these species as observed in mixed backyard poultry during the early outbreaks. Pathobiological features and systemic virus replication in all species tested were consistent with HPAI virus infection. Sustained virus shedding with transmission to contact-exposed birds, alongside long incubation periods, could enable unrecognized dissemination and adaptation to other gallinaceous such as chickens and turkeys. Genome sequencing of excreted viruses revealed numerous low-frequency polymorphisms and 20 consensus-level substitutions in all genes and species but especially in Japanese quail and Pearl guinea fowl and in internal proteins PB1 and PB2. This genomic flexibility after only one passage indicates that influenza viruses can continue to evolve in Galliformes, increasing their opportunity to adapt to other species. Our findings suggest that these gallinaceous poultry are permissive for infection and sustainable transmissibility with 2014 initial wild bird-adapted clade 2.3.4.4 virus, with potential acquisition of mutations leading to host range adaptation.IMPORTANCE The outbreak of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that occurred in the U.S. in 2014-2015 represents the worst livestock disease

  8. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Table of contents. 1.401(m)-0 Section 1.401(m)-0...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(m)-0 Table of contents... section in §§ 1.401(m)-1 through 1.401(m)-5. List of Sections § 1.401(m)-1Employee contributions...

  9. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Stevens, James; Schultz-Cherry, S.

    2016-04-06

    ABSTRACT

    During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential.

    IMPORTANCEThe H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment.

  10. Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Carney, Paul J.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Guo, Zhu; Chang, Jessie C.; Wentworth, David E.; Gubareva, Larisa V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During 2014, a subclade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks around the world. In late 2014/early 2015, the virus was detected in wild birds in Canada and the United States, and these viruses also gave rise to reassortant progeny, composed of viral RNA segments (vRNAs) from both Eurasian and North American lineages. In particular, viruses were found with N1, N2, and N8 neuraminidase vRNAs, and these are collectively referred to as H5Nx viruses. In the United States, more than 48 million domestic birds have been affected. Here we present a detailed structural and biochemical analysis of the surface antigens of H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses in addition to those of a recent human H5N6 virus. Our results with recombinant hemagglutinin reveal that these viruses have a strict avian receptor binding preference, while recombinantly expressed neuraminidases are sensitive to FDA-approved and investigational antivirals. Although H5Nx viruses currently pose a low risk to humans, it is important to maintain surveillance of these circulating viruses and to continually assess future changes that may increase their pandemic potential. IMPORTANCE The H5Nx viruses emerging in North America, Europe, and Asia pose a great public health concern. Here we report a molecular and structural study of the major surface proteins of several H5Nx influenza viruses. Our results improve the understanding of these new viruses and provide important information on their receptor preferences and susceptibilities to antivirals, which are central to pandemic risk assessment. PMID:27053557

  11. Electrodeless RF Plasma Thruster Using m = 0 Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Shuichi; Arai, Daisuke; Kuwahara, Daisuke; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to realize a deep space exploration in the future, we have been developing a next generation electrodeless electric propulsion system by electromagnetic acceleration of high-density helicon plasma. A new proposed method by m = 0 coil plasma acceleration (m is an azimuthal mode number) is based on the Lorentz force: a product of the induced azimuthal current by supplying an AC current to the m = 0 coil and the radial component of the externally applied magnetic field (divergent field configuration). Here, we have investigated the dependences of an ion velocity and an electron density on the external parameters, leading to optimized conditions, using the SHD device. By increasing AC current on the order of 100 A, we could see the increase of ion velocity and electron density by a factor of 2.5 and 3, respectively.

  12. Thermal stability and hydrogenation behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx and Ti/TiNx coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Vilkhivskaya, O. V.; Zakharchenko, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Titanium nitride coatings were deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) to protect Zr-1Nb alloys from hydrogen embrittlement. Dense titanium (Ti) interlayer was prepared between TiNx protection film and a Zr substrate to improve thermal stability and adhesion between the TiNx and the substrate at high temperatures. Hydrogen absorption of Zr- 1Nb with TiNx and Ti/TiNx at 623 K was reduced in comparison with uncoated Zr-1Nb. No peeling or cracks of Ti/TiNx coatings is observed after thermal cycling up to 1073 K. The high temperature (1073 K) hydrogenation behaviour differs from the hydrogenation at lower temperature by increasing the amount of dissolved hydrogen in the β-phase of zirconium. The higher rate of hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb with TiNx was observed due to the coating delamination as a result of differences in thermal expansion coefficients, while Ti/TiNx demonstrates the lower hydrogen absorption at 1073 K and good adhesion strength.

  13. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Dopamine Uptake in the Somatic Cell Hybrid NX31

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    AFRRI SR75-21 AUGUST 1975 AFRRI SCIENTIFIC REPORT CM CO DOPAMINE UPTAKE IN THE SOMATIC CELL HYBRID NX31 P. R. Myers W. G. Shaln, Jr...Sciences - National Research Council. AFRRI SR75-21 August 1975 DOPAMINE UPTAKE IN THE SOMATIC CELL HYBRID NX31 P. R. MYERS W. G. SHAIN...Introduction 1 II. Experimental Methods 2 Materials 2 Cell lines 2 Dopamine uptake experiments 3 Metabolism of accumulated dopamine 5

  15. Effect of PECVD SiNx/SiOyNx-Si interface property on surface passivation of silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Chun-Lan; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Zhou, Su; Wang, Wen-Jing

    2016-12-01

    It is studied in this paper that the electrical characteristics of the interface between SiOyNx/SiNx stack and silicon wafer affect silicon surface passivation. The effects of precursor flow ratio and deposition temperature of the SiOyNx layer on interface parameters, such as interface state density Dit and fixed charge Qf, and the surface passivation quality of silicon are observed. Capacitance-voltage measurements reveal that inserting a thin SiOyNx layer between the SiNx and the silicon wafer can suppress Qf in the film and Dit at the interface. The positive Qf and Dit and a high surface recombination velocity in stacks are observed to increase with the introduced oxygen and minimal hydrogen in the SiOyNx film increasing. Prepared by deposition at a low temperature and a low ratio of N2O/SiH4 flow rate, the SiOyNx/SiNx stacks result in a low effective surface recombination velocity (Seff) of 6 cm/s on a p-type 1 Ω·cm-5 Ω·cm FZ silicon wafer. The positive relationship between Seff and Dit suggests that the saturation of the interface defect is the main passivation mechanism although the field-effect passivation provided by the fixed charges also make a contribution to it. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA050302) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61306076).

  16. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  17. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  18. Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5Nx) Viruses with Altered H5 Receptor-Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongbo; de Vries, Erik; McBride, Ryan; Dekkers, Jojanneke; Peng, Wenjie; Bouwman, Kim M.; Nycholat, Corwin; Verheije, M. Helene; Paulson, James C.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5Nx) virus clade 2.3.4.4 is unprecedented. H5N8 and H5N2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in Europe and North America, and lethal human infections with H5N6 virus have occurred in Asia. Knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. We report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in receptor-binding specificity. In contrast to ancestral clade 2.3.4 H5 proteins, novel clade 2.3.4.4 H5 proteins bind to fucosylated sialosides because of substitutions K222Q and S227R, which are unique for highly pathogenic influenza virus H5 proteins. North American clade 2.3.4.4 virus isolates have retained only the K222Q substitution but still bind fucosylated sialosides. Altered receptor-binding specificity of virus clade 2.3.4.4 H5 proteins might have contributed to emergence and spread of H5Nx viruses. PMID:27869615

  19. Structural Analysis Using NX Nastran 9.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rolewicz, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    NX Nastran is a powerful Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software package used to solve linear and non-linear models for structural and thermal systems. The software, which consists of both a solver and user interface, breaks down analysis into four files, each of which are important to the end results of the analysis. The software offers capabilities for a variety of types of analysis, and also contains a respectable modeling program. Over the course of ten weeks, I was trained to effectively implement NX Nastran into structural analysis and refinement for parts of two missions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, the Restore mission and the Orion mission.

  20. Structural and electrical properties of SiNx:H films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yuichi; Gibson, Roderick A. G.; LeComber, Peter G.

    1993-05-01

    The electronic structure in off-stoichiometric SiNx:H films has been investigated using plasma-deposited films prepared from a mixture of ammonia (NH3) and silane (SiH4) for various gas ratio R (=NH3/SiH4). Metal-insulator-metal diodes incorporating SiNx:H films prepared using R values from 0.2 to 5 were fabricated and the electrical characteristics of these diodes were measured. The properties of the SiNx:H films were also evaluated by ultraviolet-visible, infrared, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For the R range investigated, the optical band gaps and x values in the films varied from 1.6 to 3.6 eV and from 0.19 to 1.09, respectively. The hydrogen bonding configuration also changed from isolated Si—H bonds, with no adjacent Si—N bond, to multi-N-bonded Si—H bonds as R was increased. The anomalous behavior of the dynamic relative permittivity was observed and the existence of two traps with a different energy was deduced. The results of these electrical measurements are discussed and related to those of the compositional investigations.

  1. New understanding of hardening mechanism of TiN/SiNx-based nanocomposite films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the controversies of hardening mechanism for TiN/SiNx-based nanocomposite films, the microstructure and hardness for TiN/SiNx and TiAlN/SiNx nanocomposite films with different Si content were studied. With the increase of Si content, the crystallization degree for two series of films firstly increases and then decreases. The microstructural observations suggest that when SiNx interfacial phase reaches to a proper thickness, it can be crystallized between adjacent TiN or TiAlN nanocrystallites, which can coordinate misorientations between nanocrystallites and grow coherently with them, resulting in blocking of the dislocation motions and hardening of the film. The microstructure of TiN/SiNx-based nanocomposite film can be characterized as the nanocomposite structure with TiN-based nanocrystallites surrounded by crystallized SiNx interfacial phase, which can be denoted by nc-TiN/c-SiNx model ('c’ before SiNx means crystallized) and well explain the coexistence between nanocomposite structure and columnar growth structure within the TiN/SiNx-based film. PMID:24134611

  2. Backbone NxH compounds at high pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Holtgrewe, Nicholas; Qian, Guangrui; ...

    2015-06-05

    Optical and synchrotron x-ray diffraction diamond anvil cell experiments have been combined with first principles theoretical structure predictions to investigate mixtures of N2 and H2 up to 55 GPa. Our experiments show the formation of structurally complex van der Waals compounds above 10 GPa. However, we found that these NxH (0.52, H2, and NH3 above approximately 40 GPa. Lastly, our results suggest new pathways for synthesis of environmentally benign high energy-density materials. These materials could also exist as alternative planetary ices.

  3. Generators for the elliptic curve y2 = x3-nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yasutsugu; Terai, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-01

    Let E:y2 = x3-nx be an elliptic curve over the rationals with a positive integer n. Mordell's theorem asserts that the group of rational points on E is finitely generated. Our interest is in the generators for its free part. Duquesne (2007) showed that if n = (2k2-2k+1)(18k2+30k+17) is square-free, then certain two points of infinite order can always be in a system of generators. We generalize this result and show that the same is true for "infinitely many" infinite families n = n(k,l) with two variables.

  4. Constructing optimal entanglement witnesses. II. Witnessing entanglement in 4Nx4N systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Pytel, Justyna

    2010-11-15

    We provide a class of optimal nondecomposable entanglement witnesses for 4Nx4N composite quantum systems or, equivalently, another construction of nondecomposable positive maps in the algebra of 4Nx4N complex matrices. This construction provides natural generalization of the Robertson map. It is shown that their structural physical approximations give rise to entanglement breaking channels.

  5. The enigma of the apparent disappearance of Eurasian highly pathogenic H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Scott; Stallknecht, David E; Slemons, Richard D; Bowman, Andrew S; Poulson, Rebecca L; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Knowles, James P; Webster, Robert G

    2016-08-09

    One of the major unresolved questions in influenza A virus (IAV) ecology is exemplified by the apparent disappearance of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 (H5Nx) viruses containing the Eurasian hemagglutinin 2.3.4.4 clade from wild bird populations in North America. The introduction of Eurasian lineage HP H5 clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 IAV and subsequent reassortment with low-pathogenic H?N2 and H?N1 North American wild bird-origin IAVs in late 2014 resulted in widespread HP H5Nx IAV infections and outbreaks in poultry and wild birds across two-thirds of North America starting in November 2014 and continuing through June 2015. Although the stamping out strategies adopted by the poultry industry and animal health authorities in Canada and the United States-which included culling, quarantining, increased biosecurity, and abstention from vaccine use-were successful in eradicating the HP H5Nx viruses from poultry, these activities do not explain the apparent disappearance of these viruses from migratory waterfowl. Here we examine current and historical aquatic bird IAV surveillance and outbreaks of HP H5Nx in poultry in the United States and Canada, providing additional evidence of unresolved mechanisms that restrict the emergence and perpetuation of HP avian influenza viruses in these natural reservoirs.

  6. The enigma of the apparent disappearance of Eurasian highly pathogenic H5 clade 2.3.4.4 influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Scott; Stallknecht, David E.; Slemons, Richard D.; Bowman, Andrew S.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Knowles, James P.; Webster, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major unresolved questions in influenza A virus (IAV) ecology is exemplified by the apparent disappearance of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 (H5Nx) viruses containing the Eurasian hemagglutinin 2.3.4.4 clade from wild bird populations in North America. The introduction of Eurasian lineage HP H5 clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 IAV and subsequent reassortment with low-pathogenic H?N2 and H?N1 North American wild bird-origin IAVs in late 2014 resulted in widespread HP H5Nx IAV infections and outbreaks in poultry and wild birds across two-thirds of North America starting in November 2014 and continuing through June 2015. Although the stamping out strategies adopted by the poultry industry and animal health authorities in Canada and the United States—which included culling, quarantining, increased biosecurity, and abstention from vaccine use—were successful in eradicating the HP H5Nx viruses from poultry, these activities do not explain the apparent disappearance of these viruses from migratory waterfowl. Here we examine current and historical aquatic bird IAV surveillance and outbreaks of HP H5Nx in poultry in the United States and Canada, providing additional evidence of unresolved mechanisms that restrict the emergence and perpetuation of HP avian influenza viruses in these natural reservoirs. PMID:27457948

  7. Low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids ameliorates proteinuria in 3/4 nephrectomised rats by directly inhibiting the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Ying; Yin, Ying; Ni, Li; Long, Quan; You, Li; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shan-Yan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks. Sham-operated rats fed NPD served as controls. The level of proteinuria and expression of renin, angiotensin II (AngII) and its type 1 receptors (AT1R) in the renal cortex were markedly higher in Nx-NPD group than in the sham group. LPD+KA significantly decreased the proteinuria and inhibited intrarenal RAS activation. To exclude renal haemodynamic impact on intrarenal RAS, the serum samples derived from the different groups were added to the culture medium of mesangial cells. It showed that the serum from Nx-NPD directly induced higher expression of AngII, AT1R, fibronectin and transforming growth factor-β1 in the mesangial cells than in the control group. Nx-LPD+KA serum significantly inhibited these abnormalities. Then, proteomics and biochemical detection suggested that the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of LPD+KA might be amelioration of the nutritional metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. In conclusion, LPD+KA could directly inhibit the intrarenal RAS activation, independently of renal haemodynamics, thus attenuating the proteinuria in CKD rats.

  8. N-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx x-ray image detectors for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fann, Sen-Shyong; Jiang, Yeu-Long; Hwang, Huey-Liang

    2003-06-01

    An innovative hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiode based x-ray detector for medical imaging applications has been developed in this work. Basically, the detector is a p-i-n photodiode, with a very simple modification by depositing a stacked silicon nitride (SiNx) layer on the p-layer (n-i-p-SiNx) or n-layer (p-i-n-SiNx) of this diode. The dielectric layer functioned as the major charge storage element of the pixel, and p-i-n as the photon-charge converter, separately. The charge storage capacity is larger as the nitride layer is thinner. Consequently, dynamic range, linearity, and data retention of the image array were significantly improved. The novel detector also offers a scheme to independently optimize the photo sensitivity and charge storage capacity of a p-i-n photodiode based pixel. Instead of the conventional p-i-n photodiodes, the novel detectors are proposed to employ in the active matrix, flat-panel imager, with the favor that the signal readout electronics and the TFT driving circuitry are unchanged. The changes include only the bias voltage, whch as a bi-level waveform, as well as the timing for turning on/off the switching thin film transistors (TFTs). The fundamentals of the n-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx detectors are addressed, and the performances of these two novel detectors and the conventional p-i-n photodiode are compared. Additionally, the different performances, such as the speed, between n-i-p-SiNx and p-i-n-SiNx will be particularly discussed.

  9. SiNx Charge Trap Nonvolatile Memory Based on ZnO Thin Film Transistor Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Lee, K.; Kim, D.; Parsons, G. N.; Park, K.

    2011-12-01

    We fabricated a nonvolatile thin film transistor (TFT) memory with SiNx charge traps using a ZnO thin film as an active channel layer. The thin film of ZnO was deposited by using atomic layer deposition process at TALD = 125 °C. The ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoemission measurements. The electrical measurements of the nonvolatile TFT memory showed a field-effect mobility of 2.95 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage of -7.24 V, a subthreshold swing of 1.7 V/dec, and an on/off ratio of 3.4×105. From the C-V measurement, the memory window of 2 V was obtained.

  10. Multiple M0-brane system in an arbitrary eleven-dimensional supergravity background

    SciTech Connect

    Bandos, Igor A.

    2010-11-15

    The equations of motion of multiple M0-brane (multiple M-wave or mM0) systems in an arbitrary D=11 supergravity superspace, which generalize the matrix model equations for the case of interaction with a generic 11-dimensional supergravity background, are obtained in the frame of the superembedding approach. We also derive the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) equations for supersymmetric bosonic solutions of these mM0 equations and show that the set of 1/2 BPS solutions contain a fuzzy sphere modeling M2 brane as well as that the Nahm equation appears as a particular case of the 1/4 BPS equations.

  11. Characterization of SiO2/SiNx gate insulators for graphene based nanoelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóvári, E.; Csontos, M.; Kriváchy, T.; Fürjes, P.; Csonka, S.

    2014-09-01

    The structural and magnetotransport characterization of graphene nanodevices exfoliated onto Si/SiO2/SiNx heterostructures are presented. Improved visibility of the deposited flakes is achieved by optimal tuning of the dielectric film thicknesses. The conductance of single layer graphene Hall-bar nanostructures utilizing SiO2/SiNx gate dielectrics were characterized in the quantum Hall regime. Our results highlight that, while exhibiting better mechanical and chemical stability, the effect of non-stoichiometric SiNx on the charge carrier mobility of graphene is comparable to that of SiO2, demonstrating the merits of SiNx as an ideal material platform for graphene based nanoelectromechanical applications.

  12. Recrystallization of AlNx (x < 1) thin films induced by N implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Namba, S.; Fujihana, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Dai, Y.; Iwaki, M.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of ion implantation on recrystallization of films has been investigated using AlNx (x<1) films as targets. The 750 Å AlNx (x<1) films were deposited on Si(111), glassy carbon, and commercial glass by an activated reactive evaporation method in a nitrogen atmosphere. The 80 keV N+ implantations were carried out near room temperature with doses ranging from 5×1016 to 5×1017 N+ions/cm2 at 1×10-6 Torr. The x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that N implantation enhances a (002) orientation of AlN, growth of which depends on doses. The optical transmittance of the AlNx films is also improved by N implantation, depending on doses. N implantation into AlNx (x<1) even without any annealing is effective for recrystallization of the films, which leads to improvement of optical properties.

  13. Effects of Resistivity and Viscosity on m =0 Rise and Fall Time in the RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futch, A. M.; Craig, D.; Hesse, R.; Jacobson, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the reversed field pinch (RFP), poloidal mode number m =0 fluctuations are driven in a sawtooth cycle via nonlinear coupling with unstable m =1 tearing modes. We explore how the rise and fall time of these m =0 fluctuations depends on resistivity and viscosity in visco-resistive MHD simulations using the DEBS code. Both the Lundquist number (S) and magnetic Prandtl number (Pr) affect the rise/fall time. Analysis of MST experimental data also shows that both the rise and fall times of the m =0 amplitude vary with S. The variation observed in experiment is consistent with simulation results for rise time, but shows some differences for fall time. Rise time is insensitive to the resistivity profile but depends slightly on the viscosity profile. Fall time is strongly correlated with the duration of the crash which depends on both resistivity and viscosity profiles. These results suggest that the rise and fall time of the m =0 modes at the sawtooth crash is not strongly influenced by the local resistivity near the resonant surface but instead is primarily determined by the overall dynamics of the entire sawtooth cycle. The role of viscosity is less clear though the edge viscosity affects the m =0 evolution more than the core. This work has been supported by the U.S.D.O.E.

  14. Resistive switching characteristics of Pt/TaOx/HfNx structure and its performance improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qigang; Zhai, Jiwei

    2013-03-01

    The refractory transition metal nitride (TMN) film Hafnium nitride (HfNx) was successfully prepared on silicon-based substrates as bottom electrodes for resistive random access memory (RRAM) cells in Pt (top)/metal oxide/ HfNx (bottom) sandwich structure. The reproducible resistive switching (RS) characteristics of the memory cells were studied systematically for RRAM applications. The advantages of adopting HfNx instead of Pt as bottom electrode material were demonstrated, including the improvement of the low resistive state value, the RS endurance and the uniformity of RS parameters. The composition and chemical bonding states of the prepared HfNx was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The nitrogen content in the HfNx and the Gibbs free energy of the corresponding metal oxide formation has great influences on the RS properties. The oxygen reservoir ability and diffusion barrier effect of the HfNx play a key role in the RS performance improvement of the RRAM devices.

  15. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  16. Cytogenetic profile of minimally differentiated (FAB M0) acute myeloid leukemia: correlation with clinicobiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, A; Ferrant, A; Michaux, J L; Boogaerts, M; Demuynck, H; Van Orshoven, A; Criel, A; Stul, M; Dal Cin, P; Hernandez, J

    1995-06-15

    Cytogenetic data were studied in 26 patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with minimal myeloid differentiation, corresponding to the M0 subtype of the French-American-British classification, in correlation with cytoimmunologic and clinical findings. Clonal abnormalities were detected in 21 cases (80.7%), 12 of which had a complex karyotype. Partial or total monosomy 5q and/or 7q was found, either as the sole aberration or in all abnormal metaphases, in 11 patients; in 8 cases, additional chromosome changes were present, including rearrangements involving 12p12-13 and 2p12-15 seen in 3 cases each. Five patients had trisomy 13 as a possible primary chromosome change; in 5 cases, nonrecurrent chromsome abnormalities were observed. Comparison of these findings with chromosome data from 42 patients with AML-M1 shows that abnormal karyotypes, complex karyotypes, unbalanced chromosome changes (-5/5q- and/or -7/7q- and +13) were observed much more frequently in AML-M0 than in AML-M1. Patients with abnormalities of chromosome 5 and/or 7 frequently showed trilineage myelodysplasia and low white blood cell count. Despite their relatively young age, complete remission was achieved in 4 of 11 patients only. Patients with +13 were elderly males with frequent professional exposure to myelotoxic agents. Unlike patients with clonal abnormalities, most AML-M0 patients with normal karyotype showed 1% to 2% peroxidase-positive blast cells at light microscopy and frequently achieved CR. It is concluded that (1) AML-M0 shows a distinct cytogenetic profile, partially recalling that of therapy-related AML, (2) different cytogenetic groups of AML-M0 can be identified showing characteristic clinicobiologic features, and (3) chromosome rearrangements may partially account for the unfavorable outcome frequently observed in these patients.

  17. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  18. Novel Sequence-Based Mapping of Recently Emerging H5NX Influenza Viruses Reveals Pandemic Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher S.; DeDiego, Marta L.; Thakar, Juilee; Topham, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an avian influenza virus, H5NX subclade 2.3.4.4, emerged and spread to North America. This subclade has frequently reassorted, leading to multiple novel viruses capable of human infection. Four cases of human infections, three leading to death, have already occurred. Existing vaccine strains do not protect against these new viruses, raising a need to identify new vaccine candidate strains. We have developed a novel sequence-based mapping (SBM) tool capable of visualizing complex protein sequence data sets using a single intuitive map. We applied SBM on the complete set of avian H5 viruses in order to better understand hemagglutinin protein variance amongst H5 viruses and identify any patterns associated with this variation. The analysis successfully identified the original reassortments that lead to the emergence of this new subclade of H5 viruses, as well as their known unusual ability to re-assort among neuraminidase subtypes. In addition, our analysis revealed distinct clusters of 2.3.4.4 variants that would not be covered by existing strains in the H5 vaccine stockpile. The results suggest that our method may be useful for pandemic candidate vaccine virus selection. PMID:27494186

  19. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  20. NxRepair: error correction in de novo sequence assembly using Nextera mate pairs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rebecca R; O'Connell, Jared; Cox, Anthony J; Schulz-Trieglaff, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolding errors and incorrect repeat disambiguation during de novo assembly can result in large scale misassemblies in draft genomes. Nextera mate pair sequencing data provide additional information to resolve assembly ambiguities during scaffolding. Here, we introduce NxRepair, an open source toolkit for error correction in de novo assemblies that uses Nextera mate pair libraries to identify and correct large-scale errors. We show that NxRepair can identify and correct large scaffolding errors, without use of a reference sequence, resulting in quantitative improvements in the assembly quality. NxRepair can be downloaded from GitHub or PyPI, the Python Package Index; a tutorial and user documentation are also available.

  1. Trap density of GeNx/Ge interface fabricated by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Otani, Yohei; Toyota, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshiro

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated GeNx/Ge interface properties using Si3N4(7 nm)/GeNx(2 nm)/Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor structures fabricated by the plasma nitridation of Ge substrates using an electron-cyclotron-resonance-generated nitrogen plasma. The interface trap density (Dit) measured by the conductance method is found to be distributed symmetrically in the Ge band gap with a minimum Dit value lower than 3 × 1011 cm-2eV-1 near the midgap. This result may lead to the development of processes for the fabrication of p- and n-Ge Schottky-barrier (SB) source/drain metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors using chemically and thermally robust GeNx dielectrics as interlayers for SB source/drain contacts and high-κ gate dielectrics.

  2. Linear Analysis of the m=0 Instability for a Visco-resistive Hall MHD Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    2006-01-05

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear dispersion relation for the axisymmetric (m=0) compressible interchange instability of Bennett equilibria in a visco-resistive, Hall MHD plasma. The full anisotropic stress tensor with Braginskii viscous coefficients is considered. The eigenvalues are obtained numerically. For small axial mode number, Hall currents enhance the growth rates, whereas in the limit of high mode number the growth rates are suppressed, eventually resulting in wave cutoff, even in the ideal limit. For the visco-resistive plasma the unstable spectra are weakly dependent on the off-diagonal elements of the stress tensor.

  3. Fe-Nx/C assisted chemical-mechanical polishing for improving the removal rate of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li; Zou, Chunli; Shi, Xiaolei; Pan, Guoshun; Luo, Guihai; Zhou, Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-Nx/C) is used to improve the removal mass of sapphire as well as obtain atomically smooth sapphire wafer surfaces. The results indicate that Fe-Nx/C shows good catalytic activity towards sapphire removal rate. And the material removal rates (MRRs) are found to vary with the catalyst content in the polishing fluid. Especially that when the polishing slurry mixes with 16 ppm Fe-Nx/C shows the maximum MRR and its removal mass of sapphire is 38.43 nm/min, more than 15.44% larger than traditional CMP using the colloidal silicon dioxide (SiO2) without Fe-Nx/C. Catalyst-assisted chemical-mechanical polishing of sapphire is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the formation of a soft hydration layer (boehmite, γ-AlOOH or γ-AlO(OH)) on sapphire surface facilitates the material removal and achieving fine surface finish on basal plane. Abrasives (colloid silica together with magnetite, ingredient of Fe-Nx/C) with a hardness between boehmite and sapphire polish the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. Fe2O3, Fe3O4, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group would be the catalytical active sites and accelerate this process. Surface quality is characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optimum CMP removal by Fe-Nx/C also yields a superior surface finish of 0.078 nm the average roughness (Ra).

  4. Isotropic plasma etching of Ge Si and SiNx films

    DOE PAGES

    Henry, Michael David; Douglas, Erica Ann

    2016-08-31

    This study reports on selective isotropic dry etching of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Ge thin film, release layers using a Shibaura chemical downstream etcher (CDE) with NF3 and Ar based plasma chemistry. Relative etch rates between Ge, Si and SiNx are described with etch rate reductions achieved by adjusting plasma chemistry with O2. Formation of oxides reducing etch rates were measured for both Ge and Si, but nitrides or oxy-nitrides created using direct injection of NO into the process chamber were measured to increase Si and SiNx etch rates while retarding Ge etching.

  5. Application of NX Siemens PLM software in educational process in preparing students of engineering branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadchikova, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the results of the introduction of computer-aided design NX by Siemens Plm Software to the classes of a higher education institution. The necessity of application of modern information technologies in teaching students of engineering profile and selection of a software product is substantiated. The author describes stages of the software module study in relation to some specific courses, considers the features of NX software, which require the creation of standard and unified product databases. The article also gives examples of research carried out by the students with the various software modules.

  6. Interaction of Cu with CoSi2 with and without TiNx barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowolafe, J. O.; Li, Jian; Blanpain, B.; Mayer, J. W.

    1990-09-01

    Thermally induced interactions of Cu with CoSi2, with and without interposed TiNx layers, have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Cu diffuses through a preformed CoSi2 layer to form the structure Cu/CoSi2/Cu3Si/Si at temperatures above 300 °C, and no dissociation of CoSi2 occurs. A 50 nm TiNx(x≊1) layer is observed to be an effective diffusion barrier up to about 500 °C between Cu and CoSi2.

  7. Negative differential resistance induced by SiNx co-dopant in armchair graphene nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cai-Ping; Hu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Zhao-Jin; Liu, Quanhui; Chen, Ying; Peng, Ping

    2014-11-01

    By adopting density functional theory in combination with nonequilibrium Green's functions, we investigated the electronic structure and transport properties of silicon/nitrogen (Si/N) co-doping armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with SiNx co-dopant incorporated in neighboring carbon atoms. The results demonstrate that the electronic structure can be modulated by introducing SiNx co-dopants in AGNRs. The striking negative differential resistance behaviors in the range of low bias can be observed in Si/N co-doped AGNR devices. These remarkable properties suggest the potential application of Si/N co-doping AGNRs in molectronics.

  8. Intel NX to PVM 3.2 message passing conversion library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey; Nelson, Michael L.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has developed a library that allows Intel NX message passing codes to be executed under the more popular and widely supported Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) message passing library. PVM was developed at Oak Ridge National Labs and has become the defacto standard for message passing. This library will allow the many programs that were developed on the Intel iPSC/860 or Intel Paragon in a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) design to be ported to the numerous architectures that PVM (version 3.2) supports. Also, the library adds global operations capability to PVM. A familiarity with Intel NX and PVM message passing is assumed.

  9. I-deas TMG to NX Space Systems Thermal Model Conversion and Computational Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan

    2011-01-01

    CAD/CAE packages change on a continuous basis as the power of the tools increase to meet demands. End -users must adapt to new products as they come to market and replace legacy packages. CAE modeling has continued to evolve and is constantly becoming more detailed and complex. Though this comes at the cost of increased computing requirements Parallel processing coupled with appropriate hardware can minimize computation time. Users of Maya Thermal Model Generator (TMG) are faced with transitioning from NX I -deas to NX Space Systems Thermal (SST). It is important to understand what differences there are when changing software packages We are looking for consistency in results.

  10. I-deas TMG to NX Space Systems Thermal Model Conversion and Computational Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan

    2011-01-01

    CAD/CAE packages change on a continuous basis as the power of the tools increase to meet demands. End -users must adapt to new products as they come to market and replace legacy packages. CAE modeling has continued to evolve and is constantly becoming more detailed and complex. Though this comes at the cost of increased computing requirements Parallel processing coupled with appropriate hardware can minimize computation time. Users of Maya Thermal Model Generator (TMG) are faced with transitioning from NX I -deas to NX Space Systems Thermal (SST). It is important to understand what differences there are when changing software packages We are looking for consistency in results.

  11. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M; Maiti, Sourindra N; Thomas, Ginu; Zhou, Shouhao; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D; Yaghi, Nasser K; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S; Prabhu, Sujit S; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A; Bruner, Janet M; Fuller, Gregory N; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R; Curran, Michael A; Bhat, Krishna P; Antel, Jack P; Cooper, Laurence J; Sulman, Erik P; Heimberger, Amy B

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b(+) cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages.

  12. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  13. Modes in a non-neutral plasma of finite length, m=0,1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasband, S. Neil; Spencer, Ross L.

    2003-04-01

    For realistic, cold equilibria of finite length representing a pure electron plasma confined in a cylindrical Malmberg-Penning trap, the mode spectrum for Trivelpiece-Gould, m=0, and for diocotron, m=1, modes is calculated numerically. A novel method involving finite elements is used to successfully compute eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions for plasma equilibria shaped like pancakes, cigars, long cylinders, and all things in between. Mostly sharp-boundary density configurations are considered but also included in this study are diffuse density profiles including ones with peaks off axis leading to instabilities. In all cases the focus has been on elucidating the role of finite length in determining mode frequencies and shapes. For m=0 accurate eigenfrequencies are tabulated and their dependence on mode number and aspect ratio is computed. For m=1 it is found that the eigenfrequencies are 2% to 3% higher than given by the Fine-Driscoll formula [Phys. Plasmas 5, 601 (1998)]. The "new modes" of Hilsabeck and O'Neil [Phys. Plasmas 8, 407 (2001)] are identified as Dubin modes. For hollow profiles finite length in cold-fluid can account for up to ˜70% of the theoretical instability growth rate.

  14. Cosmic space and Pauli exclusion principle in a system of M0-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Bamba, Kazuharu; Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pincak, Richard; Pradhan, Anirudh

    An emergence of cosmic space has been suggested by Padmanabhan [Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to the quest for holographic equipartition, arXiv:hep-th/1206.4916] where he proposed that the expansion of the universe originates from a difference between the number of degrees of freedom on a holographic surface and the one in the emerged bulk. Now, a natural question that arises is how this proposal would explain the production of fermions and an emergence of the Pauli exclusion principle during the evolution of the universe? We try to address this issue in a system of M0-branes. In this model, there is a high symmetry and the system is composed of M0-branes to which only scalar fields are attached that represent scalar modes of the graviton. Then, when M0-branes join each other and hence form M1-branes, this symmetry is broken and gauge fields are formed. Therefore, these M1-branes interact with the anti-M1-branes and the force between them leads to a break of a symmetry such as the lower and upper parts of these branes are not the same. In these conditions, gauge fields which are localized on M1-branes and scalars which are attached to them symmetrically, decay to fermions with upper and lower spins which attach to the upper and lower parts of the M1-branes anti-symmetrically. The curvature produced by the coupling of identical spins has the opposite sign of the curvature produced by non-identical spins which lead to an attractive force between anti-parallel spins and a repelling force between parallel spins and hence an emergence of the Pauli exclusion principle. By approaching M1-branes to each other, the difference between curvatures of parallel spins and curvatures of anti-parallel spins increases, which leads to an inequality between the number of degrees of freedom on the surface and the one in the emerged bulk and hence lead to an occurrence of the cosmic expansion. By approaching M1-branes to each other, the square of the energy of the

  15. Defect termination on crystalline silicon surfaces by hydrogen for improvement in the passivation quality of catalytic chemical vapor-deposited SiNx and SiNx/P catalytic-doped layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham Thi, Trinh; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the role of hydrogen (H) in the improvement in the passivation quality of silicon nitride (SiNx) prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and Cat-CVD SiNx/phosphorus (P) Cat-doped layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) by annealing. Both structures show promising passivation capabilities for c-Si with extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) on n-type c-Si. Defect termination by H is evaluated on the basis of defect density (Nd) determined by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and interface state density (Dit) calculated by the Terman method. The two parameters are found to be drastically decreased by annealing after SiNx deposition. The calculated average Dit at midgap (Dit-average) is 2.2 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si sample with a SRV of 2 cm/s, which is equivalent to 3.1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2 for the SiNx/c-Si sample with a SRV of 5 cm/s after annealing. The results indicate that H atoms play a critical role in the reduction in Dit for SiNx/c-Si and SiNx/P Cat-doped c-Si, resulting in a drastic reduction in SRV by annealing.

  16. Recent results on the peformance of EFOS, NP and NX hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.; Ingold, J. S.; Stalder, T.; Saifi, M.; Dachel, P.; Wardrip, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Work Assignment, Bendix Field Engineering Corporation evaluated the performance of the Oscilloquartz EPOS-2 hydrogen maser along with that of NASA NX-3 and NP-2 hydrogen masers in early 1983. This paper presents the results of that evaluation.

  17. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC1-xNx fuel microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemer, T. B.; Silva, C. M.; Henry, J. J.; McMurray, J. W.; Voit, S. L.; Collins, J. L.; Hunt, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ∼820-μm-dia. UC1-xNx fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO3-H2O-C microspheres in Ar and H2-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO2-C kernels to dense UO2:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N2 to UC1-xNx (x = ∼0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO2:2UC kernel of ∼96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequent conversion to UC1-xNx at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ∼83-86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC1-xNx kernel nitride component to ∼0.98 in flowing N2-H2 mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H2 in the entire process.

  18. The geographic distribution and complex evolutionary history of the NX-2 trichothecene chemotype from Fusarium graminearum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    F. graminearum and 21 related species form a species complex (FSAMSC-1) characterized by production of type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce NX-2, a novel type A trichothecene, resulting from variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1...

  19. Quantification of process variables for carbothermic synthesis of UC1-xNx fuel microspheres

    DOE PAGES

    Lindemer, Terrance B.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Henry, Jr, John James; ...

    2016-11-05

    This report details the continued investigation of process variables involved in converting sol-gel-derived, urania-carbon microspheres to ~820-μm-dia. UC1-xNx fuel kernels in flow-through, vertical Mo and W crucibles at temperatures up to 2123 K. Experiments included calcining of air-dried UO3-H2O-C microspheres in Ar and H2-containing gases, conversion of the resulting UO2-C kernels to dense UO2:2UC in the same gases and vacuum, and its conversion in N2 to UC1-xNx (x = ~0.85). The thermodynamics of the relevant reactions were applied extensively to interpret and control the process variables. Producing the precursor UO2:2UC kernel of ~96% theoretical density was required, but its subsequentmore » conversion to UC1-xNx at 2123 K was not accompanied by sintering and resulted in ~83-86% of theoretical density. Increasing the UC1-xNx kernel nitride component to ~0.98 in flowing N2-H2 mixtures to evolve HCN was shown to be quantitatively consistent with present and past experiments and the only useful application of H2 in the entire process.« less

  20. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  1. The Equation R[subscript n]x = b over Rhotrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we consider the concept of rhotrices and present one-sided system of the form R[subscript n]x = b, where R[subscript n] is an n-dimensional rhotrix, x the unknown n-dimensional rhotrix vector and b the right-hand-side rhotrix vector.

  2. A non-platinum counter electrode, MnNx/C, for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Suman; M. P., Karthikayini; Wang, Guanxiong; Mandal, Sudip; Bhobe, Preeti. A.; Ramani, Vijay K.; Priolkar, K. R.; Ramanujam, Kothandaraman

    2017-10-01

    A non-platinum metal catalyst, MnNx/C was synthesized via the high-pressure pyrolysis route. The combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies indicated the presence of Mn in +2 oxidation state surrounded by four N atoms. The peak-to-peak separation (ΔEp) of the more negative peak pair observed for I3-/I- redox couple over MnNx/C catalyst was 20 mV lower than that of the Pt catalyst, indicating high reversibility of the redox couple over MnNx/C catalyst. The charge transfer resistance of the MnNx/C electrode, as measured by the impedance spectroscopy, is ∼ 2 Ω higher than that of Pt, which resulted slightly lower short circuit current (Jsc) value for MnNx/C over Pt, however the fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of MnNx/C was slightly higher and comparable to that of Pt respectively. Hence; replacing Pt with MnNx/C would decrease the cost of DSSCs.

  3. Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to M0-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Recently, Padmanabhan (arXiv:1206.4916 [hep-th]) discussed that the difference between the number of degrees of freedom on the boundary surface and the number of degrees of freedom in a bulk region causes the accelerated expansion of the universe. The main question arising is: what is the origin of this inequality between the surface degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom? We answer this question in M-theory. In our model, first M0-branes are compactified on one circle and N D0-branes are created. Then N D0-branes join each other, grow, and form one D5-branes. Next, the D5-brane is compactified on two circles and our universe's D3-brane, two D1-branes and some extra energies are produced. After that, one of the D1-branes, which is closer to the universe's brane, gives its energy into it, and this leads to an increase in the difference between the numbers of degrees of freedom and the occurring inflation era. With the disappearance of this D1-brane, the number of degrees of freedom of boundary surface and bulk region become equal and inflation ends. At this stage, extra energies that are produced due to the compactification cause an expansion of the universe and deceleration epoch. Finally, another D1-brane dissolves in our universe's brane, leads to an inequality between degrees of freedom, and there occurs a new phase of acceleration.

  4. Reoccurrence of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds during 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian-origin H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has become widespread across four continents, affecting poultry, wild birds and humans. H5N1 HPAIV has evolved into multiple hemagglutinin (HA) genetic clades and reassorting with dif...

  5. Observation of helicon wave with m = 0 antenna in a weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingboe, Bert; Sirse, Nishant; Moloney, Rachel; McCarthy, John

    2015-09-01

    Bounded whistler wave, called ``helicon wave,'' is known to produce high-density plasmas and has been exploited as a high density plasma source for many applications, including electric propulsion for spacecraft. In a helicon plasma source, an antenna wrapped around the magnetized plasma column launches a low frequency wave, ωce/2 >ωhelicon >ωce/100, in the plasma which is responsible for maintaining high density plasma. Several antenna designs have been proposed in order to match efficiently the wave modes. In our experiment, helicon wave mode is observed using an m = 0 antenna. A floating B dot probe, compensated to the capacitively coupled E field, is employed to measure axial-wave-field-profiles (z, r, and θ components) in the plasma at multiple radial positions as a function of rf power and pressure. The Bθ component of the rf-field is observed to be unaffected as the wave propagates in the axial direction. Power coupling between the antenna and the plasma column is identified and agrees with the E, H, and wave coupling regimes previously seen in M =1 antenna systems. That is, the Bz component of the rf-field is observed at low plasma density as the Bz component from the antenna penetrates the plasma. The Bz component becomes very small at medium density due to shielding at the centre of the plasma column; however, with increasing density, a sudden ``jump'' occurs in the Bz component above which a standing wave under the antenna with a propagating wave away from the antenna are observed.

  6. Possibility of tilt observation at the sea floor by using the BBOBST-NX system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Ito, A.; Sugioka, H.; Shinohara, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1999, we had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, performed several practical observations to create a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology. Now, the BBOBS data is proved to be acceptable for broadband seismic analyses. In these studies, the period range mostly used is about 10 - 200 s, but in longer period range, i.e. geodetic range, is unknown region in the sea floor observation. High mobility of our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX can be a breakthrough to realize the geodetic observation network on the sea floor. Two kinds of attempts to expand observation range toward the geodetic one have been started since 2009, based on our BBOBS technology. One is for detecting vertical displacement by attaching an absolute pressure gauge (APG) in the BBOBS system. The highly stable frequency oscillator within the OBS recorder is adequate for precise pressure measurement of the APG. This BBOBS+APG system has been operated since 2009. In this presentation, we will report results of several test experiments for the tilt observation just beneath the sea floor by using the BBOBS-NX system, as the second one. The tilt is measured by using two horizontal mass position signals of the sensor. The first test observation was performed by using the same sensor of the BBOBS-NX at the land observatory in 2010. The result was comparable with that of the water tube tilt-meter there. After the in situ test for 2 months at the sea floor in the Shikoku Basin in 2012, we started the practical tilt observation at the sea floor off Boso peninsula (KAP3 site) as the feasibility study between April 2013 and April 2014. The deployment and recovery were performed by the ROV. In both observations, a Doppler current profiler was deployed nearby the BBOBST-NX to monitor bottom currents through the observation period. In January 2014, a slow slip event (SSE) occurred near the KAP3 site. The Mw of the SSE is 6.5, and

  7. Improved power efficiency in phosphorus doped n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zewen; Chen, Kunji; Zhang, Pengzhan; Xu, Jun; Li, Wei; Yang, Huafeng; Huang, Xinfan

    2017-02-01

    The higher up to 60% internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence (PL) from amorphous silicon oxynitride (a-SiNxOy) films has been reported in our previous work. In present work, the improved power efficiency visible light emitting diode (LED) has been realized based on phosphorus doped n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction structure, which is at least three times higher than that of ITO/a-SiNxOy/p-Si (called MIS) LED. The n-a-SiNxOy films were doped by using phosphine (PH3) gas during the deposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and the electron concentration is about 2.4 × 1015 cm-3 at room temperature obtained from Hall-effect measurements. The light emitting (electroluminescence (EL)) peak energy is coincided with that of PL of a-SiNxOy, which suggests that the EL emission is also originated from the radiative recombination via N-Si-O bonding defect states in n-a-SiNxOy layers. The transport mechanism and optical performance of the device have been investigated with the characteristics of current-voltage (I-V) and light output-voltage (L-V), in terms of the energy band diagram of n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction structure. The power law like L ˜ Im of light output-current (L ˜ I) characteristic in n-a-SiNxOy/p-Si heterojunction has also been observed, which exhibits a superlinear behaviour with a slope of 1.35 in the low current range and becomes almost linear with a slope of 1.05 in the high current range, due to the saturation of nonradiative recombination centers.

  8. Hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Nikitenkov, N. N.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Babihina, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    coating for Zr-2.5Nb alloy from hydrogenation. Dense TiNx films were prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (CVA). Hydrogen absorption rate was calculated from the kinetic curves of hydrogen sorption at elevated temperature of the sample (T = 673 K) and pressure (P = 2 atm). Results revealed that TiNx films significantly reduced hydrogen absorption rate of Zr-2.5Nb.

  9. Memristor and selector devices fabricated from HfO2-xNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; Ganesan, R.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Partridge, J. G.

    2016-04-01

    Monoclinic HfO2-xNx has been incorporated into two-terminal devices exhibiting either memristor or selector operation depending on the controlled inclusion/suppression of mobile oxygen vacancies. In HfO2 memristors containing oxygen vacancies, gradual conductance modulation, short-term plasticity, and long-term potentiation were observed using appropriate voltage-spike stimulation, suggesting suitability for artificial neural networks. Passivation of oxygen vacancies, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, was achieved in HfO2-xNx films by the addition of nitrogen during growth. Selector devices formed on these films exhibited threshold switching and current controlled negative differential resistance consistent with thermally driven insulator to metal transitions.

  10. A new Cu(GeNx) alloy film for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a copper alloy [Cu(GeNx)] film is developed for industrial applications by cosputtering Cu and Ge targets on a barrierless Si substrate within a vacuum chamber sparsely filled with N2 gas. Through extensive tests conducted in this study, the alloy film shows good thermal stability and adhesion to the substrate with no noticeable interactions between the film and the substrate after annealing at 720 °C for 1 h. The new Cu(GeNx) alloy film also renders adequate wetting for solders, shows good solderability, and has a dissolution rate lower than pure Cu by at least one order of magnitude, in addition to having a comparable consumption rate to Ni. The alloy film seems suitable for industrial applications in, e.g., barrierless Si metallization, interconnect manufacture and, the replacement of the wetting and diffusion layers for flip-chip solder joints in conventional metallurgy.

  11. Clinical Evaluation of the Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Sarah; Sun, Janet Y.; Stiles, Jeffrey; Gilhuley, Kathleen A.; Mikhlina, Albina; Dunbar, Sherry A.; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of the Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel was performed on 404 clinical respiratory specimens. Clinical sensitivities and specificities of the assay compared to those of the reference methods were 80.0% to 100.0% and 98.9% to 100.0%, respectively. Correct genotyping information was provided for 95.5% of influenza virus A specimens. The closed-tube format of the assay simplified the workflow and minimized carryover contamination. PMID:27122378

  12. Reaction chemistry and optimization of plasma remediation of NxOy from gas streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Ann C.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1995-08-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and regulatory pressure have motivated investigations into energy efficient methods to remove oxides of nitrogen (NxOy) from gas streams resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Plasma remediation of NxOy is potentially an efficient removal technique due to the relative ease of generating reactants by electron-impact processes. Previous works have investigated the use of electron-beam, corona, and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generated plasmas for this purpose. In those works, reduction (N+NO→N2+O) and oxidation (NO2+OH→HNO3) reactions were identified as major removal channels. A computational study of the plasma remediation of NxOy from humid air using repetitively pulsed DBDs is reported. The dominant reaction pathways are discussed and scaling laws are proposed to optimize the energy efficiency of removal. Three reaction periods are identified: the current pulse (during which electron-impact processes generate radicals), the postpulse remediative period (during which NxOy is removed), and the interpulse period (during which the densities of various nitrogen oxides are reapportioned with little net removal). The lifetimes of reactants (OH and O3 in particular) determine the length of these periods and hence the optimum repetition frequency. Optimum repetition rates are typically less than hundreds of Hz. It is also found that a larger number of current pulses producing less energy deposition per pulse results in a higher removal efficiency due to reduced competition from radical-radical reactions which deplete the reactants. The production of unwanted species (e.g., O3 and N2O) can be minimized by reducing or terminating power deposition when the densities NO and NO2 have been reduced to ppm levels. The energy efficiency of remediation generally increases with increasing water content by removing NOx through the oxidation channel, although at the price of producing an acidic end product.

  13. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  14. The metabolite 3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) exerts a higher ecotoxicity than the parent compounds 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and propanil.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongxia; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Nüßer, Leonie Katharina; Floehr, Tilman; Hennig, Michael Patrick; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-05-01

    3,4,3',4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) is not commercially manufactured but formed as an unwanted by-product in the manufacturing of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) or metabolized from the degradation of chloranilide herbicides, like propanil. While a considerable amount of research has been done concerning the toxicological and ecotoxicological effects of propanil and 3,4-DCA, limited information is available on TCAB. Our study examined the toxicity of TCAB in comparison to its parent compounds propanil and 3,4-DCA, using a battery of bioassays including in vitro with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated activity by the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay and micro-EROD, endocrine-disrupting activity with chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) as well as in vivo with fish embryo toxicity (FET) assays with Danio rerio. Moreover, the quantitative structure activity response (QSAR) concepts were applied to simulate the binding affinity of TCAB to certain human receptors. It was shown that TCAB has a strong binding affinity to the AhR in EROD and micro-EROD induction assay, with the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) of 8.7×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-5), respectively. TCAB presented to be a weak endocrine disrupting compound with a value of estradiol equivalence factor (EEF) of 6.4×10(-9) and dihydrotestosterone equivalency factor (DEF) of 1.1×10(-10). No acute lethal effects of TCAB were discovered in FET test after 96h of exposure. Major sub-lethal effects detected were heart oedema, yolk malformation, as well as absence of blood flow and tail deformation. QSAR modelling suggested an elevated risk to environment, particularly with respect to binding to the AhR. An adverse effect potentially triggering ERβ, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor activities might be expected. Altogether, the results obtained suggest that TCAB exerts a higher toxicity than both propanil and 3,4-DCA. This should be considered when assessing the

  15. New Cu(GeNx) film in barrierless metallization for LED heat dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we explore new Cu(Ge) and Cu(GeNx) films for LED heat dissipation. The films are Cu-alloy seed layers, fabricated by co-sputtering Cu and Ge in an Ar or N2 atmosphere on either Ta/Al2O3 or polyimide substrates. The Cu alloy films are then annealed at 600 and 730 °C, respectively, for 1 h without notable Cu oxide formation at the Cu-Ta/Al2O3 interface. No Cu oxide is formed at the Cu-polyimide interface either after annealing the films at 310 °C for 1 h. The film formed atop an Al2O3 substrate contains a trace amount of GeNx and is thermally stable up to 730 °C, and the film formed atop a polyimide substrate is thermally stable up to 310 °C, both exhibiting a low resistivity and a high thermal conductivity. Such a thermal feature makes the Cu(GeNx) film a good candidate material in barrierless metallization for many industrial applications, such as LED heat sinks.

  16. LiHo(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zarkouna, Emna; Driss, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Lithium holmium(III) polyphosphate(V), LiHo(PO3)4, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO3)4, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetra­hedra and 21 inter­nal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetra­hedral and dodeca­hedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho⋯Ho distance being 5.570 (1) Å. PMID:21581738

  17. Oncological outcomes of minimally invasive partial versus minimally invasive radical nephrectomy for cT1-2/N0/M0 clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Simone, Giuseppe; Tuderti, Gabriele; Anceschi, Umberto; Papalia, Rocco; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Misuraca, Leonardo; Minisola, Francesco; Mastroianni, Riccardo; Costantini, Manuela; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Sentinelli, Steno; Gallucci, Michele

    2017-05-01

    To compare the oncologic outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN) and radical nephrectomy (RN) for cT1-2/N0 renal tumors and pathologically confirmed pT1-pT3a-pNx clear cell (cc)-renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Few studies compared the oncologic outcomes of PN and RN for renal tumors >7 cm. A prospective "renal cancer" database was queried for cT<3-cN0-cM0 and pT1a-pT3a-pNx cc-RCC. Out of 1650 cases treated between 2001 and 2013, 921 were cc-RCC and 666 met inclusion criteria, 232 of which treated with minimally invasive RN and 434 with MIPN. A 1:1 propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was employed to minimize the selection bias of non-random assignment of patients to PN as opposed to RN. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the oncologic outcomes of the PSM cohorts. Survival rates were computed at 2, 5, and 10 years after surgery, and the log-rank test was applied to assess statistical significance between the two PSM groups. RN tumors were significantly larger (p < 0.001), with higher pT stages (p < 0.001), higher Fuhrman grades (p = 0.002) and a more frequent sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.04). After applying the PSM analysis, the two cohorts of 155 RN and 155 PN cases did not differ for all clinical and pathologic covariates (all p ≥ 0.32). PN and RN cohorts displayed comparable 5-year metastasis-free survival (88.9 vs 89.9 %, p = 0.811), local recurrence-free survival (94.2 vs 95.9 %, p = 0.283), overall survival (94.5 vs 96.8 %, p = 0.419) and cancer-specific survival (96 vs 98.6 %, p = 0.907) rates. PN and RN for patients with cc-RCC larger than 7 cm provided equivalent oncologic outcomes. Safety and reproducibility of our findings should be further investigated in larger multicentric cohorts.

  18. High-rate deposition of a-SiNx:H for photovoltaic applications by the expanding thermal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W. M. M.; Hong, J.; van Assche, F. J. H.; Moschner, J. D.; Lauinger, T.; Soppe, W. J.; Weeber, A. W.; Schram, D. C.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2002-09-01

    Driven by the need for improvement of the economical competitiveness of photovoltaic energy, the feasibility of high-rate (>1 nm/s) amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx):H deposited by the expanding thermal plasma (ETP) technique has been explored with respect to the application of the a-SiNx:H as functional antireflection coating on crystalline silicon solar cells. First, the deposition rate and the a-SiNx:H film properties, such as refractive index, Si, N, and H atomic density, and hydrogen bonding configurations, have been mapped for various operating conditions. From ellipsometry, elastic recoil detection, and infrared spectroscopy, it has been shown that deposition rates up to 20 nm/s can be reached with a fair film homogeneity and that the refractive index and the N/Si ratio can fully be tuned by the plasma composition while the hydrogen content can be controlled by the substrate temperature. Good antireflection coating performance of the a-SiNx:H has therefore been observed for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. These cells with ETP a-SiNx:H yielded only slightly lower conversion efficiencies than high-quality reference cells due to a much lower degree of surface passivation. This lack of surface passivation has also been shown in a separate study on the surface recombination velocity. Furthermore, it has been tested whether the a-SiNx:H films lead to silicon bulk passivation, which is essential for solar cells based on cheaper, defective silicon stock material such as multicrystalline silicon. It has been proven that bulk passivation of the cells is indeed induced by the high-rate ETP deposited a-SiNx:H after a high-temperature step in which the metal contacts of the cells are processed. These results make the ETP technique an interesting candidate for high-throughput processing of competitive silicon solar cells. copyright 2002 American Vacuum Society.

  19. STARS Proceedings (3-4 December 1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-04

    SUBTITLE S FUNDING NUMBERS STARS 󈨟 Proceedings 3-4 December, 1991 F19628-88-D-0031 6. AUTHOR (S) Paramax Corporation 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...See authorities . Block 4. Title and Subtitle. A title is taken from NASA - See Handbook NH8 2200.2. ,he part of the report that provides the most NTIS...numbers shown in the Authors Index found at the back of these proceedings include a coded prefix (P, 1, 2, 3, or 4) to indicate the part of the

  20. LiDy(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Chehimi-Moumen, Fathia; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO3)4, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy⋯Li distances of 3.54 (1) and 3.48 (1) Å. The DyO8 dodeca­hedra and LiO4 tetra­hedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2). PMID:21202729

  1. Utilizing NX Advanced Simulation for NASA's New Mobile Launcher for Ares-l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of NX to simulate the new Mobile Launcher (ML) for the Ares-I. It includes: a comparison of the sizes of the Saturn 5, the Space Shuttle, the Ares I, and the Ares V, with the height, and payload capability; the loads control plan; drawings of the base framing, the underside of the ML, beam arrangement, and the finished base and the origin of the 3D CAD data. It also reviews the modeling approach, meshing. the assembly Finite Element Modeling, the model summary. and beam improvements.

  2. Generators for the elliptic curve y2 = x3-nx II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yasutsugu; Terai, Nobuhiro

    2011-09-01

    Let E be an elliptic curve defined by y2 = x3-nx with n a positive integer. In our previous work, we gave several infinite families of n for which certain two points of infinite order can be in a system of generators for the Mordell-Weil group E(Q). In this paper, we extend this result and give those examples of infinite families of n for which the generators for rank three part of E(Q) can be explicitly described.

  3. Architecture of CoNx single clusters on nanocarbon as excellent oxygen reduction catalysts with high-efficient atomic utilization.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Xue, Hui; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Shuanghua; Lei, Yulai; Zhang, Yuyuan; Shen, Rujuan; Zhang, Yi; Xiang, Juan

    2017-06-22

    A new strategy to fabricate CoNx single cluster supported nanocarbon catalysts (C/P/2Co600) with enhanced atomic utilization towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is reported. N-Coordination protection and low-temperature pyrolysis are the two key factors for the formation of CoNx single clusters on nanocarbon supports. Morphological and structural identification confirmed the simultaneous anchoring of homo-dispersed CoNx single clusters and N-doping on the nanocarbon under relatively mild thermal treatment conditions. Expectedly, the obtained single cluster catalyst with a trace amount of metal atoms exhibited excellent ORR performance including a positive half-wave potential (0.846 V), a high mass activity (0.98 A mgCo(-1), ampere per milligram of cobalt) and outstanding chemical durability after 8000 potential cycles. We believe that our findings provide a new route for the rational design of low-cost and highly active ORR catalytic materials.

  4. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in pT3N0M0 breast cancer: is it needed?

    PubMed

    Helintö, M; Blomqvist, C; Heikkilä, P; Joensuu, H

    1999-09-01

    It is not been established whether breast cancer patients who have a primary tumor 5 cm or larger but no axillary nodal or distant metastases at the time of the diagnosis (pT3N0M0) benefit from post-operative radiation therapy after mastectomy. We identified 81 patients with T3N0M0 breast cancer out of the total of 4190 breast cancer patients treated in one university radiotherapy department from 1987 to 1994 from the department patient registry, and examined the clinical records and histopathological slides. Only 38 of the 81 patients had true pT3N0M0 breast cancer after the review (0.9% of the 4190 new breast cancer patients registered in the department from 1987 to 1994). Three (60%) of the five patients who were not treated with post-operative radiation therapy developed locoregional recurrence of breast cancer as compared with only three (9%) of the 33 patients who were given post-operative radiotherapy during a median follow-up of 58 months (P = 0.0003). Patients who were given post-operative radiotherapy had a better distant disease-free survival rate (P = 0.04) and overall survival rate (P = 0.03) than the ones who were not treated with radiation therapy after surgery. Of the 29 patients who had chest wall irradiation only, one had in-field recurrence at the surgical scar, one both at the scar and the unirradiated axilla, and only one (3%) solely in the axilla. Patients with true pT3N0M0 breast cancer are rare. The results suggest that women with pT3N0M0 breast cancer benefit from post-operative radiotherapy, but the value of irradiating the dissected ipsilateral axilla remains unsettled.

  5. Electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jeffrey F; Miller, Thomas M; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K; Viggiano, A A; Rekha, G K; Stevens, Amy E

    2008-03-14

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4) using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) is 1.9 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39+/-5 meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF(3))(4) is 5.4 x 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84+/-8 meV. For both complexes, a PF(3) ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF(3))(3)(-) ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF(3))(4) and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  6. Electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K.; Viggiano, A. A.; Rekha, G. K.; Stevens, Amy E.

    2008-03-01

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4 using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 is 1.9×10-7cm3s-1 at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39±5meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF3)4 is 5.4×10-8cm3s-1 at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84±8meV. For both complexes, a PF3 ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF3)3- ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF3)4 and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  7. KPr(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; Daoud, Mohamed; Tanouti, Boumediene; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, potassium praseodymium(III) polyphosphate, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The monoclinic non-centrosymmetric structure is isotypic with all other KLn(PO3)4 analogues from Ln = La to Er, inclusive. The crystal structure of these long-chain polyphosphates is built up from infinite crenelated polyphosphate chains of corner-sharing PO4 tetra­hedra with a repeating unit of four tetra­hedra. These chains, running along [100], are arranged in a pseudo-tetra­gonal rod packing and are further linked by isolated PrO8 square anti­prisms [Pr—O = 2.3787 (9)–2.5091 (8) Å], forming a three-dimensional framework. The K+ ions reside in channels parallel to [010] and exhibit a highly distorted coordination sphere by eight O atoms at distances ranging from 2.7908 (9) to 3.1924 (11) Å. PMID:21588081

  8. CFD Analysis of Thermal Control System Using NX Thermal and Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortier, C. R.; Harris, M. F. (Editor); McConnell, S. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) is a key part of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) for the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of this subsystem is to provide thermal control, mainly cooling, to the other APH subsystems. One of these subsystems, the Environmental Control Subsystem (ECS), controls the temperature and humidity of the growth chamber (GC) air to optimize the growth of plants in the habitat. The TCS provides thermal control to the ECS with three cold plates, which use Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs) to heat or cool water as needed to control the air temperature in the ECS system. In order to optimize the TCS design, pressure drop and heat transfer analyses were needed. The analysis for this system was performed in Siemens NX Thermal/Flow software (Version 8.5). NX Thermal/Flow has the ability to perform 1D or 3D flow solutions. The 1D flow solver can be used to represent simple geometries, such as pipes and tubes. The 1D flow method also has the ability to simulate either fluid only or fluid and wall regions. The 3D flow solver is similar to other Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software. TCS performance was analyzed using both the 1D and 3D solvers. Each method produced different results, which will be evaluated and discussed.

  9. New Cu(AuTiNx) copper alloy film and its features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new copper alloy [Cu(AuTiNx)] film is developed for industrial applications, by cosputtering Cu and titanium gold (AuTi) targets on a barrierless Si substrate within a vacuum chamber sparsely filled with N2 gas. Through extensive tests conducted in this study, the new alloy film, after annealing at 720 °C for 1 h, shows good thermal stability and high adhesion strength to the substrate, without appreciable interactions between the film and the substrate. The new Cu(AuTiNx) alloy film also has adequate wetting for solder, shows good solderability, and has a dissolution rate lower than that of pure Cu by at least 1 order of magnitude, in addition to having a comparable consumption rate to that of Ni. The alloy film seems to be suitable for many industrial applications, e.g., barrierless Si metallization, interconnect manufacture, and as new wetting and diffusion layers for flip-chip solder joints in conventional metallurgy.

  10. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  11. Molecular metal–Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt–nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt–N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s−1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols. PMID:26250525

  12. Molecular metal-Nx centres in porous carbon for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Brüller, Sebastian; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Jian; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Replacement of precious platinum with efficient and low-cost catalysts for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution at low overpotentials holds tremendous promise for clean energy devices. Here we report a novel type of robust cobalt-nitrogen/carbon catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) that is prepared by the pyrolysis of cobalt-N4 macrocycles or cobalt/o-phenylenediamine composites and using silica colloids as a hard template. We identify the well-dispersed molecular CoNx sites on the carbon support as the active sites responsible for the HER. The CoNx/C catalyst exhibits extremely high turnover frequencies per cobalt site in acids, for example, 0.39 and 6.5 s-1 at an overpotential of 100 and 200 mV, respectively, which are higher than those reported for other scalable non-precious metal HER catalysts. Our results suggest the great promise of developing new families of non-precious metal HER catalysts based on the controlled conversion of homogeneous metal complexes into solid-state carbon catalysts via economically scalable protocols.

  13. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for T3 and T4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Nishimura, Shuichi; Takagawa, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Saeki, Noriyuki; Yashiro, Kae; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Yokosuka, Tetsuya; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for cT3 and cT4N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 25 patients with localized primary NSCLC diagnosed as cT3 or cT4N0M0, given SBRT between May 2005 and July 2013, were analyzed. All patients had inoperable tumors. The major reasons for tumors being unresectable were insufficient respiratory function for curative resection, advanced age (>80 years old) or technically inoperable due to invasion into critical organs. The median patient age was 79 years (range; 60-86). The median follow-up duration was 25 months (range: 5-100 months). The 2-year overall survival rates for T3 and T4 were 57% and 69%, respectively. The 2-year local control rates for T3 and T4 were 91% and 68%, respectively. As for toxicities, Grade 0-1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 23, 1 and 1 patient, respectively. No other acute or symptomatic late toxicities were reported. Thirteen patients who had no local, mediastinal or intrapulmonary progression at one year after SBRT underwent pulmonary function testing. The median variation in pre-SBRT and post-SBRT forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values was -0.1 (-0.8-0.8). This variation was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). Forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), %VC and %FEV1 also showed no significant differences. SBRT for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC was both effective and feasible. Considering the favorable survival and low morbidity rate, SBRT is a potential treatment option for cT3 and cT4N0M0 NSCLC.

  14. Prognostic relevance of β-catenin expression in T2-3N0M0 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Situ, Dong-Rong; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Jian; Long, Hao; Rong, Tie-Hua

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of β-catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at stage T2-3N0M0 and its relation with the prognosis of ESCC patients. METHODS: Expression of β-catenin in 227 ESCC specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A reproducible semi-quantitative method which takes both staining percentage and intensity into account was applied in IHC scoring, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select the cut-off score for high or low IHC reactivity. Then, correlation of β-catenin expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of ESCC patients was determined. RESULTS: No significant correlation was observed between β-catenin expression and clinicopathological parameters in terms of gender, age, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor location, depth of invasion and pathological stage. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the up-regulated expression of β-catenin indicated a poorer post-operative survival rate of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0 (P = 0.004), especially of those with T3 lesions (P = 0.014) or with stage IIB diseases (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis also confirmed that β-catenin was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival rate of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0 (relative risk = 1.642, 95% CI: 1.159-2.327, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Elevated β-catenin expression level may be an adverse indicator for the prognosis of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0, especially for those with T3 lesions or stage IIB diseases. PMID:21049553

  15. Locoregional treatment and overall survival of men with T1a,b,cN0M0 breast cancer: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Leone, José Pablo; Leone, Julieta; Zwenger, Ariel Osvaldo; Iturbe, Julián; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro

    2017-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MaBC) is an understudied disease; information about locoregional treatment and outcomes in patients with early stage is unknown. We aimed to analyse patient characteristics, locoregional treatment and overall survival (OS) of T1a,b,cN0M0 male breast cancer. We evaluated men with T1a,b,cN0M0 breast cancer reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program from 1988 to 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effect of each variable on OS. We included 1263 patients. Median age was 66 years (range 27-103). Median follow-up was 62 months (range 1-294). OS at 5 and 10 years were 85.1% and 66.5%, respectively. Distribution according to tumour sub-stage was: T1a 6.5%, T1b 20.7% and T1c 72.8%. Mastectomy was performed in >74% of patients of each tumour size group and overall 44.1% had >5 lymph nodes examined (LNE). Univariate analysis showed that patients with T1c, no surgery and 0 LNE had worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 11.09), grade 3/4 tumours (HR 1.7), no surgery (HR 3.3), 0 LNE (HR 5.1) and unmarried patients (HR 1.7) had significantly shorter OS. There were no differences in OS between breast conservation versus mastectomy and 1-5 LNE versus > 5 LNE. Men with early breast cancer have a favourable OS. However, older age, higher grade, no breast surgery, no LNE and unmarried status emerged as poor prognostic characteristics. Efforts to decrease the high rates of mastectomy and extensive LNE should be taken given similar OS observed with breast conservation and 1-5 LNE, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seeding the m = 0 instability in dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches with a hollow anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jason; Sears, Jason; McMahon, Matt; Higginson, Drew; Link, Anthony; Schmidt, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a classic Z-pinch plasma device that has been long studied as a copious source of various types of radiation. The formation of the m = 0 plasma instability during the compression phase is linked to the generation of high-energy charged particle beams, which, when operated in deuterium, lead to beam-target fusion reactions and the generation of neutron yield. Here we present a novel technique of seeding the m = 0 instability by varying the anode's hollow inner diameter. As the plasma sheath moves along this hollow anode structure, a low density perturbation is formed and this seeds the instability. Dynamics of the low density perturbation and seeding of the m = 0 instability are studied in detail with fully kinetic plasma simulations performed in the LSP particle-in-cell code on a 60 kA device. It is discovered in the simulations that the neutron yield of the DPF may be significantly improved and made more consistent by employing an anode geometry with an appropriate inner hollow diameter. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (15-ERD-034) at LLNL.

  17. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Large Storage Window in a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Sandwiched Structure for Nanocrystalline Silicon Floating Gate Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Gao; Yu, Lin-Wei; Huang, Xin-Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kun-Ji

    2008-07-01

    An a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon [(nc-Si)/a-SiNx] sandwiched structure is fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system at low temperature (250° C). The nc-Si layer is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane mixture gas by using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Atom force microscopy measurement shows that the density of nc-Si is about 2 × 1011 cm-2. By the pretreatment of plasma nitridation, low density of interface states and high-quality interface between the Si substrate and a-SiNx insulator layer are obtained. The density of interface state at the midgap is calculated to be 1 × 1010 cm-2eV-1 from the quasistatic and high frequency C - V data. The charging and discharging property of nc-Si quantum dots is studied by capacitance-voltage (C - V) measurement at room temperature. An ultra-large hysteresis is observed in the C - V characteristics, which is attributed to storage of the electrons and holes into the nc-Si dots. The long-term charge-loss process is studied and ascribed to low density of interface states at SiNx/Si substrate.

  18. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  19. Defect reduction of SiNx embedded m-plane GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seohwi; Kim, Minho; So, Byeongchan; Yoo, Geunho; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyuseung; Nam, Okhyun

    2014-12-01

    Nonpolar (1 0 -1 0) m-plane GaN has been grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). We studied the defect reduction of m-GaN with embedded SiNx interlayers deposited by ex-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full-width at half-maximum values of the X-ray rocking curves for m-GaN with embedded SiNx along [1 1 -2 0]GaN and [0 0 0 1]GaN were reduced to 528 and 1427 arcs, respectively, as compared with the respective values of 947 and 3170 arcs, of m-GaN without SiNx. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy revealed that the basal stacking fault density was decreased by approximately one order to 5×104 cm-1 due to the defect blocking of the embedded SiNx. As a result, the near band edge emission intensities of the room-temperature and low-temperature photoluminescence showed approximately two-fold and four-fold improvement, respectively.

  20. Permanent magnetic properties of NdFe12Nx sputtered films epitaxially grown on V buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Ohsuna, T.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the magnetic properties of the NdFe12Nx compound, which shows promise as a high-performance permanent magnet material, NdFe12Nx epitaxial films fabricated by using a V underlayer on MgO (100) single-crystalline substrates were investigated. Nd-Fe films deposited on a V underlayer consist of NdFe12 grains, which have a c-axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane, as well as α-Fe and Nd2Fe17 phases. In the Nd-Fe-N film obtained by subsequent nitridation of the Nd-Fe film, NdFe12Nx grains grew as the dominant phase, and the volume fractions of α-Fe phases dropped below 5%. A Nd-Fe-N film with a thickness of 50 nm exhibits a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.7 T, an anisotropy field (HA) of ˜60 kOe, a magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (K1) of ˜4.1 MJ/m3, and a coercivity (Hc) of 1.7 kOe. The Hc of a Nd-Fe-N film with a thickness of 25 nm is 4.3 kOe. These results indicate that NdFe12Nx compounds have a superior Ms compared to Nd-Fe-B magnets, while the enhancement in Hc is indispensable.

  1. Characterisation and optimisation of PECVD SiNx as an antireflection coating and passivation layer for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yimao; McIntosh, Keith R.; Thomson, Andrew F.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we investigate how the film properties of silicon nitride (SiNx) depend on its deposition conditions when formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The examination is conducted with a Roth & Rau AK400 PECVD reactor, where the varied parameters are deposition temperature, pressure, gas flow ratio, total gas flow, microwave plasma power and radio-frequency bias voltage. The films are evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine structural properties, by spectrophotometry to determine optical properties, and by capacitance-voltage and photoconductance measurements to determine electronic properties. After reporting on the dependence of SiNx properties on deposition parameters, we determine the optimized deposition conditions that attain low absorption and low recombination. On the basis of SiNx growth models proposed in the literature and of our experimental results, we discuss how each process parameter affects the deposition rate and chemical bond density. We then focus on the effective surface recombination velocity Seff, which is of primary importance to solar cells. We find that for the SiNx prepared in this work, 1) Seff does not correlate universally with the bulk structural and optical properties such as chemical bond densities and refractive index, and 2) Seff depends primarily on the defect density at the SiNx-Si interface rather than the insulator charge. Finally, employing the optimized deposition condition, we achieve a relatively constant and low Seff,UL on low-resistivity (≤1.1 Ωcm) p- and n-type c-Si substrates over a broad range of n = 1.85-4.07. The results of this study demonstrate that the trade-off between optical transmission and surface passivation can be circumvented. Although we focus on photovoltaic applications, this study may be useful for any device for which it is desirable to maximize light transmission and surface passivation.

  2. Excitation dependent photoluminescence study of Si-rich a-SiNx:H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Bommali, Ravi; Preet Singh, Sarab; Rai, Sanjay; Mishra, P.; Sekhar, B. R.; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Srivastava, P.

    2012-12-01

    We report photoluminescence (PL) investigations on Si-rich amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) thin films of different compositions, using three different excitation lasers, viz., 325 nm, 410 nm, and 532 nm. The as-deposited films contain amorphous Si quantum dots (QDs) as evidenced in high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The PL spectral shape is in general seen to change with the excitation used, thus emphasizing the presence of multiple luminescence centres in these films. It is found that all the spectra so obtained can be deconvoluted assuming Gaussian contributions from defects and quantum confinement effect. Further strength to this assignment is provided by low temperature (300 °C) hydrogen plasma annealing of these samples, wherein a preferential enhancement of the QD luminescence over defect luminescence is observed.

  3. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  4. Evolution of superclusters and delocalized states in GaAs1–xNx

    DOE PAGES

    Fluegel, B.; Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; ...

    2012-11-21

    The evolution of individual nitrogen cluster bound states into an extended state infinite supercluster in dilute GaAs1–xNx was probed through temperature and intensity-dependent, time-resolved and magnetophotoluminescence (PL) measurements. Samples with compositions less than 0.23% N exhibit PL behavior that is consistent with emission from the extended states of the conduction band. Near a composition of 0.23% N, a discontinuity develops between the extended state PL peak energy and the photoluminescence excitation absorption edge. The existence of dual localized/delocalized state behavior near this composition signals the formation of an N supercluster just below the conduction band edge. The infinite supercluster ismore » fully developed by 0.32% N.« less

  5. Thermochromic properties of VO2 thin film on SiNx buffered glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Hyun; You, HyunWoo; Ko, Kyeong-Eun; Kwon, O.-Jong; Chang, Se-Hong; Park, Chan

    2013-07-01

    VO2 thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates with silicon nitride sodium-diffusion barrier layer as diffusion barrier, in order to investigate the effect of sodium ion diffusion on the formation of VO2. SiNx layers with thicknesses over 30 nm were found to successfully prevent sodium ion diffusion in VO2 thin film and also contribute to the formation of VO2 thin film, which was confirmed by XRD spectra and XPS measurements. The change of infrared transmittance at 2500 nm wavelength with temperature change from room temperature to 80 °C was increased significantly, and the optical hysteresis width of the sample decreased by almost 6 K as well. The results suggest that applying diffusion barrier can improve the thermochromic properties of the VO2 films for energy-saving smart coatings, and silicon nitride can be one of the effective materials to prevent sodium ion diffusion.

  6. Regulation of Macrophage Motility by the Water Channel Aquaporin-1: Crucial Role of M0/M2 Phenotype Switch

    PubMed Central

    Tyteca, Donatienne; Nishino, Tomoya; Debaix, Huguette; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N'Kuli, Francisca; Hoffmann, Delia; Cnops, Yvette; Rabolli, Virginie; van Loo, Geert; Beyaert, Rudi; Huaux, François; Devuyst, Olivier; Courtoy, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) promotes migration of many cell types. Although AQP1 is expressed in macrophages, its potential role in macrophage motility, particularly in relation with phenotype polarization, remains unknown. We here addressed these issues in peritoneal macrophages isolated from AQP1-deficient mice, either undifferentiated (M0) or stimulated with LPS to orientate towards pro-inflammatory phenotype (classical macrophage activation; M1). In non-stimulated macrophages, ablation of AQP1 (like inhibition by HgCl2) increased by 2–3 fold spontaneous migration in a Src/PI3K/Rac-dependent manner. This correlated with cell elongation and formation of lamellipodia/ruffles, resulting in membrane lipid and F4/80 recruitment to the leading edge. This indicated that AQP1 normally suppresses migration of resting macrophages, as opposed to other cell types. Resting Aqp1-/- macrophages exhibited CD206 redistribution into ruffles and increased arginase activity like IL4/IL13 (alternative macrophage activation; M2), indicating a M0-M2 shift. In contrast, upon M1 orientation by LPS in vitro or peritoneal inflammation in vivo, migration of Aqp1-/- macrophages was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that AQP1 oppositely regulates macrophage migration, depending on stimulation or not by LPS, and that macrophage phenotypic and migratory changes may be regulated independently of external cues. PMID:25719758

  7. Column number density expressions through M = 0 and M = 1 point source plumes along any straight path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M = 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plume's axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 4/3. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  8. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M = 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plume's axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 4/3. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path. Keywords: column number density, plume flows, outgassing, free molecule flow.

  9. Column Number Density Expressions Through M = 0 and M = 1 Point Source Plumes Along Any Straight Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions for column number density (CND) are developed for optical line of sight paths through a variety of steady free molecule point source models including directionally-constrained effusion (Mach number M = 0) and flow from a sonic orifice (M 1). Sonic orifice solutions are approximate, developed using a fair simulacrum fitted to the free molecule solution. Expressions are also developed for a spherically-symmetric thermal expansion (M = 0). CND solutions are found for the most general paths relative to these sources and briefly explored. It is determined that the maximum CND from a distant location through directed effusion and sonic orifice cases occurs along the path parallel to the source plane that intersects the plume axis. For the effusive case this value is exactly twice the CND found along the ray originating from that point of intersection and extending to infinity along the plumes axis. For sonic plumes this ratio is reduced to about 43. For high Mach number cases the maximum CND will be found along the axial centerline path.

  10. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  11. Physical properties of NxTiO2 prepared by sol-gel route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahimi, Razika; Bessekhouad, Yassine; Trari, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    The compounds NxTiO2(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) with the anatase structure have been synthesized by Sol-Gel method using Tri-ethyl Amine as nitrogen source and their optical, electrical and electrochemical properties are investigated. The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power are measured in the temperature rang 300-600 K. The samples exhibit p-type behavior in contrast to TiO2. The doped-samples exhibit two optical transitions (2.35≤Eh-Vis(eV)≤2.55; 1.97≤El-Vis (eV)≤2.06) directly allowed in the visible region, while only one transition is observed in UV region (EUV∼3.00 eV). Pure TiO2 shows direct band gap transition of 3.17 eV. The results confirm experimentally the calculations of Di. Valentin et al. [42]. The transitions Eh-Vis and El-Vis are attributed respectively to the promotion of electrons from the localized N 2p and π* N-O bond to the conduction band. In all cases, EUV is associated to the forbidden band energy. Though that the conductivity is generally improved by doping process, only N0.05TiO2 and N0.1TiO2 shows an enhanced mobility. The mechanism of conduction takes place by small polaron hopping. The band edge positions of NxTiO2 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) at room temperature is predicted from the obtained physical properties. This study proves experimentally the principal role of nitrogen in doping process and permits the electronic states localization associated with N-impurities in TiO2 anatase.

  12. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy in women with pathologic T3N0M0 breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Richard J; Liu, Yuan; Kahn, Shannon T; Jegadeesh, Naresh K; Liu, Xi; Subhedar, Preeti D; Arciero, Cletus A; Gillespie, Theresa W; Torres, Mylin A

    2017-08-01

    The authors determined the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on overall survival (OS) among patients with pT3N0M0 breast cancer in the National Cancer Data Base. A total of 3437 patients with pT3N0M0 breast cancer who initially were treated with mastectomy between 2003 and 2011 were identified. Of these women, 1644 (47.8%) received PMRT (67% treated with chest wall RT alone and 33% treated with chest wall and regional lymph node irradiation). Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify characteristics associated with PMRT and OS. In addition, propensity score matching and interaction effect testing also were performed. PMRT was associated with age <40 years, private insurance coverage, treatment facility location within 10 miles of the patient's home zip code, Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score of 0, tumor size ≥7 cm, and treatment with chemotherapy or hormone therapy (all P<.05). PMRT was associated with improved 5-year OS (86.3% for patients treated with PMRT vs 66.4% for patients not treated with PMRT; P<.01). In addition to PMRT (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.87 [P<.01]), age ≤50 years, treatment at an academic/research program, Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score of 0, tumor size <7 cm, chemotherapy receipt, and hormone therapy receipt were associated with improved OS on multivariable analyses (all P<.05). Interaction testing found that PMRT improved OS independent of age, facility type, Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, tumor grade and size, surgical margin status, and receipt of chemotherapy or hormone therapy (all P>.1). Finally, propensity score matching analysis confirmed the impact of PMRT on OS (P = .02). It is interesting to note that regional lymph node irradiation did not improve OS versus chest wall RT alone (P = .09). Among patients with pT3N0M0 breast cancer in the National Cancer Data Base, PMRT was found to be associated with improved OS regardless of surgical margin status, tumor size, and

  13. Summary of studies to reduce wing-mounted propfan installation drag on an M = 0.8 transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ronald C.; Levin, Alan D.; Wood, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Powerplant installation losses for an advanced, high-speed, turboprop transport have been investigated in the Ames Research Center Transonic Wind Tunnels as a part of the NASA Advanced Turboprop Program (ATP). Force and pressure tests have been completed at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.82 on baseline and modified powered-model configurations to determine the magnitude of the losses and to what extent current design tools could be used to optimize the installed performance of turboprop propulsion systems designed to cruise at M = 0.8. Results of the tests indicate a large reduction in installed drag for the modified configuration. The wing-mounted power plant caused destabilizing pitching moments and a negative shift in the zero-lift pitching moment.

  14. Energetics, structural and magnetic ordering of H/Fe/M(0 0 1), (M=Cu, Ag) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A. A.; Hamad, B. A.; Khalifeh, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    We performed density functional theory calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method and generalized gradient approximation to investigate the interaction of hydrogen with Fe surface layers in the Fe/M(0 0 1) system, where M=Cu, Ag. The adsorption of hydrogen is found to be preferable at bridge sites in both H/Fe(0 0 1) and H/Fe/Ag(0 0 1), whereas the preferred sites are the fourfold site above the surface layer in the H/Fe/Cu(0 0 1) system. The adsorption energies are enhanced due to Cu and Ag substrates as compared to Fe(0 0 1) substrates. The local density of states at the Fermi level and the magnetic moments are reduced due to the presence of H for the different systems.

  15. The p+ 6He interaction from Ec.m.=0.5 to 25 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackintosh, R. S.

    2004-09-01

    The p- 6He potential has been determined by inverting the S-matrix, calculated from single-channel RGM without absorption, over the energy range Ec.m.=0.5,1.0,…,25 MeV. Energy-dependent IP inversion was used, but with energy-independent spin-orbit terms. A potential with odd- and even-parity components reproduces Slj( E) from l=0 to l=4 over the whole energy range. The central components of the potential have a smooth, predominantly linear, energy dependence that is consistent with global phenomenology. We compare the similar neutron- 6Li (IAS) interaction. Various features in the potentials deserve explanation. The procedure employed here could extract dynamic polarization potentials for the p- 6He interaction from Slj( E) from multichannel RGM calculations, should these become available.

  16. Stoichiometry dependence of hardness, elastic properties, and oxidation resistance in TiN/SiNx nanocomposites deposited by a hybrid process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, F.-J.; Schwaller, P.; Wloka, J.; Patscheider, J.; Karimi, A.; Tobler, M.

    2004-07-01

    TiN/SiNx nanocomposite layers with Si contents between 0 and 25 at. % were deposited by a reactive arc-magnetron sputtering hybrid process. The stoichiometry of the SiNx phase was found to be related to the silicon sputter target state, i.e., elemental or nitrided. TiN/SiNx layers with a Si:N ratio close to 0.75 (silicon nitride) show a hardness maximum at overall Si contents between 5 and 7 at. %. The hardness maximum is absent for nitrogen deficient stoichiometries of SiNx. The oxidation resistance of the composite layers is three to five times better than that of pure TiN. In contrast to the effect of the stoichiometry on hardness, the oxidation resistance depends on the overall silicon content only, regardless of stoichiometry. .

  17. Surface passivation of p-type Ge substrate with high-quality GeNx layer formed by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Otani, Yohei; Ono, Toshiro

    2011-09-01

    We have investigated the effects of the formation temperature and postmetallization annealing (PMA) on the interface properties of GeNx/p-Ge fabricated by the plasma nitridation of Ge substrates using an electron-cyclotron-resonance-generated nitrogen plasma. The nitridation temperature is found to be a critical parameter in improving the finally obtained GeNx/Ge interface properties. The GeNx/Ge formed at room temperature and treated by PMA at 400 °C exhibits the best interface properties with an interface trap density of 1 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The GeNx/Ge interface is unpinned and the Fermi level at the Ge surface can move from the valence band edge to the conduction band edge.

  18. Selective neurotensin-derived internally quenched fluorogenic substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16): comparison with thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Campos, M; Hemerly, J P; Ferro, E S; Camargo, A C; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L

    2001-05-15

    Internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from neurotensin (pELYENKPRRPYIL) sequence were synthesized and assayed as substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15 or TOP), and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11 or NEP). Abz-LYENKPRRPYILQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp is N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine and Abz is ortho-aminobenzoic acid) was derived from neurotensin by the introduction of Q-EDDnp at the C-terminal end of peptide and by the substitution of the pyroglutamic (pE) residue at N-terminus for Abz and a series of shorter peptides was obtained by deletion of amino acids residues from C-terminal, N-terminal, or both sides. Neurolysin and TOP hydrolyzed the substrates at P--Y or Y--I or R--R bonds depending on the sequence and size of the peptides, while NEP cleaved P-Y or Y-I bonds according to its S'(1) specificity. One of these substrates, Abz-NKPRRPQ-EDDnp was a specific and sensitive substrate for neurolysin (k(cat) = 7.0 s(-1), K(m) = 1.19 microM and k(cat)/K(m) = 5882 mM(-1). s(-1)), while it was completely resistant to NEP and poorly hydrolyzed by TOP and also by prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26). Neurolysin concentrations as low as 1 pM were detected using this substrate under our conditions and its analogue Abz-NKPRAPQ-EDDnp was hydrolyzed by neurolysin with k(cat) = 14.03 s(-1), K(m) = 0.82 microM, and k(cat)/K(m) = 17,110 mM(-1). s(-1), being the best substrate so far described for this peptidase.

  19. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-4 Trust protection lands. The regulations in this group do not apply to the leasing...

  20. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  1. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initiation of termination. 1210.3-4 Section 1210.3-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation...

  2. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  3. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  4. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  5. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  6. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  7. 43 CFR 3435.3-4 - Determination of value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of value. 3435.3-4 Section 3435.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-4 Determination of value. The value of the land to be leased, or added by lease modification,...

  8. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or organization outside of the Department may be made only with the Department's prior written approval....

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be...

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  12. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  17. Hot-pressed Sm2Fe17Nx/Fe-Co composites: Factors controlling densification and in situ nitrogenization of Sm2Fe17 phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, A. M.; Akdogan, N. G.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F.; Ali, A.

    2008-04-01

    The effects of powder preparation and conditions of hot pressing on the structure and density of consolidated Sm2Fe17Nx and Sm2Fe17Nx/Fe-Co magnets have been studied. Densities achieved in the case of Sm2Fe17Nx powders prepared through a low-energy milling were higher than after a high-energy milling. The difference is mostly caused by the different particle size, and it can be eliminated by an additional low-energy milling of the coarse high-energy milled powder. The presence of a ductile soft magnetic phase greatly facilitates densification, leading to considerably higher absolute and relative densities in hot-pressed Sm2Fe17Nx/Fe0.65Co0.35 composites. We have found that during hot pressing, nitrogenization of the Sm2Fe17 phase may occur in situ if pressed together with Fe-Co-N powders. Because Fe-Co-N releases nitrogen below the decomposition temperature of Sm2Fe17Nx, we were able to fabricate the Sm2Fe17Nx/Fe0.65Co0.35 composite with the density up to 7.6g/cm3 by hot-pressing mixtures of Sm2Fe17 and (Fe0.65Co0.35)89N11 powders.

  18. Roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C Species in Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Sa, Young Jin; Jeong, Hu Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2017-03-22

    Iron and nitrogen codoped carbons (Fe-N/C) have emerged as promising nonprecious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). While Fe-Nx sites have been widely considered as active species for Fe-N/C catalysts, very recently, iron and/or iron carbide encased with carbon shells (Fe-Fe3C@C) has been suggested as a new active site for the ORR. However, most of synthetic routes to Fe-N/C catalysts involve high-temperature pyrolysis, which unavoidably yield both Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C species, hampering the identification of exclusive role of each species. Herein, in order to establish the respective roles of Fe-Nx and Fe-Fe3C@C sites we rationally designed model catalysts via the phase conversion reactions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. The resulting catalysts selectively contained Fe-Nx, Fe-Fe3C@C, and N-doped carbon (C-Nx) sites. It was revealed that Fe-Nx sites dominantly catalyze ORR via 4-electron (4 e(-)) pathway, exerting a major role for high ORR activity, whereas Fe-Fe3C@C sites mainly promote 2 e(-) reduction of oxygen followed by 2 e(-) peroxide reduction, playing an auxiliary role.

  19. The SiNx films process research by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bitao; Zhang, Yingke; Ouyang, Qiuping; Chen, Fei; Zhan, Xinghua; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    SiNx thin film has been widely used in crystalline silicon solar cell production because of the good anti-reflection and passivation effect. We can effectively optimize the cells performance by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method to change deposition conditions such as temperature, gas flow ratio, etc. In this paper, we deposit a new layer of SiNx thin film on the basis of double-layers process. By changing the process parameters, the compactness of thin films is improved effectively. The NH3 passivation technology is augmented in a creative way, which improves the minority carrier lifetime. In sight of this, a significant increase is generated in the photoelectric performance of crystalline silicon solar cell.

  20. Formation of nonradiative defects in molecular beam epitaxial GaNxAs1-x studied by optically detected magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinh, N. Q.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

    2001-11-01

    The formation of two nonradiative defects (i.e., an AsGa-related complex and an unknown deep-level defect with g=2.03) in GaNxAs1-x epilayers and GaAs/GaNxAs1-x multiple-quantum-well structures, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, is studied by the optically detected magnetic resonance technique. It is shown that contributions by these defects in competing carrier recombination strongly vary with the nitrogen composition. An increase in the growth temperature or postgrowth rapid thermal annealing significantly reduces the influence of the nonradiative defects studied, and is accompanied by a remarkable improvement in the optical properties of the structures.

  1. Comparison of external beam treatment techniques for T1-2, N0, M0 glottic cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Camingue, Pamela; Christian, Rochelle; Ng, Davin; Williams, Preston; Amin, Mayankkumar; Roniger, Dominique L.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 different external beam radiation therapy treatment techniques for the treatment of T1-2, N0, M0 glottic cancers: traditional lateral beams with wedges (3D), 5-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and proton therapy. Treatment plans in each technique were created for 10 patients using consistent planning parameters. The photon treatment plans were optimized using Philips Pinnacle{sub 3} v.9 and the IMRT and VMAT plans used the Direct Machine Parameter Optimization algorithm. The proton treatment plans were optimized using Varian Eclipse Proton v.8.9. The prescription used for each plan was 63 Gy in 28 fractions. The contours for spinal cord, right carotid artery, left carotid artery, and normal tissue were created with respect to the patient's bony anatomy so that proper comparisons of doses could be made with respect to volume. An example of the different isodose distributions will be shown. The data collection for comparison purposes includes: clinical treatment volume coverage, dose to spinal cord, dose to carotid arteries, and dose to normal tissue. Data comparisons will be displayed graphically showing the maximum, mean, median, and ranges of doses.

  2. Radiation therapy for early glottic cancer (T1N0M0): II. Prospective randomized study concerning radiation field

    SciTech Connect

    Teshima, T.; Chatani, M.; Inoue, T. )

    1990-01-01

    A prospective randomized study to determine the effect of radiation field on the local control of early glottic cancer was performed. From May 1982 through December 1985, a total of 87 patients with early glottic cancer (T1N0M0) were treated at our department with an individualized wedge filter technique using a shell to improve the dose distribution and immobilization during radiotherapy with 4 MV X ray. Patients were randomly allocated to either treatment group A (radiation field size: 5 x 5 cm2) or B (6 x 6 cm2) using bilateral parallel opposed portals. Total radiation dose administered was 60 Gy in 30 fractions over a 6-week period. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 93% in group A and 96% in group B (no significant difference). Comparison with historical control showed that both arms achieved better results. These results were mainly due to the improved local control of whole-length lesions of single vocal cords. Acute mucosal reaction (p less than 0.05) and persistent arytenoid edema lasting more than 6 months (p less than 0.02) were more frequently observed in group B than in group A. It is concluded that the critical factor in getting optimal results in the treatment of early glottic cancer is careful attention to the technique of treatment.

  3. A method of computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    Currently in CAD/CAE/CAM systems it is possible to create 3D design virtual models which are able to capture certain amount of knowledge. These models are especially useful in an automation of routine design tasks. These models are known as self-generative or auto generative and they can behave in an intelligent way. The main difference between the auto generative and fully parametric models consists in the auto generative models ability to self-organizing. In this case design model self-organizing means that aside from the possibility of making of automatic changes of model quantitative features these models possess knowledge how these changes should be made. Moreover they are able to change quality features according to specific knowledge. In spite of undoubted good points of self-generative models they are not so often used in design constructional process which is mainly caused by usually great complexity of these models. This complexity makes the process of self-generative time and labour consuming. It also needs a quite great investment outlays. The creation process of self-generative model consists of the three stages it is knowledge and information acquisition, model type selection and model implementation. In this paper methods of the computer aided design with self-generative models in NX Siemens CAD/CAE/CAM software are presented. There are the five methods of self-generative models preparation in NX with: parametric relations model, part families, GRIP language application, knowledge fusion and OPEN API mechanism. In the paper examples of each type of the self-generative model are presented. These methods make the constructional design process much faster. It is suggested to prepare this kind of self-generative models when there is a need of design variants creation. The conducted research on assessing the usefulness of elaborated models showed that they are highly recommended in case of routine tasks automation. But it is still difficult to distinguish

  4. Structural and electronic properties of InNxP1-x alloy in full range (0 ≤ x ≤1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Metin; Reshak, A. H.; Yalcin, Battal G.; Bagci, Sadik; Ustundag, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We have performed first-principles method to investigate structural and electronic properties of InNxP1-x ternary semiconductor alloy in full range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) using density functional theory. We have used modified Becke-Johnson potential to obtain accurate band gap results. From the electronic band structure calculation we have found that InNxP1-x become metal between 47 and 80% of nitrogen concentration. Additional to our band gap calculations, we have also used the band anticrossing model. The band anticrossing model supplies a simple, analytical expression to calculate the physical properties, such as the electronic and optical properties, of III-NxV1-x alloys. The knowledge of the electron density of states is required to understand and clarify some properties of materials such as the band structures, bonding character and dielectric function. In order to have a deeper understanding of these properties of the studied materials, the total and partial density of states has been calculated. Finally, we have calculated the total bowing parameter b of studied alloys, together with three contributions bVD, bCE, and bSR due to volume deformation, different atomic electron negativities and structural relaxation, respectively.

  5. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce2Fe17NX and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Z.; Wei, J. Z.; Xia, Y. H.; Wu, R.; Yun, C.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, W. Y.; Du, H. L.; Han, J. Z.; Liu, S. Q.; Yang, Y. C.; Wang, C. S.; Yang, J. B.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce2Fe17NX have been investigated. The Ce2Fe17NX compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce2Fe17NX paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ ' = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of -26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and -60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  6. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-03-01

    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 < z < 1.2 from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1) catalogue, to constrain the cosmological model through a measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0

  7. Complete pathological response (ypT0N0M0) after preoperative chemotherapy alone for stage IV rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Naiken, Surennaidoo P; Toso, Christian; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Thomopoulos, Theodoros; Roth, Arnaud; Mentha, Gilles; Morel, Philippe; Gervaz, Pascal

    2014-01-17

    Complete pathological response occurs in 10-20% of patients with rectal cancer who are treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy prior to pelvic surgery. The possibility that complete pathological response of rectal cancer can also occur with neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (without radiation) is an intriguing hypothesis. A 66-year old man presented an adenocarcinoma of the rectum with nine liver metastases (T3N1M1). He was included in a reverse treatment, aiming at first downsizing the liver metastases by chemotherapy, and subsequently performing the liver surgery prior to the rectum resection. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisted in a combination of oxaliplatin, 5-FU, irinotecan, leucovorin and bevacizumab (OCFL-B). After a right portal embolization, an extended right liver lobectomy was performed. On the final histopathological analysis, all lesions were fibrotic, devoid of any viable cancer cells. One month after liver surgery, the rectoscopic examination showed a near-total response of the primary rectal adenocarcinoma, which convinced the colorectal surgeon to perform the low anterior resection without preoperative radiation therapy. Macroscopically, a fibrous scar was observed at the level of the previously documented tumour, and the histological examination of the surgical specimen did not reveal any malignant cells in the rectal wall as well as in the mesorectum. All 15 resected lymph nodes were free of tumour, and the final tumour stage was ypT0N0M0. Clinical outcome was excellent, and the patient is currently alive 5 years after the first surgery without evidence of recurrence. The presented patient with stage IV rectal cancer and liver metastases was in a unique situation linked to its inclusion in a reversed treatment and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone. The observed achievement of a complete pathological response after chemotherapy should promote the design of prospective randomized studies to evaluate the benefits of chemotherapy

  8. Synthesis of 2,3-trans-3,4-cis- and 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-2,3,4-triphenyltetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Munshi, K L; Dikshit, D K; Kapil, R S; Anand, N

    1974-04-01

    The synthesis of 2,3-trans-3,4-cis- and 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-2,3,4-triphenyltetrahydrofurans was undertaken because these compounds incorportae the essential structural features of certain 2,3-diphenyl-benzofurans and 1,2,3-triphenylalkanones reported earlier to have marked antifertility activity. The synthesis of the 2 tetrahydrofurans was achieved by the cyclization of corresponding 2,3,4-triphenylbutane-1,4-diols upon heating with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The butane 1,4-diols were in turn prepared either by direct litium aluminum hydride (LAH) reduction of methyl 3-benzoyl-2,3-diphenylpropionates or by conversion of these propionates to delta-3,4-butryrolactones followed by LAH reduction. The propionates were prepared from the Fiedel-Crafts reaction of 2,3-diphenylsuccinic anhydride with benzene. Tetrahydrofurans were tested for their antiimplantation activity in rats. 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-2,4-diphenyl-3-p -(beta-pyrrolidinoethoxy) phenyltetrahydrofuran oxalate was found to inhibit implantation completely at 50 mg/kg, but was inefective at a lower dose.

  9. Future home hemodialysis - advantages of the NxStage System One.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients with renal failure who are on dialysis, we have been working to promote home hemodialysis (HHD), but it has not come into widespread use at present because of various problems, including limitations of the equipment, the large proportion of elderly patients, and difficulty performing self-care. With regard to problems with the equipment, dialysis equipment for home use has not yet been approved in Japan, so equipment designed for medical facilities has to be used for home dialysis. Such equipment is bulky and occupies living space, as well as involving the cost of home renovation and the need for a caregiver. The NxStage System One (NSO) artificial kidney has served advantages for HHD compared with conventional equipment, since it is compact, portable, and easy to operate (especially for preparation and cleaning), does not require a water supply, occupies less living space, and reduces the need for renovation of the home. Other advantages of the NSO include improvement of QOL by saving time travelling to hospitals and helping patients to participate in social activities. In addition, HHD with the NSO can improve sleep disorders, the restless legs syndrome, and depressive symptoms, resulting in a good outcome. Moreover, HHD with the NSO reduces the need for drugs, such as antihypertensive medications and erythropoietin, possibly leading to saving of healthcare costs.

  10. Improved resistive switching characteristics in Ni/SiNx/p++-Si devices by tuning x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Chang, Yao-Feng; Kim, Min-Hwi; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-07-01

    This letter studies the effect of the negative-set on the resistive switching performances of CMOS-compatible Ni/SiNx/p++-Si resistive memory devices by simply tuning x. A Ni/SiN1.07/p++-Si device showed lower power switching (20 μW) and better endurance cycles (103) compared to a Ni/SiN0.82/p++-Si device because of the improved negative set behavior and initially lower set and reset currents. In addition, we achieved fast switching speed for set (200 ns) and reset (100 ns) processes in the Ni/SiN1.07/p++-Si device. For the Ni/SiN1.07/p++-Si device, fine adjustment of resistance values is attainable by varying the pulse amplitude and width due to the gradual reset switching characteristics. The barrier-height-dependent conduction model is proposed to explain the change in the current level with the x value.

  11. Thermal elastic-wave attenuation in low-dimensional SiNx bars at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withington, S.; Williams, E.; Goldie, D. J.; Thomas, C. N.; Schneiderman, M.

    2017-08-01

    At low temperatures, <200 mK, the thermal flux through low-dimensional amorphous dielectric bars, <2 μm wide and 200 nm thick, is transported by a small number of low-order elastic modes. For long bars, L > 400 μm, it is known that the conductance scales as 1/L, where L is the length, but for short bars, 1 μm < L < 400 μm, the length dependence is poorly known. Although it is assumed that the transport must exhibit a diffusive to ballistic transition, the functional form of the transition and the scale size over which the transition occurs have not, to our knowledge, been measured. In this paper, we use ultra-low-noise superconducting Transition Edge Sensors to measure the heat flux through a set of SiNx bars to establish the characteristic scale size of the ballistic to diffusive transition. For bars supporting 6 to 7 modes, we measure a thermal elastic-wave attenuation length of 20 μm. The measurement is important because it sheds light on the scattering processes, which in turn are closely related to the generation of thermal fluctuation noise. Our own interest lies in creating patterned phononic filters for controlling heat flow and thermal noise in ultra-low-noise devices, but the work will be of interest to others trying to isolate devices from their environments and studying loss mechanisms in micro-mechanical resonators.

  12. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  13. Large configuration-induced band-gap fluctuations in GaNxAs1-x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tit, Nacir

    2006-06-01

    The electronic band structures of GaNxAs1-x alloys were investigated versus the nitrogen mole fraction x and the nitrogen atomic configuration. The computational method is based on the sp3s* tight-binding technique. Two main nitrogen atomic distributions were considered: (i) the nitrogen atoms grouped in one region to form like a GaN dot inside the GaAs so as to have a maximally N-clustered (MNC) configuration; and (ii) the nitrogen atoms homogeneously distributed over the alloy and, of course, the minimal N-clustered distribution as the maximally As-clustered (MAsC) configuration. The former is found to always have the lowest band gaps. More interestingly, the results show that in the latter distribution the nitrogen atoms introduce resonant states above the conduction-band edge by about 230 meV, which is consistent with the literature, whereas they introduce a deep gap state above the valence-band edge at about 150 meV in the former distribution. As a suitable model for experimental samples, the MAsC configuration, was used to model some available photoluminescence data in the dilute regime.

  14. Cloning and characterization of a sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Cai, Heng; Qing, Yujia; Ren, Ben; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Hongyang; Yao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The sucrose isomerase (SIase) gene from an efficient strain of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 for isomaltulose hyperproduction was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Protein sequence alignment revealed that SIase was a member of the glycoside hydrolase 13 family. The molecular mass of the purified recombinant protein was estimated at 66 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The SIase had an optimal pH and temperature of 5.0 and 30 °C, respectively, with a K (m) of 257 mmol/l and V (max) of 48.09 μmol/l/s for sucrose. To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant SIase has the most acidic optimum pH for isomaltulose synthesis. When the recombinant E. coli (pET22b- palI) cells were used for isomaltulose synthesis, almost complete conversion of sucrose (550 g/l solution) to isomaltulose was achieved in 1.5 h with high isomaltulose yields (87%). The immobilized E. coli cells remained stable for more than 30 days in a "batch"-type enzyme reactor. This indicated that the recombinant SIase could continuously and efficiently produce isomaltulose.

  15. Tuning the magnetic and structural transitions in TbC o2M nx compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianli; Hong, Fang; Hutchison, Wayne D.; Din, M. F. Md; Studer, A. J.; Kimpton, J. A.; Dou, Shixue; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2017-08-01

    The wide ranging magnetic behavior in intermetallic compounds continues to attract broad interest. Effective control of their magnetic properties is of great importance for fundamental research and potential applications. In this work the structural and magnetic properties of TbC o2M nx compounds are studied by a combination of temperature dependent synchrotron x-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, specific heat, and magnetic measurements. Magnetization measurements show that the addition of Mn can modify the magnetic behavior significantly: first, the magnetic transition temperatures increase from ˜227 K to 332 K with x =0.0 to 0.3 ; secondly, the nature of the magnetic transitions change from the first order to second order, as identified by three methods (Banerjee criterion, master curves of magnetic entropy changes, and detailed crystal structure analysis through neutron diffraction). Both synchrotron x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction confirm that a structural transition, from cubic F d 3 ¯m to rhombohedral R 3 ¯m on cooling, occurred accompanying the magnetic transition. To further clarify the nature of the second order magnetic phase transitions, we have carried out a detailed critical exponent analysis. The derived critical exponents are close to the theoretical prediction from the mean-field model, indicating the magnetic interactions are long range. This work benefits our general understanding of magnetic interactions in intermetallic compounds and provides guidance to design a functional magnetic material for room temperature magnetic devices.

  16. Hydrogen plasma induced modification of photoluminescence from a-SiNx:H thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommali, R. K.; Ghosh, S.; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Gao, K.; Zhou, S.; Khan, S. A.; Srivastava, P.

    2014-02-01

    Low temperature (250-350 °C) hydrogen plasma annealing (HPA) treatments have been performed on amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) thin films having a range of compositions and subsequent modification of photoluminescence (PL) is investigated. The PL spectral shape and peak positions for the as deposited films could be tuned with composition and excitation energies. HPA induced modification of PL of these films is found to depend on the N/Si ratio (x). Upon HPA, the PL spectra show an emergence of a red emission band for x ≤ 1, whereas an overall increase of intensity without change in the spectral shape is observed for x > 1. The emission observed in the Si rich films is attributed to nanoscale a-Si:H inclusions. The enhancement is maximum for off-stoichiometric films (x ˜ 1) and decreases as the compositions of a-Si (x = 0) and a-Si3N4 (x = 1.33) are approached, implying high density of non-radiative defects around x = 1. The diffusion of hydrogen in these films is also analyzed by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis technique.

  17. Contribution of glycerol on production of poly(gamma-Glutamic Acid) in Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Yao, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol would stimulate the production of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) and decrease its molecular weight in Bacillus subtilis NX-2. When 20 g/l glycerol was added in the medium, the yield of gamma-PGA increased from 26.7 +/- 1.0 to 31.7 +/- 1.3 g/l, and molecular weight of gamma-PGA decreased from 2.43 +/- 0.07 x 10(6) to 1.86 +/- 0.06 x 10(6) Da. In addition, it was found that the decrease of gamma-PGA chain length by glycerol would lead to the decrease of broth viscosity during the fermentation and enhanced the uptake of substrates, which could not only improve cell growth but also stimulate gamma-PGA production. Moreover, it was also found that glycerol could effectively regulate molecular weight between 2.43 +/- 0.07 x 10(6) and 1.42 +/- 0.05 x 10(6) Da with the concentration ranging from 0 to 60 g/l. This was the first time to discover such contribution of glycerol on gamma-PGA production in Bacillus genus. And the effects of glycerol on molecular weight of gamma-PGA would be developed to be an approach for the regulation of microbial gamma-PGA chain length, which is of practical importance for future commercial development of this polymer.

  18. Investigation of NbNx thin films and nanoparticles grown by pulsed laser deposition and thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Farha, Ashraf

    Niobium nitride films (NbNx) were grown on Nb and Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD), laser heating, and thermal diffusion methods. Niobium nitride films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (lambda = 1064 nm, 40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, different nitrogen background pressures and deposition temperatures. The effect of changing PLD parameters for films done by PLD was studied. The seen observations establish guidelines for adjusting the laser parameters to achieve the desired morphology and phase of the grown NbNx films. When the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for laser fluence, surface roughness, deposition rate, nitrogen content, and grain size increases with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to change in the phase structure of the NbNx films from mixed -Nb 2N and cubic delta-NbN phases to single hexagonal beta- Nb 2N. A change in substrate temperature led to a pronounced change in the preferred orientation of the crystal structure, the phase transformation, surface roughness, and composition of the films. The structural, electronic, and nanomechanical properties of niobium nitride PLD deposited at different nitrogen pressures (26.7-66.7 Pa) on Si(100) were investigated. The NbNx, films exhibited a cubic delta-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The highly-textured delta-NbN films have a Tc up to 15.07 K. The film was deposited at a nitrogen background pressure of 66.7 Pa exhibited improved superconducting properties and showed higher hardness values as compared to films deposited at lower nitrogen pressures. NbN nanoclusters that were deposited on carbon coated Cu-grids using PLD at laser fluence of 8 J/cm2 were observed. Niobium nitride is prepared by heating of Nb sample in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere (133 Pa

  19. Spatially resolving the accretion shocks on the rapidly-rotating M0 T-Tauri star MN Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Rice, J. B.; Ritter, A.; Küker, M.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Hubrig, S.; Shobbrook, R.

    2005-09-01

    We obtained high-resolution, high-quality VLT/UVES spectra to reconstruct the two-dimensional surface structure of the rapidly-rotating classical T-Tauri star MN Lupi on two separate nights. Both surface maps show a structured warm (5000 K) band centered around the pole at a latitude of ≈65°. Located within the band are two hot spots with temperatures of approximately or possibly even in excess of 5800 K, i.e. 2000 K above the effective photospheric temperature. Both maps appear with an adjacent equatorial band of temperature 3400 K, some 400-500 K below the effective photospheric temperature. While we interpret the two hot spots and the warm high-latitude band to be the heating points from two accretion impacts at the time of our observations and their redistributed energy trailed due to the fast stellar rotation, respectively, the cool equatorial band may not be cool after all but due to obscuration of the stellar surface by the innermost region of the disk. The fact that the hot spots appear at high stellar latitude is in agreement with the magnetospheric accretion model that proposes material funnelling onto the star along a predominantly dipolar magnetic field at roughly 50° latitude. The evidence of ongoing disk accretion, together with the very fast rotation of MN Lupi of just 3-4 times below its break-up velocity, suggests that the accretion mechanism is the cause of its rapid surface rotation. We present a model of magnetic star-disk coupling for MN Lupi that predicts a polar surface magnetic field of ≈3 kG.

  20. The T160A hemagglutinin substitution affects not only receptor binding property but also transmissibility of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 avian influenza virus in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Min; Li, Qunhui; Gao, Ruyi; He, Dongchang; Xu, Yunpeng; Xu, Haixu; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Jiao; Liu, Xiaowen; Hu, Shunlin; Peng, Daxin; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2017-02-06

    We generated and characterized site-directed HA mutants on the genetic backbone of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 virus preferentially binding to α-2,3 receptors in order to identify the key determinants in hemagglutinin rendering the dual affinity to both α-2,3 (avian-type) and α-2,6 (human-type) linked sialic acid receptors of the current clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX subtype avian influenza reassortants. The results show that the T160A substitution resulted in the loss of a glycosylation site at 158N and led not only to enhanced binding specificity for human-type receptors but also transmissibility among guinea pigs, which could be considered as an important molecular marker for assessing pandemic potential of H5 subtype avian influenza isolates.

  1. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  2. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  3. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  4. 43 CFR 2201.3-4 - Appraisal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... market value of the lands appraised. (c) The review appraiser shall prepare a written review report... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal review. 2201.3-4 Section 2201.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  5. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or occupancy...

  6. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  7. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  8. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS Supplement Nos. 3-4 to Part 742 ...

  13. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  14. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  15. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  16. Clinical Evaluation of the New High-Throughput Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay for Multiplex Respiratory Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Ho-Yin; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Wong, Sally C. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Ma, Edmond S. K.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Tang, Bone S. F.

    2016-01-01

    A broad range of viral and bacterial pathogens can cause acute respiratory tract infection. For rapid detection of a broad respiratory pathogen spectrum, multiplex real-time PCR is ideal. This study evaluated the performance of the new Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTAG-RPP) in comparison with the BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FA-RP) or singleplex real-time PCR as reference. A total of 284 clinical respiratory specimens and 3 influenza A/H7N9 viral culture samples were tested. All clinical specimens were processed and analyzed in parallel using NxTAG-RPP and the reference standard method. The H7N9 viral culture samples were tested using NxTAG-RPP only. Overall, the NxTAG-RPP demonstrated ≥93% sensitivity and specificity for all respiratory targets except human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HCoV-HKU1. The H7N9 virus was detected by the influenza A virus matrix gene target, while other influenza A virus subtyping gene targets in the panel remained negative. Complete concordance between NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP was observed in 98.8% (318/322) of positive results (kappa = 0.92). Substantial agreement was found for most respiratory targets, but significant differences were observed in human metapneumovirus (P = 0.001) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (P = 0.031). NxTAG-RPP has a higher sample throughput than FA-RP (96 samples versus 1 sample per run) while the turnaround times for NxTAG-RPP and FA-RP were 5 h (up to 96 samples) and 1 h (for one sample), respectively. Overall, NxTAG-RPP demonstrated good diagnostic performance for most respiratory pathogens. The high sample throughput with reasonable turnaround time of this new assay makes it a suitable multiplex platform for routine screening of respiratory specimens in hospital-based laboratories. PMID:27122380

  17. Utilization of N-X bonds in the synthesis of N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Satoshi

    2009-08-18

    Nitrogen-containing heterocycles--such as aziridines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, and oxazolines--frequently show up as substructures in natural products. In addition, some of these species show potent biological activities. Therefore, researchers would like to develop practical and convenient methods for constructing these heterocycles. Among the available methods, the transfer of N(1) units to organic molecules, especially olefins, is a versatile method for the synthesis of N-heterocycles. This Account reviews some of our recent work on the synthesis of N-heterocycles using the N-X bond. A nitrogen-halogen bond bearing an electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen can be converted to a halonium ion. In the presence of C-C double bonds, these species produce three-membered cyclic halonium intermediates, which can be strong electrophiles and can produce stereocontrolled products. N-Halosuccinimides are representative sources of halonium ions, and the nitrogen of succinimide is rarely used in organic synthesis. If the nitrogen could act as a nucleophile, after releasing halonium ions to C-C double bonds, we expect great advances would be possible in the stereoselective functionalization of olefins. We chose N-chloro-N-sodio-p-toluenesulfonamide (chloramine-T, CT), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, as our desired reactant. In the presence of a catalytic amount of CuCl or I(2) and AgNO(3), we achieved the direct aziridination of olefins with CT. The reaction catalyzed by I(2) could be carried out in water or silica-water as a green process. The reaction of iodoolefins with CT gave pyrrolidine derivatives under extremely mild conditions with complete stereoselectivity. We also extended the utility of the N-chloro-N-metallo reagent, which is often unstable and difficult to work with. Although CT does not react with electron-deficient olefins without a metal catalyst or an additive, we found that N-chloro-N-sodiocarbamates react with electron

  18. Comparison of Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel and xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel FAST Version 2 for the Detection of Respiratory Viruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun Kiat; Lee, Hong Kai; Ng, Christopher Wei Siong; Chiu, Lily; Tang, Julian Wei Tze; Loh, Tze Ping; Koay, Evelyn Siew Chuan

    2017-05-01

    Owing to advancements in molecular diagnostics, recent years have seen an increasing number of laboratories adopting respiratory viral panels to detect respiratory pathogens. In December 2015, the NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (NxTAG RPP) was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. We compared the clinical performance of this new assay with that of the xTAG respiratory viral panel (xTAG RVP) FAST v2 using 142 clinical samples and 12 external quality assessment samples. Discordant results were resolved by using a laboratory-developed respiratory viral panel. The NxTAG RPP achieved 100% concordant negative results and 86.6% concordant positive results. It detected one coronavirus 229E and eight influenza A/H3N2 viruses that were missed by the xTAG RVP FAST v2. On the other hand, the NxTAG RPP missed one enterovirus/rhinovirus and one metapneumovirus that were detected by FAST v2. Both panels correctly identified all the pathogens in the 12 external quality assessment samples. Overall, the NxTAG RPP demonstrated good diagnostic performance. Of note, it was better able to subtype the influenza A/H3N2 viruses compared with the xTAG RVP FAST v2. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  19. Drastic reduction in the surface recombination velocity of crystalline silicon passivated with catalytic chemical vapor deposited SiNx films by introducing phosphorous catalytic-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, Trinh Cham; Koyama, Koichi; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    We improve the passivation property of n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivated with a catalytic chemical vapor deposited (Cat-CVD) Si nitride (SiNx) film by inserting a phosphorous (P)-doped layer formed by exposing c-Si surface to P radicals generated by the catalytic cracking of PH3 molecules (Cat-doping). An extremely low surface recombination velocity (SRV) of 2 cm/s can be achieved for 2.5 Ω cm n-type (100) floating-zone Si wafers passivated with SiNx/P Cat-doped layers, both prepared in Cat-CVD systems. Compared with the case of only SiNx passivated layers, SRV decreases from 5 cm/s to 2 cm/s. The decrease in SRV is the result of field effect created by activated P atoms (donors) in a shallow P Cat-doped layer. Annealing process plays an important role in improving the passivation quality of SiNx films. The outstanding results obtained imply that SiNx/P Cat-doped layers can be used as promising passivation layers in high-efficiency n-type c-Si solar cells.

  20. Development of broadband antireflection of high-index substrate using SiNx/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kim Peng; Ng, Doris K. T.; Wang, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Broadband antireflection coatings are commonly required in many silicon or III-V compound semiconductor based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, and image sensors so as to enhance light conversion efficiency. Conventional approach using a single-layer antireflection coating is simple and commonly used in industry but it has a limited working bandwidth. To achieve broadband or even omni-directional characteristics, structures using thick graded refractive index (GRIN) multilayers or nanostructured surfaces which have equivalent graded refractive index profile have been proposed and demonstrated. In this paper, we will show our development of broadband antireflection for high index substrate using SiNx/SiO2 via inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICPCVD). Global optimization of thin-film broadband antireflection coating using adaptive simulated annealing is presented. Unlike the conventional optical coating design which uses the refractive index of available materials, the optimization approach used here decides the optimal values of the refractive index as well as the thickness of each layer. The first thin-film material optimization is carried out on the ICP-CVD machine operating at low temperature of 250°C by tuning the SiH4/N2 gas ratio. The demonstrated double layer antireflection thin film reduces the average reflectance of Si surface from ~32% to ~3.17% at normal incidence for wavelength range from 400 to 1100 nm. This optical thin-film design and material development can be extended to optical wavelength filters and integrated micro-GRIN devices.

  1. Electronic structure of the SiNx/TiN interface: A model system for superhard nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patscheider, Jörg; Hellgren, Niklas; Haasch, Richard T.; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, J. E.

    2011-03-01

    Nanostructured materials such as nanocomposites and nanolaminates—subjects of intense interest in modern materials research—are defined by internal interfaces, the nature of which is generally unknown. Nevertheless, the interfaces often determine the bulk properties. An example of this is superhard nanocomposites with hardness approaching that of diamond. TiN/Si3N4 nanocomposites (TiN nanocrystals encapsulated in a fully percolated SiNx tissue phase) and nanolaminates, in particular, have attracted much attention as model systems for the synthesis of such superhard materials. Here, we use in situ angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure of Si3N4/TiN(001), Si/TiN(001), and Ti/TiN(001) bilayer interfaces, in which 4-ML-thick overlayers are grown in an ultrahigh vacuum system by reactive magnetron sputter deposition onto epitaxial TiN layers on MgO(001). The thickness of the Si3N4, Si, and Ti overlayers is chosen to be thin enough to insure sufficient electron transparency to probe the interfaces, while being close to values reported in typical nanocomposites and nanolaminates. The results show that these overlayer/TiN(001) interfaces have distinctly different bonding characteristics. Si3N4 exhibits interface polarization through the formation of an interlayer, in which the N concentration is enhanced at higher substrate bias values during Si3N4 deposition. The increased number of Ti-N bonds at the interface, together with the resulting polarization, strengthens interfacial bonding. In contrast, overlayers of Si and, even more so, metallic Ti weaken the interface by minimizing the valence band energy difference between the two phases. A model is proposed that provides a semiquantitative explanation of the interfacial bond strength in nitrogen-saturated and nitrogen-deficient Ti-Si-N nanocomposites.

  2. New 3,4-Secocycloartane and 3,4-Secodammarane Triterpenes from the Ecuadorian Plant Coussarea macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Gilardoni, Gianluca; Chiriboga, Ximena; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Coussarea macrophylla (Mart.) Müll.Arg. (Rubiaceae) was collected in Ecuador, and the bark was extracted with AcOEt. Chromatographic separation afforded six novel 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes, named macrocoussaric acids A-F, together with the known metabolites secaubryenol and 3,4-secodammara-4(28),20,24-triene-3,26-dioic acid. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data. This is the first report of 3,4-secocycloartane and 3,4-secodammarane triterpenes occurring in a Coussarea species. Macrocoussaric acids A and B (2 and 3, resp.) were found to be moderately cytotoxic against five different tumor cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective is to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. The attained benefits are obtained by first providing the bis (exocyclodiene) bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane, which is a novel material formed from the monomer N-phenyl-3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidine. This compound undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide, without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane.

  4. Efficient visible light-induced degradation of rhodamine B by W(NxS1−x)2 nanoflowers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peitao; Zhang, Jingyan; Gao, Daqiang; Ye, Weichun

    2017-01-01

    Here, W(NxS1−x)2 nanoflowers were fabricated by simple sintering process. Photocatalytic activity results indicated our fabricated N-doped WS2 nanoflowers shown outstanding photoactivity of degradating of rhodamine B with visible light. Which is attributed to the high separation efficiency of photoinduced electron–hole pairs, the broadening of the valence band (VB), and the narrowing of energy band gap. Meanwhile, our work provided a novel method to induce surface sulfur vacancies in crystals by introduing impurities atoms for enhancing their photodegradation. PMID:28106096

  5. SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Process parameters influencing the residual coating stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Hänninen, T.; Wissting, J.; Hultman, L.; Goebbels, N.; Santana, A.; Tobler, M.; Högberg, H.

    2017-05-01

    The residual coating stress and its control is of key importance for the performance and reliability of silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. This study explores the most important deposition process parameters to tailor the residual coating stress and hence improve the adhesion of SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS). Reactive sputter deposition and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial deposition chamber equipped with pure Si targets in N2/Ar ambient. Reactive HiPIMS processes using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0 and 0.28-0.3 were studied with time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry. The coatings were deposited to thicknesses of 2 μm on Si(001) and to 5 μm on polished CoCrMo disks. The residual stress of the X-ray amorphous coatings was determined from the curvature of the Si substrates as obtained by X-ray diffraction. The coatings were further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation in order to study their elemental composition, morphology, and hardness, respectively. The adhesion of the 5 μm thick coatings deposited on CoCrMo disks was assessed using the Rockwell C test. The deposition of SiNx coatings by rHiPIMS using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0.28 yield dense and hard SiNx coatings with Si/N ratios <1. The compressive residual stress of up to 2.1 GPa can be reduced to 0.2 GPa using a comparatively high deposition pressure of 600 mPa, substrate temperatures below 200 °C, low pulse energies of <2.5 Ws, and moderate negative bias voltages of up to 100 V. These process parameters resulted in excellent coating adhesion (ISO 0, HF1) and a low surface roughness of 14 nm for coatings deposited on CoCrMo.

  6. Butterfly-shaped distribution of SiNx precipitates in multi-crystalline Si for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianyong; Prakash, Ronit Roneel; Jiptner, Karolin; Chen, Jun; Miyamura, Yoshiji; Harada, Hirofumi; Kakimoto, Koichi; Ogura, Atsushi; Sekiguchi, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    This paper concerns the precipitation mechanism of SiNx impurities in multi-crystalline silicon grown with a directional solidification system. A butterfly-shaped precipitate region was found across the middle part of ingot. These precipitates showed filament-like and fiber-like shapes of several micrometers in diameter and up to several millimeters in length. These two types of precipitates exist in different areas, forming three distribution zones in the butterfly region. The precipitate growth periodically stopped at the last stage of the butterfly formation. A non-uniform convection flow model was proposed to explain the precipitation behavior at the butterfly.

  7. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40–70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:26039360

  8. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40-70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain.

  9. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a biologically active scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khalilullah, H; Ahsan, M J; Hedaitullah, Md; Khan, S; Ahmed, B

    2012-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, antimycobecterial, antitumour, antiviral and antitubercular activities. 1,3,4-oxadiazoles constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations led to the development of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. This review article describes the various biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system and is useful in guiding the researchers across the world working on this moiety and consequently have been instrumental in the advancement of 1,3,4-oxadiazole chemistry.

  10. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF WEST CHANNEL SPANS, SPANS 3, 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF WEST CHANNEL SPANS, SPANS 3, 4 AND 5 REMOVED, LOOKING EAST. - Walnut Street Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Walnut Street (State Route 3034), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  11. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  12. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  13. 17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  14. Two-dimensional titanium carbonitrides and their hydroxylated derivatives: Structural, electronic properties and stability of MXenes Ti3C2-xNx(OH)2 from DFTB calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enyashin, A. N.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2013-11-01

    The structural, electronic properties and stability of the new MXene compounds—two-dimensional pristine carbonitrides Ti3C2-xNx and their hydroxylated derivatives Ti3C2-xNx(OH)2 are studied by means of DFTB calculations. The genesis of the properties is discussed in the sequence: binary MXenes Ti3C2 (Ti3N2)→hydroxylated forms Ti3C2(OH)2 (Ti3N2(OH)2)→pristine MXene Ti3C2-xNx→hydroxylated Ti3C2-xNx(OH)2. All examined materials are metallic-like. The most favorable type of OH-covering is presented by the occupation of the hollow sites between three neighboring carbon (nitrogen) atoms. Two-dimensional MXene carbonitrides with random distribution of C and N atoms are found to be thermodynamically more favorable.

  15. Spatiotemporal control of endocytosis by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Posor, York; Eichhorn-Gruenig, Marielle; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schöneberg, Johannes; Ullrich, Alexander; Lampe, André; Müller, Rainer; Zarbakhsh, Sirus; Gulluni, Federico; Hirsch, Emilio; Krauss, Michael; Schultz, Carsten; Schmoranzer, Jan; Noé, Frank; Haucke, Volker

    2013-07-11

    Phosphoinositides serve crucial roles in cell physiology, ranging from cell signalling to membrane traffic. Among the seven eukaryotic phosphoinositides the best studied species is phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is concentrated at the plasma membrane where, among other functions, it is required for the nucleation of endocytic clathrin-coated pits. No phosphatidylinositol other than PI(4,5)P2 has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas the subsequent endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway are dominated by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphates(PI(3)P). How phosphatidylinositol conversion from PI(4,5)P2-positive endocytic intermediates to PI(3)P-containing endosomes is achieved is unclear. Here we show that formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) by class II phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase C2α (PI(3)K C2α) spatiotemporally controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of PI(3,4)P2 or PI(3)K C2α impairs the maturation of late-stage clathrin-coated pits before fission. Timed formation of PI(3,4)P2 by PI(3)K C2α is required for selective enrichment of the BAR domain protein SNX9 at late-stage endocytic intermediates. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for the role of PI(3,4)P2 in endocytosis and unravel a novel discrete function of PI(3,4)P2 in a central cell physiological process.

  16. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  17. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  18. WNx and MoNx Layers: Elastic Properties and Crystal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsdolay, Brian

    This thesis research has focused on the thin film growth, phase stability, and elastic properties of two relatively unknown nitrides: tungsten nitride and molybdenum nitride. The elastic properties and hardness are not well characterized for either material, with previous measurements showing a wide range of values. In addition, the conditions leading to growth of high quality epitaxial layers of these materials are not well known. There is also some discrepancy over the cubic crystal structure seen in both WNx and MoNx. While the presence of nitrogen vacancies are well documented, it is unclear if metal vacancies also appear and in what concentrations. Tungsten nitride layers, 1.45-microm-thick, were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al2O3(0001) in 20 mTorr N2 at 500-800 °C. All layers deposited at Ts = 500-700 °C form a cubic phase, as determined by X-ray diffraction o-2theta scans, and show an N-to-W ratio x that decreases from x = 1.21 to 0.83 with increasing Ts = 500-700 °C, as measured by energy dispersive and photoelectron spectroscopies. Ts = 500 and 600 °C yields polycrystalline predominantly 111 oriented beta-WN on all substrates. In contrast, deposition at 700 °C results in epitaxial growth of beta-WN(111) and beta-WN(001) on MgO(111) and MgO(001), respectively, and a 111-preferred orientation on Al2O3(0001). Ts = 800 °C causes nitrogen loss and WN x layers with primarily BCC W grains and x = 0.04-0.06. For Ts = 700 °C, nanoindentation provides hardness values of 9.8+/-2.2, 12.5+/-1.0, and 10.3+/-0.4 GPa, and elastic moduli of 240+/-40, 257+/-13, and 242+/-10 GPa for layers grown on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al2O3(0001), respectively. Brillouin spectroscopy measurements yield shear moduli of 120+/-2 GPa, 114+/-2 GPa and 108+/-2 GPa for WN on MgO(001), MgO(111) and Al2O3(0001), respectively, suggesting a WN elastic anisotropy factor of 1.6+/-0.3, consistent with the indentation results. The combined analysis of the

  19. Synthesis and reactivity of coumarin 3,4-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Born, S L; Rodriguez, P A; Eddy, C L; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1997-11-01

    Coumarin is used widely as a fragrance constituent and is administered clinically in the treatment of certain lymphedemas and malignancies. Although toxicity occurs only rarely in humans treated clinically with high-dose coumarin, it is well established that coumarin is hepatotoxic in the rat. This species difference in susceptibility to toxicity reflects the disparate metabolic processes occurring in humans and rodents. In humans, coumarin is converted extensively via cytochrome P450 2A6 to the nontoxic 7-hydroxycoumarin metabolite. In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxidation is thought to predominate in rodent species, resulting in the formation of several potentially toxic metabolites. Coumarin epoxide is thought to be highly unstable and has not been isolated synthetically or as a microsomal product. To address this issue, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was synthesized, and its stability and fate have been determined. Coumarin 3,4-epoxide was prepared by reacting coumarin with dimethyldioxirane. The epoxide was stable in organic solvents and survived conditions required for analysis by gas chromotography. Its structure was confirmed via 1H-NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-infrared spectroscopy (GC-MS-IR). In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was unstable in aqueous solution, converting within 20 sec to a ring-opened compound. Using GC-MS-IR analysis, the single coumarin 3,4-epoxide product was identified as o-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (o-HPA). Although other investigators have suggested that 3-hydroxycoumarin is an intermediate in o-HPA formation from coumarin 3,4-epoxide, we have demonstrated that 3-hydroxycoumarin, incubated in an aqueous system or with liver microsomal proteins, does not form o-HPA. Thus, the results of the present work establish that coumarin 3,4-epoxide can be synthesized and that o-HPA, which has previously been shown to be a prominent coumarin metabolite in rat liver microsomal incubations, is formed directly from coumarin 3,4-epoxide. These

  20. Highly efficient rice straw utilization for poly-(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zongqi; Jiang, Yongxiang; Xu, Zheng; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an economic and environmental feedstock for future biotechnological production. Here, for the first time, poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using rice straw is investigated. Based on two-stage hydrolysis and characteristic consumption of xylose and glucose by B. subtilis NX-2, a co-fermentation strategy was designed to better accumulate PGA in a 7.5L fermentor by two feeding methods. The maximum cumulative respective PGA production and PGA productivity were 73.0 ± 0.5 g L(-1) and 0.81 g L(-1) h(-1) by the continuous feeding method, with carbon source cost was saved by 84.2% and 42.5% compared with glucose and cane molasse, respectively. These results suggest that rice straw, a type of abundant, low-cost, non-food lignocellulosic feedstock, may be feasibly and efficiently utilized for industrial-scale production of PGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-01

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn2NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid-liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna21, Zn2NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn2NCl and Zn2NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO2 type, and Zn2NI is closely related. Each N3- is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X- anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn4] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn2NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  2. Probing the role of an atomically thin SiNx interlayer on the structure of ultrathin carbon films.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J; Goohpattader, Partho S; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S; Bhatia, C S

    2014-05-21

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs.

  3. Further Studies on the Effect of SiNx Refractive Index and Emitter Sheet Resistance on Potential-Induced Degradation

    DOE PAGES

    Oh, Jaewon; Dauksher, Bill; Bowden, Stuart; ...

    2017-01-11

    We present the impacts of silicon nitride (SiNx) antireflection coating refractive index and emitter sheet resistance on potential-induced degradation of the shunting type (PID-s). Previously, it has been shown that the cell becomes more PID-s-susceptible as the refractive index decreases or the emitter sheet resistance increases. To verify the effect of refractive index on PID-s, we fabricated cells with varying SiNx refractive index (1.87, 1.94, 2.05) on typical p-type base solar cells with ~60 Ω/sq emitters. However, none of these cells showed output power degradation, regardless of the refractive index. Further investigation of the emitter showed that the PID-s wasmore » suppressed at ~60 Ω/sq due to the extremely high surface phosphorus concentration (6 x 1021 cm-3), as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Furthermore, PID-s was observed on cells possessing a high emitter sheet resistance (~80 Ω/sq). In conclusion, the emitter surface phosphorus concentration plays an important role in determining PID-s susceptibility.« less

  4. Probing the Role of an Atomically Thin SiNx Interlayer on the Structure of Ultrathin Carbon Films

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Rismani-Yazdi, Ehsan; Yeo, Reuben J.; Goohpattader, Partho S.; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Druz, Boris; Tripathy, S.; Bhatia, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) processed carbon films are being considered as a promising protective media overcoat material for future hard disk drives (HDDs). However, at ultrathin film levels, FCVA-deposited carbon films show a dramatic change in their structure in terms of loss of sp3 bonding, density, wear resistance etc., compared to their bulk counterpart. We report for the first time how an atomically thin (0.4 nm) silicon nitride (SiNx) interlayer helps in maintaining/improving the sp3 carbon bonding, enhancing interfacial strength/bonding, improving oxidation/corrosion resistance, and strengthening the tribological properties of FCVA-deposited carbon films, even at ultrathin levels (1.2 nm). We propose the role of the SiNx interlayer in preventing the catalytic activity of Co and Pt in media, leading to enhanced sp3C bonding (relative enhancement ~40%). These findings are extremely important in view of the atomic level understanding of structural modification and the development of high density HDDs. PMID:24846506

  5. Effect of annealing treatments on photoluminescence and charge storage mechanism in silicon-rich SiNx:H films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a wide range of a-SiNx:H films with an excess of silicon (20 to 50%) were prepared with an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system under the flows of NH3 and SiH4. The silicon-rich a-SiNx:H films (SRSN) were sandwiched between a bottom thermal SiO2 and a top Si3N4 layer, and subsequently annealed within the temperature range of 500-1100°C in N2 to study the effect of annealing temperature on light-emitting and charge storage properties. A strong visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature has been observed for the as-deposited SRSN films as well as for films annealed up to 1100°C. The possible origins of the PL are briefly discussed. The authors have succeeded in the formation of amorphous Si quantum dots with an average size of about 3 to 3.6 nm by varying excess amount of Si and annealing temperature. Electrical properties have been investigated on Al/Si3N4/SRSN/SiO2/Si structures by capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage analysis techniques. A significant memory window of 4.45 V was obtained at a low operating voltage of ± 8 V for the sample containing 25% excess silicon and annealed at 1000°C, indicating its utility in low-power memory devices. PMID:21711712

  6. Subcritical crack growth in SiNx thin-film barriers studied by electro-mechanical two-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qingling; Laven, Jozua; Bouten, Piet C. P.; de With, Gijsbertus

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical failure resulting from subcritical crack growth in the SiNx inorganic barrier layer applied on a flexible multilayer structure was studied by an electro-mechanical two-point bending method. A 10 nm conducting tin-doped indium oxide layer was sputtered as an electrical probe to monitor the subcritical crack growth in the 150 nm dielectric SiNx layer carried by a polyethylene naphthalate substrate. In the electro-mechanical two-point bending test, dynamic and static loads were applied to investigate the crack propagation in the barrier layer. As consequence of using two loading modes, the characteristic failure strain and failure time could be determined. The failure probability distribution of strain and lifetime under each loading condition was described by Weibull statistics. In this study, results from the tests in dynamic and static loading modes were linked by a power law description to determine the critical failure over a range of conditions. The fatigue parameter n from the power law reduces greatly from 70 to 31 upon correcting for internal strain. The testing method and analysis tool as described in the paper can be used to understand the limit of thin-film barriers in terms of their mechanical properties.

  7. Terahertz band-pass filters based on fishnet metamaterials fabricated on free-standing SiNx membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Tianhong; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Chen, Zhegeng; Jiang, Yadong; Li, Xinrong; Lian, Yuxiang; Wang, Fu; He, Qiong; Chen, Zexiang; Zhou, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Terahertz (THz) band-pass filters constructed by metal-SiNx-metal hollow fishnet metamaterials were designed and fabricated. Results reveal that the as-fabricated single-layer filter responds at 3.75 THz with a high transmission of 88.1% and broad full width at half maximum of 2.79 THz. For such filters, a free-standing SiNx membrane is utilized specially as both dielectric and supporting materials, by which the insertion loss widely existed in those filters fabricated on rigid substrates can be efficiently avoided. Moreover, the critical parameters for determining the responses of the filters were systematically investigated. In our approach, multi-layer filters can be easily fabricated just by stacking the metamaterials layer by layer, and thus the spectral transmission, bandwidth, and out-of-band rejection can be rationally adjusted. This work describes a promising approach to design and fabricate THz band-pass filters based on substrate-free fishnet metamaterials.

  8. W/Cu thin film infrared reflector for TiNxOy based selective solar absorber with high thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Y. C.; Liu, Z.; Yang, H. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The W/Cu thin film structure is deposited by magnetron sputtering to form the infrared reflector for the TiNxOy based selective solar absorber (SSA) that can be used in the low- and middle-temperature applications. The structural, chemical, and optical properties of the SSA layers that experienced thermal annealing at different temperatures for various durations have been investigated with the characterization techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and spectrophotometry. Without a W layer, the reflectance in both visible and infrared ranges of the SSA increases as a result of the crystallization of the Cu layer at elevated temperatures. With a W layer with appropriate film thickness, the increase of the reflectance in the visible range can be suppressed to maintain a high solar absorptance, whereas a high infrared reflectance can be maintained to achieve a low thermal emittance. It is shown that for the SiO2-TiNxOy-W-Cu-Glass SSA with a 15 nm W thin film, thermal annealing can significantly reduce the thermal emittance to a low value (e.g., 4.4% at the temperature of 400 °C for annealing at 400 °C for 6 h), whereas the solar absorptance can be maintained at a high value (e.g., 92.2% for the annealing at 400 °C for 6 h).

  9. Synthesis and antityrosinase activities of alkyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Li, Hua-Liang; Yu, Xiao-Jie; Zuo, Qi-Xuan; Zheng, Guo-Xing; Shi, Yan; Liu, Xuan; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liang, Ge; Wang, Qin; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2011-06-22

    In insects, tyrosinase plays important roles in normal developmental processes, such as cuticular tanning, scleration, wound healing, production of opsonins, encapsulation and nodule formation for defense against foreign pathogens. Thus, tyrosinase may be regarded as a potential candidate for novel bioinsecticide development. A family of alkyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (C₆-C₉), new tyrosinsase inhibitors, were synthesized. Their inhibitory effects on the activity of tyrosinase have been investigated. The results showed all of them could inhibit the activity of tyrosianse effectively. The order of potency was nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (C₉DB) > octyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(C₈DB) > heptyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(C₇DB) > hexyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (C₆DB). The kinetic analysis of these four compounds on tyrosinase was taken to expound their inhibitory mechanism. The research of the control of insects in agriculture was taken as C₆DB for example. C₆DB could inhibit the development and molting of Plutella xylostella effectively. To clarify its insecticidal mechanism, we researched the expression of tyrosinase in the P. xylostella treated with C₆DB by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed C₆DB could inhibit the expression of tyrosinase in the P. xylostella as expected.

  10. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  11. 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential biological agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Makawana, Jigar A; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of novel compound libraries along with screening is a rapid and effective approach for the discovery of potential chemical agents, and it becomes an important method in pharmaceutical chemistry research. 1,3,4- oxadiazole derivatives as the typical heterocyclic compounds, exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities and vital leading compounds for the development of chemical drugs. Herein, we focus on the synthesis and screening of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives with antimicrobial, antitumor or antiviral activities during the past decade. In this review, we discussed the synthetic development of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives, and also the relevant bioactivity and their prospects as the potential chemical drugs.

  12. Bis(4-(3,4-dimethylenepyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    It is the primary object of the present invention to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. According to the present invention, this object is achieved, and the attending benefits are obtained, by first providing the bis(exocyclodiene) bis(4-(3,4-dinethylene pyrrolidyl) phenyl) methane, which is formed from the monomer N-phenyl 3,4-dimethylene pyrrolidine. This bis-(exocyclodiene) undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide.

  13. Pc 3, 4 activity and interplanetary field orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Olson, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of Pc 3, 4 micropulsation wave forms recorded at Calgary in September 1969 shows a tendency toward signal enhancement in cases where the interplanetary magnetic field is at a small angle to the sun-earth line. Scatter plots of hourly Pc 3, 4 amplitudes exhibit a definite trend toward large signals when this angle is less than 50 or 60 degrees, and a corresponding disappearance of significant amplitudes when the angle is greater than 60 degrees. There is, however, an appreciable variability in individual cases. Power density spectrograms improved the correlation of pulsation strength with low angle in some cases.

  14. Aperture synthesis observations of the molecular environment of the SGR A complex. I - The M-0.13-0.08 molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Sachiko K.; Ishiguro, Masato; Fomalont, Edward B.; Chikada, Yoshihiro; Kasuga, Takashi; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kanzawa, Tomio; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Tetsuo

    1989-12-01

    NH3 and H2O maser observations of the 20 km/s molecular cloud M-0.13-0.08 in the Sgr A complex region are reported. NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) lines were observed simultaneously, and the molecular gas temperature and density are estimated. The NH3 emission is elongated in the smae direction of the entire M-0.13-0.08 cloud and has a large velocity gradient along its major axis. Strong NH3 emission is located in the northern part of the cloud, where a perturbed velocity field and broad line widths are observed. In addition, a new H2O maser spot was detected near one of the nonthermal continuum sources. These observational results suggest the physical association between a part of the M-0.13-0.08 molecular cloud and the nonthermal continuum sources in the Sgr A complex.

  15. Production of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum 213M0 isolated from Mongolian fermented mare milk, airag.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Yoshida, Saki; Aikawa, Hiroki; Hano, Chihiro; Bolormaa, Tsognemekh; Burenjargal, Sedkhuu; Miyamoto, Taku

    2016-03-01

    Strain 213M0 was selected with productivity of a bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) among 235 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Mongolian fermented milk 'airag'. Strain 213M0 was species-identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum by morphological observation, carbohydrate fermentation profiling and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Incubation temperature proper to produce the BLIS was 25°C rather than 30 and 37°C, and the production actively proceeded during the exponential growth phase of the producer cells. Antibacterial effect of BLIS 213M0 was limited to all nine strains of Listeria sp. bacteria and seven strains of LAB cocci among 53 tested strains, which corresponds to a typical feature of the class IIa pediocin-like bacteriocins. BLIS 213M0 was not inactivated in every broad pH range solution (pH 2.0-11.0), and was stable against storage at 25°C for 1 week and heating at 121°C for 15 min under pH 4.5. Peptide frame of BLIS 213M0 was confirmed by inactivation with some peptidases, and then its molecular weight was estimated to be 2.6-3.0 kDa using an in situ activity assay following sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The estimated size was different from the other Leuconostoc bacteriocins already reported. These results suggest that BLIS 213M0 would be a novel listericidal bacteriocin. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Elastic staining-a rejuvenated method to reassess prognosis and serosal invasion in patients with pT3N0M0 gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Guang; Yang, Haiyan; Hong, Ting; Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Jigang; Liu, Wenbin; Hu, Jun; Zeng, Liang; Chen, Gong; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Yongchang; Yang, Nong

    2017-07-01

    Prognosis of pT3N0M0 gastric cancer (GC) varies greatly, though the major factor conferring poor prognosis is unclear. Subserosal elastic lamina invasion (ELI+) is closely associated with poor outcomes in pT3 colorectal cancer, but related research on GC is unavailable. This study aimed to identify the influence of ELI+ on the prognosis of patients with pT3N0M0 GC and its relationship with serosal invasion using elastic staining. We retrospectively reviewed 94 and 28 patients with pT3N0M0 and pT4aN0M0 GC who underwent gastrectomy between 1994 and 2005. For the former, one section with invasion depth closest to the peritoneal surface and one corresponding paraffin block for each specimen were selected for conventional elastic staining to assess the relationship between ELI+ and patients' clinical characteristics and survival. pT3N0M0 GC specimens were divided into 3 groups based on staining results: ELI+ (N=51), non-invasion (N=31), and unidentified (N=12). ELI+ was closely related to recurrence and lymphovascular invasion. Five-year disease-free (DFS) (46%) and overall (OS) (36%) survival rates were significantly lower in the ELI+ than in the non-invasion or unidentified groups (P<.0001); no obvious difference was found between the ELI+ and pT4aN0M0 groups (P=.25). Multivariate analysis showed ELI+ and recurrence as independent prognostic factors for DFS in pT3 GC patients. In conclusion, elastic staining is an effective and highly feasible method for predicting prognosis and evaluating the serosal invasion depth of pT3 GC. pT3 GC accompanied with ELI+ is an obvious adverse prognostic factor and could be considered a treatment for pT4a GC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information on impact. 60... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... records or other information which will disclose the impact which its tests and other selection procedures...

  19. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Information on impact. 60... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... records or other information which will disclose the impact which its tests and other selection procedures...

  20. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  1. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  2. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  3. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  4. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not acclimated...

  5. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  6. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  7. Accidental ingestion of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine).

    PubMed Central

    Bedford Russell, A R; Schwartz, R H; Dawling, S

    1992-01-01

    There is no report of the effects of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) poisoning in childhood. The case of a 13 month old boy who ingested one capsule of Ecstasy is reported. Neurological and cardiovascular side effects predominated, which responded well to treatment with a chlormethiazole infusion. PMID:1358033

  8. Year 3/4 Children's Forms of Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in justifying, forming conjectures and generalising is critical to develop their mathematical reasoning. Previous studies have revealed limited opportunities for primary school children to justify their thinking, form conjectures and generalise in mathematics lessons. Forms of justification of Year 3/4 children from three schools…

  9. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  10. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  11. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  12. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  13. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  14. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  15. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation of termination. (a) Opportunity for Resignation. In instances where ACTION has reason to believe that a Volunteer is subject to termination for any of the grounds cited in...

  16. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  17. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  18. Comparative study of CoFeNx/C catalyst obtained by pyrolysis of hemin and cobalt porphyrin for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline and acidic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the oxygen reduction kinetics and mechanisms of CoFeNx/C catalysts have been conducted with rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) in aqueous acid and alkaline solutions, as well as acidic and alkaline polymer electrolytes. The CoFeNx/C catalysts in this study were obtained by the pyrolysis of hemin and a cobalt porphyrin. In an alkaline electrolyte, a larger electron transfer coefficient (0.63) was obtained in comparison to that in an acidic electrolyte (0.44), signifying a lower free energy barrier for oxygen reduction. The kinetic rate constant (2.69 × 10-2 cm s-1) for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline solution at 0.6 V (versus RHE) is almost 4 times larger than that in acidic solution (7.3 × 10-3 cm s-1). A synergetic catalytic mechanism is proposed. The overall reduction is a 4-electron reduction of oxygen. The obtained CoFeNx/C catalyst was further evaluated as a cathode catalyst in single fuel cells with acidic, neutral and alkaline electrolyte membranes. The order of the single cell performances either for power density or for stability is acidic > neutral > alkaline. The different behaviors of the CoFeNx/C catalyst in half cell and single cell are discussed.

  19. H2-Ar dilution for improved c-Si quantum dots in P-doped SiNx:H thin film matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus-doped hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:H) thin films containing crystalline silicon quantum dot (c-Si QD) was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using hydrogen-argon mixed dilution. The effects of H2/Ar flow ratio on the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of as-grown P-doped SiNx:H thin films were systematically investigated. Experimental results show that crystallization is promoted by increasing the H2/Ar flow ratio in dilution, while the N/Si atomic ratio is higher for thin film deposited with argon-rich dilution. As the H2/Ar flow ratio varies from 100/100 to 200/0, the samples exhibit excellent conductivity owing to the large volume fraction of c-Si QDs and effective P-doping. By adjusting the H2/Ar ratio to 100/100, P-doped SiNx:H thin film containing tiny and densely distributed c-Si QDs can be obtained. It simultaneously possesses wide optical band gap and high dark conductivity. Finally, detailed discussion has been made to analyze the influence of H2-Ar mixed dilution on the properties of P-doped SiNx:H thin films.

  20. Optimal design of light trapping in thin-film solar cells enhanced with graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-05-07

    In this paper, a graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure is proposed as antireflection coatings deposited on top of amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin-film solar cell. The structural parameters are optimized by differential evolution in order to enhance the optical absorption of solar cells to the greatest degree. The optimal design result demonstrates that the nonlinear profile of dielectric constant is superior to the linear profile, and discrete multilayer graded antireflection coatings can outperform near continuously graded antireflection coatings. What's more, the electric field intensity distributions clearly demonstrate the proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure can remarkably increase the magnitude of electric field of a-Si:H layer and hence, enhance the light trapping of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells in the whole visible and near-infrared spectrum. Finally, we have compared the optical absorption enhancements of proposed graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure with nanoparticles structure, and demonstrated that it can result in higher enhancements compared to the dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that the optimal graded SiNx and SiOxNy structure optimized by differential evolution can reach 33.31% enhancement which has exceeded the ideal limit of 32% of nanoparticles structure including plasmonic Ag nanoparticles, dielectric SiC and TiO2 nanoparticles.

  1. Influence of low energy argon plasma treatment on the moisture barrier performance of hot wire-CVD grown SiNx multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, Subimal; Fátima Cerqueira, Maria; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Alpuim, Pedro; Bourée, Jean Eric

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and stability are key issues for the commercial utilization of organic photovoltaic devices based on flexible polymer substrates. To increase the shelf-lifetime of these devices, transparent moisture barriers of silicon nitride (SiNx) films are deposited at low temperature by hot wire CVD (HW-CVD) process. Instead of the conventional route based on organic/inorganic hybrid structures, this work defines a new route consisting in depositing multilayer stacks of SiNx thin films, each single layer being treated by argon plasma. The plasma treatment allows creating smoother surface and surface atom rearrangement. We define a critical thickness of the single layer film and focus our attention on the effect of increasing the number of SiNx single-layers on the barrier properties. A water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 2 × 10-4 g/(m2·day) is reported for SiNx multilayer stack and a physical interpretation of the plasma treatment effect is given.

  2. Educator Enhancement Academies Evaluation Study: Phase 2. Teacher and Trainer Reports of NxGen Professional Development and Their Sense of Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape; Hixson, Nate

    2015-01-01

    As the final stage of West Virginia's rollout of the Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives (NxGen CSOs), the regional education service agencies (RESAs) conducted six train-the-trainer events in the spring of 2013 to prepare educators--mostly teachers--to provide professional development back in their home schools and districts. These…

  3. Effect of substituents on the strength of N-X (X = H, F, and Cl) bond dissociation energies: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Robert J; Karton, Amir; Radom, Leo

    2011-06-02

    The effect of substituents on the strength of N-X (X = H, F, and Cl) bonds has been investigated using the high-level W2w thermochemical protocol. The substituents have been selected to be representative of the key functional groups that are likely to be of biological, synthetic, or industrial importance for these systems. We interpreted the effects through the calculation of relative N-X bond dissociation energies (BDE) or radical stabilization energies (RSE(NX)). The BDE and RSE(NX) values depend on stabilizing/destabilizing effects in both the reactant molecule and the product radical of the dissociation reactions. To assist us in the analysis of the substituent effects, a number of additional thermochemical quantities have been introduced, including molecule stabilization energies (MSE(NX)). We find that the RSE(NH) values are (a) increased by electron-donating alkyl substituents or the vinyl substituent, (b) increased in imines, and (c) decreased by electron-withdrawing substituents such as CF(3) and carbonyl moieties or through protonation. A different picture emerges when considering the RSE(NF) and RSE(NCl) values because of the electronegativities of the halogen atoms. The RSE(NX)s differ from the RSE(NH) values by an amount related to the stabilization of the N-halogenated molecules and given by MSE(NX). We find that substituents that stabilize/destabilize the radicals also tend to stabilize/destabilize the N-halogenated molecules. As a result, N-F- and N-Cl-containing molecules that include alkyl substituents or correspond to imines are generally associated with RSE(NF) and RSE(NCl) values that are less positive or more negative than the corresponding RSE(NH). In contrast, N-F- and N-Cl-containing molecules that include electron-withdrawing substituents or are protonated are generally associated with RSE(NF) and RSE(NCl) values that are more positive or less negative than the corresponding RSE(NH). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Static and unsteady pressure measurements on a 50 degree clipped delta wing at M = 0.9. [conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. W.; Wynne, E. C.; Cazier, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Pressures were measured with Freon as the test medium. Data taken at M = 0.9 is presented for static and oscillatory deflections of the trailing edge control surface and for the wing in pitch. Comparisons of the static measured data are made with results computed using the Bailey-Ballhaus small disturbance code.

  5. Partial comparison of the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel Assay with the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Panel Fast Assay V2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Scala, Alessia; Bianchini, Sonia; Presicce, Maria Lory; Mori, Alessandro; Sciarrabba, Calogero Sathya; Fior, Giulia; Principi, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In this study, 185 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex NxTAG (NxTAG) Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RPP) Assay with those of the Luminex Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) Fast Assay v2 and singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The NxTAG Assay identified at least one infectious agent in 164 (88.7%) of the swabs. In 91 (6.2%) tests with negative results with the RVP Fast Assay v2, a virus was identified by the NxTAG (P < 0.001). With the NxTAG Assay, the detection rates were significantly higher for respiratory syncytial virus (P = 0.003), human metapneumovirus (P < 0.001), human rhinovirus/human enterovirus (P = 0.009) and human adenovirus (P < 0.001). Finally, the NxTAG Assay identified M. pneumoniae in 32 of 44 (72.7%) PCR-positive samples. However, the concordance with real-time PCR results was low for both assays. In conclusion, the results indicate that the NxTAG Assay overcomes some of the limitations of previous Luminex assays, although further studies are needed for a more complete evaluation of the new assay.

  6. The prognostic impact of preoperative blood monocyte count in pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Weiwei; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kaiyun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2015-09-01

    It remains controversial whether adjuvant therapy should be delivered to pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Thus identification of patients at high risk is of particular importance. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the absolute peripheral blood monocyte count can stratify the pathological T3N0M0M0 rectal cancer patients in survival. A total of 270 pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients with total mesorectal excision-principle radical resection were included. The optimal cut-off value of preoperative monocyte count was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Overall survival and disease-free survival between low- and high-monocyte were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. The optimal cut-off value for monocyte count was 595 mm(3). In univariate analysis, patients with monocyte counts higher than 595/mm(3) had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (79.2 vs 94.2 %, P = 0.006) and disease-free survival (67.8 vs 86.0 %, P < 0.001). With adjustment for the known covariates, monocyte count remained to be associated with poor overall survival (HR = 2.55, 95 % CI 1.27-5.10; P = 0.008) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.63, 95 % CI 1.48-4.69; P = 0.001). Additionally, the significant association of monocyte count with disease-free survival was hardly influenced in the subgroup analysis, whereas this correlation was restricted to the males and patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (<5 μg/L), tumor grade II, and with adjuvant therapy. High preoperative monocyte count is independently predictive of worse survival of pathological T3N0M0 rectal cancer patients without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Postoperative adjuvant therapy might be considered for patients with high-monocyte count.

  7. Role of SiNx Barrier Layer on the Performances of Polyimide Ga2O3-doped ZnO p-i-n Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Kuo, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Liu, Min-Chu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films were deposited on polyimide (PI) substrates as barrier layers by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were deposited on PI and SiNx/PI substrates at room temperature (RT), 100 and 200 °C by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thicknesses of the GZO and SiNx thin films were controlled at around 160 ± 12 nm and 150 ± 10 nm, respectively. The optimal deposition parameters for the SiNx thin films were a working pressure of 800 × 10−3 Torr, a deposition power of 20 W, a deposition temperature of 200 °C, and gas flowing rates of SiH4 = 20 sccm and NH3 = 210 sccm, respectively. For the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI structures we had found that the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C had higher crystallinity, higher electron mobility, larger carrier concentration, smaller resistivity, and higher optical transmittance ratio. For that, the GZO thin films deposited at 100 and 200 °C on PI and SiNx/PI substrates with thickness of ~000 nm were used to fabricate p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin film solar cells. 0.5% HCl solution was used to etch the surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates. Finally, PECVD system was used to deposit α-Si thin film onto the etched surfaces of the GZO/PI and GZO-SiNx/PI substrates to fabricate α-Si thin film solar cells, and the solar cells’ properties were also investigated. We had found that substrates to get the optimally solar cells’ efficiency were 200 °C-deposited GZO-SiNx/PI. PMID:28788494

  8. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3. 4, Aging Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6].

  9. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers.

  10. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-05-17

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO(3))(4), was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO(4) tetra-hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c.

  11. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO3)4, was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO4 tetra­hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c. PMID:21202436

  12. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Removal by agent. 5511.3-4 Section 5511.3... Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be... processing it, and no charge shall be made by such agent for the timber itself. No part of the timber may be...

  13. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Removal by agent. 5511.3-4 Section 5511.3... Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be... processing it, and no charge shall be made by such agent for the timber itself. No part of the timber may be...

  14. $3.4 Billion Remains in Race to Top Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By selecting just two states as first-round Race to the Top winners, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan is leaving $3.4 billion on the table for the remaining states to vie for in round two. Delaware and Tennessee beat out 14 other finalists last week to win the first grants awarded in the $4 billion Race to the Top Fund competition. Mr.…

  15. Spectroscopic studies of heat-treated FeNxCy/C involved in electrochemical oxygen reduction under acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shou-Heng; Wu, Jyun-Ren

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-incorporated FeNx electrocatalysts (FeNC/C-T) have been synthesized by carbonizing a nitrogen-containing specie and iron precursor on carbon blacks at various heat-treated temperatures. The catalyst properties (crystalline structure, surface chemical states, oxidation state and co-ordination geometry) and their formation scheme of FeNC/C-T have been thoroughly examined by X-ray based spectroscopies such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The electrochemical performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol tolerance were also investigated by rotating disk electrode tests in 0.5 M H2SO4. By combined results from XPS and XAS spectroscopies, the catalysts carbonized at 1073 K possess higher surface Fe/C and N/C atomic ratios with formation of carbons incorporated FeN4 species were found to have the optimal electrocatalytic properties.

  16. Self-organized ZnO nanodot arrays: Effective control using SiNx interlayers and low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Y.; Cheng, Q. J.; Xu, S.; Wei, D. Y.; Zhou, H. P.; Long, J. D.; Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.

    2012-02-01

    An advanced inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-assisted rf magnetron sputtering deposition method is developed to synthesize regular arrays of pear-shaped ZnO nanodots on a thin SiNx buffer layer pre-deposited onto a silicon substrate. It is shown that the growth of ZnO nanodots obey the cubic root-law behavior. It is also shown that the synthesized ZnO nanodots are highly-uniform, controllable by the experimental parameters, and also feature good structural and photoluminescent properties. These results suggest that this custom-designed ICP-based technique is very effective and highly-promising for the synthesis of property- and size-controllable highly-uniform ZnO nanodots suitable for next-generation light emitting diodes, energy storage, UV nanolasers, and other applications.

  17. All nitride magnetic tunnel junctions based on nitrogen-doped CoFe electrode and AlNx insulating barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Woong; Lee, Ja Bin; Shin, Il Jae; Koo, Ja hyun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2010-05-01

    The dependence of the structural and magnetic properties of nitrogen-doped CoFe (CoFeN) films as a function of the nitrogen gas flow rate was analyzed to investigate its potential use as ferromagnetic electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The addition of a small amount of nitrogen into the CoFe film was strongly associated with the formation of low coercivity and low magnetization in the CoFeN film. We also discuss the electrical and microstructural properties of the as-grown and postannealed CoFeN/AlN/CoFeN MTJs devices developed by using only nitride materials of CoFeN electrodes and AlNx tunneling barriers.

  18. Fundamental properties of a-SiNx:H thin films deposited by ICP-PECVD for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergez, D.; Schalko, J.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the impact of deposition conditions on the properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) films using an inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (ICP-CVD) is evaluated. Due to the large number of experiments - even when taking only the most important synthesization parameters into account such as the total pressure in the deposition chamber, the substrate temperature, the ICP power and the flow rate ratio of N2/SiH4 - a design of experiments-based approach is chosen. As expected, the deposition rate strongly depends on the ICP power and the N2/SiH4 flow rate ratio, respectively. Films in the field of investigation deposited with a high flow rate of N2 labeled as Type I show relatively low mechanical stress values between -50 and +200 MPa, but exhibit a strong drift behavior toward compressive stress. Layers deposited at low nitrogen flow rates (Type II), however, yield large compressive stress and are stable as a function of time. The wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid shows a gap of over two orders of magnitude when comparing the two a-SiNx:H types, indicating strong differences in the chemical composition. Fourier-transform infrared measurements demonstrate that in Type I films the hydrogen is mainly bonded to nitrogen, in contrast to Type II films, where Si-H bonds dominate. Surface related X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that Type II layers have higher relative silicon content, while depth profiles yield that the oxygen content Type I films is above 10 at.%. This high oxygen content is proposed to be the result of diffusion of H2O into the layer, causing oxidation, and, as a consequence, the drifting behavior of the intrinsic film stress.

  19. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(Methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1992-12-01

    Attention is given here to the mass spectral data of impurities present in illicit drug preparations of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)amphetamine and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)methylamphetamine. These "designer" drugs, having emphatic properties, were synthesized following well-known procedures such as the reductive amination route, the Leuckart reaction, and the nitropropene and the bromopropane routes. Based on the structure elucidation of impurities - especially those so-called "route specific" ones - present in these illicit drug preparations conclusions can be drawn about the method of preparation of a drug sample. Furthermore, on the basis of this kind of information methods can be developed for the comparison of drug samples, by which questions about the origin of drug samples can be solved (commonly known as the signature method). Copyright © 1992 Central Police University.

  20. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  1. 1D Modeling of the Initial Stage of Wire Explosions and 2D Modeling of the m=0 Sausage Instability With Sheared Axial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhin, Volodymyr; Sotnikov, Vladimir; Bauer, Bruno; Lindemuth, Irvin; Sheehey, Peter

    2001-10-01

    1D modeling of the initial state of wire explosions (“cold start” with updated SESAME tables) was examined using 1D version of the Eulerian Magnetohydrodynamic Radiative Code (MHRDR). Simulations were carried out for two regimes: with (black body radiative model) and without radiative losses. Results of the simulations revealed strong dependence of the time of explosion and expansion speed of the wire on the implemented radiative model. This shows that it is necessary to accurately include radiative losses to model “cold start” wire explosions. 2D modeling of the m=0 sausage instability with sheared axial flow. The MHRDR simulations were used to obtain the growth rate of the m=0 sausage instability in plasma column with initial Bennett equilibrium profile with and without shear flow. These growth rates appeared to be in good agreement with growth rates calculated from the linearized MHD equations.

  2. Combined Modality Therapy of cT2N0M0 Esophageal Cancer: UT M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kountourakis, P.; Correa, A. M.; Hofstetter, W. L.; Lee, J. H.; Bhutani, M. S.; Rice, D. C.; Komaki, R.; Maru, D. M.; Ross, W. A.; Vaporciyan, A.; Swisher, S. G.; Ajani, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment strategy for patients with adequately staged cT2N0M0 carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus is a subject of debate. We analyzed the largest series of consecutive cT2N0M0 esophageal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods All patients with cT2N0M0 (assessment included endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen) thoracic esophageal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiation between 1997 and 2009 were analyzed. We used the Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier plots to analyze the data. Results Forty-nine patients were analyzed. The median follow-up was 28.46 months. Men and adenocarcinoma histology predominated. Pathologic complete response was observed 19 (39%) patients. Ten-year actuarial overall survival (OS) for adenocarcinoma patients was >60%. In the univariate analysis for OS, squamous histology (p=0.006), smoking (p=0.015), and alcohol consumption (p=0.032) were associated with poor OS. In the univariate analysis for disease-free survival (DFS), squamous histology (p=0.009) and smoking (p=0.014) were associated with poor DFS. In the multivariate analysis for OS, smoking was an independent prognosticator (p=0.02). In the multivariate analysis for DFS, advanced yp stage (p=0.05) and nodal metastases (p=0.006) were independent prognosticators. Patients with adenocarcinoma (p=0.002) and those with ypN0 had better OS and DFS. Upward stage migration occurred in only 10% of patients. Conclusions Our data suggest that smoking and alcohol influence the long-term outcome of cT2N0M0 patients. Adenocarcinoma patients treated with trimodality therapy had an excellent actuarial 10-year OS and a high rate of pathologic complete response. Trimodality therapy should be prospectively compared with primary surgery in these patients. PMID:20960497

  3. Small band gap oligothieno[3,4-b]pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Bram P; Janssen, René A J

    2008-08-21

    The synthesis and the optical and electrochemical properties of thiophene end capped oligo(2,3-alkylthieno[3,4- b]pyrazine)s are presented. The optical absorption rapidly shifts to lower energies with increasing chain length, caused in almost equal amounts by a rise of the HOMO and a lowering of the LUMO levels. The optical band gap of the polymer is estimated to be 1.13 +/- 0.07 eV. Extrapolated redox potentials indicate that the polymer is a small band gap p-type material.

  4. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  5. 3,4-Diamino­pyridinium hydrogen succinate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Balasubramani, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H8N3 +·C4H5O4 −, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diamino­pyridine mol­ecule is protonated. The protonated N atom participates in an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond to a succinate O atom of the singly deprotonated succinate anion. Each of the two amino groups are hydrogen-bonded to the O atoms of two different sets of succinate groups.. The crystal structure is further stabilized by O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21582821

  6. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  7. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  8. 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene in planarizable push-pull oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Dal Molin, Marta; Matile, Stefan

    2013-03-28

    We report design, synthesis and evaluation of push-pull quaterthiophene amphiphiles containing one 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a single strong twist in the scaffold. Planarizable push-pull oligothiophene amphiphiles have been introduced recently as conceptually innovative fluorescent probes that sense the fluidity and the potential of lipid bilayer membranes. The "hyper-twisted" EDOT probes respond to planarization and restricted rotational freedom with a red shift and changes in vibrational finestructure in the excitation spectrum, respectively. In solution, comparably weak solvatochromism and significant thermochromism are found. Planarization and restricted rotational freedom afford exquisite sensitivity toward nature and fluidity of lipid bilayer membranes, including ratiometric detection of phase transitions. The sensing of membrane potentials is weakened by these unique properties but remains possible.

  9. Stimulation of 3,4-dichloroaniline mineralization by aniline.

    PubMed Central

    You, I S; Bartha, R

    1982-01-01

    Mineralization of free and of humus-bound 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) by a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated by analog enrichment was greatly enhanced in the presence of aniline. The addition of aniline to soil that contained 0.2 to 100 micrograms of DCA per g in free or in humus-bound form increased the mineralization rates of DCA severalfold. Within the concentration ranges tested, absolute mineralization of DCA per unit time was positively correlated with both increasing DCA and increasing aniline concentrations. The specific enrichment of microbial populations and the induction of pathways that can co-metabolize DCA are the most plausible explanations for the effect of aniline. The observed phenomenon points to a potential approach for eliminating xenobiotic pollutants from contaminated soils. PMID:7138005

  10. 3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (ecstasy) use reduces cognition.

    PubMed

    Chummun, Harry; Tilley, Victoria; Ibe, Jude

    3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) use reduces cognition by reducing levels of dopamine and serotonin in the central nervous system. This results in dose-related cognition impairment, particularly in complex cognitive skills, as well as causing disorders such as mood changes, hallucinations, altered perception amd memory loss. MDMA reduces the level of these neurotransmitters within the neural synapses by reducing the number of intraneural transporters to the synaptic clefts, increasing deactivation with the synapse and/ or increasing degradation with the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Users may have varied reasons for MDMA use and therefore require help and support from their families or friends, and knowledgeable and well-skilled healthcare professionals for successful abstinence, avoidance of further psychological damage and a reversal of adverse health effects or reduction in their severity.

  11. Further evidence for preoperative chemoradiotherapy and transanal endoscopic surgery (TEM) in T2-3s,N0,M0 rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Pericay, C; Serra-Aracil, X; Ocaña-Rojas, J; Mora-López, L; Dotor, E; Casalots, A; Pisa, A; Saigí, E

    2016-07-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and local excision via transanal endoscopic surgery (TEM) in T2-3s,N0,M0 rectal cancer achieve promising results in selected patients. We describe our long-term follow-up experience with this combination, and evaluate complete clinical and pathological responses, local recurrence and overall survival. The prospective observational follow-up study carried out since 2007. Out of 476 consecutive patients treated with TEM, we selected those with adenocarcinoma of low or moderate grade of differentiation, clinical stages T2-superficial T3,N0,M0, who refused radical surgery. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy comprised 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine combined with radiotherapy at a dose of 50.4 Gy. TEM was performed after 8 weeks. Complications were recorded and long-term follow-up was conducted. Fifteen patients undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy and TEM (median age 76 years, 95 % CI 70.3-80.4, and median follow-up 38 months, 95 % CI 20-44) were studied. No local recurrence was observed, and only one patient (6.7 %) presented systemic relapse. The overall survival was 76 %. Complete clinical response was achieved in seven patients (46.7 %) and complete pathological response in four (26.7 %). With regard to toxicity associated with neoadjuvant treatment, four patients (26.7 %) developed grade 3 adverse effects; no grade 4 or 5 adverse effects were observed. There was no postoperative mortality. The results of our study, with a response rate of 26.7 % and without local relapse, support the treatment of T2-3s,N0,M0 of rectal cancer with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and local excision (TEM).

  12. Optimization of the electroluminescence from SiNx-based light-emitting devices by modulating the size and morphology of silver nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Dongsheng; Jin, Lu; Ren, Changrui; Yang, Deren; Que, Duanlin

    2013-01-28

    A maximal enhancement of ~6.5 times of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) for SiNx-based light-emitting devices (LEDs) is achieved by magnetron sputtering a silver nanostructures layer onto the active matrix. The enhancement of EQE is affected by the dimension and morphology of silver nanostructures, which can be controlled by the sputtering time and the post treatment of rapid thermal annealing. The optimal size of silver nanostructures is about 100 nm in diameter by comparing the integrated electroluminescence intensity under the same input power. The optimization of EQE for SiNx-based LEDs is discussed by considering the contributions of the enhancement of light-extraction efficiency induced by the surface roughening of the front electrode, internal quantum efficiency due to the coupling between excitons and localized surface plasmons, and carrier injection efficiency. Our work may provide an alternative approach for the fabrication of Si-based light sources with promising luminescence efficiency.

  13. Corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of Ti-TiB-TiNx in-situ hybrid composite synthesized by reactive hot pressing.

    PubMed

    Silva, J I; Alves, A C; Pinto, A M; Toptan, F

    2017-10-01

    Ti and its alloys are attractive materials for variety of fields, including biomedical implants, however, the wear behavior is yet to be improved. In the present work, Ti-TiB-TiNx in-situ metal matrix composites were synthesized by reactive hot pressing using a Ti-BN powder blend. Corrosion behavior was investigated in 9g/L NaCl solution at 37°C by performing potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Tribocorrosion behavior was investigated using reciprocating tribometer, against an alumina ball, under 1 and 10N normal load, 1 and 2Hz frequency, in 9g/L NaCl solution at 37°C. Results suggested that TiB and TiNx in-situ phases did not deteriorate the corrosion behavior of Ti but significantly improved the tribocorrosion behavior under 1N. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of tumor size on oncological outcomes of pathological T3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma treated by radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhao; Gu, Liangyou; Li, Xintao; Gao, Yu; Xie, Yongpeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor size in pathological T3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated by radical nephrectomy. Materials and methods Patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for sporadic RCC with pathological T3aN0M0 RCC at our institution between January 2006 and June 2015 were identified. The entire cohort was divided into two groups according to the cutoff of tumor size obtained from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Clinicopathological variables were retrospectively collected and compared. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression were conducted to evaluate the effect of tumor size on survival outcomes. Results 163 pT3aN0M0 RCC patients were included with a median follow-up period of 31 months. The optimal cutoff for tumor size was 7 cm according to the ROC curve. 90 cases (55.2%) presented tumors which measured 7 cm or less, and 73 cases (44.8%) showed tumor size greater than 7 cm. Patients with larger tumors tended to exhibit higher rates of symptoms and higher Fuhrman grades; they also indicated more necrosis features, and were more likely to invade the collecting system and renal vein. Compared with patients who exhibited tumor size of≤7 cm, those with tumor size>7 cm were associated with shorter estimated five-year cancer-specific survival (CSS, 46.6% versus 75.0%, P = 0.003) and five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS, 35.6% versus 62.7%, P = 0.011). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that tumor size was retained as an independent factor for CSS (HR = 2.506, 95% CI 1.169–5.373, P = 0.018). Conclusions The tumor size significantly affected the survival outcomes of pT3aN0M0 RCC treated by radical nephrectomy, and a cutoff size of 7 cm can help enhance the prognostic discrimination. Thus, the tumor size may be considered in the future TNM classification of stage pT3a. PMID:28288191

  15. Comparison of NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel and Anyplex II RV16 Tests for Multiplex Detection of Respiratory Pathogens in Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Pedro; Henares, Desiree; Latorre, Irene; Cepillo, Antonio; Launes, Cristian; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Multiplex molecular techniques can detect a diversity of respiratory viruses and bacteria that cause childhood acute respiratory infection rapidly and conveniently. However, currently available techniques show high variation in performance. We sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel multiplex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) RUO test versus a routine multiplex Anyplex II RV16 assay in respiratory specimens collected from children <18 years of age hospitalized with nonspecific symptoms of acute lower respiratory infection. Parallel testing was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates prospectively collected at referral Children's Hospital Sant Joan de Déu (Barcelona, Spain) between June and November 2015. Agreement values between the two tests and kappa coefficients were assessed. Bidirectional sequencing was performed for the resolution of discordant results. A total of 319 samples were analyzed by both techniques. A total of 268 (84.0%) of them yielded concordant results. Positive percent agreement values ranged from 83.3 to 100%, while the negative percent agreement was more than 99% for all targets except for enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV; 94.4%). Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 1.00. Discrepancy analysis confirmed 66.0% of NxTAG RPP RUO results. A total of 260 viruses were detected, with EV/RV (n = 105, 40.4%) being the most prevalent target. Viral coinfections were found in 44 (14.2%) samples. In addition, NxTAG RPP RUO detected single bacterial and mixed viral-bacterial infections in seven samples. NxTAG RPP RUO showed high positive and negative agreement with Anyplex II RV16 for main viruses that cause acute respiratory infections in children, coupled with an additional capability to detect some respiratory bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Comparison of NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel and Anyplex II RV16 Tests for Multiplex Detection of Respiratory Pathogens in Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Brotons, Pedro; Henares, Desiree; Latorre, Irene; Cepillo, Antonio; Launes, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex molecular techniques can detect a diversity of respiratory viruses and bacteria that cause childhood acute respiratory infection rapidly and conveniently. However, currently available techniques show high variation in performance. We sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel multiplex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (RPP) RUO test versus a routine multiplex Anyplex II RV16 assay in respiratory specimens collected from children <18 years of age hospitalized with nonspecific symptoms of acute lower respiratory infection. Parallel testing was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates prospectively collected at referral Children's Hospital Sant Joan de Déu (Barcelona, Spain) between June and November 2015. Agreement values between the two tests and kappa coefficients were assessed. Bidirectional sequencing was performed for the resolution of discordant results. A total of 319 samples were analyzed by both techniques. A total of 268 (84.0%) of them yielded concordant results. Positive percent agreement values ranged from 83.3 to 100%, while the negative percent agreement was more than 99% for all targets except for enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV; 94.4%). Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 1.00. Discrepancy analysis confirmed 66.0% of NxTAG RPP RUO results. A total of 260 viruses were detected, with EV/RV (n = 105, 40.4%) being the most prevalent target. Viral coinfections were found in 44 (14.2%) samples. In addition, NxTAG RPP RUO detected single bacterial and mixed viral-bacterial infections in seven samples. NxTAG RPP RUO showed high positive and negative agreement with Anyplex II RV16 for main viruses that cause acute respiratory infections in children, coupled with an additional capability to detect some respiratory bacteria. PMID:27629904

  17. Improvement of Physical Decline Through Combined Effects of Muscle Enhancement and Mitochondrial Activation by a Gastric Hormone Ghrelin in Male 5/6Nx CKD Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Masanori; Hagiwara, Aika; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Wakino, Shu; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Kentaro; Fujii, Chikako; Sato, Masaaki; Mitsuishi, Masanori; Muraki, Ayako; Hayashi, Koichi; Doi, Toshio; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Because a physical decline correlates with an increased risk of a wide range of disease and morbidity, an improvement of physical performance is expected to bring significant clinical benefits. The primary cause of physical decline in 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) chronic kidney disease model mice has been regarded as a decrease in muscle mass; however, our recent study showed that a decrease in muscle mitochondria plays a critical role. In the present study, we examined the effects of a gastric hormone ghrelin, which has been reported to promote muscle mitochondrial oxidation, on the physical decline in the chronic kidney disease model mice, focusing on the epigenetic modulations of a mitochondrial activator gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Ghrelin treatment improved a decline in exercise endurance of 5/6Nx mice, associated with an increase in both of the muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. The expression level of PGC-1α was decreased in the skeletal muscle of 5/6Nx mice, which was associated with an increase in the methylation ratio of the cytosine residue at 260 base pairs upstream of the initiation point. Conversely, ghrelin treatment de-methylated the cytosine residue and increased the expression of PGC-1α. A representative muscle anabolic factor, IGF-1, did not affect the expression of PGC-1α and muscle mitochondrial amount, although it increased muscle mass. As a result, IGF-1 treatment in 5/6Nx mice did not increase the decreased exercise endurance as effectively as ghrelin treatment did. These findings indicate an advantage of ghrelin treatment for a recovery of physical decline.

  18. Naturally occurring hydroxytyrosol derivatives: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol modulate inflammatory response in murine peritoneal macrophages. Potential utility as new dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina

    2015-01-28

    This work evaluated the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenols, hydroxytyrosyl acetate (2) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (3), as well as two new acyl derivatives of 3, 4-(1,2-di(butanoyloxy)ethyl)benzene-1,2-diol (7) and 4-(1,2-di(lauroyloxy)ethyl)benzene-1,2-diol (8), on LPS-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages in comparison with hydroxytyrosol (HTy, 1). Compounds 2, 3, 7, and 8 showed a strong reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, reducing significantly nitrite levels with a significant decrease on iNOS expression [2 (50 μM, 0.44 ± 0.03; 100 μM, 0.44 ± 0.01; p < 0.01); 3 (50 μM, 0.37 ± 0.03; 100 μM, 0.37 ± 0.01; p < 0.001); 7 (50 μM, 0.45 ± 0.06; p < 0.01)] . However, only 2 and 3 down-regulated COX-2 expression [2 (50 μM, 0.72 ± 0.04, p < 0.05; 100 μM, 0.54 ± 0.06, p < 0.01); 3 (50 μM, 0.56 ± 0.05, p < 0.05; 100 μM, 0.37 ± 0.04; p < 0.001)] and prevented IKBα degradation [2 (100 μM, 1.63 ± 0.14, p < 0.01); 3 (100 μM, 1.82 ± 0.09; p < 0.01)] ; the diacylated compounds 7 and 8 showed worse anti-inflammatory activity than the parent 3. In conclusion, 2 and 3 phenolic derivatives could play an important role in the anti-inflammatory effect of EVOO. The implication of this study for the nutrition and general health of the population rests in the possible use of natural HTy derivatives with better hydrophilic/lipophilic balance, thus improving its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, as new dietary supplements in foods.

  19. Study of interface barrier of SiNx/GaN interface for nitrogen-polar GaN based high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi, Rajan, Siddharth; Keller, Stacia; Wu, Feng; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2008-06-01

    The SiNx/GaN interface barrier height for N-polar GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MISHEMTs) was investigated. N-polar SiNx/GaN/AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT structures with different GaN cap thicknesses were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The properties of the SiNx/GaN interface are of critical importance to device operation and modeling in these devices. An analytical expression for the pinch-off voltage of the HEMT was obtained, and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements with different Schottky metals were used to extract the barrier height. The Fermi level at the interface was found to be pinned at approximately 1 eV with respect to GaN conduction band edge, irrespective of the work function of the gate metal. Hall measurements of the two-dimensional electron gas density were found to corroborate the predicted interface barrier height. An approximate value for interface charge causing this pinning was calculated to be 4.5×1012 cm-2.

  20. Raman scattering from TiNx (0.67 ≤ x ≤ 1.00) single crystals grown on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoehr, M.; Shin, C.-S.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2011-10-01

    Epitaxial NaCl-structure δ-TiNx(001) layers, with x ranging across the single-phase compound field from 0.67 to 1.00, are grown on MgO(001) and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. All samples, including stoichiometric TiN(001), exhibit first-order Raman peaks, which are forbidden by the Oh symmetry of NaCl-structure compounds. Thus, even stoichiometric TiN contains point defects, primarily N and Ti vacancies, consistent with previous electronic transport measurements. However, the presence of a well-resolved second-order longitudinal acoustic line at 615 cm-1 shows that the defect concentration is relatively low. The positions of the first-order acoustic lines are in good agreement with values obtained from calculated phonon density of states. As the N/Ti ratio x in TiNx and, hence, the number n of valence electrons per formula unit (n = 9 for stoichiometric TiN) decreases, the first-order acoustic lines shift to higher frequencies, due to the corresponding decrease in phonon anomalies associated with the acoustic branch. This is in agreement with the observed increase in the intensities of the first-order acoustic phonon peak with decreasing x, characteristic of a higher average N vacancy concentration adjacent to Ti atoms. However, the presence of antisite defects is also required to explain the frequency shift of the optical modes in under-stoichiometric TiNx.

  1. Interactions of Cu with CoSi2, CrSi2 and TiSi2 with and without TiNx barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowolafe, J. O.; Li, Jian; Mayer, J. W.

    1990-12-01

    Interactions of Cu with CoSi2, CrSi2, and TiSi2 with and without interposed TiNx layers have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Auger electron spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and in situ sheet resistivity measurements. Cu diffuses through a preformed CoSi2 layer to form the structure CoSi2/Cu3Si/Si(100). No dissociation of CoSi2 has been observed. For the Cu/CrSi2/Si system, the outdiffusion of Si leads to the formation of Cu3Si/CrSi2/Si at temperatures above 300 °C. At about the same temperature, Cu diffuses into a TiSi2 layer and to the TiSi2/Si interface to react with both Ti and Si forming Cu3Ti, Cu3Si, and Cu4Si phases. A 50-nm TiNx layer prepared by reactive sputtering was observed to be an effective diffusion barrier between Cu and CoSi2 or CrSi2. A 30-nm layer of TiNx simultaneously grown with TiSi2 by rapid thermal annealing proved effective between Cu and TiSi2 up to 500 °C.

  2. Surface passivation of crystalline silicon by sputtered AlOx/AlNx stacks toward low-cost high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Ueda, Keigo; Enomoto, Yuya; Arafune, Koji; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Recently, excellent surface passivation has been achieved for both p- and n-type silicon solar cells using AlOx/SiNx:H stacks deposited by atomic layer deposition and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. However, alternative materials and deposition methods could provide practical options for large-scale manufacturing of commercial solar cells. In this study we demonstrate that AlOx/AlNx stacks fabricated by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering can provide fairly good surface passivation (Smax of ˜30 cm/s) regardless of AlOx thickness, which is found to be due to the high negative fixed charge density (Qeff of -2.8 × 1012 cm-2) and moderately low interface trap density (Dit of 2.0 × 1011 eV-1·cm-2). The stacks also show fairly good antireflection performance in the visible and near-infrared spectral region. The demonstrated surface passivation and antireflection performance of in situ reactively sputtered AlOx/AlNx stacks make them a promising candidate for a surface-passivating antireflection coating on silicon solar cells.

  3. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-28

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p(+)-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  4. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV.

  5. MIB-1 and p53 expression in radiotherapy-resistant T1aN0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motamed, M; Banerjee, A R; Bradley, P J; Powe, D

    2001-06-01

    Radiotherapy of T1aN0M0 glottic carcinoma results in a local control rate of 80-94%. This homogenous group, which is the earliest recognisable invasive malignancy in the head and neck region, provides a 'unique model' for studying possible biological markers of radiosensitivity. p53 and MIB-1 were investigated as possible markers of radiosensitivity in such a group. In all, 107 patients with T1aN0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy were identified. Cases not responsive to radiotherapy were compared with matched radiosensitive controls by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal primary antibodies to MIB-1 (n = 18; controls = 10) and p53 (n = 6; controls = 11). No significant difference in p53 expression was noted between the two groups (P = 0.73). A greater MIB-1 expression was found in the radiosensitive group but only a trend towards significance was observed (P = 0.06). MIB-1 is a potential marker of radiosensitivity. A larger multicentre study is required for a more definitive answer.

  6. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl amines and styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines.

    PubMed

    Sravya, G; Yamini, G; Padmavathi, V; Padmaja, A

    2016-10-21

    A new class of mono and bis heterocycles - styryl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines, pyrrolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines and pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines were prepared from the synthetic intermediate Z-styrylsulfonylacetic acid adopting simple and well versed synthetic methodologies and studied their antimicrobial activity. Amongst all the tested compounds styryl thiadiazole 5c exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium chrysogenum.

  7. Effect of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on the reworking behavior of Lumbriculus variegatus exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The reworking response (bioturbation) of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was measured by following the burial rate and spread of a 137Cs marker layer translating worm activity into a biological burial rate (Wb) and a biological diffusion rate constant (Db) for surficial sediment mixing. Reworking was measured at 10 and 22 degrees C in two sediments: a reference site sediment dosed with 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) and a field-collected sediment from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site in Dicks Creek (DCC, Middletown, OH, USA). The body residue associated with response to TCBP also was determined. Reduction in the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C reduced both Wb and Db by a factor of approximately two. The internal TCBP concentration to reduce the Wb by 50% was 96 nmol/g (95% CI 45-225 nmol/g) and 124 nmol/g (40-547 nmol/g) (28 and 36 microg/g) wet weight at 22 and 10 degrees C, respectively, and was independent of temperature. The Wb for the DCC sediment was lower than observed for the highest TCBP treatment. The internal body residue for total PCB for worms exposed to DCC sediment was 20-fold lower than TCBP in worms exposed to the lowest TCBP treatment on a molar basis. Comparing body residues of total PCB to TCBP assumes that the PCB congeners act additively on a molar basis. The DCC site contained a higher proportion of coarse material and a lower organic carbon concentration. The difference in sediment characteristics was assumed to be responsible for differences in the Wb.

  8. Drug interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Insong J

    2009-07-24

    Alcohol (ethanol) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are frequently co-abused, but recent findings indicate a harmful drug interaction between these two agents. In our previous study, we showed that MDMA exposure inhibits the activity of the acetaldehyde (ACH) metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the co-administration of MDMA and ethanol would reduce the metabolism of ACH and result in increased accumulation of ACH. Rats were treated with MDMA or vehicle and then administered a single dose of ethanol. Liver ALDH2 activity decreased by 35% in the MDMA-treated rats compared to control rats. The peak concentration and the area under the concentration versus time curve of plasma ACH were 31% and 59% higher, respectively, in the MDMA-ethanol group compared to the ethanol-only group. In addition, the MDMA-ethanol group had 80% higher plasma transaminase levels than the ethanol-only group, indicating greater hepatocellular damage. Our results not only support a drug interaction between MDMA and ethanol but a novel underlying mechanism for the interaction.

  9. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  10. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to MDMA results in learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze, a task known to be sensitive to hippocampal disruption, when the animals are tested as adults. Developmental MDMA exposure leads to hypoactivity in the offspring as adults but does not affect outcome on tests of anxiety. MDMA administration decreases pup weight, increases corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during treatment while decreasing brain levels of serotonin; a decrease that initially dissipates and then reappears in adulthood. Neonatal MDMA exposure increases the sensitivity of the serotonin 1A receptor, a possible mechanism underlying the learning and memory deficits seen. Taken together, the evidence shows that MDMA exposure has adverse effects on the developing brain and behavior. The animal and human data on developmental MDMA exposure are reviewed and their public health implications discussed. PMID:18332674

  11. [3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) epidemic?].

    PubMed

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2011-12-11

    Little is known about 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV), a new designer drug that has become popular in Hungary in the last couple of months. At the same time, its consumption, as a consequence of its low street-price, rises so fast that the event can be considered an epidemic. This paper reviews the chemistry, biochemistry and metabolism of MDPV. Then, on the basis of a few international reports and the author's own clinical observations, it discusses MDPV intoxication and withdrawal. In the metabolism of MDPV, the most important catalyst is the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, but the CYP1A2 and the CYP2D6 isoenzymes also play a crucial role. The formed catechols are conjugated with either glucuronic acid or sulfate. It is important to note that MDPV is consumed either together or in a sequence with other illicit drugs of abuse. As far as it can be established, MDPV use increases the activity and vigilance, decreases appetite and claim to sleep, but it can also provoke cardiac sensations and disturbance of perception. In the course of coming down, withdrawal after MDPV use, bone and muscle pain, hypersomnia, disturbance of vision are experienced, but panic attack may also occur. The appearance of new designer drugs on the market draws attention to a need of paradigm changing in spiritual field. Unless it happens these negative trends likely will speed up.

  12. Is volumetric 3-dimensional computed tomography useful to predict histological tumour invasiveness? Analysis of 211 lesions of cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shikuma, Kei; Menju, Toshi; Chen, Fengshi; Kubo, Takeshi; Muro, Shigeo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Ohata, Keiji; Sowa, Terumasa; Nakanishi, Takao; Cho, Hiroyuki; Neri, Shinya; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Date, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to use Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of computed tomography (CT) images to predict pathological lymph node metastasis and tumour invasiveness of cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma on 3D evaluations. METHODS Preoperative CT images of 211 lesions of surgically resected cT1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively examined. The tumour size was calculated in 1D, 2D and 3D views. Tumours with −300 HU and over were defined as ‘solid tumours’, and those between −800 and −301 HU were defined as ‘ground glass opacity tumours’. Tumours with −800 HU and over were assumed to be the whole tumour entity. The proportion of ‘solid tumour’ within the whole tumour entity was also calculated as the ‘solid tumour ratio’. These were compared with pathological information. RESULTS Solid tumour size and ratio were positively correlated with microscopic invasion to pleura, vessels and lymphatics in all dimensional evaluations. Pathological lymph node metastases were also well predicted by solid tumour size and ratio in all dimensional evaluations. The P-values for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 1D, 1D ×2, 2D and 3D evaluations were: solid tumour size P = 0.013, 0.014 and 0.032; and solid tumour ratio 0.016, 0.0032 and <0.0001. In comparisons of 1D, 2D and 3D evaluations, ‘solid tumour size’ of the area under the curve (AUC) of ROC to detect pathological lymph node metastases was not significant. However, strikingly, the 3D solid tumour ratio was found to be significantly more accurate for the prediction of pathological lymph node metastases than the 1D and 2D solid tumour ratios on ROC evaluation (AUC: 1D 0.736, 2D 0.803 and 3D 0.882; P-values for the AUC comparisons were P = 0.013 for 3D versus 1D and P = 0.022 for 3D versus 2D). The correlations of subtypes of adenocarcinoma and the 3D solid tumour ratio were also investigated. Subtypes of adenocarcinoma were well correlated with the 3D solid

  13. [Acute myelocytic leukemia (M0) in an elderly patient with relapsed granulocytic sarcoma (M7) of bone during the second period of complete remission 5 years after onset].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Akira; Fujii, Soichirou; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Kibata, Masayoshi

    2003-03-01

    A 75-year-old man was admitted because of right knee joint pain in December 1999. He had suffered from acute myelocytic leukemia (AML: M0) in November 1994 and achieved the first complete remission (CR) then. His AML relapsed in August 1996, but fortunately he achieved a second CR. Radiographical bone examination revealed osteolytic lesions in his right knee and bone scintigraphy showed uptake in the right knee and the middle part of the left femur. MRI also revealed a low attenuation signal in the left femur. He had no abnormal findings in peripheral blood or bone marrow. Histological examination of the biopsied bone tissue showed a diffuse proliferation of round cells with medium-sized or large nuclei. These cells were histochemistrically negative for myeloperoxidase and naphtol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase, and were also negative for lysozyme, cytokeratin 7, 9, 20, EMA, CEA, CD3, CD79a on immunohistochemistry, but were positive for CD43, CD56. In immunophenotypic analysis of these cells by flow cytometry, CD7, CD13, CD33, CD41, CD56 were revealed to be strongly positive. On the basis of these findings we diagnosed these tumors as granulocytic sarcomas (GS), extramedullary recurrence of AML M7. Although radiation (36Gy) to these tumors brought a temporary relief of the pain, he died of systemic relapse of AML in February 2001. When presented CD7+ AML M0 had been diagnosed, but GS cells were also positive for CD 56 and CD41. Although CD56 had not been examined initially, he might have been had myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia and CD41 might be acquired later in the course of the disease. It is known that AML M0, M7 and myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia have poor prognoses, nevertheless he survived for 6 years. It may be that intensive and repeated chemotherapy for AML can obtain excellent outcome in the elderly cases in good systemic condition and with favourable prognostic factors.

  14. Defect Engineering toward Atomic Co-Nx -C in Hierarchical Graphene for Rechargeable Flexible Solid Zn-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Bin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-08-07

    Rechargeable flexible solid Zn-air battery, with a high theoretical energy density of 1086 Wh kg(-1) , is among the most attractive energy technologies for future flexible and wearable electronics; nevertheless, the practical application is greatly hindered by the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction (ORR/OER) kinetics on the air electrode. Precious metal-free functionalized carbon materials are widely demonstrated as the most promising candidates, while it still lacks effective synthetic methodology to controllably synthesize carbocatalysts with targeted active sites. This work demonstrates the direct utilization of the intrinsic structural defects in nanocarbon to generate atomically dispersed Co-Nx -C active sites via defect engineering. As-fabricated Co/N/O tri-doped graphene catalysts with highly active sites and hierarchical porous scaffolds exhibit superior ORR/OER bifunctional activities and impressive applications in rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Specifically, when integrated into a rechargeable and flexible solid Zn-air battery, a high open-circuit voltage of 1.44 V, a stable discharge voltage of 1.19 V, and a high energy efficiency of 63% at 1.0 mA cm(-2) are achieved even under bending. The defect engineering strategy provides a new concept and effective methodology for the full utilization of nanocarbon materials with various structural features and further development of advanced energy materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lumen claims of the STERRAD 100NX sterilizer: testing performance limits when processing equipment containing long, narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Diab-Elschahawi, Magda; Blacky, Alexander; Bachhofner, Nicole; Koller, Walter

    2011-11-01

    According to manufacturers information, the STERRAD 100NX sterilizer-a low temperature H(2)O(2) gas plasma sterilizer-can adequately process single channel stainless steel lumens with an inside diameter of 0.7 mm or larger and a maximum length of 500 mm using standard cycle sterilizing conditions. The aim of this study was to qualify the performance of this H(2)O(2) gas plasma sterilizer under different experimental settings representing worst case conditions. Inoculated carriers were placed at the midpoint position of specified lumens and then submitted to flex scope sterilizing conditions. To simulate insufficient cleaning or crystalline residues, we added organic and inorganic challenges to our inoculated carriers. For experiments done with unchallenged carriers, quantitative analysis reached a log(10) reduction rate of ≥5.71, whereas qualitative results showed no growth in 24 out of 30 biologic indicators tested using flex scope half cycle conditions. Any additional kind of challenge significantly impaired the sterilization outcome. The findings of our current study emphasize the importance of a thorough validated cleaning of medical devices as well as timing for cleaning and decontamination before being exposed to the H(2)O(2) sterilization process and, furthermore, the need for strict adherence to manufacturer's recommendations. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Yang, Huafeng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2014-09-01

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiNx/SiNy multilayers with high on/off ratio of 109. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos, we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.

  18. Origin of the large positive magnetoresistance of G e1 -xM nx granular thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Yuki K.; Akiyama, Ryota; Takeda, Yukiharu; Horio, Masafumi; Shibata, Goro; Sakamoto, Shoya; Ban, Yoshisuke; Saitoh, Yuji; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohya, Shinobu

    2017-01-01

    G e1 -xM nx (GeMn) granular thin films are a unique and promising material for spintronic applications owing to their large positive magnetoresistance (MR). Previous studies of GeMn have suggested that the large MR is related to the nanospinodal decomposition of GeMn into Mn-rich ferromagnetic nanoparticles and a Mn-poor paramagnetic matrix. However, the microscopic origin of the MR has not yet been clarified. Here, we develop a method to separately investigate the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the matrix, utilizing the extremely high sensitivity of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) to the local magnetic state of each atom. We find that the MR ratio is proportional to the product of the magnetizations originating from the nanoparticles and the matrix. This result indicates that the spin-polarized holes in the nanoparticles penetrate into the matrix and that these holes undergo first order magnetic scattering by the paramagnetic Mn atoms in the matrix, which induces the large MR.

  19. Optimization of SiO2-TiNxOy-Cu interference absorbers: numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarov, Michel P.; Sizmann, R.; Frei, Ulrich

    1993-10-01

    SiO2 - TiNxOy-Cu absorbers were prepared with activated reactive evaporation (ARE). The deposition parameters for the ARE process were adjusted according to the results of the numerical optimizations by a genetic algorithm. We present spectral reflectance, calorimetric and grazing incidence X-ray reflection (GXR) measurements. Best coatings for applications as selective absorber in the range of T equals 100 (DOT)(DOT)(DOT) 200 degree(s)C exhibit a solar absorptance of 0.94 and a near normal emittance of 0.044 at 100 degree(s)C. This emittance is correlated with the hemispherical emittance of 0.061 obtained from calorimetric measurements at 200 degree(s)C. First results on lifetime studies show that the coatings are thermally stable under vacuum up to 400 degree(s)C. The SiO2 film passivates the absorber, a substantial slow down of degradation in dry air is observed. Our tests demonstrate that the coating will withstand break down in cooling fluid and vacuum if mounted in an evacuated collector.

  20. Effects of symmetry, shape, and structural parameters of two-dimensional SiNx photonic crystal on the extracted light from Y2O3:Eu3+ film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Lee, Young Kwang; Park, Hoo Keun; Do, Young Rag

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the effects of the triangular- and square-lattice symmetries as well as the nanorod and airhole shapes of two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layers (PCLs) on the light extraction efficiency of thin-film phosphors (TFPs) in an attempt to improve the light extraction efficiency from the phosphor side of an Y2O3:Eu3+ thin film. Triangular-lattice and square-lattice 2D SiNx nanorods/airholes were fabricated as PCLs on sol-gel derived Y2O3:Eu3+ TFPs using different combinations of the following processes: nanosphere lithography or laser interfering lithography, mask fabrication, and reactive ion etching. The integrated light efficiency of the triangular lattice was approximately 1.33 and 1.64 times as high as that of the square lattice for the nanorods and airholes. The greatest improvement in the phosphor-side extraction efficiency of the Y2O3:Eu3+ TFPs was obtained by adding triangular-lattice 2D SiNx airhole PCL arrays. The angular distribution of the light emitted from the various types of 2D SiNx PCL-coated Y2O3:Eu3+ TFPs was also investigated to better understand the effects of the symmetry and shape of the 2D PCLs on the viewing angle of the light emitted from the Y2O3:Eu3+ thin films. Moreover, the effects of structural parameters, including the dielectric-areal fill factor and lattice parameter (below cutoff size and above 1.0 μm size, as well as the optimum size of triangular lattice) of the 2D SiNx PC arrays, on the extraction efficiency of the Y2O3:Eu3+ TFPs were investigated to improve the scattering capability of the leaky modes as a function of the structural parameters. This enhanced extraction efficiency was attributed to the scattering of the forward emission excited directly by inward UV and the scattering of re-excited forward emission by backscattered UV through the leaky and/or Bragg scattering produced by the 2D periodic array.

  1. Chemical modification of spiramycins. IV. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activities of 3'',4''-diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spriamycin I.

    PubMed

    Sano, H; Sunazuka, T; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, K; Okachi, R; Omura, S

    1984-07-01

    3'',4''-Diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by the four parameters, MIC against bacteria, affinity to ribosomes, retention time in HPLC and therapeutic effect. Among them, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyryl-spiramycin I were the most active in vivo, which were superior to acetylspiramycin.

  2. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  3. Continued improvement in reduced-mode (REM) diodes enable 272 W from 105 μm 0.15 NA beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanskar, M.; Bao, L.; Chen, Z.; Dawson, D.; DeVito, M.; Dong, W.; Grimshaw, M.; Guan, X.; Hemenway, M.; Martinsen, R.; Urbanek, W.; Zhang, S.

    2017-02-01

    High-power, high-brightness diode lasers from 8xx nm to 9xx nm have been pursued in many applications including fiber laser pumping, materials processing, solid-state laser pumping, and consumer electronics manufacturing. In particular, 915 nm - 976 nm diodes are of interest as diode pumps for the kilowatt CW fiber lasers. Thus, there have been many technical efforts on driving the diode lasers to have both high power and high brightness to achieve high-performance and reduced manufacturing costs. This paper presents our continued progress in the development of high brightness fiber-coupled product platform, elementTM. In the past decade, the amount of power coupled into a single 105 μm and 0.15 NA fiber has increased by over a factor of ten through improved diode laser brilliance and the development of techniques for efficiently coupling multiple emitters into a single fiber. In this paper, we demonstrate the further brightness improvement and power-scaling enabled by both the rise in chip brightness/power and the increase in number of chips coupled into a given numerical aperture. We report a new x-REM design with brightness as high as 4.3 W/mm-mrad at a BPP of 3 mm-mrad. We also report the record 272W from a 2×9 elementTM with 105 μm/0.15 NA beam using x-REM diodes and a new product introduction at 200W output power from 105 μm/0.15 NA beam at 915 nm.

  4. A Model Predicting Lymph Node Status for Patients with Clinical Stage T1aN0-2M0 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ruo-Chuan; Qiu, Bin; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status of patients with early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer has an influence on the choice of surgery. To assess the lymph node status more correspondingly and accurately, we evaluated the relationship between the preoperative clinical variables and lymph node status and developed one model for predicting lymph node involvement. Methods: We collected clinical and dissected lymph node information of 474 patients with clinical stage T1aN0-2M0 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Logistic regression analysis of clinical characteristics was used to estimate independent predictors of lymph node metastasis. The prediction model was validated by another group. Results: Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with positive lymph nodes (17.3%), and four independent predictors of lymph node disease were identified: larger consolidation size (odds ratio [OR] = 2.356, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.517–3.658, P < 0.001,), central tumor location (OR = 2.810, 95% CI: 1.545–5.109, P = 0.001), abnormal status of tumor marker (OR = 3.190, 95% CI: 1.797–5.661, P < 0.001), and clinical N1–N2 stage (OR = 6.518, 95% CI: 3.242–11.697, P < 0.001). The model showed good calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit, P < 0.766) with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.842 (95% [CI]: 0.797–0.886). For the validation group, the AUC was 0.810 (95% CI: 0.731–0.889). Conclusions: The model can assess the lymph node status of patients with clinical stage T1aN0-2M0 NSCLC, enable surgeons perform an individualized prediction preoperatively, and assist the clinical decision-making procedure. PMID:28218211

  5. The evolution of Brown-York quasilocal energy as due to evolution of Lovelock gravity in a system of M0-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    Recently, it has been suggested in [S. Chakraborty and N. Dadhich, Brown-York quasilocal energy in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and black hole horizons, J. High Energ. Phys. 12 (2015) 003.] that the Brown-York mechanism can be used to measure the quasilocal energy in Lovelock gravity. We have used this method in a system of M0-branes and show that the Brown-York energy evolves in the process of birth and growth of Lovelock gravity. This can help us to predict phenomenological events which are emerged as due to dynamical structure of Lovelock gravity in our universe. In this model, first, M0-branes join each other and form an M3-brane and an anti-M3-branes connected by an M2-brane. This system is named BIon. Universes and anti-universes live on M3-branes and M2 plays the role of wormhole between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M3’s and nonlinear massive gravities like Lovelock massive gravity emerges and grows. By closing M3-branes, BIon evolves and wormhole between branes makes a transition to black hole. During this stage, Brown-York energy increases and shrinks to large values at the colliding points of branes. By approaching M3-branes towards each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are produced. To remove these states, M3-branes compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, anti-gravity is created which leads to getting away of branes from each other. Also, the Lovelock gravity disappears and its energy forms a new M2 between M3-branes. By getting away of branes from each other, Brown-York energy decreases and shrinks to zero.

  6. CT characteristics and pathological implications of early stage (T1N0M0) lung adenocarcinoma with pure ground-glass opacity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Zhao, Shao-hong; Gao, Jie; Wang, Dian-jun; Wu, Jian; Wu, Chong-chong; Chang, Rui-ping; Ju, Hai-yue

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the CT characteristics and pathological classification of early lung adenocarcinoma (T1N0M0) with pure ground-glass opacity (pGGO). Ninety-four lesions with pGGO on CT in 88 patients with T1N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma were selected from January 2010 to December 2012. All lesions were confirmed by pathology. CT appearances were analyzed including lesion location, size, density, uniformity, shape, margin, tumour-lung interface, internal and surrounding malignant signs. Lesion size and density were compared using analysis of variance, lesion size also assessed using ROC curves. Gender of patients, lesion location and CT appearances were compared using χ²-test. There were no significant differences in gender, lesion location and density with histological invasiveness (P > 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the possibility of invasive lesion was 88.73% when diameter of lesion was more than 10.5 mm. There was a significant difference between lesion uniformity and histological invasiveness (P = 0.01). There were significant differences in margin, tumour-lung interface, air bronchogram with histological invasiveness ( P = 0.02,P = 0.00,P = 0.048). The correlation index of lesion size and uniformity was r = 0.45 (P = 0.00). The lesion size and uniformity, tumour-lung interface and the air bronchogram can help predict invasive extent of early stage lung adenocarcinoma with pGGO. • CT characteristics and pathological classification of pGGO lung adenocarcinoma smaller than 3 cm • The optimal cut-off value for discriminating preinvasive from invasive lesions was 10.5 mm • Uniformity was significant difference between histological subtypes and correlated with lesion size • Tumour margin, tumour-lung interface and air bronchogram showed different between histological types • No significant difference in gender, lesion location and density with histological subtypes.

  7. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

    2014-10-03

    Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50μM) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release.

  8. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  9. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  10. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg−1) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1  μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  11. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC).

    PubMed

    Lopes Jesus, A J; Jarmelo, S; Fausto, R; Reva, I

    2015-04-05

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Radical sequestration by protein-bound 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michelle; Foxwell, A Ruth; Tyrer, Peter; Dean, Roger T

    2010-05-01

    Protein-bound 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (PB-DOPA), a redox-active product of protein oxidation, is capable of functioning as both a pro- and antioxidant. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated a toxic, non-toxic or even beneficial effect of free DOPA, however little investigation has examined the physiological activity of PB-DOPA. Being the major treatment available for Parkinson's disease, most studies have focused on the effect of DOPA within neurological cells or tissues, although the presence of PB-DOPA in other locations, for example within atherosclerotic plaques, suggests that broader research is needed to fully understand the physiological effects of both free and PB-DOPA. We hypothesise that the generation of PB-DOPA can trigger an enhancement of the cellular antioxidant defence system, thus enabling PB-DOPA to restrict and potentially terminate the initiating oxidative stress, minimising the level of oxidative damage. Using luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, we demonstrate that free DOPA is capable of direct peroxyl radical scavenging, even in the presence of competing scavengers, and has a different effect to that of the parent amino acid, tyrosine. Furthermore, we show that both free and PB-DOPA, in combination or individually, were able to protect monocytes and macrophages from peroxyl radical-induced oxidative stress in vitro. These results confirm a role for both free and PB-DOPA in cellular antioxidant defences and suggest the possibility of using DOPA as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of diseases involving oxidative stress or the accumulation of oxidative damage. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  14. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  15. Rapid, Microwave Accelerated Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from 4-Acylamino-1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Stesphanie L; Olson, Margaret E; Harki, Daniel A

    2016-09-07

    1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.

  16. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Yahyawi, Amjad M; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Al-Blewi, Fawzia F; Aouad, Mohamed R

    2015-09-02

    In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  17. A novel dilithiation approach to 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines, 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Jain, Ritu

    2002-11-15

    3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines 4, 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines 9, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines 6 were synthesized by directed ortho-lithiation of thiophenols and phenols and by side-chain lithiation of substituted thiophenols, respectively, in one-pot by reacting with N,N-bis[(benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amines 3 as 1,3-biselectrophile synthons.

  18. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  19. [Patterns of recurrence in patients with stage pT3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after two-field esophagectomy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Lili; Yang, Qiong; Li, Jing; He, Ming; Yao, Jifang; Qi, Zhan; Li, Baozhong; Qiao, Xueying

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of recurrence and the related factors in patients with pT3N0M0 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after two-field esophagectomy. From Jan 2008 to Dec 2009, 208 patients with stage pT3N0M0(2002, UICC) thoracic ESCC were treated with two-field esophagectomy in our hospital. There were 138 males and 70 females, and the median age was 60 years old (range 33-78). There were 33 patients in the upper-, 134 in the middle-, and 41 in the lower-thoracic esophagus, with a median length of lesion of 5 cm. There were 32 patients with no-, 78 with mild- and 98 patients with severe adhesions at surgery. The median number of dissected lymph nodes was 9 (range 1-27). 98 patients were treated with surgery alone and 110 with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 13.0 software. The follow-up was ended on July 2013. In the total group of 208 patients, the total recurrence rate was 41.8% (87/208). Among them, 52 patients had locoregional recurrence (LR), 15 had distant metastasis (DM) and 20 patients had both local recurrence and distant metastasis. 40.2% (35/87) of all recurrences were found within one year after operation, 67.8% (59/87) within 2 years, 86.2% (75/87) within 3 years, and 100% (87/87) within 4 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 83.0%, 62.8% and 56.3%, respectively. The overall locoregional recurrence rate was 34.6% (72/208), among them, 9 cases had recurrence in the cervix (all were supraclavicular lymph node metastasis), 66 cases in the mediastinum and 4 cases had para-aortic lymph node metastasis. 83.3% (60/72) of the locoregional recurrence was located in the carinal region or upper area. The 1-, 3-, 5-year locoregional recurrence rate was 15.6%, 32.2%, and 36.8%, respectively, and the median time of recurrence was 15.5 months. The overall distant metastasis (DM) rate was 16.8% (35/208). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DM rate was 4.4%, 15.3%, and 20

  20. Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Ti1+xFeSb and TiFe0.75M0.25Sb (M = Ni, Mn) Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azar, Said; Mousa, Ahmad

    Density functional theory calculations based on full potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) plus local orbital method in the framework of GGA-PBE, as embodied in the WIEN2k code, is used to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of intermetallic Ti1+xFeS Heusler compounds, where (x = i/4, i =-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4) and the TiFe0.75M0.25Sb (M = Ni, Mn) quaternary semi-Heusler compounds. Moreover, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange potential, as a semi-local method, was employed to predict the band-gap more precisely. We examined the site preference of the parent compound TiFeSb and varying the electron concentration by doping or removing a Ti atom. It is found that they play a crucial role in physical properties of these material systems. The lattice parameters and spin magnetic moment calculated were consistent with the previous experimental and theoretical data available. Moreover, alloys with x<0 are found to exhibit a ferrimagnetic phase, and the alloy with x =0.25 exhibit a non-magnetic properties, whereas the rest have shown ferromagnetic phase. The band-structure analysis of Ti1.75FeSb, Ti2FeSb and TiFe0.75Ni0.25Sb alloys suggested that they could be a ferromagnetic half-metallic members with band-gaps 0.67, 0.41 and 0.54 eV, respectively.

  1. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Various Recipes of SiNx Passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors in Correlation with Current Slump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Quan, Si; Hu, Gui-Zhou; Jiang, Shou-Gao; Yang, Li-Yuan

    2009-11-01

    The current slump of different recipes of SiNx passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. The dc and pulsed current-voltage curves of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using different recipes are analyzed. It is found that passivation leakage has a strong relationship with NH3 flow in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition process, which has impacted on the current collapse of SiNx passivated devices. We analyze the pulsed IDS - VDS characteristics of different recipes of SiNx passivation devices for different combinations of gate and drain quiescent biases (VGS0, VDS0) of (0, 0), (-6, 0), (-6, 15) and (0, 15)V. The possible mechanisms are the traps in SiNx passivation capturing the electrons and the surface states at the SiNx/AlGaN interface, which can affect the channel of two-dimensional electron gas and cause the current collapse.

  2. Effect of SiNx diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol–gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Summary We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiNx) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol–gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiNx diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiNx diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol–gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiNx barrier diffusion. The SiNx barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed. PMID:26665074

  3. Prognostic Value of Microvascular Density in Dukes A and B (T1–T4, N0, M0) Colorectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Uribarrena A, Rafael; Ortego, Javier; Fuentes, Javier; Raventós, Nuria; Parra, Pilar; Uribarrena E, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background. Aproximatelly 30% of patients operated on for colorectal cancer (CRC), with an expectedly favourable prognosis (Dukes A-B/T1–T4, N0, M0) suffer recurrence and/or die. Method. In order to determine if tumor microvascular density (MVD) is a prognostic factor in CRC, samples from tumors of 104 Dukes A-B CRC patients were retrospectively studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for anti-CD34 antibody to visualize tumor vascularisation. MVD was expressed as the total number of vessels and as the percentage of microvascular area. We calculated MVD with a morphometry program and performed descriptive, bivariate, and survival statistics. Results. The mean number of vessels was 37.37/200x field, and the mean vascular area was the 3.972%. 30% of the patients with < 37 vessels/field, and 21% of the patients with > 37 vessels/field, experienced recurrence/death. The 35% of patients with < 4% of vascular area died following recurrence, compared with 14% of patients with ≥4% of vascular area. These differences in % of vascular area were statistically significant. Conclusion. MVD expressed as the total number of vessels had no a statistically significant influence on the evolution of CRC. However, neoplasias with a greater % of vascular were associated to a better outcome. PMID:19902004

  4. Morphological, structural, and electrochemical characteristics of LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4M 0.1O 2 (M = Li, Mg, Co, Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Decheng; Sasaki, Yuki; Kobayakawa, Koichi; Sato, Yuichi

    LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4M 0.1O 2 (M = Li, Mg, Al, Co) compound was prepared by a solid-state reaction, and its structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, charge-discharge tests and EIS. The impacts of alien ion introduction on the structural, morphological and electrochemical properties of LiNi 0.5Mn 0.5O 2 depend on the dopants. The substitution of Li, Mg, and Co for Mn can enlarge the particle size and improve the crystallinity. LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4Li 0.1O 2 and LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4Co 0.1O 2 show increased reversible capacities as well as upgraded rate capabilities. LiNi 0.5Mn 0.4Li 0.1O 2 exhibits a retentive capacity of about 200 mAh g -1 at 50 °C.

  5. M-CAVI, a neoadjuvant carboplatin-based regimen for the treatment of T2-4N0M0 carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Bellmunt, J; Ribas, A; Albanell, J; Bermejo, B; Vera, R; De Torres, J A; Morote, J; Lopez-Pacios, M A; Banus, J M; Rovirosa, A; Carulla, J; Sole, L A

    1996-08-01

    Carboplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine (M-CAVI) is an active and well-tolerated regimen for bladder cancer patients ineligible for cisplatin-based regimens. We treated 47 T2-4 N0 M0 bladder cancer patients with M-CAVI in a neoadjuvant phase II trial. These 47 patients are evaluable for clinical response and toxicity. Clinical overall response rate was 34%, for a 95% confidence interval (CI95%) of 21-49%. Pathological response was seen in 40% of the patients (CI95%, 26-56%) with a 26.5% rate of pathological complete response (CI95%, 15-42%). Factors associated with the achievement of a response to therapy were the initial TNM stage (pT3a or lower, greater than pT3a, p = 0.001) and a Karnofsky score greater or equal than 90%, which was marginally significant (p = 0.08). With a median follow-up of 14 months, the disease-specific actuarial survival at 2 years is 42%. No patient has relapsed beyond 21 months of follow-up in a disease-free status. Toxic effects have been moderate. In conclusion, M-CAVI is an active and well-tolerated regimen that should be compared in terms of response rate and survival with a cisplatin-based regimen for invasive bladder cancer.

  6. Dynamics of Ti, N, and TiNx (x=1-3) admolecule transport on TiN(001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiovanni, D. G.; Edström, D.; Hultman, L.; Chirita, V.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2012-10-01

    We use classical molecular dynamics and the modified embedded atom method formalism to investigate the dynamics of atomic-scale transport on a low-index model compound surface, TiN(001). Our simulations, totaling 0.25 μs for each case study, follow the pathways and migration kinetics of Ti and N adatoms, as well as TiNx complexes with x=1-3, which are known to contribute to the growth of TiN thin films by reactive deposition from Ti, N2, and N precursors. The simulations are carried out at 1000 K, within the optimal range for TiN(001) epitaxial growth. We find Ti adatoms to be the highest-mobility species on TiN(001), with the primary migration path involving jumps of one nearest-neighbor distance dNN between adjacent fourfold hollow sites along in-plane <100> channels. Long jumps, 2dNN, are also observed, but at much lower frequency. N adatoms, which exhibit significantly lower migration rates than Ti, diffuse along in-plane <110> directions and, when they intersect other N atoms, associatively form N2 molecules, which desorb at kinetic rates. As expected, TiN and TiN3 complexes migrate at even lower rates with complex diffusion pathways involving rotations, translations, and rototranslations. TiN2 trimers, however, are shown to have surprisingly high diffusion rates, above that of N adatoms and almost half that of Ti adatoms. TiN3 motion is dominated by in-place rotation with negligible diffusion.

  7. Nitrogen-induced perturbation of the valence band states in GaP1-xNx alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudiy, S. V.; Zunger, Alex; Felici, M.; Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M.; Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

    2006-10-01

    The effects of diluted nitrogen impurities on the valence- and conduction-band states of GaP1-xNx have been predicted and measured experimentally. The calculation uses state-of-the-art atomistic modeling: we use large supercells with screened pseudopotentials and consider several random realizations of the nitrogen configurations. These calculations agree with photoluminescence excitation (PLE) measurements performed for nitrogen concentrations x up to 0.035 and photon energies up to 1eV above the GaP optical-absorption edge, as well as with published ellipsometry data. In particular, a predicted nitrogen-induced buildup of the L character near the valence- and conduction-band edges accounts for the surprising broad-absorption plateau observed in PLE between the X1c and the Γ1c critical points of GaP. Moreover, theory accounts quantitatively for the downward bowing of the indirect conduction-band edge and for the upward bowing of the direct transition with increasing nitrogen concentration. We review some of the controversies in the literature regarding the shifts in the conduction band with composition, and conclude that measured results at ultralow N concentration cannot be used to judge behavior at a higher concentration. In particular, we find that at the high concentrations of nitrogen studied here (˜1%) the conduction-band edge (CBE) is a hybridized state made from the original GaP X1c band-edge state plus all cluster states. In this limit, the CBE plunges down in energy as the N concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the measurements reported here. However, at ultralow nitrogen concentrations (<0.1%) , the CBE is the nearly unperturbed host X1c , which does not sense the nitrogen cluster levels. Thus, this state does not move energetically as nitrogen is added and stays pinned in energy, in agreement with experimental results.

  8. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties.

  9. Electronic structure and optical gain saturation of InAs1-xNx/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Fan, W. J.; Xu, Q.; Zhang, X. W.; Li, S. S.; Xia, J. B.

    2009-06-01

    The electronic band structures and optical gains of InAs1-xNx/GaAs pyramid quantum dots (QDs) are calculated using the ten-band k ṡp model and the valence force field method. The optical gains are calculated using the zero-dimensional optical gain formula with taking into consideration of both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings due to the size fluctuation of quantum dots which follows a normal distribution. With the variation of QD sizes and nitrogen composition, it can be shown that the nitrogen composition and the strains can significantly affect the energy levels especially the conduction band which has repulsion interaction with nitrogen resonant state due to the band anticrossing interaction. It facilitates to achieve emission of longer wavelength (1.33 or 1.55 μm) lasers for optical fiber communication system. For QD with higher nitrogen composition, it has longer emission wavelength and less detrimental effect of higher excited state transition, but nitrogen composition can affect the maximum gain depending on the factors of transition matrix element and the Fermi-Dirac distributions for electrons in the conduction bands and holes in the valence bands respectively. For larger QD, its maximum optical gain is greater at lower carrier density, but it is slowly surpassed by smaller QD as carrier concentration increases. Larger QD can reach its saturation gain faster, but this saturation gain is smaller than that of smaller QD. So the trade-off between longer wavelength, maximum optical, saturation gain, and differential gain must be considered to select the appropriate QD size according to the specific application requirement.

  10. Effect of MnO2 layers on transport properties of Lan-nxCa1+nxMnn-yCryO3n+1 (n=2, 3; x=0.3; y=0.075, 0.15, 0.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. N. I.; Basith, M. A.; Huq, M.; Mollah, S.

    2007-12-01

    A series of bulk polycrystalline layered perovskite manganites Lan-nxCa1+nxMnn-yCryO3n+1 (n=2, 3; x=0.3; y=0.075, 0.15, 0.3) are prepared by conventional solid-state reaction technique and the effect of MnO2 layers on their transport properties are studied. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the samples indicate their single-phase character. Metal insulator (MI) transition is observed in both Cr-doped and undoped samples. There is a systematic change of MI transition temperature with the increase of Cr concentration. Results on the transport properties of these samples have indicated methodical variations in a number of features like electrical resistivity, MI transition, low-field magnetoresistance, etc. with the number of MnO2 layers. A regular variation of different features is also observed when Mn site is substituted by Cr.

  11. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 and clade 2.3.4 viruses do not induce a clade-specific phenotype in mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Ducatez, Mariette; Sonnberg, Stephanie; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Rubrum, Adam; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Peiris, Malik; Guan, Yi; Webster, Robert; Webby, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Among the diverse clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses of the goose/Guangdong lineage, only a few have been able to spread across continents: clade 2.2 viruses spread from China to Europe and into Africa in 2005-2006, clade 2.3.2.1 viruses spread from China to Eastern Europe in 2009-2010 and clade 2.3.4.4 viruses of the H5Nx subtype spread from China to Europe and North America in 2014/2015. While the poultry trade and wild-bird migration have been implicated in the spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses, it has been proposed that robust virus-shedding by wild ducks in the absence of overt clinical signs may have contributed to the wider dissemination of the clade 2.2, 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4.4 viruses. Here we determined the phenotype of two divergent viruses from clade 2.3.2.1, a clade that spread widely, and two divergent viruses from clade 2.3.4, a clade that was constrained to Southeast Asia, in young (ducklings) and adult (juvenile) mallard ducks. We found that the virus-shedding magnitude and duration, transmission pattern and pathogenicity of the viruses in young and adult mallard ducks were largely independent of the virus clade. A clade-specific pattern could only be detected in terms of cumulative virus shedding, which was higher with clade 2.3.2.1 than with clade 2.3.4 viruses in juvenile mallards, but not in ducklings. The ability of clade 2.3.2.1c A/common buzzard/Bulgaria/38 WB/2010-like viruses to spread cross-continentally may, therefore, have been strain-specific or independent of phenotype in wild ducks.

  12. Differentiation of CD3-4-8- human fetal thymocytes in vivo: characterization of a CD3-4+8- intermediate

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Human thymocyte differentiation was examined by injecting fetal thymic progenitor populations into human thymic xenografts in SCID-hu mice. Thymic progenitors were fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye PKH2. The phenotypes of their progeny could be identified by flow cytometric analysis of cells with a very high fluorescent PKH2 signal. Intrathymic injection of purified triple negative (TN) CD3-4-8- thymocytes resulted in the sequential appearance of CD3-4+8-, CD3-4+8+, and CD3+4+8+ cells, with the subsequent appearance of small numbers of phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ cells over a 4-d period. Sorted CD3-4+8- thymocytes injected intrathymically rapidly differentiated to CD4+8+ cells. CD4+8+ fetal thymocytes in cell cycle differentiated into phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ populations, whereas nondividing CD4+8+ cells failed to differentiate after intrathymic transfer. The number of cell divisions that occurred between the injection of TN thymocytes and their progeny at different time points was estimated based on the decrease in the intensity of the PKH2 label. The average length of the cell cycle for the TN population was calculated to be 24 h. The SCID-hu model thus provides a useful tool for studying the kinetics of cell division and differentiation of human thymocytes in vivo. PMID:8315382

  13. Effect of temperature on the electrical properties of Zn0.95M0.05O (M = Zn, Fe, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedky, A.; Mohamed, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the structural and electrical properties of Zn0.95M0.05O ceramic varistors, M = Zn, Ni and Fe. The samples were tested for phase purity and structural morphology by using X-Ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM techniques. The current-voltage characteristics J-E were obtained by dc electrical measurements in the temperature range of 300-500 K. Addition of doping did not influence the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO ceramics. Furthermore, the lattice parameters ratio c/a for hexagonal distortion and the length of the bond parallel to the c axis, u were nearly unaffected. The average grain size was decreased from 1.57 μm for ZnO to 1.19 μm for Ni sample and to 1.22 μm for Fe sample. The breakdown field EB was decreased as the temperature increased, in the following order: Fe > Zn > Ni. The nonlinear region was clearly observed for all samples as the temperature increased up to 400 K and completely disappeared with further increase of temperature up to 500 K. The values of nonlinear coefficient, a were between 1.16 and 42 for all samples, in the following order: Fe > Zn > Ni. Moreover, the electrical conductivity s was gradually increased as the temperature increased up to 500 K, in the following order: Ni > Zn > Fe. On the other hand, the activation energies were 0.194 eV, 0.136 and 0.223 eV for all samples, in the following order: Fe, Zn and Ni. These results have been discussed in terms of valence states, magnetic moment and thermo-ionic emission, which were produced by the doping, and controlling the potential barrier of ZnO.

  14. Thermoelectric Properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) Alloys: First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yamani, H.; Hamad, B.

    2016-02-01

    Ab initio investigations of the structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of stoichiometric Fe2VAl full-Heusler alloy and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) nonstoichiometric alloys have been performed using density functional theory on the basis of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the generalized gradient approximation. The thermoelectric properties are calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation. Fe2VAl, Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al, and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al alloys are found to exhibit a semimetallic behavior, while Fe2V0.75Mo0.25Al acts as a metal. We found that Fe2VAl has a pseudogap of about -0.13 eV, whereas Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al are characterized by a zero energy gap around the Fermi level. Thermoelectric calculations showed that Fe2VAl has both p- and n-type thermoelectric properties, where the p-type thermopower values are found to be higher than those of n-type. The Seebeck coefficient S has maximum values from 20 μV K-1 to 125 μV K-1 and from 19 μV K-1 to 90 μV K-1 in the temperature range of 100 K to 800 K for p- and n-type, respectively. The maximum thermoelectric properties can be obtained at carrier concentration of the order of 1020 cm-3 for p- or n-type doping. Substitution of Nb and Ta atoms enhanced the thermoelectric properties to 150 μV K-1 at 800 K. The optimum concentrations for the three partially substituted alloys were found to be between 1020 cm-3 and 1021 cm-3.

  15. Outcomes of clinical T4M0 extra-peritoneal rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiochemotherapy and surgery: a prospective evaluation of a single institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Coco, Claudio; Rizzo, Gianluca; Manno, Alberto; Crucitti, Antonio; Mattana, Claudio; Ratto, Carlo; Verbo, Alessandro; Vecchio, Fabio M; Barbaro, Brunella; Gambacorta, Maria A; Montoro, Caterina; Barba, Maria C; Sofo, Luigi; Papa, Valerio; Menghi, Roberta; D'Ugo, Domenico M; Doglietto, Giovanbattista

    2009-05-01

    Our objective was evaluate the outcome of primary clinical T4M0 extraperitoneal rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. Prognosis of clinical T4 rectal cancer is poor. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy may be beneficial. The results obtained are unclear due to lack of objective and strictly applied staging methods. Patients with primary, clinical, T4MO, extraperitoneal rectal cancer, defined by transrectal ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, were considered. Intraoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy were employed in some patients after curative resection (R0). Variables influencing the possibility to perform an R0 resection and a sphincter-saving procedure were investigated as predictors of outcome. 100 patients were included. R0 resection was performed in 78 patients. R0 resection rate was greater in females (93% vs 67%) and in responders to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (94% vs 60%). The ability to perform a sphincter-saving procedure was 57%, greater in middle rectal location (85% vs 51%) and in responders to the chemoradiation (70% vs 47%). Median follow-up was 31 months (range, 4-136). Local recurrences were found in 7 patients (10%). Five-year local control in R0 patients was 90% and better in the IORT group (100%). Distant relapse occurred in 24 patients (30%). Five-year overall survival was 59%, and was better after an R0 versus an R1 or R2 resection (68% vs 22%). Overall and disease free survival in R0 patients improved after overall downstaging. Adjuvant chemotherapy given in addition to the neoadjuvant therapy did not appear to offer benefit in improving survival. A multimodal approach enabled us to obtain a 5-year overall survival of about 60%. IORT increased local control. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy needs to be further investigated.

  16. Highly Corrosion Resistant and Sandwich-like Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4 Coatings Used for Solar Selective Absorbing Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Du, Miao; Haoa, Lei; Meng, Jianping; Wang, Jining; Mi, Jing; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-12-14

    Highly corrosion resistant, layer-by-layer nanostructured Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4 coatings were deposited on aluminum substrate by DC/RF magnetron sputtering. Corrosion resistance experiments were performed in 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt % NaCl salt spray at 35 °C for 168 h. Properties of the coatings were comprehensively investigated in terms of optical property, surface morphology, microstructure, elemental valence state, element distribution, and potentiodynamic polarization. UV-vis-near-IR spectrophotometer and FTIR measurements show that the change process in optical properties of Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4/Al coatings can be divided into three stages: a rapid active degradation stage, a steady passivation stage, and a transpassivation degradation stage. With the increase in the concentration of NaCl salt spray, solar absorptance and thermal emittance experienced a slight degradation. SEM images reveal that there is an increase in surface defects, such as microcracks and holes and -cracks. XRD and TEM measurements indicate that the phase structure changed partially and the content of CrOx and Al2O3 has increased. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the elements of Cr, N, and O have undergone a minor diffusion. Electrochemical polarization curves show that the as-deposited Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4/Al coatings have excellent corrosion resistance of 3633.858 kΩ, while after corroding in 5.0 wt % NaCl salt spray for 168 h the corrosion resistance dropped to 13.759 kΩ. However, these coatings still have an outstanding performance of high solar absorptance of 0.924 and low thermal emittance of 0.090 after corroding in 3.0 wt % NaCl salt spray for 120 h. Thus, the Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4/Al coating is a good choice for solar absorber coatings applied in the high-saline environment.

  17. Localization-delocalization transition of electrons at the percolation threshold of semiconductor GaAs1–xNx alloys: The appearance of a mobility edge

    DOE PAGES

    Alberi, K.; Fluegel, B.; Beaton, D. A.; ...

    2012-07-09

    Electrons in semiconductor alloys have generally been described in terms of Bloch states that evolve from constructive interference of electron waves scattering from perfectly periodic potentials, despite the loss of structural periodicity that occurs on alloying. Using the semiconductor alloy GaAs₁₋xNx as a prototype, we demonstrate a localized to delocalized transition of the electronic states at a percolation threshold, the emergence of a mobility edge, and the onset of an abrupt perturbation to the host GaAs electronic structure, shedding light on the evolution of electronic structure in these abnormal alloys.

  18. Thermal Improvement and Stability of Si3N4/GeNx/p- and n-Ge Structures Prepared by Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma Nitridation and Sputtering at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Izumi, Kohei; Otani, Yohei; Ishizaki, Hiroki; Ono, Toshiro

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports on the thermal improvement of Si3N4/GeNx/Ge structures. After the Si3N4 (5 nm)/GeNx (2 nm) stacks were prepared on Ge substrates by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering at room temperature, they were thermally annealed in atmospheric N2 + 10% H2 ambient at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. It was demonstrated that the electronic properties of the GeNx/Ge interfaces were thermally improved at temperatures of up to 500 °C with a minimum interface trap density (Dit) of ˜1×1011 cm-2 eV-1 near the Ge midgap, whereas the interface properties were slightly degraded after annealing at 600 °C with a minimum Dit value of ˜4×1011 cm-2 eV-1.

  19. Fabrication of Ta2O5/GeNx gate insulator stack for Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor structures by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Yohei; Itayama, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Takuo; Fukuda, Yukio; Toyota, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshiro; Mitsui, Minoru; Nakagawa, Kiyokazu

    2007-04-01

    The authors have fabricated germanium (Ge) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with a 7-nm-thick tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5)/2-nm-thick germanium nitride (GeNx) gate insulator stack by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering deposition. They found that pure GeNx ultrathin layers can be formed by the direct plasma nitridation of the Ge surface without substrate heating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed no oxidation of the GeNx layer after the Ta2O5 sputtering deposition. The fabricated MIS capacitor with a capacitance equivalent thickness of 4.3nm showed excellent leakage current characteristics. The interface trap density obtained by the modified conductance method was 4×1011cm-2eV-1 at the midgap.

  20. Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline by a novel dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwei; Liu, Runlong; Chen, Pei; Yuan, Shoujun; Zhao, Dayong; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Degradation of aqueous 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) was conducted in a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. The factors affecting the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA and the degradation mechanism of 3,4-DCA were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA increased with increasing input power intensity, and the degradation of 3,4-DCA by the novel DBD plasma reactor fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics. Higher degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA was observed in acidic conditions. The degradation efficiency of 3,4-DCA, the removal rate of total organic carbon (TOC), and the detected Cl(-) increased dramatically with adding Fe(2+) or Fe(3+). Degradation of 3,4-DCA could be accelerated or inhibited in the presence of H2O2 depending on the dosage. Several degradation intermediates of 3,4-DCA such as 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 3,4-dichlorophenyl isocyanate, 2-chlorohydroquinone, 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and 3,4-dichlorophenol were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Based on the identification of aromatic intermediates, acetic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, and Cl(-) released, a possible mineralization pathway of 3,4-DCA was proposed.

  1. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  2. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  3. Prognostic significance of allelic imbalance of chromosome arms 7q, 8p, 16q, and 18q in stage T3N0M0 prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, R; Takahashi, S; DeLacey, K; Bergstralh, E; Lieber, M

    1998-02-01

    Frequent allelic imbalance of polymorphic markers mapped to regions of the 7q, 8p, 16q, and 18q arms has been reported in prostate cancer. To better define the clinical significance of these genetic alterations, we undertook a retrospective analysis of systemic progression and survival in patients with a single stage of prostate cancer. We ascertained all 227 patients from the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy Registry who had a histologic high-grade, pathologic stage C (pT3N0M0) tumor surgically removed between 1966 and 1987. The mean follow-up of this population of patients was 7.7 years. DNAs were extracted from cancer lesions identified in 5-micron paraffin-embedded tumor sections. Control DNAs were obtained from surgically removed lymph nodes. Paired DNA samples of 153 patients were available for analysis using 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers mapped to 7q31, 8p22-p21, 16q23-qter, and 18q21-q22. The frequencies of allelic imbalance for at least one marker mapped to 7q31, 8p22-p21, 16q23-qter, and 18q21-q22 were 30, 58, 53, and 45% of all informative cases, respectively. Allelic imbalance at 7q31 strongly correlated with systemic cancer progression and to a slightly lesser extent with cancer-specific death. Eight-year systemic cancer progression-free rates were 58 and 81% for cases with and without 7q31 allelic imbalance, respectively (P < 0.001). Eight-year prostate cancer-specific survival rates were 70 and 85% with and without 7q31 allelic imbalance, respectively (P = 0.019). Multivariate analysis indicated that allelic imbalance at 7q31 is a significant independent predictor of systemic progression (P < 0.001) and possibly prostate cancer death (P = 0.029). In addition, allelic imbalance of the specific loci D7S522 (7q31.1) and D8S258 (8p22-p21.3) was strongly associated with systemic progression (P < 0.001 and P = 0.010, respectively) and with prostate cancer death (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). The results suggest that a gene or genes

  4. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  5. Postoperative irradiation in patients with pT3-4N0 laryngeal cancer: results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Tomasz; Nowak-Sadzikowska, Jadwiga; Mucha-Małecka, Anna; Szyszka-Charewicz, Bogumiła; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Gliński, Bogdan

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 60 % of patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer (LALC) treated primarily with surgery require adjuvant radiotherapy. In the available literature predominate series of patients were with pathologically confirmed node-positive status. Subgroups of pN0 patients with LALC are scarce. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with pathological stage T3-4N0M0 and identification of prognostic factors in this group. Between 1975 and 2005, 138 patients with squamous pT3-4N0 laryngeal cancer were irradiated postoperatively. Primary surgical treatment consisted of total laryngectomy and cervical lymphadenectomy. The median time between surgery and the implementation of radiotherapy was 56 days. The median total dose was 60 Gy (range 40-70 Gy). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS5) was achieved in 76 % of patients. Cancer recurrence was observed in 34 patients. In 28 (82 %) cases it was locoregional failure. DFS5 rates for pT3 and pT4 were 92 and 69 %, for margin status R0, R1 and R2 were 82, 72 and 67 %, respectively. The pharyngeal invasion was related to a decrease in DFS5 from 80 to 59 %. Postoperative irradiation in patients with pT3-4N0 LALC is an effective treatment method. The main reason of the failure is local recurrence. The following independent prognostic factors were identified in this group of patients: pT stage, surgical margin status and pharyngeal invasion.

  6. 3' Phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] by voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP).

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sakata, Souhei; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Horie, Shigeo; Homma, Koichi J; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-06-19

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) consist of a voltage-sensor domain and a cytoplasmic region with remarkable sequence similarity to phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor phosphatase. VSPs dephosphorylate the 5' position of the inositol ring of both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] upon voltage depolarization. However, it is unclear whether VSPs also have 3' phosphatase activity. To gain insights into this question, we performed in vitro assays of phosphatase activities of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP) and transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology (TPTE) and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase (TPIP; one human ortholog of VSP) with radiolabeled PI(3,4,5)P(3). TLC assay showed that the 3' phosphate of PI(3,4,5)P(3) was not dephosphorylated, whereas that of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)] was removed by VSPs. Monitoring of PI(3,4)P(2) levels with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain from tandem PH domain-containing protein (TAPP1) fused with GFP (PH(TAPP1)-GFP) by confocal microscopy in amphibian oocytes showed an increase of fluorescence intensity during depolarization to 0 mV, consistent with 5' phosphatase activity of VSP toward PI(3,4,5)P(3). However, depolarization to 60 mV showed a transient increase of GFP fluorescence followed by a decrease, indicating that, after PI(3,4,5)P(3) is dephosphorylated at the 5' position, PI(3,4)P(2) is then dephosphorylated at the 3' position. These results suggest that substrate specificity of the VSP changes with membrane potential.

  7. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "Wiring" Fe-Nx -Embedded Porous Carbon Framework onto 1D Nanotubes for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline and Acidic Media.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-07-01

    This study presents a novel metal-organic-framework-engaged synthesis route based on porous tellurium nanotubes as a sacrificial template for hierarchically porous 1D carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, an ultrathin Fe-ion-containing polydopamine layer has been introduced to generate highly effective FeNx C active sites into the carbon framework and to induce a high degree of graphitization. The synergistic effects between the hierarchically porous 1D carbon structure and the embedded FeNx C active sites in the carbon framework manifest in superior catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) compared to Pt/C catalyst in both alkaline and acidic media. A rechargeable zinc-air battery assembled in a decoupled configuration with the nonprecious pCNT@Fe@GL/CNF ORR electrode and Ni-Fe LDH/NiF oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrode exhibits charge-discharge overpotentials similar to the counterparts of Pt/C ORR electrode and IrO2 OER electrode. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Multi-functional TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx coatings for low-emissivity and hydrophilic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Park, Kyoung Ryeol; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Multi-functional (coatings with some additional functional properties such as high transparency, antireflection, hydrophilicity and antifogging) coatings are indispensable for the modern energy saving systems. In this regard, we deposited TiO2/Si/Ag(Cr)/TiNx multilayer thin films on soda-lime glass by using RF and DC magnetron sputtering to achieve a multi-functional thin film stack with the combination low-emissivity (low-e) and hydrophilicity properties in addition to the high transparency. Primary deposition of Ag(Cr)/TiNx was tried for the low-e effect and successfully obtained a very low emissivity value of 0.067, and then Si and TiO2 films with different bandgap were subsequently deposited to provide the hydrophilic properties. X-ray diffraction results revealed the anatase phase formation of TiO2 after annealing the films at 673 K by using the rapid thermal annealing system. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was carried out to determine the chemical composition and elemental depth distribution. The multilayer stack exhibited superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle of about 5° after irradiation by UV light. A Heterojunction film with wide and narrow bandgap semiconductor materials was effective to improve the hydrophilicity. The films exhibited a high visible transmittance (∼85.5%, at 550 nm) and low infrared transmittance (7%, at 2000 nm) including low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  10. 2D SiNx photonic crystal coated Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ ceramic plate phosphor for high-power white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Jeong Rok; Do, Young Rag

    2011-12-05

    This paper reports the optical effects of a two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layer (PCL) on Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) yellow ceramic plate phosphor (CPP) in order to enhance the forward emission of YAG:Ce CPP-capped high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By adding the 2D SiNx PCL with a 580 nm lattice constant, integrated yellow emission was improved by a factor of 1.72 compared to that of a conventional YAG:Ce CPP capped on a blue LED cup. This enhanced forward yellow emission is attributed to increased extraction of yellow emission light and improved absorption of blue excitation light through Bragg scattering and/or the leaky modes produced by the 2D PCLs. The introduction of 2D PCL can also reduce the wide variation of optical properties as a function of both ambient temperature and applied current, compared to those of a high-power YAG:Ce CPP-capped LED.

  11. Enhanced poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by H2 O2 -induced reactive oxygen species in the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Zhang, Dan; Li, Sha; Xu, Zongqi; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell growth and poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) synthesis were studied by adding hydrogen peroxide to a medium of Bacillus subtilis NX-2. After optimizing the addition concentration and time of H2 O2 , a maximum concentration of 33.9 g/L γ-PGA was obtained by adding 100 µM H2 O2 to the medium after 24 H. This concentration was 20.6% higher than that of the control. The addition of diphenyleneiodonium chloride (ROS inhibitor) can interdict the effect of H2 O2 -induced ROS. Transcriptional levels of the cofactors and relevant genes were also determined under ROS stress to illustrate the possible metabolic mechanism contributing to the improve γ-PGA production. The transcriptional levels of genes belonging to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transfer chain system were significantly increased by ROS, which decreased the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and increased the ATP levels, thereby providing more reducing power and energy for γ-PGA biosynthesis. The enhanced γ-PGA synthetic genes also directly promoted the formation of γ-PGA. This study was the first to use the ROS control strategy for γ-PGA fermentation and provided valuable information on the possible mechanism by which ROS regulated γ-PGA biosynthesis in B. subtilis NX-2. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Development of Jerusalem artichoke resource for efficient one-step fermentation of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) using a novel strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yibin; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yatao; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to develop non-food fermentation for the cost-effective production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The new isolate assimilated inulin more efficiently than other carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without hydrolytic treatment. To investigate the effect of inulin on γ-PGA production, the transcript levels of γ-PGA synthetase genes (pgsB, pgsC, pgsA), regulatory genes (comA, degQ, degS), and the glutamic acid biosynthesis gene (glnA) were analyzed; inulin addition upregulated these key genes. Without exogenous glutamate, strain NX-2S could produce 6.85±0.22g/L of γ-PGA during fermentation. Exogenous glutamate greatly enhances the γ-PGA yield (39.4±0.38g/L) and productivity (0.43±0.05g/L/h) in batch fermentation. Our study revealed a potential method of non-food fermentation to produce high-value products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. First-Principle Study of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Cubic InNxP1-x Ternary Alloys under Hydrostatic Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattabi, I.; Abdiche, A.; Moussa, R.; Riane, R.; Hadji, K.; Soyalp, F.; Varshney, Dinesh; Syrotyuk, S. V.; Khenata, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InNxP1-x in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InNxP1-x compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  14. Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994): an intergroup, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Cora N; Skoneczna, Iwona; Kerst, J Martijn; Albers, Peter; Fossa, Sophie D; Agerbaek, Mads; Dumez, Herlinde; de Santis, Maria; Théodore, Christine; Leahy, Michael G; Chester, John D; Verbaeys, Antony; Daugaard, Gedske; Wood, Lori; Witjes, J Alfred; de Wit, Ronald; Geoffrois, Lionel; Sengelov, Lisa; Thalmann, George; Charpentier, Danielle; Rolland, Frédéric; Mignot, Laurent; Sundar, Santhanam; Symonds, Paul; Graham, John; Joly, Florence; Marreaud, Sandrine; Collette, Laurence; Sylvester, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. This intergroup, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial recruited patients from hospitals across Europe and Canada. Eligible patients had histologically proven urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, pT3-pT4 disease or node positive (pN1-3) M0 disease after radical cystectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy, with no evidence of any microscopic residual disease. Within 90 days of cystectomy, patients were centrally randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation to either immediate adjuvant chemotherapy (four cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin [high-dose MVAC], or MVAC) or six cycles of deferred chemotherapy at relapse, with stratification for institution, pT category, and lymph node status according to the number of nodes dissected. Neither patients nor investigators were masked. Overall survival was the primary endpoint; all analyses were by intention to treat. The trial was closed after recruitment of 284 of the planned 660 patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00028756. From April 29, 2002, to Aug 14, 2008, 284 patients were randomly assigned (141 to immediate treatment and 143 to deferred treatment), and followed up until the data cutoff of Aug 21, 2013. After a median follow-up of 7.0 years (IQR 5.2-8.7), 66 (47%) of 141 patients in the immediate treatment group had died compared with 82 (57%) of 143 in the deferred treatment group. No significant improvement in overall survival was noted with immediate treatment when compared with deferred treatment (adjusted HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.56-1.08; p=0.13). Immediate treatment significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with

  15. Regioselective synthesis of 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via reagent-based cyclization of thiosemicarbazide intermediate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Lee, Seok-Hyeong; Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Gong, Young-Dae

    2013-01-18

    A regioselective, reagent-based method for the cyclization reaction of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeletons is described. The thiosemicarbazide intermediate 3 was reacted with EDC·HCl in DMSO or p-TsCl, triethylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to give the corresponding 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 4 and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5 through regioselcective cyclization processes. The regioselectivity was affected by both R(1) and R(2) in p-TsCl mediated cyclization. It is shown in select sets of thiosemicarbazide 3 with R(1)(benzyl) and R(2)(phenyl). 2-Amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4 was also shown in the reaction of p-TsCl mediated cyclization. The resulting 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeleton are functionalized with various electrophiles such as alkyl halide, acid halides, and sulfornyl chloride in high yields.

  16. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  17. 22 CFR 3.4 - Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations. 3.4 Section 3.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.4 Restriction on acceptance of gifts and decorations. (a) An employee is prohibited from...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  19. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  1. 43 CFR 2812.3-4 - Where no road use agreement is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where no road use agreement is required. 2812.3-4 Section 2812.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-4 Where no road use agreement is...

  2. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  3. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  4. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  5. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  6. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2004-12-01

    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  7. The marine polyketide myriaporone 3/4 stalls translation by targeting the elongation phase.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Yazh; Roy, Myriam; Raja, Aruna; Taylor, Richard E; Sasse, Florenz

    2013-01-21

    Myriaporone 3/4, a cytotoxic polyketide, has been reported as an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits translation was unknown. Here we show that myriaporone 3/4 stalls protein synthesis in the elongation phase by inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The phosphorylation results from direct binding of myriaporone 3/4 to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Our study also shows that myriaporone 3/4 in the nanomolar range inhibits in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells without being cytotoxic. In general, myriaporone 3/4 was at least 300 times less toxic to primary cells than to tumor cells.

  8. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  9. EPR of Dy3+ ions in YAl3(BO3)4 and EuAl3(BO3)4 aluminoborates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, A. D.; Prokhorov, A. A.; Zubov, E. E.; Chernysh, L. F.; Dyakonov, V.; Szymczak, H.

    2014-08-01

    The EPR spectra of impurity Dy3+ ions in YAl3(BO3)4 and EuAl3(BO3)4 aluminoborates were investigated. The signals from the ground and excited doublets were observed and the g-factors and the hyperfine interaction constants were determined. From the temperature dependence of the signal intensity of the excited doublet, the energy distances between the ground and excited doublets were obtained as (3.26 ± 0.13) cm-1 and (2.54 ± 0.16) cm-1 for YAl3(BO3)4 and EuAl3(BO3)4, respectively. A broadening of the absorption line with increasing temperature is related with the strong spin-phonon interaction and is described by the Orbach-Aminov process via the excited doublet. It was found that the decrease in g-factor is caused by the spin-phonon interaction.

  10. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohammad F.; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  11. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad F; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-15

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  12. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain–domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an “extended” catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. PMID:24123290

  13. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain-domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an "extended" catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  14. Validated liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolites 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine in squirrel monkey plasma.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Melanie; Peters, Frank T; Ricaurte, George A; Maurer, Hans H

    2007-08-15

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a recreational drug with neurotoxic potential. Pharmacokinetic data of MDMA and its metabolites may shed light on the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxicity. An LC-MS assay with electrospray ionization (ESI) is presented for quantifying MDMA and its metabolites 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) in squirrel monkey plasma. The method involved enzymatic conjugate cleavage and protein precipitation. Separation was achieved within 14min. The method was validated according to international guidelines with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect. The present method should prove useful for acquiring pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic data in squirrel monkeys.

  15. Impact of 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) on cytotoxicity of acidic heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Tadashi; Okabe, Eiji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Namoto, Shinji; Iwashita, Tomohiko; Matsuyama, Kazuhiro; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Of the glucose degradation products (GDPs) in glucose-rich peritoneal dialysate, we investigated the influence of 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) on the cytotoxicity of acidic heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid (L-H PDF) using human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC). We prepared acidified filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing eight types of added GDP [3,4-DGE, glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF), and furfural (FF)] or seven types of GDP (GO, MGO, 3-DG, FA, AA, 5-HMF, and FF). HPMC were exposed to these two types of solution and acidic heat-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%, L-H 3.86) for 4 h. Cell viability was determined by 3,(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-terazolium bromide (MTT) assay. MTT viability was decreased significantly compared with the control when treated with L-H 3.86 or acidified neutral filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing eight GDPs. However, no significant decrease in MTT viability was observed when HPMC were treated with acidified neutral filtration-sterilized PDF (glucose concentration 3.86%) containing seven GDPs. Thus, 3,4-DGE strongly affects the cytotoxicity of L-H PDF. It is suggested that the cytotoxicity of L-H PDF is based on the presence of 3,4-DGE.

  16. MC3T3-E1 Cell Response to Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx Electrodes Deposited on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Substrates for Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Marques, S M; Rico, P; Carvalho, I; Gómez Ribelles, J L; Fialho, L; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Henriques, M; Carvalho, S

    2016-02-17

    In the sensors field, titanium based coatings are being used for the acquisition/application of electrical signals from/to piezoelectric materials. In this particular case, sensors are used to detect dynamic mechanical loads at early stages after intervention of problems associated with prostheses implantation. The aim of this work is to select an adequate electrode for sensor applications capable, in an initial stage to avoid bone cell adhesion, but at a long stage, permit osteointegration and osteoinduction. This work reports on the evaluation of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells behavior in terms of proliferation, adhesion and long-term differentiation of two different systems used as sensor electrodes: Ti1-xAgx and Ag-TiNx deposited by d.c. and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The results indicated an improved effect of Ag-TiNx electrodes compared with Ti1-xAgx and TiN, in terms of diminished cell adhesion and proliferation at an initial cell culture stage. Nevertheless, when cell culture time is longer, cells grown onto Ag-TiNx electrodes are capable to proliferate and also differentiate at proper rates, indicating the suitability of this coating for sensor application in prostheses devices. Thus, the Ag-TiNx system was considered the most promising electrode for tissue engineering applications in the design of sensors for prostheses to detect dynamic mechanical loads.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and safety of 3,4-diaminopyridine base in healthy Japanese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Natsuko; Kobayashi, Erina; Kondo, Yuya; Matsushita, Ryo; Komai, Kiyonobu

    2015-08-01

    3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) is commonly used for treating neuromuscular diseases, such as the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, but the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-DAP base have not been investigated. We therefore studied 3,4-DAP base pharmacokinetics in healthy Japanese volunteers. In this crossover study, we administered a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg 3,4-DAP base to healthy Japanese volunteers (n = 5) after food intake, or 10 mg 3,4-DAP to fasting individuals. We measured serum 3,4-DAP concentrations, performed electrocardiography (ECG), and administered questionnaires. After administration of 10 or 20 mg 3,4-DAP following food intake, the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) were 8.09 ± 4.47 ng/mL and 35.8 ± 15.7 ng/mL, respectively (mean ± standard deviation; SD), and the areas under the serum concentration-time curve (extrapolated to infinity) were 639 ± 213 ng x min/mL and 2,097 ± 936 ng x min/mL (mean ± SD), respectively. Administration to fasted individuals indicated that food intake did not significantly alter 3,4-DAP pharmacokinetics. ECG showed no clinically significant changes, but PR intervals were prolonged in all cases. Two out of 5 subjects showed perioral paresthesia symptoms after administration of 20 mg 3,4-DAP. This study indicated that 3,4-DAP base pharmacokinetics were non-linear. Although no clinically significant changes in ECG were observed, it is advisable to perform ECG periodically during 3,4-DAP administration in order to monitor cardiac function. Moreover, the development of perioral paresthesia may be dependent on the dose of 3,4-DAP used.

  18. Lack of detectable metabolism for solubilized 2,3,4-trimethylpentane by rat kidney proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    DelRaso, N J; Mattie, D R; Godin, C S

    1990-12-01

    Primary proximal tubule suspension cultures exposed to solubilized 2,3,4-trimethylpentane (2,3,4-TMP) resulted in a linear dose response, as determined by cellular lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The EC50 for 2,3,4-TMP was 16.3 mM. Metabolite analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of supernate and cell extracts from cultures exposed to 2,3,4-TMP (12.0 mM) failed to detect the presence of metabolites. Electron-microscopic examination of proximal tubules exposed to 2,3,4-TMP indicated ultrastructural changes that included increased mitochondrial swelling, increased vesiculation, decreased microvilli and pyknotic nuclei. This study indicates that kidney proximal tubules do not appear to metabolize 2,3,4-TMP.

  19. Thin layer chromatography/fluorescence detection of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriyuki; Fujita, Susumu; Ohta, Hikoto; Fukuba, Makoto; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2008-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of six methylenedioxylatedphenethylamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3-butamine; and 3,4-methylenedioxydimethylamphetamine, by thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection is proposed. These compounds form fluorophores on the developing plate following spraying with a reagent consisting of sodium hypochlorite, potassium hexacyanoferrate (III), and sodium hydroxide, and heating for 3 min at 100 degrees C. Blue fluorescent spots were observed under ultraviolet light in a wavelength range of 250-400 nm. The detection limits for MDMA and the above related compounds were 50 ng. The proposed method was effectively applied to the detection of MDMA in urine samples.

  20. Size distribution and visible luminescence of silicon nanoparticles embedded in SiNx thin film: Role of RF power in PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-González, Luis Andres; Dutt, Ateet; Monroy, Betsabee Marel; Escobar-Carrasquilla, Juan David; Santana, Guillermo; Álvarez-Macías, Carlos; Ponce, Arturo

    This paper presents, the studies of the influence of (radio frequency) RF power on the size distribution and visible photoluminescence (PL) of SiNx thin film deposited at 300∘C of substrate temperature by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. RF power was varied (5-50W), and its aftereffect on the optical properties of thin films was investigated. By increasing the RF power between 5W and 25W, main PL peak showed a red shift with an increase in PL intensity, which is associated with an increase in the silicon nanocrystals size and density, respectively. Results obtained were confirmed with High-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs and from the statistical calculations. By attaining a precise RF power value, stable silicon nitride thin film with suitable optical properties can be achieved for the potential fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  1. Stability of Al2O3 and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks for surface passivation of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingemans, G.; Engelhart, P.; Seguin, R.; Einsele, F.; Hoex, B.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal and ultraviolet (UV) stability of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation provided by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 was compared with results for thermal SiO2. For Al2O3 and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks on 2 Ω cm n-type c-Si, ultralow surface recombination velocities of Seff<3 cm/s were obtained and the passivation proved sufficiently stable (Seff<14 cm/s) against a high temperature "firing" process (>800 °C) used for screen printed c-Si solar cells. Effusion measurements revealed the loss of hydrogen and oxygen during firing through the detection of H2 and H2O. Al2O3 also demonstrated UV stability with the surface passivation improving during UV irradiation.

  2. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  3. Lost your orientation? Find your way with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3!

    PubMed

    Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2007-12-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation requires correct positioning of the spindle during mitosis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Toyoshima et al. describe a new mechanism for spindle orientation involving phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3]. They found that in metaphase cells, dynactin was associated with the cortex through the actin cytoskeleton, and accumulated in the midsections in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner. Thus, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 regulates spindle orientation through dynein-dynactin motor complexes.

  4. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ya-Ching; Chang, Yao-To; Lin, Chun-Ling; Liaw, Chia-Ching; Kuo, Yao Haur; Tu, Lan-Chun; Yeh, Sheau Farn; Chern, Ji-Wang

    2011-01-01

    A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR) study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed. PMID:21566798

  5. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  6. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  7. The intracellular distribution and secretion of endopeptidases 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15) and 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16).

    PubMed

    Ferro, Emer S; Carreno, Flávia R; Goni, Camila; Garrido, Paula A G; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Castro, Leandro M; Oliveira, Vitor; Araujo, Maurício C; Rioli, Vanessa; Gomes, Marcelo D; Fontenele-Neto, José Domingues; Hyslop, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and endopeptidase 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are enzymes involved in general peptide metabolism in mammalian cells and tissues. This review will focus on morphological and biochemical aspects related to the subcellular distribution and secretion of these homologous enzymes in the central nervous system. These are important issues for a better understanding of the functions of EP24.15 and EP24.16 within neuroendocrine systems.

  8. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-Bisphosphate and Its Binding Protein Lamellipodin Regulate Chemotaxis of Malignant B Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhao; Wu, Xun; Hou, Sen; Malek, Mouhannad; Kielkowska, Anna; Noh, Edward; Makondo, Kennedy J; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Lin, Francis; Marshall, Aaron J

    2016-01-15

    Cell migration is controlled by PI3Ks, which generate lipid messengers phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and consequently recruit pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing signaling proteins. PI3K inhibition impairs migration of normal and transformed B cells, an effect thought to partly underlie the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in treatment of B cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Although a number of studies have implicated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cell migration, it remains unknown whether PI(3,4)P2 plays a distinct role. Using the PI(3,4)P2-specific phosphatase inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase, we investigate the impact of depleting PI(3,4)P2 on migration behavior of malignant B cells. We find that cells expressing wild-type, but not phosphatase dead, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase show impaired SDF-induced PI(3,4)P2 responses and reduced migration in Transwell chamber assays. Moreover, PI(3,4)P2 depletion in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells significantly impaired their migration capacity. PI(3,4)P2 depletion reduced both overall motility and migration directionality in the presence of a stable chemokine gradient. Within chemotaxing B cells, the PI(3,4)P2-binding cytoskeletal regulator lamellipodin (Lpd) was found to colocalize with PI(3,4)P2 on the plasma membrane via its PH domain. Overexpression and knockdown studies indicated that Lpd levels significantly impact migration capacity. Moreover, the ability of Lpd to promote directional migration of B cells in an SDF-1 gradient was dependent on its PI(3,4)P2-binding PH domain. These results demonstrate that PI(3,4)P2 plays a significant role in cell migration via binding to specific cytoskeletal regulators such as Lpd, and they suggest that impairment of PI(3,4)P2-dependent processes may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in B cell malignancies.

  9. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  10. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  11. Cytotoxic bis-3,4-dihydro-beta-carbolines and bis-beta-carbolines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Qun; Charlet-Fagnère, Catherine; Sapi, Janos; Laronze, Jean-Yves; Renard, Pierre; Pfeiffer, Bruno; Léonce, Stéphane

    2002-12-01

    Ten bis-beta-carboline 1, 2 and bis-3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline 3, 4 derivatives, linked between carbons 1 and 1' by a polymethylene spacer, were synthesized from bistryptamine amides 9, 10. Some of them display a micromolar IC50 towards L-1210 cells.

  12. Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Ryo; Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Carter, Mark G.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2006-01-01

    POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks. PMID:17183653

  13. Generation and regioselective trapping of a 3,4-piperidyne for the synthesis of functionalized heterocycles.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Travis C; Medina, Jose M; Yang, Yun-Fang; Simmons, Bryan J; Houk, K N; Garg, Neil K

    2015-04-01

    We report the generation of the first 3,4-piperidyne and its use as a building block for the synthesis of annulated piperidines. Experimental and computational studies of this intermediate are disclosed, along with comparisons to the well-known 3,4-pyridyne. The distortion/interaction model is used to explain the observed regioselectivities.

  14. Generation and Regioselective Trapping of a 3,4-Piperidyne for the Synthesis of Functionalized Heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Travis C.; Medina, Jose M.; Yang, Yun-Fang; Simmons, Bryan J.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    We report the generation of the first 3,4-piperidyne and its use as a building block for the synthesis of annulated piperidines. Experimental and computational studies of this intermediate are disclosed, along with comparisons to the well-known 3,4-pyridyne. The distortion/interaction model is used to explain the observed regioselectivities. PMID:25768436

  15. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1985-12-01

    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  16. Neuropeptide specificity and inhibition of recombinant isoforms of the endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 family: comparison with the related recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed

    Rioli, V; Kato, A; Portaro, F C; Cury, G K; te Kaat, K; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Camargo, A C; Glucksman, M J; Roberts, J L; Hirose, S; Ferro, E S

    1998-09-08

    Endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 (EP24.16c, neurolysin) and thimet oligopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 are close related members of a large family of metalloproteases. Besides their cytosolic and membrane bound form, endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 appears to be present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria (EP24.16m). We have overexpressed two porcine EP24.16 isoforms in E. coli and purified the recombinant proteins to homogeneity. We show here that these peptidases hydrolyse a series of neuropeptides with similar rates and at sites reminiscent of those elicited by classically purified human brain EP24.16c. All neuropeptides, except neurotensin, were similarly cleaved by recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15, thimet oligopeptidase), another zinc-containing metalloenzyme structurally related to EP24.16. These two EP24.16 isoforms were drastically inhibited by Pro-Ile and dithiothreitol and remained unaffected by a specific carboalkyl inhibitor (CFP-AAY-pAb) directed toward the related EP24.15. The present purification procedure of EP24.16 should allow to establish, by mutagenesis analysis, the mechanistic properties of the enzyme.

  17. An efficient synthesis of 3,4-Dihydrofuro [3,4-B] [1,4] dioxepine-6,8-dicarboxylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DENG, D. D.; WANG, L. P.; YAN, H. W.; SUN, X. X.; WANG, Z.

    2017-01-01

    As a class of important conjugated polymers, electroluminescent material of polyfuran possess a lot of merits, including good stability, structure is easy to be modified and controllable electrochemical properties. This study uses ethylene diglycol, diethyl oxalate, 1,3- dibromopropane and so on as raw materials to synthesize 3, 4 - ethylenedioxy furan monomer and similar derivatives via oxidation, acetylation, hydrolysis and elimination reaction, etc.

  18. Aromatic Heterocycle 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Substituted Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene to Build Low-Bandgap Polymer for Photovoltaic Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dangqiang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Qian; Wen, Shuguang; Han, Liangliang; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-12-01

    Electron-deficient heterocycle 1,3,4-oxadiazole is first introduced to the 2-position of thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) to construct a new building block 2-(thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-(alkylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TTSO) with alkylthio chain. The polymer PBDT-TTSO based on TTSO and benzodithiophene (BDT) exhibits a deep lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.32 eV and low-bandgap of 1.62 eV. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.86% is obtained with a relatively high V OC of 0.74 V, a J SC of 13.1 mA cm(-2), and FF of 60.5%. Furthermore, as S atom in thioether can be oxidized easily, the optoelectronic properties of PBDT-TTSO treated with different oxidants are preliminary investigated. Interestingly, the oxidation products still maintain high PCE with reduction less than 30%. This work demonstrates a new method to regulate HOMO energy levels by introducing electron-deficient aromatic heterocyclic moiety. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Oct3/4-associating proteins from embryonal carcinoma and spermatogenic cells of mouse.

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A; Vorob'ev, V; Drosdowsky, M; Séralini, G E

    1998-03-01

    The octamer-binding protein Oct3/4 was postulated to active transcription through protein-protein interactions with hypothetical cellular coactivator(s). We have used a bacterially produced Oct3/4, as a protein-binding probe, to detect by far-Western assay the Oct3/4-associating proteins (OTAPs) from the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells F9 and pachytene spermatocytes. Both common and cell-specific OTAPs were shown to interact directly with Oct3/4. Differentiation of the EC cells results in disappearance of most of OTAPs, supporting their coactivator nature. Several OTAPs detected in pachytene spermatocyte may represent germ cell-specific Oct3/4 coactivators.

  20. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  1. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  2. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  3. Synthesis and photoluminescence studies on YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, Ranganathan; Ponnusamy, Velladurai; Jose, Mundiyanikal Thomas; Sivakumar, Vairan

    2014-12-01

    Terbium (Tb3+) doped yttrium aluminium borate phosphors (YAl3(BO3)4) with different compositions such as YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ (x = 1-8 mol.%) were synthesized using modified solid state reaction technique. The synthesized phosphor was studied using powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), high resolution-scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM). Lattice parameters are calculated for the Tb3+ doped and substituted YAB phosphors using XRD analysis. The phosphor exhibits green emission at 572 nm with 375 nm of excitation. It is found that the Tb3+ ions substitution in the sites Y3+ and Al3+ ions in Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ leads to overlapping of energy levels which affects the PL intensity of the phosphor significantly. Thus, phosphor synthesized with the composition YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, acquires higher photoluminescence (PL) intensity when compared to Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ phosphors. Temperature dependent PL property (thermal quenching studies) of YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ was also performed up to 250 °C. Further, it is found that the PL intensity of the studied phosphor is comparable with commercial green phosphor. HR-SEM analysis demonstrates that the phosphors are grown as nanorods with an average diameter of 50-80 nm and length 250-500 nm.

  4. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for T3-4 and N0-1 nasopharyngeal cancer: Asian multicenter trial of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Thinh, Dang Huy Quoc; Tung, Ngo Thanh; Erawati, Dyah; Supriana, Nana; Beena Devi, C R; Kato, Shingo; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Calaguas, Miriam Joy C; Xiaoting, Xu; Jianping, Cao; Banu, Parvin Akhter; Cho, Chul-Koo; Karasawa, Kumiko; Nakano, Takashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin for T3-4 and N0-1 nasopharyngeal cancer. Between 2005 and 2010, 70 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (T3-4 N0-1 M0, World Health Organization Type 2-3) from Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand were registered. Patients were treated with 2D radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)). Neither adjuvant nor induction chemotherapy was given. Ninety-three percent of the patients completed at least four cycles of weekly cisplatin during radiotherapy. The median total doses for the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes were 70 and 66 Gy, respectively. The median overall treatment time of concurrent chemoradiotherapy was 52 days. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Grade 3-4 acute toxicities of mucositis, nausea/vomiting and leukopenia were observed in 34%, 4% and 4% of patients, respectively. With a median follow-up time of 52 months for the 40 surviving patients, the 3-year local control, locoregional tumor control, distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 80%, 75%, 74% and 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the current results illustrate that our concurrent chemoradiotherapy regimen was feasible, but disease control remained insufficient. Further research is encouraged in order to improve clinical outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. Conversion of retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol in the tadpole.

    PubMed

    Tsin, A T; Alvarez, R A; Fong, S L; Bridges, C D

    1985-01-01

    The conversion of retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol in bullfrog tadpoles was studied by injecting [3H] all-trans retinol into the peritoneal cavity. The specific activities of retinoids in the eye and the rest of the body at various time intervals after the injection were then determined by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). Radioactivity was observed in ocular 3,4-didehydroretinyl esters after 2 days and their specific activity increased throughout the 2 weeks of experiment. This demonstrates that tadpoles can convert retinol to its 3,4-didehydro derivative. In vitro experiments performed on isolated eye cups also suggested that the ocular tissues could convert retinol to 3,4-didehydroretinol. In the eye, the specific activity of porphyropsin or all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinal (extracted by the denaturing solvent acetone) exceeded that of the all-trans 3,4-didehydroretinyl esters in storage. This suggests that the main ocular store of 3,4-didehydroretinyl esters does not constitute a precursor pool for porphyropsin synthesis.

  6. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a privileged structure in antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Zhan, P; Liu, X

    2011-11-01

    1,3,4-oxadiazole, a privileged structure, endows its derivatives with broad and potent biological functions, especially in antiviral activities, including anti-HIV, anti-HCV, anti-HBV, anti-HSV activities, etc. Molecular modeling and pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the introduction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring to the inhibitors can change their polarity, flexibility as well as metabolic stability, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold can also act as acceptors of hydrogen bonds formation, which make it possible to be used as a isosteric substituent for amide or ester groups. This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring and mainly the discovery, biological activities investigations and structural modifications of several distinct classes of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles as potent antiviral agents. In addition, the binding models of some representative 1,3,4-oxadiazoles were also discussed, which provide rational explanation for their interesting antiviral activities, and also pave the way for further optimization of 1,3,4- oxadiazole based antiviral agents.

  7. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  8. [An immunohistochemical study of the expression of transcription factor Oct3/4 in mouse spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A N; Kostyleva, E I; Drosdovskiĭ, M A; Seralini, J E; Vorob'ev, V I

    1996-01-01

    The expression of POU-domain transcription factor Oct3/4 in the testis of adult mice has been studied using indirect immunofluorescence with highly specific antibodies. The protein is shown to be expressed in germ cells of seminiferous epithelium in a stage specific manner. The protein synthesis is initiated in mid-pachytene spermatocytes, increases to reach its peak during meiotic division. The Oct3/4 level remains augmented in early spermatids, but gradually declines during their further developmental advancement. These findings imply that Oct3/4 may have a regulatory function providing for the control of meiosis and/or terminal differentiation of spermatogenic cells.

  9. Copolyimides Prepared from 3,4'-Oxydianiline and 1,3-Bis(3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene with 3,3', 4,4'-Biphenylcarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Polyimide copolymers were prepared by reacting different ratios of 3,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 1,3-bis(3- aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) with 3,3',4,4'- biphenylcarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and endcappfng with an effective amount of a non-reactive endcapper. Within a narrow ratio of diamines, from -50% ODA/50% APB to -95% ODA/5% APB, the copolyimides prepared with BPDA have a unique combination of properties that make them very attractive for various applications. This unique combination of properties includes low pressure processing (200 psi and below), long term melt stability (several hours at 390 C.), improved toughness, improved solvent resistance, improved adhesive properties, and improved composite mechanical properties.

  10. Synthesis of 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazine, 1,3,6-thiadiazepane and quinoxaline derivatives from symmetrical dithiobiureas and thioureidoethylthiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Alaa A; Mourad, Aboul-Fetouh; El-Shaieb, Kamal M; Abou-Zied, Ashraf H

    2005-08-31

    Reactions of N,N;-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides 8a-c and substituted thioureidoethylthioureas 9a-c with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil, 10a) and 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, 10b) to form N,N;-disubstituted [1,3,4]thiadiazole-2,5-diamines 11a-c, 6,7-dichloro-3-substituted amino-1H-benzo[1,3,4]- thiadiazine-5,8-diones 12a-c, 2,3,7,8-tetrahalothianthrene-1,4,6,9-tetraones 13a,b, 5,6,8- trihalo-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-quinoxaline-1-carbothioic acid substituted amides 14a-c, 15a-c and 7-substituted imino-[1,3,6]thiadiazepane-3-thiones 16a-c are reported. Rationales for the observed conversions are presented.

  11. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels.

  12. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-08

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  13. Thyroid-vitamin A interactions in Chicks exposed to 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl: influence of low dietary vitamin A and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, P.A.; Moon, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    Poultry chicks receiving a low vitamin A semipurified diet and exposed to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl became hypothyroid in comparison with unexposed controls. Metabolic rate, total serum thyroxine, total serum triiodothyronine, and food intake decreased significantly while thyroid weight increased. Unexpectedly, growth rate was not affected on this diet. In the case of chicks receiving a low vitamin A-low iodine semipurified diet and exposed to the PCB congener, the hypothyroid response was apparently antagonized. Comparing exposed chicks with unexposed controls, metabolic rate and the proportion of free T/sub 3/ (i.e., %T/sub 3/ resin uptake) increased while total serum thyroxine and thyroid weight were unchanged. In addition, growth rate, food consumption, and serum retinol decreased on this diet. These results are interpreted to mean that (i) growth rate may have been altered by circulating levels of retinol, and (ii) vitamin A insufficiency may predispose birds to the hypothyroid effects of PCBs.

  14. Comparison of N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)naphthalen-1-amine and its reduction product N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)naphthalen-1-amine.

    PubMed

    Garay, Alexander; Abonía, Rodrigo; Cobo, Justo; Glidewell, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The molecules in (E)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)naphthalen-1-amine, C20H19NO3, (I), and its reduction product N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)naphthalen-1-amine, C20H21NO3, (II), are both conformationally chiral, but (I) crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group, while (II) crystallizes with just one conformational enantiomer in each crystal. A combination of two C-H···O hydrogen bonds links the molecules of (I) into sheets containing a single type of R(6)(6)(44) ring, and these sheets are linked into a continuous three-dimensional array by a single π-π stacking interaction. The molecules of (II) are linked into complex sheets by a combination of N-H···O, C-H···O and C-H···π(arene) hydrogen bonds.

  15. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of novel 4-amino-6-(1,3,4-oxadiazolo/1,3,4-thiadiazolo)-pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Poornima; Praveen, B M; Raghavendra, M; Manjunath, K; Cheruku, Srinivas

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel 4-amino-6-(1,3,4-oxadiazolo/1,3,4-thiadiazolo)-pyrimidine derivatives of biological interest were prepared by sequential amination, hydrazide formation, and hydrazine carbothioamidination followed by cyclization. All the synthesized compounds (6a-6h and 7a-7f) were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. From this group, compound 7f (MIC (μg/mL μg/mL )/Inhibition (mm): 6.25/23-30) showed good antibacterial and antifungal activity. Reagents and conditions: (a) Ethyl acetoacetate, 60% NaH, 1,4-dioxane, 60°C, 6 h; (b) DIPEA, 1,4-dioxane, 100°C, 14 h; (c) NH2NH2 ⋅ H2O, EtOH, reflux, 14 h; (d) Tolyl isothiocyanatobenzene, DMF, RT, 2 h; (e) (if X = O) EDC⋅ HCl, TEA, DMF, RT, 14 h; (f) (if X = S) Conc. H2O4, RT, 14h.

  16. 2,3-Dibromo-3-(4-bromo-phen-yl)-1-[3-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)sydnon-4-yl]propan-1-one.

    PubMed

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Nithinchandra; Kalluraya, Balakrishna

    2011-04-01

    In the title compound {systematic name: 4-[2,3-dibromo-3-(4-bromo-phen-yl)propano-yl]-3-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1,2,3-oxa-dia-zol-3-ylium-5-olate}, C(18)H(13)Br(3)N(2)O(4), the central oxadiazole ring, which is essentially planar with a maximum deviation of 0.016 (3) Å, makes dihedral angles of 29.98 (16) and 52.04 (16)°, respectively, with the terminal bromo-substituted and meth-oxy-substituted benzene rings. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif.

  17. 3,4-Dihydroxy- and 3,4-methylenedioxy- phenanthrene-type alkaloids with high selectivity for D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Cabedo, Nuria; Ivorra, María Dolores; Sanz, María-Jesús; Castel, Arturo López; Carmen Álvarez, M; Cortes, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine-mediated neurotransmission plays an important role in relevant psychiatric and neurological disorders. Nowadays, there is an enormous interest in the development of new drugs acting at the dopamine receptors (DR) as potential new targets for the treatment of schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have revealed that isoquinoline compounds such as tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) can behave as selective D2 dopaminergic alkaloids. In the present study we have synthesized five aporphine compounds and five phenanthrene alkaloids and evaluated their potential dopaminergic activity. Binding studies on rat striatal membranes were used to evaluate their affinity and selectivity towards D1 and D2 DR. Phenanthrene type alkaloids, in particular the 3,4-dihydroxy- and 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives, displayed high selectivity towards D2 DR. Therefore, they are potential candidates to be used in the treatment of schizophrenia (antagonists) or Parkinson's disease (agonists) due to their scarce D1 DR-associated side effects.

  18. A highly sensitive spectrophotometric determination of micro amounts of vanadium(V) in environmental and alloy samples by using 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (3,4-DHBINH).

    PubMed

    Narayana, S Lakshmi; Reddy, K Janardhan; Narayana Reddy, S Adi; Sarala, Y; Reddy, A Varada

    2008-09-01

    3, 4-Dihydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone was prepared, characterized with spectral analyses and used for developing a new method for the simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric determination of vanadium(V) which gives maximum absorbance at wave length 360 nm. The metal ion gives a yellow colored complex with 3, 4-DHBINH in acetate buffer of pH 5.5 with 1:1 (metal:ligand) composition. The method obeys Beer's law in the range 0.5-5.3 microg mL(-1) of vanadium(V). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 1.29 x 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.003949 microg cm(-2) respectively. The correlation co-efficient of the V(V)-3, 4-DHBINH complex was 0.992 which indicated an excellent linearity between the two variables. The repeatability of the method was checked by finding the relative standard deviation (RSD) as 0.424% (n = 5), and its detection limit 0.01677 microg mL(-1) of vanadium(V). The instability constant of the method was calculated by Asmus' method as 4.1666 x 10(-3). The interfering effect of various cations and anions were also studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium(V) in environmental samples (water and soil) tobacco leaves and alloy samples. The validity of the method was tested by comparing the results with those obtained using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

  19. Synthesis and antitumor activities of novel hybrid molecules containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole bearing Schiff base moiety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xuan, Li-Na; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Jing, Fen; Li, Sha; Liu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bao-Quan

    2014-11-15

    A series of novel hybrid molecules containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole bearing Schiff base moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activities against SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and A549 human tumor cell lines by CCK-8 assay. The bioassay results demonstrated that most of the tested compounds showed potent antitumor activities, and some compounds exhibited stronger effects than positive control 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against various cell lines. Among these compounds, compound 8d showed the best inhibitory effect against SMMC-7721 cells, with IC50 value of 2.84 μM. Compounds 8k and 8 n displayed highly effective antitumor activities against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 4.56 and 4.25 μM, respectively. Compounds 8a and 8 n exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 4.11 and 4.13 μM, respectively. The pharmacological results suggest that the substituents of phenyl ring on the 1,3,4-oxadiazole are vital for modulating antiproliferative activities against various tumor cell lines.

  20. Acquired TET2 mutation in one patient with familial platelet disorder with predisposition to AML led to the development of pre-leukaemic clone resulting in T2-ALL and AML-M0.

    PubMed

    Manchev, Vladimir T; Bouzid, Hind; Antony-Debré, Iléana; Leite, Betty; Meurice, Guillaume; Droin, Nathalie; Prebet, Thomas; Costello, Régis T; Vainchenker, William; Plo, Isabelle; Diop, M'boyba; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Asnafi, Vahid; Favier, Rémi; Baccini, Véronique; Raslova, Hana

    2016-12-20

    Familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukaemia (FPD/AML) is characterized by germline RUNX1 mutations, thrombocytopaenia, platelet dysfunction and a risk of developing acute myeloid and in rare cases lymphoid T leukaemia. Here, we focus on a case of a man with a familial history of RUNX1(R174Q) mutation who developed at the age of 42 years a T2-ALL and, 2 years after remission, an AML-M0. Both AML-M0 and T2-ALL blast populations demonstrated a loss of 1p36.32-23 and 17q11.2 regions as well as other small deletions, clonal rearrangements of both TCRγ and TCRδ and a presence of 18 variants at a frequency of more than 40%. Additional variants were identified only in T2-ALL or in AML-M0 evoking the existence of a common original clone, which gave rise to subclonal populations. Next generation sequencing (NGS) performed on peripheral blood-derived CD34(+) cells 5 years prior to T2-ALL development revealed only the missense TET2(P1962T) mutation at a frequency of 1%, which increases to more than 40% in fully transformed leukaemic T2-ALL and AML-M0 clones. This result suggests that TET2(P1962T) mutation in association with germline RUNX1(R174Q) mutation leads to amplification of a haematopoietic clone susceptible to acquire other transforming alterations.

  1. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  2. 1,3,4-Thiadiazole-based diamides: Synthesis and complexation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasik, Natalia; Luboch, Elżbieta; Chojnacki, Jarosław; Wagner-Wysiecka, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    Aromatic diamides, derivative of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and isophthalic acid, bearing 1,3,4-thiadiazole residue were prepared with satisfactory yields in conventional procedures and microwave stimulated reactions. X-ray structure of N,N‧-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide (2) DMSO solvate (2·DMSO) was described. Selective zinc(II), lanthanum(III), terbium(III) and L-tyrosine recognition was found for N,N‧-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide in DMSO and its mixture with water. The IDA (Indicator Displacement Assay) system for metal cations sensing was proposed. The binding properties of 2 were compared with newly synthesized N,N‧-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1,3-benzenedicarboxamide 1.

  3. 3. 3/4 view of east and north elevations looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 view of east and north elevations looking southwest - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  4. 9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station looking southeast - Sinclair Service Station, Natchez Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, southeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  5. 7. 3/4 view of west and south elevations looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 view of west and south elevations looking northeast - Missouri Pacific Railway Depot, Natches Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, northeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  6. 9. Suningive 3/4 view from rear, looking northeast. Note internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Suningive 3/4 view from rear, looking northeast. Note internal garage entrance. - Whitesbog Village & Cranberry Bog, Suningive House & Garden, 120-34 Whitesbog Road, Pemberton, Burlington County, NJ

  7. Testing Consent Order on 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride (DCBTF) and Response to the Interagency Testing Committee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable Testing Consent Order with Occidental Chemical Corp. to perform certain chemical fate and environmental effects tests on 3,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride (DCBTF).

  8. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  9. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  10. Carboxylic esters derivatives of 2-thioxo-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrido-[2,3-e]-1,3,4-triazepin-5-ones and 2-thioxo-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3,4-benzotriazepin-5-ones.

    PubMed

    Nawrocka, W; Liszkiewicz, H; Wilimowski, M; Rutkowska, M; Barczyńska, J; Kedzierska-Goździk, L; Wojewódzki, W; Szelag, A

    1994-01-01

    2-Thioxo-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-e]-1,3,4-triazep in -5-ones [I] and 2-thioxo-1H-2,3,4,-5-tetrahydro-1,3,4-benzotriazepin-5-ones [V] furnish with methyl, ethyl and phenyl chloroformates two series of the corresponding 3-methoxy-, ethoxy- and phenoxycarbonyl triazepines. In the pharmacological screening, compounds [I], [V] and [II] showed an antianxiety activity in the four plate test, compounds [II] and [III] inhibited the 5-HTP- induced head twitches, and compound [VI] showed an analgesic activity in the "writing" test. The replacement of the benzene ring by the pyridine one in triazepines is accompanied by the enhancement of anxiolytic activity as well as toxicity.

  11. Intramolecular Diels–Alder/1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Cascade of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Gregory I.; Fuchs, James R.; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Ishikawa, Hayato; Tao, Houchao; Yuan, Z.-Q.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    Full details of a systematic exploration of the intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are disclosed in which the scope and utility of the reaction are defined. PMID:16895427

  12. 4. 3/4 VIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST Milwaukee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  13. 5. 3/4 VIEW, WEST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHEAST Milwaukee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW, WEST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  14. 4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END OF SPAN, LOOKING SW, SHOWING RIBBED ARCH CONSTRUCTION. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Peacock's Lock Viaduct, Spanning Schuykill River at Reading Railroad, Reading, Berks County, PA

  15. 5. 3/4 VIEW OF WESTERN ARCHES, SHOWING CURVATURE OF VIADUCT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW OF WESTERN ARCHES, SHOWING CURVATURE OF VIADUCT. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Delaware River Viaduct, Spanning Delaware River, north of Portland-Columbia Bridge, Portland, Northampton County, PA

  16. Electrochemical sensing of melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as recognition element.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian; Zhao, Hong; He, Yujian; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jian

    2010-08-18

    A new electrochemical sensor for melamine with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as the recognition element is established. The results of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra demonstrate that melamine may interact with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to form a complex mainly through the hydrogen-bonding interaction. The electrochemical behavior of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the presence of melamine was studied. The anodic peak currents of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid obtained by differential pulse voltammetry are linear with the logarithm of melamine concentrations in the range from 1.0 x 10(-8) to 5.0 x 10(-6) M with a linear coefficiency of 0.997. The detection limit is 3.0 x 10(-9) M. The proposed method displayed an excellent sensitivity and was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in milk products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 1. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, showing relationship ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 view of N & W elevations, showing relationship to Building 140 at right; looking SE. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 139, Second Street between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. Self-inhibitor of bean rust uredospores: methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate.

    PubMed

    Macko, V; Staples, R C; Gershon, H; Renwick, J A

    1970-10-30

    Two germination inhibitors from bean rust uredospores were identified as the cis and trans isomers of methyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate. They appear to be the "self-inhibitors" previously described from these spores.

  19. Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la casa, showing entrance to first story, view towards the south. - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  20. Synthesis, Urease Inhibition, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Molecular Docking Studies of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad; Shoaib, Khurram; Saleem, Muhammad; Hasan Rama, Nasim; Zaib, Sumera; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2012-01-01

    A series of eighteen 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been synthesized by treating aromatic acid hydrazides with carbon disulfide in ethanolic potassium hydroxide yielding potassium salts of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Upon neutralization with 1 N hydrochloric acid yielded crude crystals of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, which were purified by recrystallization in boiling methanol. The synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their urease inhibitory activities, most of the investigated compounds were potent inhibitors of Jack bean urease. The molecular docking studies were performed by docking them into the crystal structure of Jack bean urease to observe the mode of interaction of synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were also tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities and some derivatives exhibited very promising results. PMID:22934191

  1. Pseudorotaxane capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) detection in water.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Torres, Beatriz; Pascual, Lluís; Bernardos, Andrea; Marcos, María D; Jeppesen, Jan O; Salinas, Yolanda; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix

    2017-03-23

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

  2. 33. 3/4 VIEW OF COMPLETED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Erection and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 3/4 VIEW OF COMPLETED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Erection and field welding was completed on Monday, May 16, 1949) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  3. 3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier photos taken from the tower atop this structure. - Vermilion Life Saving Station, Shore of Lake Superior, 10 miles west of Whitefish Point, Paradise, Chippewa County, MI

  4. Southside thurmond, 3/4 view of black worker's housing at Dunloup ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southside thurmond, 3/4 view of black worker's housing at Dunloup Creek, on the southern side of the new river. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  5. East yard, 3/4 view of east and north elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, 3/4 view of east and north elevations of car departments tool house. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  6. 3/4 view of bridge connecting over new river which connects ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of bridge connecting over new river which connects thurmond to south side junction. View facing southwest. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  7. 3/4 view north and east elevations of oil and engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view north and east elevations of oil and engine supply house located on south side (riverside) of tracks. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  8. 3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER SWAY BRACE AT CENTER SPAN, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM, AND LATERAL BRACING - Achmun Creek Bridge, Spanning Achmun Creek at County Road 222, Ola, Yell County, AR

  9. Diversity of coordination modes in the polymers based on 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Du Xiaodi; Xiao Hongping; Zhou Xinhui; Wu Tao; You Xiaozeng

    2010-06-15

    Four new compounds [Ni{sub 2}(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Ni(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Mn{sub 2}(2,2'-bpy){sub 4}(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc){sub 2}] (3) and {l_brace}[Mn(1,10-phen){sub 2}(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc)].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (4) (3,4-H{sub 4}bptc=3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine, 2,2'-bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, 1, 10-phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), have been prepared and structurally characterized. In all compounds, the derivative ligands of 3,4-H{sub 4}bptc (3,4-bptc{sup 4-} and 3,4-H{sub 2}bptc{sup 2-}) exhibit different coordination modes and lead to the formation of various architectures. Compounds 1 and 2 display the three-dimensional (3D) framework: 1 shows a 3,4-connected topological network with (8{sup 3})(8{sup 5}.10) topology symbol based on the coordination bonds while in 2, the hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed to connect the 1D linear chain generating a final 3D framework. 3 exhibits the 2D layer constructed from the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the dinuclear manganese units. Complex 4 shows the double layers motif through connecting the 1D zigzag chains with hydrogen-bonded rings. The thermal stability of 1-4 and magnetic property of 1 were also reported. - Graphical abstract: Four coordination compounds exhibiting four coordination modes of the 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand, with three of new in this system, are obtained showing diversified architectures.

  10. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  11. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  12. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  13. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  14. Novel Variants of Oct-3/4 Gene Expressed in Mouse Somatic Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Mitsuko

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that Oct-3/4 may regulate self-renewal in somatic stem cells, as it does in embryonic stem cells. However, recent reports raise the possibility that detection of human Oct-3/4 expression by RT-PCR is prone to artifacts generated by pseudogene transcripts and argue against a role for Oct-3/4 in somatic cells. In this study, we clarified Oct-3/4 expression in mouse somatic tissues using designed PCR primers, which can exclude amplification of its pseudogenes. We found that novel alternative transcripts are indeed expressed in somatic tissues, rather than the normal length transcripts in germline and ES cells. The alternative transcripts indicate the expression of two kinds of truncated proteins. Furthermore, we determined novel promoter regions that are sufficient for the expression of Oct-3/4 transcript variants in somatic cells. These findings provide new insights into the postnatal role of Oct-3/4 in somatic tissues. PMID:18765667

  15. Spectroscopic study of the magnetic ordering in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalina, E. P.; Popova, M. N.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2010-04-01

    SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 belongs to the family of rare-earth RFe 3(BO 3) 4 multiferroics. We present the first measurements of the optical spectra of SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 (on single crystals) and report the data on the crystal-field levels and their symmetries for the ground multiplet 6H 5/2 [0 ( Γ), 135 ( Γ), and 220 ( Γ) cm -1] and on the ground-state exchange splitting (13.2 cm -1 at 1.7 K), important to interpret the magnetic, magnetoelectric, and thermodynamic properties of this compound. The observed exchange splitting of the Sm 3+ Kramers doublets manifests the magnetic ordering in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 at 32±1 K. From a comparison of the temperature-dependent spectra of the Sm 3+ ion in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 and in Nd-Gd mixed iron borate where the magnetic spin reorientation has been found earlier, we suggest the easy-plane arrangement of the Fe spins in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4. The samarium iron borate preserves the R32 ( D37) crystal structure at all the investigated temperatures (down to 1.7 K).

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of rat brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16.

    PubMed

    Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1995-11-10

    We have isolated by immunological screening of a lambda ZAPII cDNA library constructed from rat brain mRNAs a cDNA clone encoding endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The longest open reading frame encodes a 704-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 80,202 daltons and bears the consensus sequence of the zinc metalloprotease family. The sequence exhibits a 60.2% homology with those of another zinc metallopeptidase, endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Northern blot analysis reveals two mRNA species of about 3 and 5 kilobases in rat brain, ileum, kidney, and testis. We have transiently transfected COS-7 cells with pcDNA3 containing the cloned cDNA and established the overexpression of a 70-75-kDa immunoreactive protein. This protein hydrolyzes QFS, a quenched fluorimetric substrate of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16, and cleaves neurotensin at a single peptide bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (11-13). QFS and neurotensin hydrolysis are potently inhibited by the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide blocker Pro-Ile and by dithiothreitol, while the enzymatic activity remains unaffected by phosphoramidon and captopril, the specific inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme, respectively. Altogether, these physicochemical, biochemical, and immunological properties unambiguously identify endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 as the protein encoded by the isolated cDNA clone.

  17. Synthesis and single-crystal structure determination of the zinc nitride halides Zn{sub 2}NX (X=Cl, Br, I)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wessel, Claudia; Pan, Fangfang; Dronskowski, Richard

    2013-07-15

    A series of zinc nitride halides, Zn{sub 2}NX (X=Cl, Br, I), has been synthesized from solid–liquid reactions of zinc nitride with the respective zinc halides under vacuum, and their crystal structures were determined using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. While Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr crystallize in the acentric orthorhombic space group Pna2{sub 1}, Zn{sub 2}NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma; Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr can be considered to belong to the anti-β-NaFeO{sub 2} type, and Zn{sub 2}NI is closely related. Each N{sup 3−} is tetrahedrally coordinated by zinc atoms, and the X{sup −} anions are located in the vacancies of the framework formed by corner-sharing [NZn{sub 4}] tetrahedra. According to TGA/DTA analyses, the Zn{sub 2}NX compounds exhibit good thermal stability. The electronic structure has been analyzed by employing density-functional theory and the HSE06 hybrid functional. - Graphical abstract: Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been synthesized, and their crystal structures (Cl and Br phases: Pna2{sub 1}; I phase: Pnma) have been determined from XRD; the direct band gap of Zn{sub 2}NCl is theoretically (HSE06 hybrid functional) predicted as 3.7 eV. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been synthesized from solid–liquid reactions. • The crystal structures of Zn{sub 2}NCl, Zn{sub 2}NBr, and Zn{sub 2}NI have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. • Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr crystallize in the acentric space group Pna2{sub 1} whereas Zn{sub 2}NI adopts the centrosymmetric space group Pnma. • Zn{sub 2}NCl and Zn{sub 2}NBr are stable up to 750 °C whereas Zn{sub 2}NI decays at 600 °C already. • The direct band gap of Zn{sub 2}NCl is theoretically predicted as 3.7 eV using the HSE06 hybrid functional.

  18. Chemical beam epitaxy of GaAs1-xNx using MMHy and DMHy precursors, modeled by ab initio study of GaAs(100) surfaces stability over As2, H2 and N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Hubert; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    Using ab initio calculations, a simple model for GaAs1-xNx vapor-phase epitaxy on (100) surface of GaAs was created. By studying As2 and H2 molecules adsorptions and As/N atom substitutions on (100) GaAs surfaces, we obtain a relative stability diagram of all stable surfaces under varying As2, H2, and N2 conditions. We previously proved that this model could describe the vapor-phase epitaxy of GaAs1-x Nx with simple, fully decomposed, precursors. In this paper, we show that in more complex reaction conditions using monomethylhydrazine (MMHy), and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy), it is still possible to use our model to obtain an accurate description of the temperature and pressure stability domains for each surfaces, linked to chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) growth conditions. Moreover, the different N-incorporation regimes observed experimentally at different temperature can be explain and predict by our model. The use of MMHy and DMHy precursors can also be rationalized. Our model should then help to better understand the conditions needed to obtain an high quality GaAs1-xNx using vapor-phase epitaxy.

  19. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  20. Cometabolism of 3,4-dichlorobenzoate by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1.

    PubMed Central

    Adriaens, P; Focht, D D

    1991-01-01

    When Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 was grown on 4-chlorobenzoate (4-CB), it cometabolized 3,4-dichlorobenzoate (3,4-DCB) to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which could be used as a growth substrate. No cometabolism of 3,4-DCB was observed when Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 was grown on benzoate. 4-Carboxyl-1,2-benzoquinone was formed as an intermediate from 3,4-DCB and 3-C-4-OHB in aerobic and anaerobic resting-cell incubations and was the major transient intermediate found when cells were grown on 3-C-4-OHB. The first dechlorination step of 3,4-DCB was catalyzed by the 4-CB dehalogenase, while a soluble dehalogenase was responsible for dechlorination of 3-C-4-OHB. Both enzymes were inducible by the respective chlorinated substrates, as indicated by oxygen uptake experiments. The dehalogenase activity on 3-C-4-OHB, observed in crude cell extracts, was 109 and 44 nmol of 3-C-4-OHB min-1 mg of protein-1 under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 3-Chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate served as a pseudosubstrate for the 4-hydroxybenzoate monooxygenase by effecting oxygen and NADH consumption without being hydroxylated. Contrary to 4-CB metabolism, the results suggest that 3-C-4-OHB was not metabolized via the protocatechuate pathway. Despite the ability of resting cells grown on 4-CB or 3-C-4-OHB to carry out all of the necessary steps for dehalogenation and catabolism of 3,4-DCB, it appeared that 3,4-DCB was unable to induce the necessary 4-CB dehalogenase for the initial p-dehalogenation step.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2036004

  1. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Martinez, C

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requirements of these thymocytes were characterized and related to the T3-receptor complex and IL-2 pathways, thought to be used by mature lymphocytes. The results show that addition of recombinant IL-2 promotes, in a dose-dependent way, proliferation and acquisition of effector functions by cultured T3+4-8- thymocytes, the growth being inhibitable by monoclonal antibody 33B73 (anti-Tac). Furthermore, cytolytic activity of T3+4-8- cells induced by recombinant IL-2 is specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody OKT3, showing that it operates via the T3-receptor complex and does not require either T4 or T8 molecules. The finding of in vitro responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 in T3+4-8- thymocytes suggests a role of IL-2 in the growth and maturation of cells committed to the T-cell lineage, during intrathymic differentiation, prior to expression of T4 and T8 molecules. PMID:3929254

  2. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channel: muscling in on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2007-09-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 665), Pannacione et al. provide evidence of a role for the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha subunit Kv3.4 and its ancillary subunit MiRP2 in beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-mediated neuronal death. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 channel complex-previously found to be important in skeletal myocyte physiology-is now argued to be a molecular correlate of the transient outward potassium current up-regulated by Abeta peptide, considered a significant step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. The authors conclude that MiRP2 and Kv3.4 are up-regulated by Abeta peptide in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent fashion at the transcriptional level, and the sea anemone toxin BDS-I is shown to protect against Abeta peptide-mediated cell death by specific blockade of Kv3.4-generated current. The findings lend weight to the premise that specific channels, such as MiRP2-Kv3.4, could hold promise as future therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-01

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L1), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L4). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L3) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1 M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  4. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-25

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(1)), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(4)). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(3)) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  5. High cervical C3-4 'disc' compression associated with basilar invagination.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  6. Differentiation of human mature thymocytes: existence of a T3+4-8- intermediate stage.

    PubMed

    De la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Marcos, M A; Cabrero, E; Martinez-A, C

    1986-06-01

    A T3 complex-bearing subpopulation was characterized within an in vivo cycling T4-8- early thymocyte compartment which contains cells constitutively expressing interleukin 2 and transferrin receptors. We show differentiation in vitro of both mature subsets of thymocytes (T3+4+8- and T3+4-8+) from the above T4-8- compartment, their appearance being preceded by cells in a T3+4-8- intermediate stage. Furthermore, those mature thymocytes generated in vitro contain functionally competent cells which use T3, T4 and T8 structures for their cytolytic activity. The finding of T3+4-8- thymocytes in vivo, together with the observation that T3 antigen expression precedes that of T4 or T8 molecules in vitro, shows that T3 (and presumably Ti) is present early in ontogeny, and suggests that T3+4-8- cells constitute an "intermediate" stage relevant to the connection between early precursors and mature thymocytes during T lymphocyte ontogeny.

  7. Characterization of aluminum resistant Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Chun; Goh, Kian Mau; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Ibrahim, Zaharah; Chong, Chun Shiong

    2015-04-01

    The Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4, previously isolated from a hot spring, was screened for its heavy metals resistance (Al(3+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+)) and the strain was found to be most resistant to aluminum. Significant growth of the strain was observed when it was grown in medium containing aluminum (200 mg L(-1)-800 mg L(-1)) with relative growth rates ranging between 77% and 100%. A gene encoding the aluminum resistance protein (accession number: WP_021095658.1) was found in genome of strain SK 3-4, which revealed high sequence identity (>95%) to its homologues from Anoxybacillus species. Sequence comparisons with two functionally characterized aluminum resistance proteins, namely G2alt and ALU1-P, showed 97% and 81% of sequence identity, respectively. Four putative metal binding sites were detected in SK 3-4 aluminum resistance protein and G2alt at same amino acid residue positions of 186, 195, 198, and 201. Strain SK 3-4 was found to be able to remove aluminum from aqueous solution. This study demonstrated that Anoxybacillus sp. SK 3-4 could be applied in the treatment of aluminum contaminated wastewater. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Atypical Antidepressant Activity of 3,4-Bis(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Furan-2,5-Dione Isolated from Heart Wood of Cedrus deodara, in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitesh; Dhayabaran, Daniel; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Puratchikody, A; Lalani, Natasha; Dawood, Karima; Ghosh, Aanesha

    2014-10-01

    Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) has been used traditionally in Ayurveda for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) was isolated from heart wood of Cedrus deodara and was shown to have antiepileptic and anxiolytic activity. Thus, the present study was aimed to explore its anti-depressant effect and to correlate the effect with serotonin and nor adrenaline levels of brain. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. Animals were divided in to three groups; vehicle control, imipramine (30 mg/kg i.p.), BDFD (100 mg/kg i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) was performed to evaluate antidepressant effect of BDFD. BDFD (100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant decrease in immobility time when subjected to FST whereas immobility time was not significantly altered in TST. BDFD treatment increased serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the brain which is indicative of BDFD having possible atypical antidepressant action.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PEDOT-DMcT) Hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.; Conte, Sean; Lowe, Michael A.; Gao, Jie; Kiya, Yasuyuki; Henderson, Jay C.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2015-06-01

    Organosulfur Compounds (OSCs) represent an attractive alternative as organic cathode materials for electrochemical energy storage (EES) applications. They intrinsically have high gravimetric capacity (although low volumetric) and are typically inexpensive, since they are composed of abundant elements (i.e. C, N, O, and S). However, OSCs, specifically thiolate-containing OSCs generally suffer from slow charge transfer kinetics. To mitigate the charge transfer limitations, conducting polymers (CPs) such as poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) have been employed as electrocatalysts. In this manuscript, we have covalently modified a PEDOT film with an OSC (i.e. 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole di-lithium salt (Li2DMcT)). We have developed a synthetic strategy that employs, for the first time, a post-polymerization modification reaction as a tractable and viable technique to modify organic materials for EES electrodes. Electrochemical characterization, via cyclic voltammetry showed the expected pseudocapacitive response of PEDOT with the superimposed faradaic processes of the covalently bound DMcT. Moreover, spectroscopic characterization using Raman spectroscopy provided mechanistic insights into the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, we electropolymerized films onto coin-cell electrodes and tested them in half-cell configurations and found that the capacity retention of the films was significantly enhanced, when compared with the PEDOT/DMcT composites (mixed but not covalently bound).

  10. Comparing behavioral and chronic endpoints to evaluate the response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl sediment exposures.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) was examined with feeding behavior and changes in carbon assimilation by using stable carbon isotopes at 22 and 10 degrees C. The classical measure of feeding behavior determined on a subset of sediment for which the biological burial rate was determined in a companion study allowed direct method comparison. This comparison helped address relationships between biological burial rate, feeding rate, and bioaccumulation. The change in stable isotope composition reflects the total metabolic activity by measuring carbon assimilation rate and was compared to feeding rate, biological burial rate (as determined in the companion study), and reproduction. Decreasing the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C resulted in a twofold reduction in feeding rate and carbon assimilation. The fractional decline in feeding rate relative to the control mimicked the decline in the biological burial rate with increasing TCBP concentration that was found in the companion study. The bioaccumulation factor declined with increasing TCBP sediment concentration, tracking the feeding rate decline. Stable isotope measures showed differences in metabolic rates between the exposure temperatures but did not distinguish a metabolic rate change at 22 degrees C among TCBP treatments. Likewise, reproduction declined from 22 to 10 degrees C, with no reproduction at 10 degrees C. Like the stable isotope measure, no dose response was found among TCBP treatments at 22 degrees C. The reduction in carbon assimilation rate tracked the reduction in reproduction with lower temperature.

  11. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, 1,3,4-thiadiazoles, 1,2,4-triazoles and Mannich bases.

    PubMed

    Megally Abdo, Nadia Youssef; Kamel, Mona Monir

    2015-01-01

    A series of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amines (3a-d), 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-N-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amines (4a-d) and 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (5a-d) were obtained by the cyclization of hydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives 2a-d derived from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Aminoalkylation of compounds 5a-d with formaldehyde and various secondary amines furnished the Mannich bases 6a-p. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their spectral data and elemental analyses. All the compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines and normal fibroblast cells. Sixteen of the tested compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity against most cell lines. Among these derivatives, the Mannich bases 6j, 6m and 6p were found to exhibit the most potent activity. The Mannich base 6m showed more potent cytotoxic activity against gastric cancer NUGC (IC50=0.021 µM) than the standard CHS 828 (IC50=0.025 µM). Normal fibroblast cells WI38 were affected to a much lesser extent (IC50>10 µM).

  12. Vibrational spectra and theoretical calculations (dimerization, UV-Vis, multinuclear NMR and pes analyses) of 3,4-dimethylbenzamide and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzamide.

    PubMed

    Muniappan, P; Meenakshi, R; Rajavel, G; Arivazhagan, M

    2014-01-03

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-dimethyl benzamide (DMBA) and 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzamide (THBA) have been measured in the regions 400-4000 and 50-3500 cm(-1), respectively. Utilizing the observed FT-IR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the title compounds were carried out. The vibrational frequencies which were determined experimentally are compared with those theoretical frequencies from force field calculation based on B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods. Stability of the compound arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. UV-Vis analysis of the title compounds has also been done using TD-DFT method. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the compounds were calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. HOMO-LUMO and MEP analyses have been done for the title compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative sorption and desorption of benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in natural lake water containing dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Akkanen, Jarkko; Tuikka, Anita; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2005-10-01

    The sorption and desorption of two model compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP), were studied in natural lake water with high dissolved organic matter (DOM) content using the equilibrium dialysis and Tenax extraction methods. The sorption of TCBP was lower and reached steady value more slowly than did BaP. Tenax extraction revealed at least two differently desorbing fractions for both model compounds, which also supported the conclusion that DOM-HOC associations may involve several mechanisms. The rapidly desorbing fraction may be attributed to freely dissolved and loosely sorbed compound, whereas the more strongly sorbed fraction may indicate the presence of specific binding sites. The data indicated that the association between hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) and DOM is not simply absorption that is solely driven by the lipophilicity of the sorbates. Although contact time had a rather negligible effect on the sorption of BaP, the proportion of desorption resistant fraction increased with time, whereas the desorption of TCBP was less affected by contact time. Steric factors may be the cause of the lower sorption and smaller desorption resistant fraction of TCBP. The results indicate potential differences in the behavior of PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic environment.

  14. Confocal microscopy reveals thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16) in the classical secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Garrido, P A; Vandenbulcke, F; Ramjaun, A R; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Ferro, E; Beaudet, A

    1999-04-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are closely related enzymes involved in the metabolic inactivation of bioactive peptides. Both of these enzymes were previously shown to be secreted from a variety of cell types, although their primary sequence lacks a signal peptide. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this secretion, we examined by confocal microscopy the subcellular localization of these two enzymes in the neuroendocrine cell line AtT20. Both EP24.15 and EP24.16 were found by immunohistochemistry to be abundantly expressed in AtT20 cells. Western blotting experiments confirmed that the immunoreactivity detected in the soma of these cells corresponded to previously cloned isoforms of the enzymes. At the subcellular level, both enzymes colocalized extensively with the integral trans-Golgi network protein, syntaxin-6, in the juxtanuclear region. In addition, both EP24.15 and EP24.16 were found within small vesicular organelles distributed throughout the cell body. Some, but not all, of these organelles also stained positively for ACTH. These results demonstrate that both EP24.15 and EP24.16 are present within the classical secretory pathway. Their colocalization with ACTH further suggests that they may be targeted to the regulated secretory pathway, even in the absence of a signal peptide.

  15. N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) is a selective persistent inhibitor of glycine transport

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of glycine concentrations within excitatory synapses is poorly understood and it has been proposed that the GLYT1 subtypes of glycine transporters play a critical role in determining resting concentrations of glycine. Selective GLYT1 inhibitors may provide pharmacological tools to probe the dynamics of synaptic glycine concentrations, which may influence the activation properties of NMDA receptor activity.We have characterized the selectivity and mechanism of action of the glycine transport inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS). The glycine transporters, GLYT1a, b and c and GLYT2a were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode voltage clamp techniques and radiolabelled 3H-glycine flux measurements were used to characterize the effects of NFPS on glycine transport.NFPS inhibits glycine transport by the GLYT1a, b and c subtypes of glycine transporters, but has no effect on the GLYT2a subtype of transporter. We show that NFPS does not attain its specificity via an interaction with the Na+, Cl− or glycine site, nor does it act at an intracellular site. NFPS inhibition of glycine transport is time and concentration dependent and inhibition of transport by NFPS persists after washout of NFPS from the bath solution, which suggests that inhibition by NFPS is long lasting. PMID:11724748

  16. Synthesis and theoretical studies of non‒covalent interactions within a newly synthesized chiral 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Uzma; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Chahkandi, Mohammad; Bhatti, Moazzam H.; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2017-02-01

    In this work the synthesis of a new compound formulated as C12H12N4OS, ((S)-1-(6-Phenyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl)ethanol) (5) reported and theoretical studies of the non‒covalent interactions constructed the related crystalline network described. It has been characterized by IR, Mass, and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X‒ray diffraction analysis. The binding energy of the non‒covalent interactions constructing the network of 5 have been calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT‒D). The optimization of the formed network using H‒bonding and π‒stacking revealed that 1‒D coordination chain has been composed of neutral monomeric compound. For this purpose, the independent smallest fragment (monomer) and subsequently the related network, including seven monomers, having all non‒covalent interactions have been optimized. The results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds, especially Osbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N, and Csbnd H⋯S interactions, govern the network formation. The calculated results of electronic transition in agreement with the experiment ones show eleven major bands derived from σ → π, n → n/σ*/π* aromatic rings to hydroxyl, inter‒atomic of oxygen, and thiadiazine to phenyl ring charge transfer transitions.

  17. Effects of nitrogen impurities on the microstructure and electronic properties of P-doped Si nanocrystals emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deng-Hao; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Luo, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Zhao-Yi; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Deng-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus doped Si nanocrystals (SNCs) emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx:H films were prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, and the effects of nitrogen incorporation on the microstructure and electronic properties of the thin films have been systematically studied. Transmission electron microscope and Raman observation revealed that nitrogen incorporation prevents the growth of Si nanocrystals, and that their sizes can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of NH3. The reduction of photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the range of 2.1-2.6 eV of photon energy was observed with increasing nitrogen impurity, and a maximal PL intensity in the range 1.6-2.0 eV was obtained when the incorporation flow ratio NH3/(SiH4+H2+PH3) was 0.02. The conductivity of the films is improved by means of proper nitrogen impurity doping, and proper doping causes the interface charge density of the heterojunction (H-J) device to be lower than the nc-Si:H/c-Si H-J device. As a result, the proper incorporation of nitrogen could not only reduce the silicon banding bond density, but also fill some carrier capture centers, and suppress the nonradiative recombination of electrons.

  18. Refined nano-textured surface coupled with SiNx layer on the improved photovoltaic properties of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianwei; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Pinghua; Yang, Jie; Yang, Zuobao; Chen, Dongsheng; Yin, Yefei; Chen, Dandan; Ma, Zhongquan

    2013-07-01

    Nano-porous silicon (NP-Si) and nano-inverted-pyramid silicon (NIP-Si) structures have been formed by Ag-catalyzed chemical etching without and with NaOH modification on solar-grade multi-crystalline silicon substrates, respectively. The influence of nano-structured morphology (NSM) and SiNx layer (SL) on effective reflectance (Reff) has been investigated through measurement and simulation. For typical NP-Si and NIP-Si samples, the NSM alone can suppress Reff of NP-Si sample to the lowest degree (5.87%), and the combination of NSM and SL is favorable to gain the lowest optical loss for NIP-Si sample (Reff = 7.31%). Compared with NP-Si solar cell, the fabricated NIP-Si solar cells have hugely improved photovoltaic properties, resulting from reduced reflectance in visible and near-infrared wavelength, enhanced short-wavelength spectral responses and good diode parameters. Finally, an optimum design strategy of NSM and SL has been suggested to gain potentially better properties for nano-structured solar cells.

  19. Tunable Fano quantum-interference dynamics using a topological phase transition in (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Sangwan; Koirala, Nikesh; Brahlek, Matthew; Sung, Ji Ho; Park, Jun; Cha, Soonyoung; Jo, Moon-Ho; Oh, Seongshik; Choi, Hyunyong

    2015-06-01

    Asymmetric Fano resonance arises from quantum interference between discrete and continuum states. The characteristic asymmetry has attracted strong interests in understanding light-induced optoelectronic responses and corresponding applications. In conventional solids, however, the tunability of Fano resonance is generally limited by a material's intrinsic property. Topological insulators are unique states of matter embodying both conducting Dirac surface and underlying bulk. If it is possible to manipulate the two coexisting states, then it should form an ideal laboratory for realizing a tunable topological Fano system. Here, with the recently discovered topological phase transition in (Bi1-xI nx ) 2S e3 , we report tunable Fano interference phenomena. By engineering the spatial overlap between surface Dirac electrons (continuous terahertz transitions) and bulk phonon (discrete mode at ˜2 terahertz), we continuously tune, abruptly switch, and dynamically modulate the Fano resonance. Eliminating the topological surface via decreasing spin-orbit coupling―that is, across topological and nontopological phases, we find that the asymmetric Fano spectra return to the symmetric profile. Laser-excited ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy reveals that the controlled spatial overlap is responsible for the picosecond tunability of the Fano resonance, suggesting potentials toward optically controllable topological Fano systems.

  20. Blueshift of the optical band gap: Implications for the quantum confinement effect in a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, M.; Meunier, M.; Arsenault, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical-absorption measurements are presented for multilayer structures of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H) produced by glow discharge. Small-angle x-ray-scattering measurements show that these multilayers are very periodic and confirm that the interfaces are abrupt. Optical band-gap measurements are presented for two sets of samples. Samples for the first set have constant barrier thickness and a fixed number of layer repeats while for the second set the composition and total thickness are kept constant. Even for very thin well layer thicknesses, no blueshift in the optical band gap is observed for the second set whereas the first set displays this effect quite well. This can be explained if the blueshift in the second set is due to an artifact of the Tauc law rather than quantum confinement effects as suggested by Collins and Huang [Phys. Rev. B 34, 2910 (1986)]. This interpretation is further supported by a Cody law [Solar Energy Mater. 8, 231 (1982)] analysis for which no blueshift in the optical band gap is observed for either set of samples. We conclude that optical band-gap measurements cannot be used as proof for the quantum confinement of carriers in these structures.

  1. Broadband antireflection sub-wavelength structure of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cell with composition-graded SiNx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Chen; Lo, Hsiao-Chieh; Lin, Yen-Ku; Yu, Hung-Wei; Tinh Tran, Binh; Lin, Kung-Liang; Chen, Yung Chang; Quan, Nguyen-Hong; Chang, Edward Yi; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2015-05-01

    This work reports a fabrication strategy to improve the antireflective ability of a InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell, by combining a nano-templating technique and a chemical-synthesis approach. SiH4 and N2 were used as ammonia-free reaction gases in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to prepare Si3N4 as an original antireflective coating (ARC) layer with better chemical stability. Composition-graded SiNx was successfully integrated with sub-wavelength structure by modulating SiH4/N2 ratio during PECVD deposition, and followed by a controllable gold-nanoparticle masking technique on top of the solar cell. Finite-difference time-domain solution was employed to simulate and optimize the aspect-ratio of the ARC, under the condition of variable refractive index over a broad wavelength window, and followed by the masking technique to obtain the desired ARC dimension. This enabled a low light reflectance (<10%) over a broad spectral bandwidth (300-1800 nm) for the solar cell with excellent stability, because of the triple advantages of structural optimization, better chemical stability and graded refractive index of the ARC. The solar cell’s performance was tested and showed great competitiveness to those of forefront studies, suggesting the feasibility of the proposed technology.

  2. Evolution of the electron localization in a nonconventional alloy system GaAs1-xNx probed by high-magnetic-field photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Wei, X.; Zhang, Y.; Mascarenhas, A.; Xin, H. P.; Hong, Y. G.; Tu, C. W.

    2003-06-01

    We demonstrate that a high magnetic field can be used effectively not only to probe the nature of the photoluminescence (PL) in a semiconductor, but also to reveal emission peaks that are unobservable at zero field since the magnetic field can alter energy relaxation processes and the statistical distribution of the photocarriers. Our systematic magneto-PL study of GaAs1-xNx (0.1%⩽x<2.5%) in fields up to 30 T indicates that the character of the low-temperature PL in this system changes drastically with varying nitrogen composition x and exhibits transitions with applying strong magnetic fields. For x<0.7%, the PL spectrum shows many discrete features whose energies remain nearly stationary up to the highest applied field. However, the magnetic confinement gives rise to a feature emerging on the higher energy side of the zero-field spectrum. This feature does show a diamagnetic shift, but it is much slower that that of the GaAs band-edge transition. For x>1%, the PL spectrum evolves into a broad band, and its diamagnetic shift resembles the band-edge transition in a conventional semiconductor, and the rate of shift is comparable to that of GaAs. From the diamagnetic shift of the band, the reduced effective masses for different composition of nitrogen have been derived for this system using the standard theory for the magneto-exciton in a three dimensional semiconductor.

  3. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai

    2015-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhi-Gang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Wei-Jun; Li, Shu-Shen

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structure and optical gain of GaNxBiyAs1-x-y/GaAs pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) are investigated using the 16-band k ṡ p model with constant strain. The optical gain is calculated taking both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings into consideration. The effective band gap falls as we increase the composition of nitrogen (N) and bismuth (Bi) and with an appropriate choice of composition we can tune the emission wavelength to span within 1.3 μm-1.55 μm, for device application in fiber technology. The extent of this red shift is more profound in QDs compared with bulk material due to quantum confinement. Other factors affecting the emission characteristics include virtual crystal, strain profile, band anticrossing (BAC), and valence band anticrossing (VBAC). The strain profile has a profound impact on the electronic structure, specially the valence band of QDs, which can be determined using the composition distribution of wave functions. All these factors eventually affect the optical gain spectrum. With an increase in QD size, we observe a red shift in the emission energy and emergence of secondary peaks owing to transitions or greater energy compared with the fundamental transition.

  5. Magnetostructural coupling and multiferroic properties in the spin-frustrated system N i1 -xZ nxC r2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi Chandrasekhar, K.; Krishna Murthy, J.; Lin, J.-Y.; Wu, H. C.; Tseng, W. J.; Venimadhav, A.; Yang, H. D.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of N i1 -xZ nxC r2O4 demonstrates complex magnetic transitions for x = 0.05 with two long-range magnetic-order transitions at TC1= 41 K and TC2= 17 K . A glasslike feature emerges between TC1 and TC2 with the application of a direct current (dc) magnetic field in alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements. Dielectric measurements show a change from the conventional dielectric to a quantum-paraelectric-like behavior without anomalies near the magnetic ordering temperature in the range 0.05

  6. Different charging behaviors between electrons and holes in Si nanocrystals embedded in SiNx matrix by the influence of near-interface oxide traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong-Hui, Fang; Xiao-Fan, Jiang; Kun-Ji, Chen; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Si-rich silicon nitride films are prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, followed by thermal annealing to form the Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) embedded in SiNx floating gate MOS structures. The capacitance-voltage (C-V), current-voltage (I-V), and admittance-voltage (G-V) measurements are used to investigate the charging characteristics. It is found that the maximum flat band voltage shift (ΔVFB) due to full charged holes (˜ 6.2 V) is much larger than that due to full charged electrons (˜ 1 V). The charging displacement current peaks of electrons and holes can be also observed by the I-V measurements, respectively. From the G-V measurements we find that the hole injection is influenced by the oxide hole traps which are located near the SiO2/Si-substrate interface. Combining the results of C-V and G-V measurements, we find that the hole charging of the Si-NCs occurs via a two-step tunneling mechanism. The evolution of G-V peak originated from oxide traps exhibits the process of hole injection into these defects and transferring to the Si-NCs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB934402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374153).

  7. Effect of self-gravitation and dust-charge fluctuations on the shielding and energy loss of NxM projectiles in a collisional dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwar, M. Adnan; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2007-03-15

    A simple derivation of the electrostatic potential and energy loss of NxM test charge projectiles traveling through dusty plasma has been presented. The effect of dust-charge fluctuations, dust neutral collisions, and self-gravitation on the shielded potential and energy loss of charge projectiles has been investigated both analytically as well as numerically. An interference contribution of these projectiles to the shielded potential and energy loss has been observed, which depends upon their relative orientation and separation distance. A comparison has been made for correlated and uncorrelated motion of the two projectiles. The amplitude of the shielded potential is enhanced with the increase of dust Jeans frequency for separation less than the effective Debye length. The dust-charge fluctuations produce a potential well for a slow charge relaxation rate and energy is gained, not lost, by the test charge projectiles. However, a fast charge relaxation rate with a fixed value of Jeans frequency enhances the energy loss. The dust neutral collisions are also found to enhance the energy loss for the test charge velocities greater than the dust acoustic speeds. The present investigation might be useful to explain the coagulation of dust particles such as those in molecular clouds, the interstellar medium, comet tails, planetary rings, etc.

  8. Magnetization enhancement due to incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content in (Co84Zr16)Nx nano-composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jitendra; Shukla, Rishabh; Bagri, Anita; Dhaka, Rajendra S.; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    We report the magnetic, electronic, and structural properties of nano-composite (Co84Zr16)Nx or CZN films prepared by reactive co-sputter deposition method. As-deposited CZN films have shown enhancement in magnetization (Ms) with incorporation of nitrogen content, which is related to the evolution of nano-composite phase. X-ray diffraction study has confirmed poly-crystalline growth of CZN films with fcc(331) and fcc(422) phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscope study reveals that CZN films are composed of ordered and crystalline ferromagnetic Co nano-clusters, which are embedded in the nano-composite matrix. Photoemission measurements show the change in the intensity near the Fermi level most likely due to defects and shift in the core-levels binding energy with nitrogen concentration. Raman spectroscopy data show an increase in the intensity of the Raman lines with nitrogen concentration upto 20%. However, the intensity is significantly lower for 30% sample. This indicates that less nitrogen or defect states are being substituted into the lattice above 20% and is consistent with the observed magnetic behavior. Our studies indicate that defects induced due to the incorporation of non-magnetic nitrogen content play a key role to enhance the magnetization.

  9. Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using SiNx templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzelt, H.; Gottschalch, V.; Bauer, J.; Benndorf, G.; Wagner, G.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the catalyst-free growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires using the selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE). The nanowires were grown from small circular openings defined by electron-beam lithography and wet chemical etching of a thin SiNx layer. This layer was deposited on a (1 1 1)B-oriented GaAs substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. We optimized the growth conditions for realizing extremely uniform arrays in a triangular lattice of GaAs and InAs nanowires with diameters down to 100 nm and a length of a few microns. During the growth the nanowires are formed by {1¯ 1 0} side facets and a growth direction perpendicular to the substrate surface. We investigated the growth behavior of GaAs nanowires with different diameters varying from 100 to 500 nm at different growth parameters, changing the temperature and the V/III ratio of TMG and AsH3. With a combination of GaAs and InAs SA-MOVPE growth radial heterostructures were grown. The structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of new nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenov, B. K.; Kasenova, Sh. B.; Sagintaeva, Zh. I.; Turtubaeva, M. O.; Kakenov, K. S.; Esenbaeva, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    The heat capacities of nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are measured via dynamic calorimetry in the temperature range of 298.15-673 K using an IT-S-400 instrument. It is established that the C°p f( T) function of LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) has λ-type effects, due probably to phase transitions of the second order. Considering the temperatures of the phase transitions, equations of the heat capacity of ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of temperature are derived on the basis of experimental data. Thermodynamic functions H°( T)- H°(298.15), S°( T), and V xx( T) are calculated in the temperature range of 298.15-675 K.

  11. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A.; Russell, Charles J.; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E.; Krauss, Scott

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes

  12. Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) Influenza Viruses of Clade 2.3.4.4 from North America Have Limited Capacity for Replication and Transmission in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bryan S; Russier, Marion; Jeevan, Trushar; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A; Russell, Charles J; Kim-Torchetti, Mia; Choi, Young Ki; Brown, Ian; Saito, Takehiko; Stallknecht, David E; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N8) viruses from clade 2.3.4.4 were introduced to North America by migratory birds in the fall of 2014. Reassortment of A(H5N8) viruses with avian viruses of North American lineage resulted in the generation of novel A(H5N2) viruses with novel genotypes. Through sequencing of recent avian influenza viruses, we identified PB1 and NP gene segments very similar to those in the viruses isolated from North American waterfowl prior to the introduction of A(H5N8) to North America, highlighting these bird species in the origin of reassortant A(H5N2) viruses. While they were highly virulent and transmissible in poultry, we found A(H5N2) viruses to be low pathogenic in mice and ferrets, and replication was limited in both hosts compared with those of recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin protein from A(H5N2) viruses showed that the receptor binding preference, cleavage, and pH of activation were highly adapted for replication in avian species and similar to those of other 2.3.4.4 viruses. In addition, North American and Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5NX viruses replicated to significantly lower titers in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells than did seasonal human A(H1N1) and highly pathogenic A(H5N1) viruses isolated from a human case. Thus, despite their having a high impact on poultry, our findings suggest that the recently emerging North American A(H5N2) viruses are not expected to pose a substantial threat to humans and other mammals without further reassortment and/or adaptation and that reassortment with North American viruses has not had a major impact on viral phenotype. IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses have been introduced into North America from Asia, causing extensive morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. The introduced viruses have reassorted with North American avian influenza viruses, generating viral genotypes not seen on

  13. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  14. Microbial Hydroxylation of 5-Anilino-1,2,3,4-Thiatriazole

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Robert J.; Longfield, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five fungi, including 100 basidiomycetes and 35 yeasts, 75 actinomycetes, and 40 bacteria were screened for their ability to convert 5-anilino-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (AT) to 5-(p-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (p-HT). Eleven cultures were found that formed p-HT, which was isolated and whose structure was determined. Aspergillus tamarii NRRL 3280 formed 8.6 g of p-HT/liter from 10 g of AT/liter (78.9% conversion) in shaken flasks and 4.57 g of p-HT/liter from 6 g of AT/liter (69.8% conversion) in 30-liter fermentors. Washed cells of A. tamarii NRRL 3280 also carried out this conversion. 5-(o-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (o-HT) was identified as a second product formed by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960. PMID:4699219

  15. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  16. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  17. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C6H2O5)(C6H3O5)(H2O)]n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented.

  18. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica palearctica serobiotype O:3/4--a successful group of emerging zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Batzilla, Julia; Antonenka, Uladzimir; Höper, Dirk; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rakin, Alexander

    2011-07-06

    High-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica caused several human outbreaks in Northern America. In contrast, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 is responsible for sporadic cases worldwide with asymptomatic pigs being the main source of infection. Genomes of three Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 human isolates (including the completely sequenced Y11 German DSMZ type strain) were compared to the high-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica 8081 O:8/1B to address the peculiarities of the O:3/4 group. Most high-pathogenicity-associated determinants of Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica (like the High-Pathogenicity Island, yts1 type 2 and ysa type 3 secretion systems) are absent in Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 genomes. On the other hand they possess alternative putative virulence and fitness factors, such as a different ysp type 3 secretion system, an RtxA-like and insecticidal toxins, and a N-acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) PTS system (aga-operon). Horizontal acquisition of two prophages and a tRNA-Asn-associated GIYep-01 genomic island might also influence the Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 pathoadaptation. We demonstrated recombination activity of the PhiYep-3 prophage and the GIYep-01 island and the ability of the aga-operon to support the growth of the Y. enterocolitica ssp. enterocolitica O:8/1B on GalNAc. Y. enterocolitica ssp. palearctica serobiotype O:3/4 experienced a shift to an alternative patchwork of virulence and fitness determinants that might play a significant role in its host pathoadaptation and successful worldwide dissemination.

  20. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. {yields} iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. {yields} 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. {yields} Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-{kappa}B in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-{kappa}B activation, leading to tumor development.