Science.gov

Sample records for 3-4 times larger

  1. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ˜42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  2. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Derek D; Greenfield, Michael L

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  3. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  4. An Examination of the Hadley Sea-Surface Temperature Time Series for the Nino 3.4 Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The Hadley sea-surface temperature (HadSST) dataset is investigated for the interval 1871-2008. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the degree of success in identifying and characterizing El Nino (EN) southern (ENSO) extreme events, both EN and La Nina (LN) events. Comparisons are made against both the Southern Oscillation Index for the same time interval and with published values of the Oceanic Nino Index for the interval since 1950. Some 60 ENSO extreme events are identified in the HadSST dataset, consisting of 33 EN and 27 LN events. Also, preferential associations are found to exist between the duration of ENSO extreme events and their maximum anomalous excursion temperatures and between the recurrence rate for an EN event and the duration of the last known EN event. Because the present ongoing EN is a strong event, it should persist 11 months or longer, inferring that the next EN event should not be expected until June 2012 or later. Furthermore, the decadal sum of EN-related months is found to have increased somewhat steadily since the decade of 1920-1929, suggesting that the present decade (2010-2019) possibly will see about 3-4 EN events, totaling about 37 +/- 3 EN-related months (i.e., months that meet the definition for the occurrence of an EN event).

  5. Relationships between Reading Achievement and Leisure-Time Reading in Grades 3, 4, 5, and 6: A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otter, Martha E.; And Others

    A longitudinal study investigated the effects of leisure time reading (reading at home for pleasure or fun) on pupils' reading achievement in school. Subjects, 736 students in grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 in 30 schools located throughout the Netherlands, had their reading achievement determined five times: at the beginning and end of grade 3 and at the…

  6. Thermolysis, nonisothermal decomposition kinetics, specific heat capacity and adiabatic time-to-explosion of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 (DNANT= dinitroacetonitrile).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wu, Hao; Xu, Kangzhen; Zhang, Wantao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi

    2014-02-20

    A new energetic copper complex of dinitroacetonitrile (DNANT), [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2, was first synthesized through an unexpected reaction. The thermal decomposition of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 was studied with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The gas products were analyzed through a TG-FTIR-MS method. The nonisothermal kinetic equation of the exothermic process is dα/dT = 10(10.92)/β4(1 - α)[-ln(1 - α)](3/4) exp(-1.298 × 10(5)/RT). The self-accelerating decomposition temperature and critical temperature of thermal explosion are 217.9 and 221.0 °C. The specific heat capacity of [Cu(NH3)4](DNANT)2 was determined with a micro-DSC method, and the molar heat capacity is 512.6 J mol(-1) K(-1) at 25 °C. Adiabatic time-to-explosion of Cu(NH3)4(DNANT)2 was also calculated to be about 137 s.

  7. Extinction of Oct-3/4 gene expression in embryonal carcinoma [times] fibroblast somatic cell hybrids is accompanied by changes in the methylation status, chromatin structure, and transcriptional activity of the Oct-3/4 upstream region

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Shushan, E.; Pikarsky, E.; Klar, A.; Bergman, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The OCT-3/4 gene provides an excellent model system with which to study the extinction phenomenon in somatic cell hybrids. The molecular mechanism that underlies the extinction of a tissue-specific transcription factor in somatic cell hybrides is evaluated and compared with its down-regulation in retinoic acid treated embryonal carcinoma cells. This study draws a connection between the shutdown of OCT-3/4 expression in retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells and its extinction in hybrid cells. This repression of OCT-3/4 expression is achieved through changes in the methylation status, chromatin structure, and transcriptional activity of the OCT-3/4 upstream regulatory region. 59 refs.

  8. Identification of substituted cathinones: 3,4-Methylenedioxy derivatives by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fornal, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    The potential of high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) for screening of synthetic cathinones in legal highs was examined. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q/TOF). Nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) was employed. MS and MS/MS spectra were acquired. Six 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives: methylone, butylone, pentylone, MDPBP, MDPV and BMDP were detected and identified. The fragmentation pattern of 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives in collision induced dissociation (CID) was derived and described, which will facilitate future screenings and identifications of new synthetic cathinones. For 3,4-methylenodioxy derivative cathinones the loss of neutral groups CH₄O₂, H₂O, amines and imines is observed. The loss of water and the methylenedioxy group does not occur when cyclic amino group - pyrrolidynyl is present in the molecule. Phenyloxazole cations are formed when CH₄O₂ is lost. The formation of the metylenedioxybenzoyloxonium and allyldioxybenzoyloxonium ions is typical for 3,4-methylenodioxy derivatives, however, the formation of the former appears to be inhibited by the presence in the molecule of the group of atoms able to form very stable tropylium carbocation.

  9. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  10. [Simple and rapid screening for methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and their metabolites in urine using direct analysis in real time (DART)-TOFMS].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    An ionization technique, direct analysis in real time (DART) has recently been developed for the ambient ionization of a variety samples. The DART coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) would be useful as a simple and rapid screening for the targeted compounds in various samples, because it provides the molecular information of these compounds without time-consuming extraction. In this study, we investigated rapid screening methods of illicit drugs and their metabolites, such as methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) in human urine using DART-TOFMS. As serious matrix effects caused by urea in urine samples and ionizations of the targeted compounds were greatly suppressed in the DART-TOFMS analyses, simple pretreatment methods to remove the urea from the samples were investigated. When a pipette tip-type solid-phase extraction with a dichloromethane and isopropanol mixed solution as an eluent was used for the pretreatment, the limits of detection (LODs) of 4 compounds added to control urine samples were 0.25 µg/ml. On the other hand, the LODs of these compounds were 0.5 µg/ml by a liquid-liquid extraction using a dichloromethane and hexane mixed solution. In both extractions, the recoveries of 4 compounds from urine samples were over 70% and these extraction methods showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-5 µg/ml by GC-MS analyses. In conclusion, our proposed method using DART-TOFMS could simultaneously detect MA, MDMA and their metabolites in urine at 0.5 µg/ml without time-consuming pretreatment steps. Therefore it would be useful for screening drugs in urine with the molecular information.

  11. Review of Miocene larger foraminifera

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene larger foraminifera were generally restricted to shallow (<100m), warm, clear, normal marine environments and were primarily dependent on brief drifting of juveniles and rafting on vegetation for dispersal. These factors are reflected in both regional and local occurrences. Regional occurrences of Miocene larger foraminifera vary with bio-province and time. Three main foraminiferal provinces (Central American, Mediterranean, and Indo-West Pacific) developed through a combination of tectonics, eustasy, climate, and faunal evolution and migration. Important effects of Miocene tectonics included widening of the Atlantic, early Miocene occlusion of the western neo-Tethys, and northern movement of the Australian plate into the tropics. Changes in climate primarily expanded or constricted latitudinal provincial boundaries. Eustatic sea level variations caused by the destruction of the late Miocene Mediterranean fauna. Globally, Miocene faunas underwent a progressive loss of taxa. This is particularly noticeable in post-early Miocene faunas of the Mediterranean and Central American provinces. Although post-early Miocene taxa evolved in all three areas, faunal migration was prevented by environmental barriers. For a given time and province, the occurrence of larger foraminifera in well-preserved Miocene reef facies is related to paleoenvironmental factors of water depth, turbidity, water energy, and substrate and to post-mortem processes of transport and selective test destruction. Environmentally related changes in test morphology, together with the relative abundances of planktonic species and small benthic taxa, allow an estimation of the magnitude of the various environmental factors, even without detailed foraminiferal taxonomy.

  12. Development and validation of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5log(10) concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness.

  13. 3,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    3,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 65 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. TGFβ signaling regulates the timing of CNS myelination by modulating oligodendrocyte progenitor cell cycle exit through SMAD3/4/FoxO1/Sp1.

    PubMed

    Palazuelos, Javier; Klingener, Michael; Aguirre, Adan

    2014-06-04

    Research on myelination has focused on identifying molecules capable of inducing oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in an effort to develop strategies that promote functional myelin regeneration in demyelinating disorders. Here, we show that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is crucial for allowing oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cell cycle withdrawal, and therefore, for oligodendrogenesis and postnatal CNS myelination. Enhanced oligodendrogenesis and subcortical white matter (SCWM) myelination was detected after TGFβ gain of function, while TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) deletion in OPs prevents their development into mature myelinating OLs, leading to SCWM hypomyelination in mice. TGFβ signaling modulates OP cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation through the transcriptional modulation of c-myc and p21 gene expression, mediated by the interaction of SMAD3/4 with Sp1 and FoxO1 transcription factors. Our study is the first to demonstrate an autonomous and crucial role of TGFβ signaling in OL development and CNS myelination, and may provide new avenues in the treatment of demyelinating diseases.

  15. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  16. Ground states of larger nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    The methods used for the few-body nuclei require operations on the complete spin-isospin vector; the size of this vector makes such methods impractical for nuclei with A > 8. During the last few years we developed cluster expansion methods that do not require operations on the complete vector. We use the same Hamiltonians as for the few-body nuclei and variational wave functions of form similar to the few-body wave functions. The cluster expansions are made for the noncentral parts of the wave functions and for the operators whose expectation values are being evaluated. The central pair correlations in the wave functions are treated exactly and this requires the evaluation of 3A-dimensional integrals which are done with Monte Carlo techniques. Most of our effort was on {sup 16}O, other p-shell nuclei, and {sup 40}Ca. In 1993 the Mathematics and Computer Science Division acquired a 128-processor IBM SP which has a theoretical peak speed of 16 Gigaflops (GFLOPS). We converted our program to run on this machine. Because of the large memory on each node of the SP, it was easy to convert the program to parallel form with very low communication overhead. Considerably more effort was needed to restructure the program from one oriented towards long vectors for the Cray computers at NERSC to one that makes efficient use of the cache of the RS6000 architecture. The SP made possible complete five-body cluster calculations of {sup 16}O for the first time; previously we could only do four-body cluster calculations. These calculations show that the expectation value of the two-body potential is converging less rapidly than we had thought, while that of the three-body potential is more rapidly convergent; the net result is no significant change to our predicted binding energy for {sup 16}O using the new Argonne v{sub 18} potential and the Urbana IX three-nucleon potential. This result is in good agreement with experiment.

  17. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  18. Hot filament-dissociation of (CH3)3SiH and (CH3)4Si, probed by vacuum ultra violet laser time of flight mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh C; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2006-11-01

    The decomposition of trimethylsilane and tetramethylsilane has been investigated for the first time, using hot wire (catalytic) at various temperatures. Trimethylsilane is catalytic-dissociated in these species SiH(2), CH(3)SiH, CH(3), CH(2)Si. Time of flight mass spectroscopy signal of these species are linearly increasing with increasing catalytic-temperature. Time of flight mass spectroscopy (TOFMS) signals of (CH(3))(3)SiH and photodissociated into (CH(3))(2)SiH are decreasing with increasing hot filament temperature. TOFMS signal of (CH(3))(4)Si is decreasing with increasing hot wire temperature, but (CH(3))(3)Si signal is almost constant with increasing the temperature. We calculated activation energies of dissociated species of the parental molecules for fundamental information of reaction kinetics for the first time. Catalytic-dissociation of trimethylsilane, and tetramethylsilane single source time of flight coupled single photon VUV (118 nm) photoionization collisionless radicals at temperature range of tungsten filament 800-2360 K. The study is focused to understand the fundamental information on reaction kinetics of these molecules at hot wire temperature, and processes of catalytic-chemical vapour deposition (Cat-CVD) technique which could be implemented in amorphous and crystalline SiC semiconductors thin films.

  19. Characterization of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) enantiomers in vitro and in the MPTP-lesioned primate: R-MDMA reduces severity of dyskinesia, whereas S-MDMA extends duration of ON-time.

    PubMed

    Huot, Philippe; Johnston, Tom H; Lewis, Katie D; Koprich, James B; Reyes, M Gabriela; Fox, Susan H; Piggott, Matthew J; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2011-05-11

    l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, but long-term l-DOPA administration is marred by the emergence of motor complications, namely, dyskinesia and a shortening of antiparkinsonian benefit (wearing-OFF). 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is unique in that it exerts antidyskinetic effects and may enhance antiparkinsonian actions of l-DOPA. MDMA is composed of two enantiomers with different pharmacological profiles; here, we describe a novel enantiospecific synthesis of the two enantiomers and expand on the previous characterization of their pharmacology. R-MDMA (rectus-MDMA) is relatively selective for 5-HT(2A) receptors, whereas S-MDMA (sinister-MDMA) inhibits both serotonin (SERT) and dopamine transporters (DAT; SERT/DAT ratio of 10 to 1). R- or S-MDMA (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered in combination with l-DOPA (15 mg/kg, s.c.) to six female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) rendered parkinsonian by MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) administration. Motor disability, including parkinsonism and dyskinesia, and duration of antiparkinsonian benefit (ON-time) were evaluated. After the administration of R-MDMA (3 and 10 mg/kg), the severity of peak-dose dyskinesia was decreased (by 33 and 46%, respectively; p < 0.05); although total ON-time was unchanged (approximately 220 min), the duration of ON-time with disabling dyskinesia was decreased by 90 min when compared to l-DOPA alone (69% reduction; p < 0.05). S-MDMA (1 mg/kg) increased the total ON-time by 88 min compared to l-DOPA alone (34% increase; p < 0.05), though dyskinesia were exacerbated. These data suggest that racemic MDMA exerts simultaneous effects, reducing dyskinesia and extending ON-time, by 5-HT(2A) antagonism and SERT-selective mixed monoamine uptake inhibition, which arise from its R and S enantiomers, respectively.

  20. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  1. Comparison of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tube method with the conventional method and real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raut, U; Rantai, S; Narang, P; Chauhan, D S; Chahar, M; Narang, R; Mendiratta, D K

    2012-01-01

    Colorimetric methods are cheap, reproducible, and rapid methods of detecting drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method is one such technique that has been established in our laboratory to detect rifampicin resistance. The present study compared the results of the MTT method with those of the proportion method and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) in order to establish sensitivity and specificity of MTT. The mutations for rifampicin resistance occur in rpoB gene, and the commonest reported are in codons 526 and 531. Therefore, RTPCR was targeted at these two codons. The concordance of MTT with the proportion method and RTPCR was 94 and 72.77%, respectively, and that of RTPCR with the proportion method was 77.77%. While the study confirmed that the MTT method is a good method for detecting rifampicin resistance, it also brought out the fact that RTPCR when targeted for limited mutations is not a good tool. Either the genotypic method used should target the total 81-bp rpoB genome or methods such as DNA sequencing should be used. For resource-constraint laboratories, the MTT method can be considered as a better choice.

  2. Impact of HCV kinetics on treatment outcome differs by the type of real-time HCV assay in NS3/4A protease inhibitor-based triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Furusyo, Norihiro; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Takeo; Shimizu, Motohiro; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Taeko; Uchiumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Repeated measurement of the HCV RNA level is essential for properly monitoring treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of two HCV real-time assays in the evaluation of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics on the outcome of triple therapy with NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir or simeprevir. This study consisted of 171 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. All 3266 serum samples taken during and post treatment were tested with both the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HCV Test v2.0 and the Abbott RealTime (ART) HCV Test. Of the 2597 samples undetectable (lower limit of detection [

  3. Plan Turbines 3 & 4, Side View Turbines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan - Turbines 3 & 4, Side View - Turbines 3 & 4, Section A-A - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  4. 32 CFR 3.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 3.4 Section 3.4 National Defense..., GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.4 Definitions. Agency point of contact (POC... organization reporting directly to a home office, usually identified with responsibility for profit...

  5. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  6. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  7. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  8. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  9. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  10. 38 CFR 3.4 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compensation. 3.4 Section..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.4 Compensation. (a) Compensation. This term...) Disability compensation. (1) Basic entitlement for a veteran exists if the veteran is disabled as the...

  11. Bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective is to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. The attained benefits are obtained by first providing the bis (exocyclodiene) bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane, which is a novel material formed from the monomer N-phenyl-3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidine. This compound undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide, without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide bis (4-(3,4-dimethylene-pyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane.

  12. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  13. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  14. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  15. Chemical modification of spiramycins. IV. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activities of 3'',4''-diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spriamycin I.

    PubMed

    Sano, H; Sunazuka, T; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, K; Okachi, R; Omura, S

    1984-07-01

    3'',4''-Diacylates and 3,3'',4''-triacylates of spiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by the four parameters, MIC against bacteria, affinity to ribosomes, retention time in HPLC and therapeutic effect. Among them, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyryl-spiramycin I were the most active in vivo, which were superior to acetylspiramycin.

  16. Why do larger mothers produce larger offspring? A test of classic theory.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Hayley; Monro, Keyne; Malerba, Martino; Munch, Stephan; Marshall, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Across a wide range of taxa, larger mothers produce larger offspring. Theory assumes that larger, more fecund mothers create higher local densities of siblings, and so larger mothers produce larger offspring to offset sibling competition. This assumption has been debated for over 30 yr, but direct empirical tests are surprisingly rare. Here, we test two key assumptions of classic theories that predict sibling competition drives maternal-size-offspring-size (MSOS) correlations: (1) independent effects of offspring size and sibling density on offspring performance or (2) as a product of an interaction between these two factors. To simultaneously test these alternative assumptions, we manipulate offspring size and sibling density in the marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina, and monitor offspring performance in the field. We found that, depending on the fitness metric being considered, offspring size and sibling density can either independently or interactively affect offspring performance. Yet sibling density did not affect offspring performance in the ways that classic theories assume. Given our results, it is unlikely that sibling competition drives the positive MSOS correlation observed in this species. Empirical support for these classic theories remains lacking, suggesting alternative explanations are necessary.

  17. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  18. Spatiotemporal control of endocytosis by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Posor, York; Eichhorn-Gruenig, Marielle; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schöneberg, Johannes; Ullrich, Alexander; Lampe, André; Müller, Rainer; Zarbakhsh, Sirus; Gulluni, Federico; Hirsch, Emilio; Krauss, Michael; Schultz, Carsten; Schmoranzer, Jan; Noé, Frank; Haucke, Volker

    2013-07-11

    Phosphoinositides serve crucial roles in cell physiology, ranging from cell signalling to membrane traffic. Among the seven eukaryotic phosphoinositides the best studied species is phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is concentrated at the plasma membrane where, among other functions, it is required for the nucleation of endocytic clathrin-coated pits. No phosphatidylinositol other than PI(4,5)P2 has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas the subsequent endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway are dominated by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphates(PI(3)P). How phosphatidylinositol conversion from PI(4,5)P2-positive endocytic intermediates to PI(3)P-containing endosomes is achieved is unclear. Here we show that formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) by class II phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase C2α (PI(3)K C2α) spatiotemporally controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of PI(3,4)P2 or PI(3)K C2α impairs the maturation of late-stage clathrin-coated pits before fission. Timed formation of PI(3,4)P2 by PI(3)K C2α is required for selective enrichment of the BAR domain protein SNX9 at late-stage endocytic intermediates. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for the role of PI(3,4)P2 in endocytosis and unravel a novel discrete function of PI(3,4)P2 in a central cell physiological process.

  19. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  20. Spectroscopic properties of Eu 3+-doped KLa(PO 3) 4 and LiLa(PO 3) 4 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhi, M.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2011-11-01

    KLa(PO 3) 4 (KLP) and LiLa(PO 3) 4 (LLP) doped with different concentrations of Eu 3+ are grown by solid state reaction. The obtained powders are identified by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. These polyphosphates KLa(PO 3) 4 and LiLa(PO 3) 4 crystallize in the monoclinic system but with different space groups respectively P2 1 and C2/c. The evolution of crystal lattice parameters as function of Eu 3+ concentration in these host lattices was studied. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu 3+-doped KLa(PO 3) 4 and LiLa(PO 3) 4 at room temperature (RT) are presented. The excitation spectra of the Eu 3+ ion in condensed polyphosphates along the UV-Visible domain are registered. They show that the position of the charge transfer band (CTB) depends on the host lattices. The effect of structural characteristics of condensed polyphosphates on their optical and colorimetric properties was investigated for the first time. Colorimetric parameters of the Eu 3+ ions red emission in KLP and LLP are determined and compared with other host matrices. Evolution of colorimetric properties as function of Eu 3+concentration was discussed.

  1. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  2. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  3. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  5. 43 CFR 5511.3-4 - Removal by agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-4 Removal by agent. A free-use permittee may procure the timber by agent. Such agent shall not, however, be paid more than fair compensation for the time, labor and money expended in procuring timber...

  6. Bis(4-(3,4-dimethylenepyrrolidyl)-phenyl) methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenbrite, Raphael M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    It is the primary object of the present invention to prepare high temperature polymeric materials, especially linear aromatic polyimides, which maintain their integrity and toughness during long exposure times at elevated temperatures. According to the present invention, this object is achieved, and the attending benefits are obtained, by first providing the bis(exocyclodiene) bis(4-(3,4-dinethylene pyrrolidyl) phenyl) methane, which is formed from the monomer N-phenyl 3,4-dimethylene pyrrolidine. This bis-(exocyclodiene) undergoes Diels-Alder reaction with a bismaleimide without the evolution of gaseous by-products, to form the aromatic polyimide.

  7. LiHo(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zarkouna, Emna; Driss, Ahmed; Férid, Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Lithium holmium(III) polyphosphate(V), LiHo(PO3)4, belongs to the type I of polyphosphates with general formula ALn(PO3)4, where A is a monovalent cation and Ln is a trivalent rare earth cation. In the crystal structure, the polyphosphate chains spread along the b-axis direction, with a repeat period of four tetra­hedra and 21 inter­nal symmetry. The Li and Ho atoms are both located on twofold rotation axes and are surrounded by four and eight O atoms, leading to a distorted tetra­hedral and dodeca­hedral coordination, respectively. The HoO8 polyhedra are isolated from each other, the closest Ho⋯Ho distance being 5.570 (1) Å. PMID:21581738

  8. LiDy(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Chehimi-Moumen, Fathia; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium dysprosium polyphosphate, LiDy(PO3)4, were prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains extending along the b axis. Dy3+ and Li+ cations alternate in the middle of four such chains, with Dy⋯Li distances of 3.54 (1) and 3.48 (1) Å. The DyO8 dodeca­hedra and LiO4 tetra­hedra deviate significantly from the ideal geometry. Both Dy and Li occupy special positions (Wyckoff position 4e, site symmetry 2). PMID:21202729

  9. STARS Proceedings (3-4 December 1991)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-04

    SUBTITLE S FUNDING NUMBERS STARS 󈨟 Proceedings 3-4 December, 1991 F19628-88-D-0031 6. AUTHOR (S) Paramax Corporation 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...See authorities . Block 4. Title and Subtitle. A title is taken from NASA - See Handbook NH8 2200.2. ,he part of the report that provides the most NTIS...numbers shown in the Authors Index found at the back of these proceedings include a coded prefix (P, 1, 2, 3, or 4) to indicate the part of the

  10. Larger female fish contribute disproportionately more to self-replenishment.

    PubMed

    Beldade, R; Holbrook, S J; Schmitt, R J; Planes, S; Malone, D; Bernardi, G

    2012-06-07

    While chance events, oceanography and selective pressures inject stochasticity into the replenishment of marine populations with dispersing life stages, some determinism may arise as a result of characteristics of breeding individuals. It is well known that larger females have higher fecundity, and recent laboratory studies have shown that maternal traits such as age and size can be positively associated with offspring growth, size and survival. Whether such fecundity and maternal effects translate into higher recruitment in marine populations remains largely unanswered. We studied a population of Amphiprion chrysopterus (orange-fin anemonefish) in Moorea, French Polynesia, to test whether maternal size influenced the degree of self-recruitment on the island through body size-fecundity and/or additional size-related maternal effects of offspring. We non-lethally sampled 378 adult and young juveniles at Moorea, and, through parentage analysis, identified the mothers of 27 self-recruits (SRs) out of 101 recruits sampled. We also identified the sites occupied by each mother of an SR and, taking into account variation in maternal size among sites, we found that females that produced SRs were significantly larger than those that did not (approx. 7% greater total length, approx. 20% greater biomass). Our analyses further reveal that the contribution of larger females to self-recruitment was significantly greater than expected on the basis of the relationship between body size and fecundity, indicating that there were important maternal effects of female size on traits of their offspring. These results show, for the first time in a natural population, that larger female fish contribute more to local replenishment (self-recruitment) and, more importantly, that size-specific fecundity alone could not explain the disparity.

  11. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  12. Electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jeffrey F; Miller, Thomas M; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K; Viggiano, A A; Rekha, G K; Stevens, Amy E

    2008-03-14

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF(3))(4) and Pt(PF(3))(4) using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF(3))(4) is 1.9 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39+/-5 meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF(3))(4) is 5.4 x 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1) at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84+/-8 meV. For both complexes, a PF(3) ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF(3))(3)(-) ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF(3))(4) and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  13. Electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman-Schaffer, Jessica K.; Viggiano, A. A.; Rekha, G. K.; Stevens, Amy E.

    2008-03-01

    An experimental study has been made of thermal electron attachment to the transition-metal trifluorophosphine complexes Ni(PF3)4 and Pt(PF3)4 using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. Both complexes are efficient at electron attachment, although the rate constants are somewhat less than collisional. The rate constant for electron attachment to Ni(PF3)4 is 1.9×10-7cm3s-1 at room temperature, about a factor of 2 less than collisional. The activation energy is 39±5meV for the attachment reaction. The rate constant for electron attachment to Pt(PF3)4 is 5.4×10-8cm3s-1 at room temperature, and the activation energy is 84±8meV. For both complexes, a PF3 ligand is lost on electron attachment, and only the M(PF3)3- ion is observed in the negative-ion mass spectrum. Density functional calculations were carried out on Ni(PF3)4 and various fragments in order to describe the thermochemistry of the attachment reaction.

  14. The marine polyketide myriaporone 3/4 stalls translation by targeting the elongation phase.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Yazh; Roy, Myriam; Raja, Aruna; Taylor, Richard E; Sasse, Florenz

    2013-01-21

    Myriaporone 3/4, a cytotoxic polyketide, has been reported as an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits translation was unknown. Here we show that myriaporone 3/4 stalls protein synthesis in the elongation phase by inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The phosphorylation results from direct binding of myriaporone 3/4 to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Our study also shows that myriaporone 3/4 in the nanomolar range inhibits in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells without being cytotoxic. In general, myriaporone 3/4 was at least 300 times less toxic to primary cells than to tumor cells.

  15. KPr(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Oudahmane, Abdelghani; Daoud, Mohamed; Tanouti, Boumediene; Avignant, Daniel; Zambon, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, potassium praseodymium(III) polyphosphate, were obtained by solid-state reaction. The monoclinic non-centrosymmetric structure is isotypic with all other KLn(PO3)4 analogues from Ln = La to Er, inclusive. The crystal structure of these long-chain polyphosphates is built up from infinite crenelated polyphosphate chains of corner-sharing PO4 tetra­hedra with a repeating unit of four tetra­hedra. These chains, running along [100], are arranged in a pseudo-tetra­gonal rod packing and are further linked by isolated PrO8 square anti­prisms [Pr—O = 2.3787 (9)–2.5091 (8) Å], forming a three-dimensional framework. The K+ ions reside in channels parallel to [010] and exhibit a highly distorted coordination sphere by eight O atoms at distances ranging from 2.7908 (9) to 3.1924 (11) Å. PMID:21588081

  16. Differentiation of CD3-4-8- human fetal thymocytes in vivo: characterization of a CD3-4+8- intermediate

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Human thymocyte differentiation was examined by injecting fetal thymic progenitor populations into human thymic xenografts in SCID-hu mice. Thymic progenitors were fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye PKH2. The phenotypes of their progeny could be identified by flow cytometric analysis of cells with a very high fluorescent PKH2 signal. Intrathymic injection of purified triple negative (TN) CD3-4-8- thymocytes resulted in the sequential appearance of CD3-4+8-, CD3-4+8+, and CD3+4+8+ cells, with the subsequent appearance of small numbers of phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ cells over a 4-d period. Sorted CD3-4+8- thymocytes injected intrathymically rapidly differentiated to CD4+8+ cells. CD4+8+ fetal thymocytes in cell cycle differentiated into phenotypically mature CD3+4+8- and CD3+4-8+ populations, whereas nondividing CD4+8+ cells failed to differentiate after intrathymic transfer. The number of cell divisions that occurred between the injection of TN thymocytes and their progeny at different time points was estimated based on the decrease in the intensity of the PKH2 label. The average length of the cell cycle for the TN population was calculated to be 24 h. The SCID-hu model thus provides a useful tool for studying the kinetics of cell division and differentiation of human thymocytes in vivo. PMID:8315382

  17. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase

  18. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  19. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time. PMID:27721429

  20. Ineffectiveness of 3,4-diaminopyridine as a therapy for type C botulism.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, L.S.; Price, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins inhibit acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Agents stimulating neurotransmitter efflux, such as 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), could be useful for botulism therapy. Treatment with 3,4-DAP (8 mg/kg hourly, beginning 3 hr after toxin injection) failed to increase the survival times of mice receiving 10, 20 or 40 LD50 type C, but did prolong the survival of those receiving 20 LD50 type A. This difference in 3,4-DAP efficacy may reflect variations in the molecular mechanism of action of types A and C botulinum neurotoxins.

  1. Angular Distributions for 3,4 Lambda H Bound States in the 3,4 He(e,e'K+) reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Frank; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Avery, Steven; Bailey, Kevin; Hu, Bitao; Breuer, Herbert; Brown, Daniel; Carlini, Roger; Cha, Jinseok; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Cole, Leon; Crowder, J.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Juengst, Henry; Keppel, Cynthia; Liang, Yongguang; Liu, Jinghua; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Potterveld, David; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sarsour, Murad; Sato, Yoshinori; Segel, Ralph; Semenov, Andrei; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tang, Liguang; Uzzle, Alicia; Wood, Stephen; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Chen; Yuan, Lulin; Zeidman, Benjamin; Zeier, Markus; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2004-12-01

    The 3Lambda H and 4Lambda H hypernuclear bound states have been observed for the first time in kaon electroproduction on 3,4He targets. The production cross sections have been determined at Q**2= 0.35 GeV**2 and W= 1.91 GeV. For either hypernucleus the nuclear form factor is determined by comparing the angular distribution of the 3,4He(e,e'K+)3,4Lambda H processes to the elementary cross section 1H(e,e'K+) Lambda on the free proton, measured during the same experiment.

  2. Determination of caffeine in coffee products by dynamic complexation with 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate and separation by CZE.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Thiago; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio

    2007-10-01

    A method based on the formation of pi-complexes with chlorogenate-like species was proposed for the determination of caffeine in regular (nondecaffeinated) and decaffeinated coffee. Both caffeate and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate were able to transform caffeine--a neutral species in aqueous solutions--into an anionic species. The usage of 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate in the running electrolyte is advantageous, because of its greater chemical stability and the improved resolution of the peaks of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. Negative peaks were registered with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector when solutions of these alkylxanthines were analyzed with a BGE composed of 20 mmol/L 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid and pH adjusted to 8.5 with Tris. This behavior was expected, because the complex is larger and thus should move slower than the free anion. Caffeine was determined in ground and instant coffee with precision and accuracy that meet Brazilian norms about such products. The LOD was estimated as 33 mg/L, which corresponds to 0.8 and 0.3 mg of caffeine per gram of dry instant coffee and ground coffee, respectively. For the case of decaffeinated coffee, ten times preconcentration with dichloromethane was carried out to allow the quantitation of caffeine, which should not exceed the concentration of 1 mg/g in dry matter.

  3. PETSc Users Manual Revision 3.4

    SciTech Connect

    Balay, S.; Brown, J.; Buschelman, K.; Eijkhout, V.; Gropp, W.; Kaushik, D.; Knepley, M.; McInnes, L. Curfman; Smith, B.; Zhang, H.

    2014-06-29

    This manual describes the use of PETSc for the numerical solution of partial differential equations and related problems on high-performance computers. The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is a suite of data structures and routines that provide the building blocks for the implementation of large-scale application codes on parallel (and serial) computers. PETSc uses the MPI standard for all message-passing communication. PETSc includes an expanding suite of parallel linear, nonlinear equation solvers and time integrators that may be used in application codes written in Fortran, C, C++, Python, and MATLAB (sequential). PETSc provides many of the mechanisms needed within parallel application codes, such as parallel matrix and vector assembly routines. The library is organized hierarchically, enabling users to employ the level of abstraction that is most appropriate for a particular problem. By using techniques of object-oriented programming, PETSc provides enormous flexibility for users. PETSc is a sophisticated set of software tools; as such, for some users it initially has a much steeper learning curve than a simple subroutine library. In particular, for individuals without some computer science background, experience programming in C, C++ or Fortran and experience using a debugger such as gdb or dbx, it may require a significant amount of time to take full advantage of the features that enable efficient software use. However, the power of the PETSc design and the algorithms it incorporates may make the efficient implementation of many application codes simpler than “rolling them” yourself; For many tasks a package such as MATLAB is often the best tool; PETSc is not intended for the classes of problems for which effective MATLAB code can be written. PETSc also has a MATLAB interface, so portions of your code can be written in MATLAB to “try out” the PETSc solvers. The resulting code will not be scalable however because

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent...

  6. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  7. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or...) Requests by any person or organization outside of the Department for permission to use the Seal must...

  8. 43 CFR 3400.3-4 - Trust protection lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Trust protection lands. 3400.3-4 Section 3400.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...: General § 3400.3-4 Trust protection lands. The regulations in this group do not apply to the leasing...

  9. 45 CFR 1210.3-4 - Initiation of termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initiation of termination. 1210.3-4 Section 1210.3-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-4 Initiation...

  10. 34 CFR 3.4 - Use of the seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of the seal. 3.4 Section 3.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education OFFICIAL SEAL § 3.4 Use of the seal. (a) Use by any person or organization outside of the Department may be made only with the Department's prior written approval....

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified...

  19. Larger Units: Theater Army, Army Group, Field Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    LARGER UNITS: Theater Army, Army Group , Field Army St Fort LeawiivfoW, Kansas /A ’j>’" /\\(7 ’"VX <\\,» •«:-•$-(••’•.•->’-:-j Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1984 to 00-00-1984 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Larger Units: Theater Army, Army Group , Field Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Bibliography No. 4 LARGER UNITS: THEATER ARMY—ARMY GROUP —FIELD ARMY by LTC Gary L. Bounds Combat Studies Institute U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  20. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs Even many smokers think these warnings should ... 31, 2017 FRIDAY, March 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cigarette packs carry health warnings, but many Americans think ...

  1. Inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate mobilizes calcium in Xenopus oocytes with high potency.

    PubMed Central

    Ivorra, I; Gigg, R; Irvine, R F; Parker, I

    1991-01-01

    Injection of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 into Xenopus oocytes evoked Ca2(+)-dependent membrane currents with a potency 5-10 times less than Ins(1,4,5)P3, whereas Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 were almost ineffective. Responses to Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 arose through liberation of intracellular Ca2+ and through entry of extracellular Ca2+. These results, together with the observation that Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 facilitated responses to Ins(1,4,5)P3, suggests that both of these compounds may act on the same intracellular receptors. PMID:1991032

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  3. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  4. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amy C; McDowell, Nathan G; Allen, Craig D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2015-09-28

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change(1-3). Droughts alter the structure and function of forests(4,5). Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests(6) and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage(7) and hydrology(8), exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees(4,5,9,10). Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress(11-14), the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns(4,15), and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees(16). We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  5. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  6. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  7. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  8. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  9. Optimal performance of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2016-12-01

    Resonant pumping associated with the influence of the quantum-defect between the excitation and the emitted laser photons allow optimal performance of neodymium ions (Nd3+) based random lasers (RLs), as demonstrated here for the first time. The RL emission at 1063.5 nm due to the Nd3+ transition 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 in a powder consisting of NdAl3(BO3)4 nanocrystals, was investigated by exciting the powder at 690 nm, 750 nm, 810 nm, and 884 nm in resonance with the Nd3+ transitions from the ground state (4I9/2) to the 4F9/2, {4F7/2,4S3/2}, {4F5/2,4H9/2}, and 4F3/2 states, respectively. Although the Nd3+ absorption cross-section at 884 nm is smaller than those centered at 810 and 750 nm, excitation at 884 nm, that is in resonance with the emitting level, provided the smaller excitation pulse energy threshold and the larger slope efficiency due to the lower quantum defect.

  10. Enhanced nearfield acoustic holography for larger distances of reconstructions using fixed parameter Tikhonov regularization

    DOE PAGES

    Chelliah, Kanthasamy; Raman, Ganesh G.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2016-07-07

    This paper evaluates the performance of various regularization parameter choice methods applied to different approaches of nearfield acoustic holography when a very nearfield measurement is not possible. For a fixed grid resolution, the larger the hologram distance, the larger the error in the naive nearfield acoustic holography reconstructions. These errors can be smoothed out by using an appropriate order of regularization. In conclusion, this study shows that by using a fixed/manual choice of regularization parameter, instead of automated parameter choice methods, reasonably accurate reconstructions can be obtained even when the hologram distance is 16 times larger than the grid resolution.

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  12. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-4 - Range management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range management. 9269.3-4 Section 9269.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Range management. (a) Grazing administration—exclusive of Alaska—(1) Unlawful enclosures or...

  15. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  16. 21 CFR 3.4 - Designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designated agency component. 3.4 Section 3.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT.... Where the primary mode of action is that of: (1) A drug (other than a biological product), the...

  17. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  18. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  19. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  20. 43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3... Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug and... newly completed or recompleted well in which oil or gas is not encountered in paying quantities or...

  1. Ductile fracture by cavity nucleation between larger voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1982-08-01

    A MECHANISM of ductile fracture involving the interaction of relatively large voids with small-scale voids is studied by a computational model. The larger voids are described as circular cylindrical holes arranged in a doubly periodic array in the initial state. In the matrix material between these voids the nucleation and growth of much smaller voids is accounted for by using approximate constitutive equations for a ductile, porous medium. The computations show bands of highly localized straining and void growth, initiating at the surfaces of larger voids and growing into the matrix material, until the bands connect two neighbouring voids. The materials are analysed both under plane strain conditions and under conditions approximating those in a round tensile bar. The failure strains obtained under different principal stress ratios show rather good agreement when plotted against a measure of the stress-triaxiality.

  2. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  3. Synthesis and pharmacological properties of benzothiazole, 1,3-4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Santagati, M; Modica, M; Santagati, A; Russo, F; Caruso, A; Cutuli, V; Di Pietro, E; Amico-Roxas, M

    1994-12-01

    The reaction of the 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles 9, 10 and the benzothiazoles 11, 12 with ethyl cyanoacetate is described. The obtained cyanoacetamide derivatives 13-16 gave the benzylidene derivatives 18-21 by condensation with benzaldehyde. 2-Phenyl-5-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidin-7-one (17) was also obtained. Moreover, the preparation of 6,7,8,9-tetraydro-5H-1,3,4-thiadiazolo[2,3-b]quinazolin++ +-5-thio-derivatives 22-25 and N-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-5-substituted)-3,4-5,6-tetrahydro-anthran ilic acids 26-29 is also described. All above compounds and compounds, related to them, 1-8 were tested for their analgesic and antiinflammatory activities and the pharmacological screening results are reported and discussed.

  4. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -3 8 Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation G eo te ch ni ca l a nd...Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program ERDC/GSL TR-14-38 September 2014 AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation Timothy W. Rushing, Lyan...brickwork pattern. Therefore, the 3-4 alternate lay pattern was designed to allow Marines to use any mats on hand to fill in designated portions of the

  5. Monitoring of surface burn after grinding larger bearing rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslušan, M.; Mičietová, A.; Čilliková, M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with detection of surface burn after grinding of larger bearing rings made of case - hardened steels. The paper reports about calibration of Barkhausen noise technique for non destructive monitoring of grinding operations for rings of diameter in the range of 600 up to 4000 mm. Properly suggested monitoring concept enables to detect thermal damage due to grinding wheel wear as well as insufficient coolant supply. Further, grinding burn associated with lack of coolant can be clearly distinguished from damage corresponding grinding wheel wear. The paper also discusses increasing magnetoelastic responses obtained after grinding rings of higher diameters.

  6. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  7. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  8. How much larger quantum correlations are than classical ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, Adán

    2005-07-01

    Considering as distance between two two-party correlations the minimum number of half local results one party must toggle in order to turn one correlation into the other, we show that the volume of the set of physically obtainable correlations in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell scenario is (3π/8)2≈1.388 larger than the volume of the set of correlations obtainable in local deterministic or probabilistic hidden-variable theories, but is only 3π2/32≈0.925 of the volume allowed by arbitrary causal (i.e., no-signaling) theories.

  9. Drug interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy").

    PubMed

    Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Song, Byoung-Joon; Lee, Insong J

    2009-07-24

    Alcohol (ethanol) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) are frequently co-abused, but recent findings indicate a harmful drug interaction between these two agents. In our previous study, we showed that MDMA exposure inhibits the activity of the acetaldehyde (ACH) metabolizing enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that the co-administration of MDMA and ethanol would reduce the metabolism of ACH and result in increased accumulation of ACH. Rats were treated with MDMA or vehicle and then administered a single dose of ethanol. Liver ALDH2 activity decreased by 35% in the MDMA-treated rats compared to control rats. The peak concentration and the area under the concentration versus time curve of plasma ACH were 31% and 59% higher, respectively, in the MDMA-ethanol group compared to the ethanol-only group. In addition, the MDMA-ethanol group had 80% higher plasma transaminase levels than the ethanol-only group, indicating greater hepatocellular damage. Our results not only support a drug interaction between MDMA and ethanol but a novel underlying mechanism for the interaction.

  10. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  11. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    . Undergraduate research projects in which 3-4 students work together to collect necessary data can get around the class vs. research scheduling issues they face as they can share the laboratory workload through the week. Group projects can thus collect larger bodies of data, allowing students to address more substantive problems.

  12. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  13. Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Eenhoorn, Evelien; Bot, Adriane N M; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2003-10-07

    We use a full factorial design to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal developmental temperature, as well as female oviposition temperature, on egg size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Butterflies were raised at two different temperatures and mated in four possible sex-by-parental-temperature crosses. The mated females were randomly divided between high and low oviposition temperatures. On the first day after assigning the females to different temperatures, only female developmental temperature affected egg size. Females reared at the lower temperature laid larger eggs than those reared at a higher temperature. When eggs were measured again after an acclimation period of 10 days, egg size was principally determined by the prevailing temperature during oviposition, with females ovipositing at a lower temperature laying larger eggs. In contrast to widely used assumptions, the effects of developmental temperature were largely reversible. Male developmental temperature did not affect egg size in either of the measurements. Overall, developmental plasticity and acclimation in the adult stage resulted in very similar patterns of egg size plasticity. Consequently, we argue that the most important question when testing the significance of acclamatory changes is not at which stage a given plasticity is induced, but rather whether plastic responses to environmental change are adaptive or merely physiological constraints.

  14. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-ionic liquid coating improves neural recording and stimulation functionality of MEAs

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhanhong Jeff; Luo, Xiliang; Weaver, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    In vivo multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) can sense electrical signals from a small set of neurons or modulate neural activity through micro-stimulation. Electrode's geometric surface area (GSA) and impedance are important for both unit recording and neural stimulation. Smaller GSA is preferred due to enhanced selectivity of neural signal, but it tends to increase electrode impedance. Higher impedance leads to increased electrical noise and signal loss in single unit neural recording. It also yields a smaller charge injection window for safe neural stimulation. To address these issues, poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) - ionic liquid (PEDOT-IL) conducting polymers were electrochemically polymerized on the surface of the microelectrodes. The PEDOT-IL coating reduced the electrode impedance modulus by over 35 times at 1 kHz. It also exhibited compelling nanostructure in surface morphology and significant impedance reduction in other physiologically relevant range (100Hz-1000Hz). PEDOT-IL coated electrodes exhibited a Charge Storage Capacity (CSC) that was about 20 times larger than that of bare electrodes. The neural recording performance of PEDOT-IL coated electrodes was also compared with uncoated electrodes and PEDOT-poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS) coated electrodes in rat barrel cortex (SI). Spontaneous neural activity and sensory evoked neural response were utilized for characterizing the electrode performance. The PEDOT-IL electrodes exhibited a higher unit yield and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in vivo. The local field potential recording was benefited from the low impedance PEDOT-IL coating in noise and artifact reduction as well. Moreover, cell culture on PEDOT-IL coating demonstrated that the material is safe for neural tissue and reduces astrocyte fouling. Taken together, PEDOT-IL coating has the potential to benefit neural recording and stimulation electrodes, especially when integrated with novel small GSA electrode arrays designed for high recording density

  15. 17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BUILDING I, BAYS 3, 4 AND 5, VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTHEAST ELEVATION - Public Service Railway Company, Newton Avenue Car Shops, Bounded by Tenth, Mount Ephraim, Border & Newton Avenue, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  16. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40–70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:26039360

  17. Kv3.4 channel function and dysfunction in nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the isolation of the Kv3.4 current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and described dysregulation of this current in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model of chronic pain. These studies strongly suggest that rat Kv3.4 channels are major regulators of excitability in DRG neurons from pups and adult females, where they help determine action potential (AP) repolarization and spiking properties. Here, we characterized the Kv3.4 current in rat DRG neurons from adult males and show that it transfers 40-70% of the total repolarizing charge during the AP across all ages and sexes. Following SCI, we also found remodeling of the repolarizing currents during the AP. In the light of these studies, homomeric Kv3.4 channels expressed in DRG nociceptors are emerging novel targets that may help develop new approaches to treat neuropathic pain.

  18. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  19. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  20. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a biologically active scaffold.

    PubMed

    Khalilullah, H; Ahsan, M J; Hedaitullah, Md; Khan, S; Ahmed, B

    2012-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in the development of novel compounds with anticonvulsant, antidepressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, antimycobecterial, antitumour, antiviral and antitubercular activities. 1,3,4-oxadiazoles constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities. These observations led to the development of new 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. This review article describes the various biological activities associated with 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring system and is useful in guiding the researchers across the world working on this moiety and consequently have been instrumental in the advancement of 1,3,4-oxadiazole chemistry.

  1. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  2. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  3. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  4. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  5. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  6. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-03-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  7. Synthesis and reactivity of coumarin 3,4-epoxide.

    PubMed

    Born, S L; Rodriguez, P A; Eddy, C L; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1997-11-01

    Coumarin is used widely as a fragrance constituent and is administered clinically in the treatment of certain lymphedemas and malignancies. Although toxicity occurs only rarely in humans treated clinically with high-dose coumarin, it is well established that coumarin is hepatotoxic in the rat. This species difference in susceptibility to toxicity reflects the disparate metabolic processes occurring in humans and rodents. In humans, coumarin is converted extensively via cytochrome P450 2A6 to the nontoxic 7-hydroxycoumarin metabolite. In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxidation is thought to predominate in rodent species, resulting in the formation of several potentially toxic metabolites. Coumarin epoxide is thought to be highly unstable and has not been isolated synthetically or as a microsomal product. To address this issue, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was synthesized, and its stability and fate have been determined. Coumarin 3,4-epoxide was prepared by reacting coumarin with dimethyldioxirane. The epoxide was stable in organic solvents and survived conditions required for analysis by gas chromotography. Its structure was confirmed via 1H-NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-infrared spectroscopy (GC-MS-IR). In contrast, coumarin 3,4-epoxide was unstable in aqueous solution, converting within 20 sec to a ring-opened compound. Using GC-MS-IR analysis, the single coumarin 3,4-epoxide product was identified as o-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (o-HPA). Although other investigators have suggested that 3-hydroxycoumarin is an intermediate in o-HPA formation from coumarin 3,4-epoxide, we have demonstrated that 3-hydroxycoumarin, incubated in an aqueous system or with liver microsomal proteins, does not form o-HPA. Thus, the results of the present work establish that coumarin 3,4-epoxide can be synthesized and that o-HPA, which has previously been shown to be a prominent coumarin metabolite in rat liver microsomal incubations, is formed directly from coumarin 3,4-epoxide. These

  8. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g., 0.27 ± 0.16 Gt C a-1 for 2000-2005 5 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17 ± 0.44 Gt C a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45 ± 0.40 Gt C a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40 ± 0.42 Gt C a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (0.9-1.2 Gt C a-1 for September 2009-August 2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 Gt C a-1 in 2010, Chevallier et al., 2014). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential large scale retrieval biases and/or long-range transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Here we show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02 ± 0.30 Gt C a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. The highest gain in information is obtained during the growing season when satellite observation conditions are advantageous and a priori uncertainties are largest. The consistency among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five

  9. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    PubMed

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm(3), respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm(3) nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  10. Larger Extrastriate Population Receptive Fields in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Elaine J.; de Haas, Benjamin; White, Sarah J.; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Previous behavioral research suggests enhanced local visual processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we used functional MRI and population receptive field (pRF) analysis to test whether the response selectivity of human visual cortex is atypical in individuals with high-functioning ASDs compared with neurotypical, demographically matched controls. For each voxel, we fitted a pRF model to fMRI signals measured while participants viewed flickering bar stimuli traversing the visual field. In most extrastriate regions, perifoveal pRFs were larger in the ASD group than in controls. We observed no differences in V1 or V3A. Differences in the hemodynamic response function, eye movements, or increased measurement noise could not account for these results; individuals with ASDs showed stronger, more reliable responses to visual stimulation. Interestingly, pRF sizes also correlated with individual differences in autistic traits but there were no correlations with behavioral measures of visual processing. Our findings thus suggest that visual cortex in ASDs is not characterized by sharper spatial selectivity. Instead, we speculate that visual cortical function in ASDs may be characterized by extrastriate cortical hyperexcitability or differential attentional deployment. PMID:24523560

  11. Gravitational and electroweak unification by replacing diffeomorphisms with larger group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandres, Dave

    2009-11-01

    The covariance group for general relativity, the diffeomorphisms, is replaced by a group of coordinate transformations which contains the diffeomorphisms as a proper subgroup. The larger group is defined by the assumption that all observers will agree whether any given quantity is conserved. Alternatively, and equivalently, it is defined by the assumption that all observers will agree that the general relativistic wave equation describes the propagation of light. Thus, the group replacement is analogous to the replacement of the Lorentz group by the diffeomorphisms that led Einstein from special relativity to general relativity, and is also consistent with the assumption of constant light velocity that led him to special relativity. The enlarged covariance group leads to a non-commutative geometry based not on a manifold, but on a nonlocal space in which paths, rather than points, are the most primitive invariant entities. This yields a theory which unifies the gravitational and electroweak interactions. The theory contains no adjustable parameters, such as those that are chosen arbitrarily in the standard model.

  12. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  13. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  14. 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential biological agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Makawana, Jigar A; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of novel compound libraries along with screening is a rapid and effective approach for the discovery of potential chemical agents, and it becomes an important method in pharmaceutical chemistry research. 1,3,4- oxadiazole derivatives as the typical heterocyclic compounds, exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities and vital leading compounds for the development of chemical drugs. Herein, we focus on the synthesis and screening of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives with antimicrobial, antitumor or antiviral activities during the past decade. In this review, we discussed the synthetic development of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives, and also the relevant bioactivity and their prospects as the potential chemical drugs.

  15. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  16. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g. 0.27±0.16 GtC a-1 for 2000-2005 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17±0.44 GtC a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45±0.40 GtC a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40±0.42 GtC a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013)). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (1.0-1.3 GtC a-1 for 09/2009-08/2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 GtC a-1 in 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014)). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential retrieval biases and/or transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short-range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large-scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02±0.30 GtC a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. This is qualitatively consistent among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five independent satellite retrievals (BESD (Reuter et al., 2011) 2003-2010, ACOS (O'Dell et al., 2012) 2010, UoL-FP (Cogan et al., 2012) 2010, RemoTeC (Butz et al., 2011) 2010, and NIES (Yoshida et al., 2013) 2010

  17. 3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates--new group of potential cardiotonic drugs.

    PubMed

    Krauze, A; Vītoliņa, R; Garaliene, V; Sīle, L; Klusa, V; Duburs, G

    2005-11-01

    3,4-trans-4-Aryl-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolates 6-11 were prepared by a Michael reaction of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride with 3-aryl-2-cyanothioacrylamides or by a one-pot three-carbon condensation of N-acetonylpyridinium chloride, aromatic aldehyde and 2-cyanothioacetamide, and their cardiotonic properties were studied. 3,4-trans-5-cyano-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-(1-pyridinio)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate 8 was considered as a lead compound in this series since it in vitro experiments (spontaneously beating rat atria) showed a cardiotonic activity similar to that of milrinone 2, however compound 8 induced activity at lover concentrations and without influence on chronotropic action of the heart. Unlike milrinone 2, thiolate 8 in vivo experiments (anaesthetized rats) did not influence blood pressure and heart rate. The acute toxicity of compound 8 was more than 10 times lower than that of milrinone 2.

  18. Light scattering by randomly irregular dielectric particles larger than the wavelength.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    We present results of simulation of light scattering by randomly irregular particles that have dimensions larger than the wavelength of incident light. We apply the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method and compare the accurate solution with that obtained using an approximate geometric-optics model. A qualitative agreement is observed for scattering angle curves of intensity at the size parameter of X=60, whereas angular dependence of polarization appears to be more sensitive to the wave effects and requires larger sizes for application of geometrical optics.

  19. Year 3/4 Children's Forms of Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widjaja, Wanty

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in justifying, forming conjectures and generalising is critical to develop their mathematical reasoning. Previous studies have revealed limited opportunities for primary school children to justify their thinking, form conjectures and generalise in mathematics lessons. Forms of justification of Year 3/4 children from three schools…

  20. Accidental ingestion of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine).

    PubMed Central

    Bedford Russell, A R; Schwartz, R H; Dawling, S

    1992-01-01

    There is no report of the effects of 'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine) poisoning in childhood. The case of a 13 month old boy who ingested one capsule of Ecstasy is reported. Neurological and cardiovascular side effects predominated, which responded well to treatment with a chlormethiazole infusion. PMID:1358033

  1. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  2. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards, design and stipulations....

  3. 6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GATES 3, 4, AND 5, INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING EAST; WATER THAT PASSED INTO PIPES ENTERED SETTLING VAULT. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  4. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... records or other information which will disclose the impact which its tests and other selection procedures... selection rates. The “bottom line.” If the information called for by sections 4A and B of this section...

  5. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards, design and stipulations. 4120.3... ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and...

  7. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  8. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  9. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  10. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  11. 9 CFR 3.4 - Outdoor housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.4 Outdoor housing facilities. (a) Restrictions. (1) The following categories of dogs or cats must not be kept in outdoor facilities, unless that practice is specifically approved by the attending veterinarian: (i) Dogs or cats that are not...

  12. Substituent effect on photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fangyi; Tian, Taiji; Zhao, Chengxiao; Bai, Binglian; Li, Min; Wang, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    A series of phenyl substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized; the effect of substituent on the photophysical properties and molecular electronic structures was fully studied by the combination of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. Compared to parent compound without any substituent (BOXD), fluoro-substituent shows little effect on the absorption and emission spectra, whilst a little larger spectral red-shift could be observed for methoxy-, nitro-substituted derivatives and thienyl-substituted bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TBOXD). These spectral changes can be well explained by theoretically calculated HOMO and LUMO energy level changes. All these molecules show high fluorescence quantum yield except for nitro-substituted derivative in dilute solutions. The quantum yield of BOXD changes with the concentration and exhibits a high value at the concentrated solution. This work revealed the influence of substituent on the photophysical properties of bi-1,3,4-oxadizaole derivatives in dilute solutions and provided guidance for designing molecules with potential application.

  13. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3. 4, Aging Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6].

  14. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers.

  15. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO(3))(4).

    PubMed

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-05-17

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO(3))(4), was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO(4) tetra-hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c.

  16. A monoclinic polymorph of KY(PO3)4

    PubMed Central

    Horchani-Naifer, Karima; Jouini, Anis; Férid, Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, potassium yttrium polyphosphate, KY(PO3)4, was synthesized using the flux method. The atomic arrangement consists of an infinite long-chain polyphosphate organization. Chains, with a period of four PO4 tetra­hedra, run along the a-axis direction. Two other polymorphs of this phosphate are known, in space groups P21/n and C2/c. PMID:21202436

  17. Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamaki, Angeliki K.; Roberts, Roland G.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the seismicity rate behaviour in and around Greece during 2009, seeking significant changes in rate preceding larger events. For individual larger events it is difficult to clearly distinguish precursory rate changes from other, possibly unrelated, variations in seismicity. However, when we aggregate seismicity data occurring within a radius of 10 km and in a 50-day window prior to earthquakes with, e.g. magnitude ≥3.5, the resulting aggregated time series show a clearly increasing trend starting 2-3 weeks prior to the "mainshock" time. We apply statistical tests to investigate if the observed behaviour may be simply consistent with random (poissonian) variations, or, as some earlier studies suggest, with clustering in the sense that high activity rates at some time may imply increased rates later, and thus (randomly) greater probability of larger coming events than for periods of lower seismicity. In this case, rate increases have little useful predictive power. Using data from the entire catalogue, the aggregated rate changes before larger events are clearly and strongly statistically significant and cannot be explained by such clustering. To test this we choose events at random from the catalogue as potential "mainshocks". The events preceding the randomly chosen earthquakes show less pronounced rate increases compared to the observed rate changes prior to larger events. Similar behaviour is observed in data sub-sets. However, statistical confidence decreases for geographical subsets containing few "mainshocks" as it does when data are weighted such that "mainshocks" with many preceding events are strongly downweighted relative to those with fewer. The analyses suggest that genuine changes in aggregated rate do occur prior to larger events and that this behaviour is not due to a small number of mainshocks with many preceding events dominating the analysis. It does not automatically follow that it will be possible to routinely observe precursory

  18. Carl Rogers and the larger context of therapeutic thought.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Paul L

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' classic account (see record 2007-14639-002) of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change is examined in light of developments in theory and practice since the time he wrote. Rogers' ideas, which diverged from and were very largely a challenge to, the dominant psychoanalytic ideology of the era in which he wrote, are considered in relation to new theoretical developments in what has come to be called relational psychoanalysis. They are also considered in light of the greatly increased influence of and substantial evidence supporting behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Points of convergence and divergence among these approaches are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  20. The interdisciplinary team: the whole is larger than the parts.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Nakshatra; Rizk, Dana V

    2014-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging global health problem. Caring for CKD patients is a medical and financial challenge currently placing a significant burden on our health-care system. This creates an impetus to explore nontraditional models of care. In this article, we explore the role of interdisciplinary care clinics in managing the complex and multifaceted aspects of CKD. By having different providers work seamlessly in a synergistic and collaborative environment, there is less risk of fragmentation of care. In this patient-centered model of care, patients are empowered and engaged to achieve therapeutic targets, make lifestyle changes, and participate in decision-making. Timely referral and education delivered by advanced practitioners are 2 of the crucial elements central to the success of the interdisciplinary model. Further studies are needed to identify other key elements that would enhance the interdisciplinary approach to ensure that guideline-based therapeutic targets are reached and to define the subset of patients that would benefit the most. Innovative information technology solutions that could enhance the implementation of interdisciplinary clinics and expand their reach should be exploited. Lastly, for the paradigm shift to occur, the integrative approach should prove to be cost-effective.

  1. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  2. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  3. (3R,4S)-3,4-Isopropylidenedioxy-5-phenylsulfonylmethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 1-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Mari Fe; Garcia, P.; M. Garrido, Narciso; Sanz, Francisca; Diez, David

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H17NO5S, was prepared by oxidation of (2R,3S,4R)-2-phenyl­sulfonyl­methyl-1-hy­droxy-3,4-iso­pro­pyl­idene­dioxy­pyrrolidine. Its crystal structure confirms unequivocally its configuration. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions help to establish the packing. PMID:21754431

  4. Self-assembled structures of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol in hydrophobic polymer matrices prepared using different heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Jhen; Huang, Po-Hsun

    2015-11-01

    We report a method for tuning the nanoarchitectures of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS) with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer matrices. Hydrophobic PVDF facilitated the formation of nanofibrils during heating. The self-assembly behaviors of DMDBS were further tuned by altering the different heat treatments. When the samples were prepared with a rapid heating rate (shorter annealing time), smaller amounts of melted PVDF were excluded due to the shorter time for aggregation of DMDBS, leading to larger complex structures of DMDBS and PVDF. Therefore, longer and thicker nanofibrils (around 100 nm) were observed using scanning electron microscopy. As the samples were prepared with a slow heating rate (longer annealing time), DMDBS had more time to aggregate, and therefore, larger amounts of melted PVDF were excluded. Smaller complex structures of DMDBS and PVDF caused the formation of shorter and thinner nanofibrils (around 40 nm). In addition, small-angle X-ray scattering results indicated that the longer and thicker nanofibrils were mostly excluded outside the PVDF crystalline bundles after cooling because they were too large to be easily incorporated between the PVDF crystalline lamellae. However, a large portion of the smaller and thinner nanofibrils was trapped between the crystalline lamellae after cooling due to their smaller sizes. As expected, the PVDF spherulitic morphologies were affected, but the PVDF crystalline microstructures were not significantly altered by the addition of DMDBS, as shown by the results from polarized optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  5. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  6. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  7. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  8. Functional end-capped conducting poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, V.; Farina, H.; Ortenzi, Marco A.

    2016-05-01

    Methacrylate-terminated Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers with controlled degree of polymerization were successfully prepared by direct oxidative polycondensation between Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and a cross-linkable methacrylate end-capper monomer, obtained via Friedel Crafts acylation starting from EDOT and Methacryloyl chloride. The new polymer was synthesized in order to overcome the well-known technical problems of PEDOT, i.e. difficult processability and patterning, due to its poor solubility in common organic and inorganic solvents. The chemical structure and the degree of polymerization of the end-capped polymers were determined by 1H NMR spectra. A new synthesis of Methacrylate end-capped PEDOT with controlled degree of polymerization, soluble in common organic and chlorinated solvents and with improved conductivity, 210 S/cm, was performed. This method includes: direct oxidative polycondensation of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of a cross-linkable end-capper, i.e. Methacrylate end-capped EDOT prepared via Friedel Crafts acylation with Methacryloyl chloride and oxidant species, i.e. ferric sulfate. Furthermore, the oxidative polycondensation of EDOT monomer and Methacrylate end-capped EDOT in the presence of Sulfonated Polyethersulfone (SPES)- characterized by different degree of Sulfonation (DS)- as dopant agent was performed, leading to functional end-capped conducting PEDOT, easy to process and pattern, with conductivity of 210 S/cm, 50 S/cm higher than the one of commercial PEDOT.

  9. Comparative sorption and desorption of benzo[a]pyrene and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl in natural lake water containing dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Akkanen, Jarkko; Tuikka, Anita; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2005-10-01

    The sorption and desorption of two model compounds, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP), were studied in natural lake water with high dissolved organic matter (DOM) content using the equilibrium dialysis and Tenax extraction methods. The sorption of TCBP was lower and reached steady value more slowly than did BaP. Tenax extraction revealed at least two differently desorbing fractions for both model compounds, which also supported the conclusion that DOM-HOC associations may involve several mechanisms. The rapidly desorbing fraction may be attributed to freely dissolved and loosely sorbed compound, whereas the more strongly sorbed fraction may indicate the presence of specific binding sites. The data indicated that the association between hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) and DOM is not simply absorption that is solely driven by the lipophilicity of the sorbates. Although contact time had a rather negligible effect on the sorption of BaP, the proportion of desorption resistant fraction increased with time, whereas the desorption of TCBP was less affected by contact time. Steric factors may be the cause of the lower sorption and smaller desorption resistant fraction of TCBP. The results indicate potential differences in the behavior of PAHs and PCBs in the aquatic environment.

  10. 3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (ecstasy) use reduces cognition.

    PubMed

    Chummun, Harry; Tilley, Victoria; Ibe, Jude

    3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) use reduces cognition by reducing levels of dopamine and serotonin in the central nervous system. This results in dose-related cognition impairment, particularly in complex cognitive skills, as well as causing disorders such as mood changes, hallucinations, altered perception amd memory loss. MDMA reduces the level of these neurotransmitters within the neural synapses by reducing the number of intraneural transporters to the synaptic clefts, increasing deactivation with the synapse and/ or increasing degradation with the pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Users may have varied reasons for MDMA use and therefore require help and support from their families or friends, and knowledgeable and well-skilled healthcare professionals for successful abstinence, avoidance of further psychological damage and a reversal of adverse health effects or reduction in their severity.

  11. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; Barron, Daniel; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug "ecstasy," or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA-). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35-365] days of abstinence. There were no significant group differences in neuropsychological performance, with the exception of the motor speed/dexterity domain in which 43% of MDMA+ were impaired compared with 5% of MDMA- participants (p = .004). Motor impairment differences were not explained by use of other substances and were unrelated to length of abstinence or lifetime number of MDMA doses. Findings provide limited evidence for neuropsychological differences between MDMA+ and MDMA- participants with the exception of motor impairments observed in the MDMA+ group. However, replication of this finding in a larger sample is warranted.

  12. Electroproduction of strangeness on (Lambda)H-3,4 bound states on helium

    SciTech Connect

    F. Dohrmann; D. Abbott; A. Ahmidouch; P. Ambrozewicz; C. S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; S. Beedoe; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D. S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; G. Collins; C. Cothran; J. Crowder; W. J. Cummings; S. Danagoulian; F. Duncan; J. Dunne; D. Dutta; T. Eden; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; L. Ewell; H. Fenker; H. T. Fortune; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Gustafsson; K. Hafidi; J. O. Hansen; W. Hinton; H. E. Jackson; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; Y. Liang; J. H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; R. Madey; P. Markowitz; C. J. Martoff; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Mohring; S. K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; T. G. O'Neill; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; J. W. Price; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; P. Roos; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; G. Savage; R. Sawafta; R. E. Segel; A. Yu. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; S. Tajima; L. Tang; B. Terburg; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; C. Yan; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; B. Zeidman; B. Zihlmann

    2005-05-01

    The A(e,eK+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q{sup 2} approx. 0.35 GeV{sup 2} at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for Lambda-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl amines and styryl/pyrrolyl/pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines.

    PubMed

    Sravya, G; Yamini, G; Padmavathi, V; Padmaja, A

    2016-10-21

    A new class of mono and bis heterocycles - styryl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines, pyrrolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines and pyrazolyl sulfonylmethyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl/1,3,4-thiadiazolyl amines were prepared from the synthetic intermediate Z-styrylsulfonylacetic acid adopting simple and well versed synthetic methodologies and studied their antimicrobial activity. Amongst all the tested compounds styryl thiadiazole 5c exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium chrysogenum.

  14. Atypical Antidepressant Activity of 3,4-Bis(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Furan-2,5-Dione Isolated from Heart Wood of Cedrus deodara, in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitesh; Dhayabaran, Daniel; Nampoothiri, Madhavan; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Puratchikody, A; Lalani, Natasha; Dawood, Karima; Ghosh, Aanesha

    2014-10-01

    Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) has been used traditionally in Ayurveda for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) was isolated from heart wood of Cedrus deodara and was shown to have antiepileptic and anxiolytic activity. Thus, the present study was aimed to explore its anti-depressant effect and to correlate the effect with serotonin and nor adrenaline levels of brain. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. Animals were divided in to three groups; vehicle control, imipramine (30 mg/kg i.p.), BDFD (100 mg/kg i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) was performed to evaluate antidepressant effect of BDFD. BDFD (100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant decrease in immobility time when subjected to FST whereas immobility time was not significantly altered in TST. BDFD treatment increased serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the brain which is indicative of BDFD having possible atypical antidepressant action.

  15. Neurotoxic thioether adducts of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine identified in human urine after ecstasy ingestion.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion approximately 0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans.

  16. Gliotoxin Suppresses Macrophage Immune Function by Subverting Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schlam, Daniel; Canton, Johnathan; Carreño, Marvin; Kopinski, Hannah; Freeman, Spencer A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, spreads in the environment by releasing numerous conidia that are capable of reaching the small alveolar airways of mammalian hosts. In otherwise healthy individuals, macrophages are responsible for rapidly phagocytosing and eliminating these conidia, effectively curbing their germination and consequent invasion of pulmonary tissue. However, under some circumstances, the fungus evades phagocyte-mediated immunity and persists in the respiratory tree. Here, we report that A. fumigatus escapes macrophage recognition by strategically targeting phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] metabolism through gliotoxin, a potent immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that, in response to the toxin, macrophages cease to ruffle, undergo abrupt membrane retraction, and fail to phagocytose large targets effectively. Gliotoxin was found to prevent integrin activation and interfere with actin dynamics, both of which are instrumental for phagocytosis; similar effects were noted in immortalized and primary phagocytes. Detailed studies of the underlying molecular mechanisms of toxicity revealed that inhibition of phagocytosis is attributable to impaired accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and the associated dysregulation of downstream effectors, including Rac and/or Cdc42. Strikingly, in response to the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, gliotoxin-treated macrophages reactivate beta integrins, reestablish actin dynamics, and regain phagocytic capacity, despite the overt absence of plasmalemmal PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Together, our findings identify phosphoinositide metabolism as a critical upstream target of gliotoxin and also indicate that increased diacylglycerol levels can bypass the requirement for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling during membrane ruffling and phagocytosis. PMID:27048806

  17. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  18. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples.

  19. Effect of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on the reworking behavior of Lumbriculus variegatus exposed to contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The reworking response (bioturbation) of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus was measured by following the burial rate and spread of a 137Cs marker layer translating worm activity into a biological burial rate (Wb) and a biological diffusion rate constant (Db) for surficial sediment mixing. Reworking was measured at 10 and 22 degrees C in two sediments: a reference site sediment dosed with 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) and a field-collected sediment from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site in Dicks Creek (DCC, Middletown, OH, USA). The body residue associated with response to TCBP also was determined. Reduction in the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C reduced both Wb and Db by a factor of approximately two. The internal TCBP concentration to reduce the Wb by 50% was 96 nmol/g (95% CI 45-225 nmol/g) and 124 nmol/g (40-547 nmol/g) (28 and 36 microg/g) wet weight at 22 and 10 degrees C, respectively, and was independent of temperature. The Wb for the DCC sediment was lower than observed for the highest TCBP treatment. The internal body residue for total PCB for worms exposed to DCC sediment was 20-fold lower than TCBP in worms exposed to the lowest TCBP treatment on a molar basis. Comparing body residues of total PCB to TCBP assumes that the PCB congeners act additively on a molar basis. The DCC site contained a higher proportion of coarse material and a lower organic carbon concentration. The difference in sediment characteristics was assumed to be responsible for differences in the Wb.

  20. Design, synthesis and photobiological properties of 3,4-cyclopentenepsoralens.

    PubMed

    Gia, Ornella; Marciani Magno, Sebastiano; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Quezada, Elias; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Dalla Via, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    The QSAR directed synthesis of tetracyclic psoralen derivatives (3-5) characterised by the condensation of a cyclopentane ring at the level of the 3,4 double bond of the tricyclic psoralen moiety is reported. The new compounds present a methoxy (3), a hydroxy (4) or a dimethylaminopropoxy (5) side chain inserted in position 8 of the lead chromophore. The evaluation of photoantiproliferative activity on human tumour cell lines reveals for 5 an ability to inhibit cell growth significantly higher with respect to that of the reference drug, 8-MOP. Interestingly, the enhancement in antiproliferative activity is accompanied by the disappearance of skin phototoxicity. On the other hand, no significant photobiological activity was scored for 3 and 4. The ability to photoreact with DNA, evaluated by isolating the 4',5' monoadduct and by estimating the ability to form interstrand cross-links, appeared to be significant for 5, practically negligible for 3 and 4. Furthermore, a back-projection of the more active compound identifies structural features suitable for further synthetic modifications.

  1. Conformational preferences of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J.; Jarmelo, S.; Fausto, R.; Reva, I.

    2015-04-01

    The conformational space of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), an important dopamine metabolite, has been investigated by quantum chemical methods (B3LYP and MP2, with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy. Detailed analysis of the calculated potential energy surfaces of the molecule led to identification of thirteen unique conformers, all of them showing the acetic acid side chain out of the aromatic ring plane by 60-95°. According to the calculated Gibbs energies, the five lowest energy conformers make up 99.7% of the conformational mixture at 298.15 K, exhibiting individual populations falling between 16% and 24%. The main conformational trends of this molecule were interpreted on the grounds of a thorough analysis of the structural parameters and by the application of the Natural Bond Orbital theory. The role of the intramolecular interactions on the relative stability and structure of the conformers was also investigated. The infrared spectrum of DOPAC was registered after isolation of its monomers in argon and xenon matrices. Only one of DOPAC forms populated in the gas phase could be trapped in both matrix gases. This result is in agreement with the predicted low energy barriers for conformational isomerization and is also supported by annealing experiments. The spectra of matrix-isolated model compounds, phenylacetic acid and catechol, were studied under the same experimental conditions. These data were used as references and assisted in the interpretation of the results obtained for DOPAC.

  2. Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    ± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a chemical derivative of amphetamine that has become a popular drug of abuse and has been shown to deplete serotonin in the brains of users and animals exposed to it. To date, most studies have investigated the effects of MDMA on adult animals. With a majority of users of MDMA being young adults, the chances of the users becoming pregnant and exposing the fetuses to MDMA are also a concern. Evidence to date has shown that developmental exposure to MDMA results in learning and memory impairments in the Morris water maze, a task known to be sensitive to hippocampal disruption, when the animals are tested as adults. Developmental MDMA exposure leads to hypoactivity in the offspring as adults but does not affect outcome on tests of anxiety. MDMA administration decreases pup weight, increases corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels during treatment while decreasing brain levels of serotonin; a decrease that initially dissipates and then reappears in adulthood. Neonatal MDMA exposure increases the sensitivity of the serotonin 1A receptor, a possible mechanism underlying the learning and memory deficits seen. Taken together, the evidence shows that MDMA exposure has adverse effects on the developing brain and behavior. The animal and human data on developmental MDMA exposure are reviewed and their public health implications discussed. PMID:18332674

  3. Antineuropathic effect of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    -dihydrocadalin did not affect motor activity. Six weeks after diabetes induction, tactile allodynia was observed in the streptozotocin-injected rats. At this time, oral administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (30 mg/kg) or pregabalin (10 mg/kg) reduced in a similar way tactile allodynia in diabetic rats. Finally, chronic oral administration of 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin (30-300 mg/kg, 3 times/week, during 6 weeks), significantly prevented the development of mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Conclusions Data suggests that 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalin has acute and chronic effects in painful diabetic neuropathy. This effect seems to involve antioxidant properties as well as activation of 5-HT receptors and inhibition of guanylyl cyclase enzyme. PMID:24708659

  4. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  5. N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) is a selective persistent inhibitor of glycine transport

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of glycine concentrations within excitatory synapses is poorly understood and it has been proposed that the GLYT1 subtypes of glycine transporters play a critical role in determining resting concentrations of glycine. Selective GLYT1 inhibitors may provide pharmacological tools to probe the dynamics of synaptic glycine concentrations, which may influence the activation properties of NMDA receptor activity.We have characterized the selectivity and mechanism of action of the glycine transport inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS). The glycine transporters, GLYT1a, b and c and GLYT2a were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode voltage clamp techniques and radiolabelled 3H-glycine flux measurements were used to characterize the effects of NFPS on glycine transport.NFPS inhibits glycine transport by the GLYT1a, b and c subtypes of glycine transporters, but has no effect on the GLYT2a subtype of transporter. We show that NFPS does not attain its specificity via an interaction with the Na+, Cl− or glycine site, nor does it act at an intracellular site. NFPS inhibition of glycine transport is time and concentration dependent and inhibition of transport by NFPS persists after washout of NFPS from the bath solution, which suggests that inhibition by NFPS is long lasting. PMID:11724748

  6. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate negatively regulates chemoattractant-elicited PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yonghui; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Erneux, Christophe; Pouillon, Valerie; Hattori, Hidenori; Jo, Hakryul; You, Jian; Zhu, Daocheng; Schurmans, Stephane; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many neutrophil functions are mediated by PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, an essential cellular signaling molecule that exerts its function by mediating protein translocation via binding to their pleckstrin homolog (PH)-domains. In mammalian cells, its activity was previously thought to be dependent solely upon concentrations of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in the plasma membrane. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, binds the same PH domain and compete for its binding to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In neutrophils, chemoattractant stimulation triggers rapid elevation in Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level. Depletion of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 by deleting InsP3KB, which converts Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, enhances the membrane translocation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 specific PH domain, thus augments the PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 downstream signals, leading to enhanced sensitivity to chemoattractant stimulation, elevated superoxide production, and enhanced neutrophil recruitment to inflamed peritoneal cavity. On the contrary, augmentation of intracellular Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 level blocks chemoattractant-elicited PH domain membrane translocation and dramatically decreases the sensitivity of neutrophils to chemoattractant stimulation. These findings establish a novel role for Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in cellular signal transduction pathways and provide an alternative mechanism for modulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling in neutrophils, namely relative levels of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. PMID:17825589

  7. Rapid, Microwave Accelerated Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from 4-Acylamino-1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Stesphanie L; Olson, Margaret E; Harki, Daniel A

    2016-09-07

    1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.

  8. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg−1) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1  μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning. PMID:26371762

  9. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  10. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

    2014-10-03

    Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50μM) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release.

  11. A novel dilithiation approach to 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines, 3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Jain, Ritu

    2002-11-15

    3,4-Dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines 4, 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazines 9, and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines 6 were synthesized by directed ortho-lithiation of thiophenols and phenols and by side-chain lithiation of substituted thiophenols, respectively, in one-pot by reacting with N,N-bis[(benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amines 3 as 1,3-biselectrophile synthons.

  12. Synthesis of Novel 2,5-Disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazoles Clubbed 1,2,4-Triazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and/or Schiff Base as Potential Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Agents.

    PubMed

    Rezki, Nadjet; Al-Yahyawi, Amjad M; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Al-Blewi, Fawzia F; Aouad, Mohamed R

    2015-09-02

    In the present study, a new series of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-thiadiazole tethered 1,2,4-triazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and Schiff base derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses. All compounds were screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative activity. Some of the synthesized derivatives have displayed promising biological activity.

  13. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    SciTech Connect

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  14. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... publication, a sworn statement 1 that the notice was published at the time and in accordance with the requirements under these regulations of this part, and shall file such sworn statement in the office where...

  15. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... publication, a sworn statement 1 that the notice was published at the time and in accordance with the requirements under these regulations of this part, and shall file such sworn statement in the office where...

  16. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... publication, a sworn statement 1 that the notice was published at the time and in accordance with the requirements under these regulations of this part, and shall file such sworn statement in the office where...

  17. 43 CFR 3742.3-4 - Proof of publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... publication, a sworn statement 1 that the notice was published at the time and in accordance with the requirements under these regulations of this part, and shall file such sworn statement in the office where...

  18. Taking larger timesteps with speed-limited particle-in-cell simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Gregory; Cary, John

    2015-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is often impractical because it includes too much unnecessary physics. For example, to avoid instability in many simulations the timestep must be small enough to resolve the plasma frequency, even if plasma oscillations do not play a significant role. Other methods (e.g., MHD/fluid and hybrid approaches) allow faster simulation, but often don't include enough physics. A new method, speed-limited PIC (SLPIC) simulation, offers kinetic simulation with an arbitrary-strength approximation tied to the timestep. With a small (standard PIC) timestep, SLPIC is identical to PIC, while a larger timestep (e.g., large compared to the inverse plasma frequency) results in the relaxation of fast particles over slower timescales. SLPIC is therefore useful in situations where the particle distribution functions change slowly compared to the timestep required by PIC. For example, SLPIC can simulate collisionless sheaths with a timestep hundreds of times larger than the inverse plasma frequency. SLPIC involves relatively isolated changes of a standard PIC code and poses no extra difficulties for parallelism; complexities of PIC, such as field solvers, collisions, and boundary conditions, carry over naturally to SLPIC with little change. This work is supported by NASA.

  19. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  20. Phenotypic determinants of individual fitness in female fur seals: larger is better

    PubMed Central

    Beauplet, Gwénaël; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Inter-individual differences in fitness in female vertebrates have often been related to phenotypic discrepancies, suggesting that bigger individuals exhibit greater fitness. However, the use of the temporally variable indices of quality, such as body mass/condition, may not represent the most reliable index over longer time intervals. Few studies have assessed the direct influence of body size (BS) on individual fitness. We addressed this knowledge gap using data from long-term monitoring of individually marked female subantarctic fur seals. The females of higher quality (i.e. higher lifetime reproductive success) were larger in BS than their counterparts, which correlated with their ability to provision their pup with greater and more regular energy supply, possibly through the maximization of foraging performance and body fat storage. We accordingly found that our study population could be divided into three contrasted categories of maternal quality, with 33% of the females producing over 71% of the viable offspring constituting the next generation. We suggest that a larger BS represents a crucial selective advantage for a central place forager, especially when exploiting remotely available resources. PMID:17519194

  1. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction... the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for consumer debt collection....

  2. Optical properties of the (3.4.6.4) hexagonal Archimedean photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, Djordje; Gajić, Radoš

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the optical properties of the lesser known (3.4.6.4) Archimedean photonic crystal. The structure is two dimensional and made of dielectric GaAs rods in air. The calculations of the band structures, equifrequency contours, and simulations of the wave propagation through the structure were performed by the plane wave expansion and finite-difference time-domain methods. With analysis of the gap map and equifrequency contours we obtained frequency ranges for best performance for wave guiding. For those frequency ranges, we designed a new type of waveguide for possible applications in integrated optics. In addition, negative refraction was exhibited by the structure.

  3. Vibrational spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling; Jia, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The terahertz spectrum of ketamine hydrochloride at room temperature, in the range of 0.2-2.6THz, has been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS). Full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) are also applied to predict the absorption spectra of ketamine hydrochloride and 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The results of the simulation show qualitative agreement with the experimental data especially for MDMA, and the observed spectra features are assigned based on the DFT calculation. The results suggest that use of the terahertz TDS technique can be an effective method for the detection and inspection of illicit drugs.

  4. A case of drug-facilitated sexual assault involving 3,4-methylenedioxy-methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Céline; Cathala, Philippe; Fabresse, Nicolas; Galea, Yves; Mathieu-Daudé, Jean-claude; Baccino, Eric; Peyrière, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Typical scenarios of drug-facilitated sexual assaults usually involve victims having ingested a drink after which they had little, partial or no recollection of events for a period of time. We were surprised by the case of a woman who was sexually assaulted and described a state of amazement, leading to an incapacity to resist physically or verbally to her aggressor, and who remembered everything. Alcohol was first suspected but toxicological analysis revealed the presence of 3,4-methylene-dioxy-methylamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). In the literature review, a few cases of sexual assault involving involuntarily MDMA intake are described.

  5. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2009-05-12

    Group living offers well-known benefits to animals, such as better predator avoidance and increased foraging success. An important additional, but so far neglected, advantage is that groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations through faster innovations of new solutions by some group members. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting a new foraging task of opening a familiar feeder in an unfamiliar way to house sparrows in small and large groups (2 versus 6 birds). Group size had strong effects on problem solving: sparrows performed 4 times more and 11 times faster openings in large than in small groups, and all members of large groups profited by getting food sooner (7 times on average). Independently from group size, urban groups were more successful than rural groups. The disproportionately higher success in large groups was not a mere consequence of higher number of attempts, but was also related to a higher effectiveness of problem solving (3 times higher proportion of successful birds). The analyses of the birds' behavior suggest that the latter was not explained by either reduced investment in antipredator vigilance or reduced neophobia in large groups. Instead, larger groups may contain more diverse individuals with different skills and experiences, which may increase the chance of solving the task by some group members. Increased success in problem solving may promote group living in animals and may help them to adapt quickly to new situations in rapidly-changing environments.

  6. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Group living offers well-known benefits to animals, such as better predator avoidance and increased foraging success. An important additional, but so far neglected, advantage is that groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations through faster innovations of new solutions by some group members. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting a new foraging task of opening a familiar feeder in an unfamiliar way to house sparrows in small and large groups (2 versus 6 birds). Group size had strong effects on problem solving: sparrows performed 4 times more and 11 times faster openings in large than in small groups, and all members of large groups profited by getting food sooner (7 times on average). Independently from group size, urban groups were more successful than rural groups. The disproportionately higher success in large groups was not a mere consequence of higher number of attempts, but was also related to a higher effectiveness of problem solving (3 times higher proportion of successful birds). The analyses of the birds' behavior suggest that the latter was not explained by either reduced investment in antipredator vigilance or reduced neophobia in large groups. Instead, larger groups may contain more diverse individuals with different skills and experiences, which may increase the chance of solving the task by some group members. Increased success in problem solving may promote group living in animals and may help them to adapt quickly to new situations in rapidly-changing environments. PMID:19416834

  7. Popping with Power. Book C Grades 3-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Arthur, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement the mathematics-science curriculum, this booklet contains activities which provide students of grades three and four with opportunities to investigate relationships in the physical world. Through these exercises students can operate machines to simplify work, swing and time pendulums and bouncing balls, creatively insulate…

  8. PhTx3-4, a Spider Toxin Calcium Channel Blocker, Reduces NMDA-Induced Injury of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Nancy Scardua; Porto Petruceli Carayon, Charles; Agostini, Rafael Mourão; do Nascimento Pinheiro, Ana Cristina; Nascimento Cordeiro, Marta; Romano Silva, Marco Aurélio; Figueira Silva, Juliana; Rita Pereira, Elizete Maria; da Silva Junior, Claudio Antonio; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Sena Guimarães, Andre Luiz; Gomez, Marcus Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo neuroprotective effect of PhTx3-4, a spider toxin N-P/Q calcium channel blocker, was studied in a rat model of NMDA-induced injury of the retina. NMDA (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate)-induced retinal injury in rats reduced the b-wave amplitude by 62% ± 3.6%, indicating the severity of the insult. PhTx3-4 treatment increased the amplitude of the b-wave, which was almost equivalent to the control retinas that were not submitted to injury. The PhTx3-4 functional protection of the retinas recorded on the ERG also was observed in the neuroprotection of retinal cells. NMDA-induced injury reduced live cells in the retina layers and the highest reduction, 84%, was in the ganglion cell layer. Notably, PhTx3-4 treatment caused a remarkable reduction of dead cells in the retina layers, and the highest neuroprotective effect was in the ganglion cells layer. NMDA-induced cytotoxicity of the retina increased the release of glutamate, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress. PhTx3-4 treatment reduced glutamate release, ROS production and oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde. Thus, we presented for the first time evidence of in vivo neuroprotection from NMDA-induced retinal injury by PhTx3-4 (-ctenitoxin-Pn3a), a spider toxin that blocks N-P/Q calcium channels. PMID:26978403

  9. Endomembrane PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 activates the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Nirmal; Chung, Gary H C; Lete, Marta G; Alonso, Alicia; Byrne, Richard D; Calleja, Véronique; Larijani, Banafshé

    2015-09-15

    PKB/Akt activation is a common step in tumour growth, proliferation and survival. Akt activation is understood to occur at the plasma membrane of cells in response to growth factor stimulation and local production of the phosphoinositide lipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] following phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation. The metabolism and turnover of phosphoinositides is complex--they act as signalling molecules as well as structural components of biological membranes. The localisation and significance of internal pools of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 has long been speculated upon. By using transfected and recombinant protein probes for PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, we show that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is enriched in the nuclear envelope and early endosomes. By exploiting an inducible dimerisation device to recruit Akt to these compartments, we demonstrate that Akt can be locally activated in a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent manner and has the potential to phosphorylate compartmentally localised downstream substrates. This could be an important mechanism to regulate Akt isoform substrate specificity or influence the timing and duration of PI3K pathway signalling. Defects in phosphoinositide metabolism and localisation are known to contribute to cancer, suggesting that interactions at subcellular compartments might be worthwhile targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  11. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L; Kuo, Chin-Chen; Griffin, Amy L; Martin, David C

    2014-04-01

    After extended implantation times, traditional intracortical neural probes exhibit a foreign-body reaction characterized by a reactive glial sheath that has been associated with increased system impedance and signal deterioration. Previously, we have proposed that the local in vivo polymerization of an electronically and ionically conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), might help to rebuild charge transport pathways across the glial scar between the device and surrounding parenchyma (Richardson-Burns et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 L6-13). The EDOT monomer can be delivered via a microcannula/electrode system into the brain tissue of living animals followed by direct electrochemical polymerization, using the electrode itself as a source of oxidative current. In this study, we investigated the long-term effect of local in vivo PEDOT deposition on hippocampal neural function and histology. Rodent subjects were trained on a hippocampus-dependent task, delayed alternation (DA), and implanted with the microcannula/electrode system in the hippocampus. The animals were divided into four groups with different delay times between the initial surgery and the electrochemical polymerization: (1) control (no polymerization), (2) immediate (polymerization within 5 min of device implantation), (3) early (polymerization within 3-4 weeks after implantation) and (4) late (polymerization 7-8 weeks after polymerization). System impedance at 1 kHz was recorded and the tissue reactions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that under our deposition conditions, PEDOT typically grew at the tip of the electrode, forming an ∼500 µm cloud in the tissue. This is much larger than the typical width of the glial scar (∼150 µm). After polymerization, the impedance amplitude near the neurologically important frequency of 1 kHz dropped for all the groups; however, there was a time window of 3-4 weeks for an optimal decrease in impedance. For all surgery

  12. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    After extended implantation times, traditional intracortical neural probes exhibit a foreign-body reaction characterized by a reactive glial sheath that has been associated with increased system impedance and signal deterioration. Previously, we have proposed that the local in vivo polymerization of an electronically and ionically conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), might help to rebuild charge transport pathways across the glial scar between the device and surrounding parenchyma (Richardson-Burns et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 L6-13). The EDOT monomer can be delivered via a microcannula/electrode system into the brain tissue of living animals followed by direct electrochemical polymerization, using the electrode itself as a source of oxidative current. In this study, we investigated the long-term effect of local in vivo PEDOT deposition on hippocampal neural function and histology. Rodent subjects were trained on a hippocampus-dependent task, delayed alternation (DA), and implanted with the microcannula/electrode system in the hippocampus. The animals were divided into four groups with different delay times between the initial surgery and the electrochemical polymerization: (1) control (no polymerization), (2) immediate (polymerization within 5 min of device implantation), (3) early (polymerization within 3-4 weeks after implantation) and (4) late (polymerization 7-8 weeks after polymerization). System impedance at 1 kHz was recorded and the tissue reactions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that under our deposition conditions, PEDOT typically grew at the tip of the electrode, forming an ˜500 µm cloud in the tissue. This is much larger than the typical width of the glial scar (˜150 µm). After polymerization, the impedance amplitude near the neurologically important frequency of 1 kHz dropped for all the groups; however, there was a time window of 3-4 weeks for an optimal decrease in impedance. For all surgery

  13. Toward Ultraintense Compact RBS Pump for Recombination 3.4 nm Laser via OFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckewer, S.; Ren, J.; Li, S.; Lou, Y.; Morozov, A.; Turnbull, D.; Avitzour, Y.

    In our presentation we overview progress we made in developing a new ultrashort and ultraintensive laser system based on Raman backscattering (RBS) amplifier /compressor from time of 10th XRL Conference in Berlin to present time of 11th XRL Conference in Belfast. One of the main objectives of RBS laser system development is to use it for pumping of recombination X-ray laser in transition to ground state of CVI ions at 3.4 nm. Using elaborate computer code the processes of Optical Field Ionization, electron energy distribution, and recombination were calculated. It was shown that in very earlier stage of recombination, when electron energy distribution is strongly non-Maxwellian, high gain in transition from the first excited level n=2 to ground level m=1 can be generated. Adding large amount of hydrogen gas into initial gas containing carbon atoms (e.g. methane, CH4) the calculated gain has reached values up to 150-200 cm-2 Taking into account this very encouraging result, we have proceed with arrangement of experimental setup. We will present the observation of plasma channels and measurements of electron density distribution required for generation of gain at 3.4 nm.

  14. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) decarboxylase activity in the arthropod nervous system.

    PubMed

    Murdock, L L; Wirtz, R A; Köhler, G

    1973-04-01

    1. When homogenates of brains from mature adult locusts (Locusta migratoria) were incubated with l-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)[3-(14)C]alanine the major radioactive metabolite was dopamine, suggesting the presence of a dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) decarboxylase. 2. Decarboxylation of l-dopa by this tissue, measured under optimum conditions by a radiochemical method, was 21mumol of CO(2)/h per g wet wt. Apparent decarboxylation of l-tyrosine proceeded at 0.34mumol of CO(2)/h per g wet wt. There was no detectable decarboxylation of l-tryptophan, l-histidine or l-phenylalanine. 3. Dopa decarboxylase activity was found in all major regions of the ventral nerve cord of the mature locust (range: 4-7mumol of CO(2)/h per g wet wt.) but was low or absent in thoracic peripheral nerve. 4. Marked decarboxylation of l-dopa was found in homogenates of brains of four other species of insects, and in brain and ventral nerve cord, but not in the claw nerve, of the crayfish. 5. The activity of the locust brain enzyme may be slightly lower at the time of imaginal ecdysis than during the mature period. By contrast, the dopa decarboxylase that produces dopamine as an intermediate in cuticle biosynthesis is known to be high in activity at the time of ecdysis and low in activity during the intermoult stages.

  15. Greener and rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel one-pot solvent free synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles by condensation of acid hydrazide and triethyl orthoalkanates under microwave irradiations is reported. This green protocol was catalyzed efficiently by solid supported Nafion®NR50 and phosphorus p...

  16. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  17. Enhancement of Long-Wavelength Sensitivity of Optogenetic Microbial Rhodopsins by 3,4-Dehydroretinal†

    PubMed Central

    Sineshchekov, Oleg A.; Govorunova, Elena G.; Wang, Jihong; Spudich, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Electrogenic microbial rhodopsins (ion pumps and channelrhodopsins) are widely used to control activity of neurons and other cells by light (optogenetics). Long-wavelength absorption by optogenetic tools is desirable to increase the penetration depth of the stimulus light by minimizing tissue scattering and absorption by hemoglobin. A2 retinal (3,4-dehydroretinal) is a natural retinoid that serves as the chromophore in red-shifted visual pigments of several lower aquatic animals. Here we show that A2 retinal reconstitutes a fully functional archaerhodopsin-3 (AR-3) proton pump and four channelrhodopsin variants (CrChR1, CrChR2, CaChR1 and MvChR1). Substitution of A1 by A2 retinal significantly shifted the spectral sensitivity of all tested rhodopsins to longer wavelengths without altering other aspects of their function. The spectral shift upon substitution of A1 by A2 in AR-3 was close to that measured in other archaeal rhodopsins. Notably, the shifts in channelrhodopsins were larger than those measured in archaeal rhodopsins and close to those in animal visual pigments with similar absorption maxima of their A1-bound forms. Our results show that chromophore substitution provides a complementary strategy to improve the efficiency of optogenetic tools. PMID:22577956

  18. Scattering Studies on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- Polystyrenesulfonate in the Presence of Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Weigandt, Katie M.; Uhrig, David; Alsayed, Ahmed; Badre, Chantal; Hough, Larry; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2015-11-30

    The demand for lower cost and flexible electronics has driven industry to develop alternative transparent electrode (TE) materials to replace indium tin oxide (ITO). ITO is the benchmark TE on the market, but its high cost and low flexibility limit it for use in future technologies. Recent work has shown the combination of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM:TCB) is a viable ITO replacement. This study investigates the nature of the interaction between PEDOT:PSS and EMIM:TCB in the solution state. A combination of scattering methods is used to illustrate a novel, multilength scale model of this system. At length scales larger than 300nm PEODT:PSS adopts a microgel-like structure, and below ~300nm the system adopts an entangled polyelectrolyte mesh structure. As EMIM:TCB is added, the microgel interior adopts a more neutral polymer mesh structure as EMIM:TCB concentration is increased.

  19. Scattering Studies on Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- Polystyrenesulfonate in the Presence of Ionic Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Weigandt, Katie M.; Uhrig, David; ...

    2015-11-30

    The demand for lower cost and flexible electronics has driven industry to develop alternative transparent electrode (TE) materials to replace indium tin oxide (ITO). ITO is the benchmark TE on the market, but its high cost and low flexibility limit it for use in future technologies. Recent work has shown the combination of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate (EMIM:TCB) is a viable ITO replacement. This study investigates the nature of the interaction between PEDOT:PSS and EMIM:TCB in the solution state. A combination of scattering methods is used to illustrate a novel, multilength scale modelmore » of this system. At length scales larger than 300nm PEODT:PSS adopts a microgel-like structure, and below ~300nm the system adopts an entangled polyelectrolyte mesh structure. As EMIM:TCB is added, the microgel interior adopts a more neutral polymer mesh structure as EMIM:TCB concentration is increased.« less

  20. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  1. Precision of channel catfish catch estimates using hoop nets in larger Oklahoma reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoop nets are rapidly becoming the preferred gear type used to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and many managers have reported that hoop nets effectively sample channel catfish in small impoundments (<200 ha). However, the utility and precision of this approach in larger impoundments have not been tested. We sought to determine how the number of tandem hoop net series affected the catch of channel catfish and the time involved in using 16 tandem hoop net series in larger impoundments (>200 ha). Hoop net series were fished once, set for 3 d; then we used Monte Carlo bootstrapping techniques that allowed us to estimate the number of net series required to achieve two levels of precision (relative standard errors [RSEs] of 15 and 25) at two levels of confidence (80% and 95%). Sixteen hoop net series were effective at obtaining an RSE of 25 with 80% and 95% confidence in all but one reservoir. Achieving an RSE of 15 was often less effective and required 18-96 hoop net series given the desired level of confidence. We estimated that an hour was needed, on average, to deploy and retrieve three hoop net series, which meant that 16 hoop net series per reservoir could be "set" and "retrieved" within a day, respectively. The estimated number of net series to achieve an RSE of 25 or 15 was positively associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample but not with reservoir surface area or relative abundance. Our results suggest that hoop nets are capable of providing reasonably precise estimates of channel catfish relative abundance and that the relationship with the CV of the sample reported herein can be used to determine the sampling effort for a desired level of precision.

  2. 3' Phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] by voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP).

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sakata, Souhei; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Horie, Shigeo; Homma, Koichi J; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-06-19

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) consist of a voltage-sensor domain and a cytoplasmic region with remarkable sequence similarity to phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor phosphatase. VSPs dephosphorylate the 5' position of the inositol ring of both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] upon voltage depolarization. However, it is unclear whether VSPs also have 3' phosphatase activity. To gain insights into this question, we performed in vitro assays of phosphatase activities of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP) and transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology (TPTE) and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase (TPIP; one human ortholog of VSP) with radiolabeled PI(3,4,5)P(3). TLC assay showed that the 3' phosphate of PI(3,4,5)P(3) was not dephosphorylated, whereas that of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)] was removed by VSPs. Monitoring of PI(3,4)P(2) levels with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain from tandem PH domain-containing protein (TAPP1) fused with GFP (PH(TAPP1)-GFP) by confocal microscopy in amphibian oocytes showed an increase of fluorescence intensity during depolarization to 0 mV, consistent with 5' phosphatase activity of VSP toward PI(3,4,5)P(3). However, depolarization to 60 mV showed a transient increase of GFP fluorescence followed by a decrease, indicating that, after PI(3,4,5)P(3) is dephosphorylated at the 5' position, PI(3,4)P(2) is then dephosphorylated at the 3' position. These results suggest that substrate specificity of the VSP changes with membrane potential.

  3. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  4. Pc 3-4 Pulsations Near the Cusp: Latitude dependence near the open-closed field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Clausen, L. B.; Engebretson, M.; Lu, F.; Posch, J.; Lessard, M.; Kim, H.

    2008-12-01

    Dayside ground magnetometer records at high latitudes frequently show evidence of Pc 3-4 pulsations (f ~ 10-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind. Previous studies have noted increased Pc 3-4 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3-4 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard. Three intervals are chosen when the upstream conditions are favourable for Pc3-4 generation, clear band-limited Pc3-4 wave power is observed near local noon, and an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. A stereo mode of radar operation is employed, such that 3 s time resolution is available on one radar beam, whilst the high latitude convection is revealed with 1 min. resolution. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3-4 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations. The radar data show clear evidence of transient ionospheric flows and high spectral widths associated with field lines newly- opened by dayside reconnection processes, but no evidence of oscillations in the Pc3-4 frequency range. In the ground magnetic field a peak in Pc3-4 power is generally observed in the equatormost magnetometer, except when the cusp is significantly poleward of the stations, consistent with a peak in wave power ~4 degrees equatorward of the cusp, but suggesting a modest dependence of wave power with latitude on closed field lines When the cusp does move equatorward of the magnetometer stations the Pc3-4 power drops rapidly, and does so earliest at the most poleward magnetometer station, suggesting a sharp drop in

  5. An all-optical switch and third-order optical nonlinearity of 3,4-pyridinediamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badran, Hussain A.; Abul-Hail, Riyadh Ch.; Shaker, Hussain S.; musa, Abdulameer I.; Hassan, Qusay M. A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the third-order nonlinear optical properties of 3,4-pyridinediamine solution. The nonlinear measurements were taken by using single-beam Z-scan technique with cw laser at 473 nm. The effect of varying glucose concentration in a sample solution has been studied. The experimental results show that the nonlinear refractive index, n 2, and nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, are strongly dependent on the glucose concentration in a sample solution. The optical limiting properties are measured by a transmission technique. We find that the limiting threshold can be improved by a proper choice of glucose concentration in sample solution. A 3,4-pyridinediamine with 80 mmol glucose concentration showed a good switching property. This phenomenon was demonstrated by waveguiding a transistor-transistor logic modulated cw 473 nm laser beam as an excitation beam modulated at 10 Hz frequency collinearly with a continuous-wave SDL-635-100T laser beam of wavelength 653 nm through a quartz cuvette of thickness 1 mm. The results of pump-probe experiments show that the time of switch-on and switch-off of the 3,4-pyridinediamine was in μs for the pump intensity. The energy-dependent transmission studies also reveal better limiting property of the sample compound at nanosecond regime. Also, thermo-optic coefficients have been determined by thermal lens (TL) technique (-9.54 × 10-5 K-1) and it was found to be temperature dependent. This value was compared with result obtained by Z-scan calculations (-7.46 × 10-5 K-1). Thus, the nonlinear response of the material suggests that it has a potential application for high-sensitive photonic devices.

  6. Hydrogen Deuteride to 3.4 Megabar Mixed Isotopes and New Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ranga; Noked, Ori; Silvera, Isaac

    We present infrared absorption studies of solid hydrogen deuteride to pressures as high as 3.4 megabar in a diamond anvil cell and temperatures in the range 5 to 295 K. Above 198 GPa the sample transforms to a mixture of , and, interpreted as a process of dissociation and recombination.Three new phases-lines are observed, two of which differ remarkably from those of the high-pressure homonuclear species, but none are metallic. The time-dependent spectral changes are analyzed to determine the molecular concentrations as a function of time.y. The NSF, Grant DMR-1308641 and the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656 supported this research.

  7. Praseodymium methanesulfonate catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Song, Zhiguo; Gong, Hong; Jiang, Heng

    2008-01-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones compounds was synthesized efficiently by a one-pot cyclocondensation of an aldehyde, 1,3-dicarbonyl compound, and urea in absolute ethanol under refluxing temperature using praseodymium methanesulfonate as catalyst. After the reaction, the catalyst can be easily recovered and reused several times without distinct decrease in reaction yields.

  8. One-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones using chloroacetic acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Di; Liu, Chunsheng; Luo, Genxiang

    2007-06-15

    A simple and effective synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives from aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds and urea or thiourea using chloroacetic acid as catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described. Compared with the classical Biginelli reaction conditions, this new method has the advantage of good to excellent yields and short reaction time.

  9. An elusive fulvene 1,7,11,24-C60(CF3)4 and its unusual reactivity.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, James B; Kuvychko, Igor V; Shustova, Natalia B; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Strauss, Steven H; Boltalina, Olga V

    2014-02-07

    The X-ray crystal structure of a trifluoromethylfullerene (TMF), 1,7,11,24-C60(CF3)4, is reported for the first time. This elusive intermediate, while highly air stable as a solid, exhibits highly regioselective reactivity towards molecular oxygen in polar solvents, and only when exposed to light.

  10. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  11. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  12. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  13. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  14. 45 CFR 3.4 - False reports and reports of injury or damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False reports and reports of injury or damage. 3.4 Section 3.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.4 False reports...

  15. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., environmental analysis and scheduling. 3420.3-4 Section 3420.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis.... Three major categories of consideration shall be used in tract ranking: coal economics; impacts on...

  16. Regioselective synthesis of 2-amino-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives via reagent-based cyclization of thiosemicarbazide intermediate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Lee, Seok-Hyeong; Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Gong, Young-Dae

    2013-01-18

    A regioselective, reagent-based method for the cyclization reaction of 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeletons is described. The thiosemicarbazide intermediate 3 was reacted with EDC·HCl in DMSO or p-TsCl, triethylamine in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone to give the corresponding 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazoles 4 and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles 5 through regioselcective cyclization processes. The regioselectivity was affected by both R(1) and R(2) in p-TsCl mediated cyclization. It is shown in select sets of thiosemicarbazide 3 with R(1)(benzyl) and R(2)(phenyl). 2-Amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole 4 was also shown in the reaction of p-TsCl mediated cyclization. The resulting 2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole core skeleton are functionalized with various electrophiles such as alkyl halide, acid halides, and sulfornyl chloride in high yields.

  17. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  18. 77 FR 65775 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... active in that market. The Bureau is issuing the final rule pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

  19. 78 FR 73383 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... payday lending markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank...

  20. 77 FR 42873 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 140 / Friday... RIN 3170-AA00 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank ``larger participant '' of...

  1. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  2. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  3. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  4. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  5. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  6. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  7. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... section to define larger participants of a market for student loan servicing. The Bureau proposes this... services, as the Bureau defines by rule. The proposal (Proposed Rule) would identify a market for...

  8. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  9. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohammad F.; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  10. Synthesis and multi-spectroscopic DNA binding study of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammad F; Rauf, Abdul

    2016-01-15

    A facile and convenient synthesis of a series of fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole has been described. The key step of this protocol is the cyclization of acyl thiosemicarbazides via iodobenzene diacetate and methanesulfonic acid under mild conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)HNMR, (13)CNMR and mass spectral study. The binding affinity of 5-(pentadecyl)-N-propenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-amine (3a) and 5-(heptadecyl)-2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole (6a) with CT-DNA has been evaluated by UV, fluorescence, Circular Dichroism (CD) and thermal denaturation studies. It has been found that these small and planer heteroaromatic compounds are capable of binding to the minor groove region of DNA.

  11. 1H and 13C MAS NMR analysis for the role of chemically inequivalent a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4 ions in [N(CH3)4]2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran

    2014-01-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory frame, T1, and in the rotating frame, T1ρ, for 1H and 13C in [N(CH3)4]2CuCl4 were measured by static NMR and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR as functions of temperature. The intensities of the 1H and 13C signals changed near phase transition temperatures TC1 and TC3, which indicated that N(CH3)4 plays an important role in these phase transitions. It was thus apparent that the T1 and T1ρ for 1H are governed by the same molecular motions. Two inequivalent ions, a-N(CH3)4 and b-N(CH3)4, were identified by 13C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR. From these results, the behaviors of these two chemically inequivalent N(CH3)4 groups in the paraelastic and ferroelastic phases are discussed.

  12. Larger late sodium conductance in M cells contributes to electrical heterogeneity in canine ventricle.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, A C; Eddlestone, G T; Thomas, G P; Nesterenko, V V; Antzelevitch, C

    2001-08-01

    Action potentials and whole cell sodium current were recorded in canine epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial myocytes in normal sodium at 37 degrees C. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) reduced the action potential duration of midmyocardial cells to a greater degree than either epicardial or endocardial cells. Whole cell recordings in potassium-free and very-low-chloride solutions revealed a slowly decaying current that was completely inhibited by 5 microM TTX or replacement of external and internal sodium with the impermeant cation N-methyl-D-glucamine. Late sodium current density at 0 mV was 47% greater in midmyocardial cells and averaged -0.532 +/- 0.058 pA/pF in endocardial, -0.463 +/- 0.068 pA/pF in epicardial, and -0.785 +/- 0.070 pA/pF in midmyocardial cells. Neither the frequency dependence of late sodium current nor its recovery from inactivation exhibited transmural differences. After a 4.5-s pulse to -30 mV, late sodium current recovered with a single time constant of 140 ms. We conclude that a larger late sodium conductance in midmyocardial cells will favor longer action potentials in these cells. More importantly, drugs that slow inactivation of sodium channels will produce a nonuniform response across the ventricular wall that is proarrhythmic.

  13. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  14. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males.

  15. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN.

  16. Larger, Lighter Space Telescopes by Implementing In-Space Manufacturing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James t.; Gregory, Don; Herren, Ken; Howsman, Tom

    2007-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes from both the astronomical and global surveillance communities one looking up and the other down. Enabling technologies must be developed and implemented that will allow this goal to be financially and technically feasible. The optical systems needed far high spatial resolution surveillance and astronomical applications require large optical, apertures with mention of future systems up to 150 meter in diameter. With traditional optical manufacturing technologies, large optical aperture means high mass and long fabrication lead times with associated high costs. Completely new approaches to optical fabrication must be developed to enable the fabrication of such optical systems. The cost and lead time associated with the fabrication of lightweight, high quality optical systems limits the feasible size of the optics. A primary factor in the launch cost of space optical systems is volume and mass. To minimize the mass of the high quality optics, optical fabricators implement materials with high specific stiffness and use honeycomb, or other structural minimization patterns, to support the optical surface; however, the structure must still be designed to survive launch loads. This sigmficantly adds to the fabrication difficulty and dramatically increases launch costs. One approach to minimizing launch volume and negating the need for the design to survive launch loads is to send the manufacturing facility and raw materials into space and perform the fabrication in-situ. We, are currently performing feasibility studies of initial concepts for inspace manufacturing of optical systems. By utilizing the micro-gravity and vacuum environment of space while eliminating the constraints defined by high launch forces and limited volume of the launch vehicle, the development of large, high quality glass membrane mirrors may be feasible. Several concepts were investigated to address the manufacturing of

  17. Design of benzothiazole-1,3,4-thiadiazole conjugates: synthesis and anticonvulsant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahuja, Priya; Malik, Sachin; Arya, Satish K

    2013-11-01

    Various 2-[(6-substituted-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)amino]-N-[5-substituted-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]acetamides were synthesized with a prospective exploration of "lead hopping", using pharmacophoric elements for in vivo anticonvulsant activity. This yielded three potent candidates (5i, 5t, and 5u) in the preliminary screening employing the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, showing minimal neurotoxicity. Their quantitative study indicated an increase of nearly 2-10 times for the MES test and 7- to 67-fold for the scPTZ test in the protective index, the keystone in drug discovery for anticonvulsant activity.

  18. Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Hofmann, Axel; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Mamajek, Eric E; Liu, Dunji; Sibeck, David G; Neukirch, Levi P; Usui, Yoichi

    2010-03-05

    Stellar wind standoff by a planetary magnetic field prevents atmospheric erosion and water loss. Although the early Earth retained its water and atmosphere, and thus evolved as a habitable planet, little is known about Earth's magnetic field strength during that time. We report paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that record a geodynamo 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. The measured field strength is approximately 50 to 70% that of the present-day field. When combined with a greater Paleoarchean solar wind pressure, the paleofield strength data suggest steady-state magnetopause standoff distances of < or = 5 Earth radii, similar to values observed during recent coronal mass ejection events. The data also suggest lower-latitude aurora and increases in polar cap area, as well as heating, expansion, and volatile loss from the exosphere that would have affected long-term atmospheric composition.

  19. An asymptotic analysis of the 1:3:4 Hamiltonian normal form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Bosley, D. L.; Kevorkian, J.

    The normal form of the Hamiltonian 1:3:4 resonance, which exhibits two simultaneous resonances of differing orders, is studied asymptotically. Since the two resonances have different strengths, the exact solution of the primary single resonance system may be used to construct an action-angle transformation. The resulting standard form system is solved asymptotically by canonical near-identity averaging transformations. In addition to the Hamiltonian itself and its unperturbed part, which are two exact constants of the motion, a third independent adiabatic invariant of the original Hamiltonian system is constructed. The results apply directly to the problem of a free electron laser with weak self-fields. A specific model problem is studied numerically to verify the asymptotic validity of the results over long times.

  20. The Feasibility of Predicting Nino 3.4 Index Using a Sparse Approximation Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Li, T.; Gu, Y.; Zhang, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) is one of the principle factors that have significant influence on global climate variability. Due to large mass and great thermal capacity of the oceans, oceanic conditions change relatively slowly and dominant patterns are thus easy to detect. Most of the current research on SSTA make use of PCA methods like EOF or SVD. Though such methods are effective in reducing dimensions, it is always hard to give a physical interpretation of the results and difficult to distinguish the minor eigenvectors from noises. Instead of finding patterns, we put forward a framework for the direct prediction of SSTAs, using a sparse approximation method, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), to reduce the noises in global SST observation. Global SSTA time series in 5°×5° resolution were used to fit each target SSTA vector and the lasso method was utilized to avoid over-fitting. Taking the Nino 3.4 Index as an example, the predictability of the lasso model was studied and the results showed a relatively satisfying prediction skill in terms of correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error compared with the results obtained from LDEO 5. Moreover, by taking other climate variables into consideration, we discovered a stable relation between the Nino 3.4 Index and the sea-ice extent anomaly in South Pole at a lead time of around 2 years. In addition, the bootstrapping method was used to resample the coefficients in the sparse regression model so that we could study their statistical property. 14 regressors were reserved suggesting 10 potential indices which have relatively strong relations with the Nino 3.4 Index. Some of the potential indices corresponded well to known climate indices while the rest indicated an undiscovered index in tropical oceans of eastern South America. In conclusion, the lasso method approved its feasibility in climate prediction at a relatively low computation cost, and

  1. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  2. Public attitudes toward larger cigarette pack warnings: Results from a nationally representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of larger health warnings on cigarette packages. However, there is limited research examining attitudes toward such warning labels, which has potential implications for implementation of larger warning labels. The purpose of the current study was to examine attitudes toward larger warning sizes on cigarette packages and examine variables associated with more favorable attitudes. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 5,014), participants were randomized to different warning size conditions, assessing attitude toward “a health warning that covered (25, 50, 75) % of a cigarette pack.” SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Across experimental groups, nearly three-quarters (72%) of adults had attitudes supportive of larger warning labels on cigarette packs. Among the full sample and smokers only (N = 1,511), most adults had favorable attitudes toward labels that covered 25% (78.2% and 75.2%, respectively), 50% (70% and 58.4%, respectively), and 75% (67.9% and 61%, respectively) of a cigarette pack. Young adults, females, racial/ethnic minorities, and non-smokers were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Among smokers only, females and those with higher quit intentions held more favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Widespread support exists for larger warning labels on cigarette packages among U.S. adults, including among smokers. Our findings support the implementation of larger health warnings on cigarette packs in the U.S. as required by the 2009 Tobacco Control Act. PMID:28253257

  3. Thin layer chromatography/fluorescence detection of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriyuki; Fujita, Susumu; Ohta, Hikoto; Fukuba, Makoto; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2008-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of six methylenedioxylatedphenethylamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine; N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3-butamine; and 3,4-methylenedioxydimethylamphetamine, by thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection is proposed. These compounds form fluorophores on the developing plate following spraying with a reagent consisting of sodium hypochlorite, potassium hexacyanoferrate (III), and sodium hydroxide, and heating for 3 min at 100 degrees C. Blue fluorescent spots were observed under ultraviolet light in a wavelength range of 250-400 nm. The detection limits for MDMA and the above related compounds were 50 ng. The proposed method was effectively applied to the detection of MDMA in urine samples.

  4. Study of phase transition mechanisms in [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 by static NMR and MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Lim, Kye-Young

    2014-05-01

    The temperature dependences of chemical shifts, intensities, the spin-lattice relaxation time in laboratory frame T1, and in rotating frame T1ρ were measured for 1H and 13C in [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 by single-crystal NMR and MAS NMR. The unit cell in phase I contains two chemically inequivalent types of N(CH3)4 ions. However, the two chemically different ions N(CH3)4 cannot be practically identified from the 13C NMR spectrum. The structural changes for 1H and 13C were measured near Ti and TC4. The existence of chemically equivalent N(CH3)4 ions in phase I and the existence of the ferroelastic characteristic of the N(CH3)4 ions in phases IV and V are discussed.

  5. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  6. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    The cosmopolite foraminifer Heterostegina depressa has been a target of studies, describing its internal and external morphology, ecology and biology. During the last decades many researcher concentrated on test morphology and described its maturoevolute shape. Furthermore, a continuously increasing trend of test flattening along water depth has been described multiple times. However, the most common measurements, such as the thickness/diameter ratio, are too dependent on individual size to pose as an accurate tool. /newline Therefore a growth invariant character has been used to describe the change of thickness through the ontogeny of H. depressa. To compute this, the thickness at the half-radius, the so-called mediolateral thickness, of five whorls has been measured in 127 axial section of H. depressa. Based on this the ontogenetic change in thickness has been computed for specimens from different depth intervals of the slope of Sesoko-Jima, NW-Okinawa. In addition, this has been compared with the actual thickness and the corresponding radii at the same measuring points. The latter describes how thickness would change according to the thickness/diameter ratio./newline Hence, our analysis clearly quantifies a continuous transition of individuals with thicker central parts to individuals with flatter central parts along the water depth gradient. This is most likely controlled by light intensity, since photosymbionts (diatoms) of H. depressa are most active at low irradiation levels. Thus, shallower specimens grow thicker tests to reduce light penetration, while deeper specimens increase their surface to reach a better light exposure. Due to its broad water depth distribution H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. Since similar ecological constraints are assumed for fossil nummulitid taxa, useful palaeobathymetric information might be gathered from studying test flattening in extinct species

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Coated Magnesium for Nerve Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebaa, Meriam Amel

    In an attempt to develop conductive, biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible nerve conduits, pure magnesium (Mg) was used as the biodegradable substrate material to provide strength while the conductive polymer, poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was used as a conductive coating material to control Mg degradation and improve cytocompatibility of Mg substrates. A series of electrochemical deposition conditions were explored to produce a uniform, consistent PEDOT coating on Mg substrates. Five cycles of CV with the potential ranging from -0.5V to 2.0V were used to produce consistent coatings for further evaluation. Scanning electron micrographs showed the micro-porous structure of PEDOT coatings. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed the peaks of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon, indicating PEDOT coating. Adhesion strength of the coating was measured using ASTM-D 3359 standard tape test. The adhesion strength of PEDOT coating was within the classifications of 3B to 4B. Tafel tests of the PEDOT coated Mg showed a corrosion current (ICORR) of 6.14e-5A and critical voltage of -1.10V, as compared with ICORR of 9.08e-4A with a critical voltage of -1.35V for non-coated Mg. The calculated corrosion rate for the PEDOT coated Mg was 8.6 mm/year, much slower than 126.9mm/year for the non-coated Mg. H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) culture studies were conducted using magnesium (Mg) coated with a conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to study viability for potential neural applications. Stem cells cultured indirectly with the Mg coated with PEDOT for 2 cycles were viable for a about half the amount of time when compared with the stem cells cultured with the 5 cycle PEDOT coated Mg.

  8. Glial cell response to 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Joseph M; Cholanians, Aram B; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J

    2014-03-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), a primary metabolite of MDMA, are phenylethylamine derivatives that cause serotonergic neurotoxicity. Although several phenylethylamine derivatives activate microglia, little is known about the effects of MDMA on glial cells, and evidence of MDMA-induced microglial activation remains ambiguous. We initially determined microglial occupancy status of the parietal cortex in rats at various time points following a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (20mg/kg, SC). A biphasic microglial response to MDMA was observed, with peak microglial occupancy occurring 12- and 72-h post-MDMA administration. Because direct injection of MDMA into the brain does not produce neurotoxicity, the glial response to MDMA metabolites was subsequently examined in vivo and in vitro. Rats were treated with MDA (20mg/kg, SC) followed by ex vivo biopsy culture to determine the activation of quiescent microglia. A reactive microglial response was observed 72 h after MDA administration that subsided by 7 days. In contrast, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of MDA failed to produce a microglial response. However, thioether metabolites of MDA derived from α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) elicited a robust microglial response following icv injection. We subsequently determined the direct effects of various MDMA metabolites on primary cultures of E18 hippocampal mixed glial and neuronal cells. 5-(Glutathion-S-yl)-α-MeDA, 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-α-MeDA, and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-α-MeDA all stimulated the proliferation of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes at a dose of 10 µM. The findings indicate that glial cells are activated in response to MDMA/MDA and support a role for thioether metabolites of α-MeDA in the neurotoxicity.

  9. Growing larger with domestication: a matter of physiology, morphology or allocation?

    PubMed

    Milla, R; Matesanz, S

    2017-05-01

    Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass. Despite variations among crops, domestication generally increased the aboveground biomass (average effect +1.38, Cohen's d effect size). Domesticated plants invested less in leaves and more in stems than their wild progenitors. Photosynthesis rates remained similar after domestication. Variations in whole-plant C gains could not be explained by changes in leaf photosynthesis. Leaves were larger after domestication, which provided the main contribution to increases in leaf area per plant and plant-level C gain, and ultimately to larger aboveground biomass. In general, cultivated plants have become larger since domestication. In our six crops, this occurred despite lower investment in leaves, comparable leaf-level photosynthesis and similar biomass costs of leaf area (i.e. SLA) than their wild progenitors. Increased leaf size was the main driver of increases in aboveground size. Thus, we suggest that large seeds, which are also typical of crops, might produce individuals with larger organs (i.e. leaves) via cascading effects throughout ontogeny. Larger leaves would then scale into larger whole plants, which might partly explain the increases in size that accompanied domestication.

  10. Structure, phase transitions, and isotope effects in [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.

    2015-11-02

    The single crystal X-ray diffraction structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 is presented for the first time, resolving long standing confusion and speculation regarding the structure of this compound in the literature. A temperature dependent study of this compound shows that the structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 undergoes no fewer than two phase transitions between 100 and 360 K. The phase of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 at room temperature is Fd-3c a = 26.012(3) Å. At 360 K, the structure is in space group Fm-3m with a = 13.088(1) Å. The plutonium octahedra and tetramethylammonium cations undergo a rotative displacement and the degree of rotation varies with temperature, giving rise to the phase transition from Fm-3m to Fd-3c as the crystal is cooled. Synthesis and structural studies of the deuterated salt [(CD3)4N]2PuCl6 suggest that there is an isotopic effect associated with this phase transition as revealed by a changing transition temperature in the deuterated versus protonated compound indicating that the donor-acceptor interactions between the tetramethylammonium cations and the hexachloroplutonate anions are driving the phase transformation.

  11. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  12. The intracellular distribution and secretion of endopeptidases 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15) and 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16).

    PubMed

    Ferro, Emer S; Carreno, Flávia R; Goni, Camila; Garrido, Paula A G; Guimaraes, Alessander O; Castro, Leandro M; Oliveira, Vitor; Araujo, Maurício C; Rioli, Vanessa; Gomes, Marcelo D; Fontenele-Neto, José Domingues; Hyslop, Stephen

    2004-10-01

    Endopeptidase 24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and endopeptidase 24.16 (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are enzymes involved in general peptide metabolism in mammalian cells and tissues. This review will focus on morphological and biochemical aspects related to the subcellular distribution and secretion of these homologous enzymes in the central nervous system. These are important issues for a better understanding of the functions of EP24.15 and EP24.16 within neuroendocrine systems.

  13. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  14. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-Bisphosphate and Its Binding Protein Lamellipodin Regulate Chemotaxis of Malignant B Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhao; Wu, Xun; Hou, Sen; Malek, Mouhannad; Kielkowska, Anna; Noh, Edward; Makondo, Kennedy J; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Lin, Francis; Marshall, Aaron J

    2016-01-15

    Cell migration is controlled by PI3Ks, which generate lipid messengers phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and consequently recruit pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing signaling proteins. PI3K inhibition impairs migration of normal and transformed B cells, an effect thought to partly underlie the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in treatment of B cell malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Although a number of studies have implicated phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cell migration, it remains unknown whether PI(3,4)P2 plays a distinct role. Using the PI(3,4)P2-specific phosphatase inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase, we investigate the impact of depleting PI(3,4)P2 on migration behavior of malignant B cells. We find that cells expressing wild-type, but not phosphatase dead, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase show impaired SDF-induced PI(3,4)P2 responses and reduced migration in Transwell chamber assays. Moreover, PI(3,4)P2 depletion in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells significantly impaired their migration capacity. PI(3,4)P2 depletion reduced both overall motility and migration directionality in the presence of a stable chemokine gradient. Within chemotaxing B cells, the PI(3,4)P2-binding cytoskeletal regulator lamellipodin (Lpd) was found to colocalize with PI(3,4)P2 on the plasma membrane via its PH domain. Overexpression and knockdown studies indicated that Lpd levels significantly impact migration capacity. Moreover, the ability of Lpd to promote directional migration of B cells in an SDF-1 gradient was dependent on its PI(3,4)P2-binding PH domain. These results demonstrate that PI(3,4)P2 plays a significant role in cell migration via binding to specific cytoskeletal regulators such as Lpd, and they suggest that impairment of PI(3,4)P2-dependent processes may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of PI3K inhibitors in B cell malignancies.

  15. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy.

  16. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  17. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  18. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  19. Post-mortem surface features in larger foraminiferan Archaias angulatus as paleoenvironmental indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Cottey, T.L.

    1986-05-01

    Larger foraminifera are major contributors to sand-sized carbonate sediments. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll) is the dominant larger foraminiferan in the Caribbean region. A taphonomic study of this species revealed several stages of preservation from newly unaltered tests to complete destruction of outer calcite layers. Tests collected from contrasting environments in Key Largo, Florida, show different paths of degradation. Impact features and secondary growths predominate on tests collected from well-sorted sediments of the open platform, whereas dissolution features are most common on tests from the calm, muddy environment of Largo Sound. Tests from the open platform show major breakage, abundant scratches, and small, randomly spaced holes. Tests from Largo Sound show little breakage, few scratches, and loss of entire sections of the outer wall. Microborings are present on tests from both environments. This study shows that postmortem alterations of surface textures of larger foraminifera may be useful indicators of paleoenvironments of deposition.

  20. Selective neurotensin-derived internally quenched fluorogenic substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16): comparison with thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V; Campos, M; Hemerly, J P; Ferro, E S; Camargo, A C; Juliano, M A; Juliano, L

    2001-05-15

    Internally quenched fluorescent peptides derived from neurotensin (pELYENKPRRPYIL) sequence were synthesized and assayed as substrates for neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15 or TOP), and neprilysin (EC 3.4.24.11 or NEP). Abz-LYENKPRRPYILQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp is N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine and Abz is ortho-aminobenzoic acid) was derived from neurotensin by the introduction of Q-EDDnp at the C-terminal end of peptide and by the substitution of the pyroglutamic (pE) residue at N-terminus for Abz and a series of shorter peptides was obtained by deletion of amino acids residues from C-terminal, N-terminal, or both sides. Neurolysin and TOP hydrolyzed the substrates at P--Y or Y--I or R--R bonds depending on the sequence and size of the peptides, while NEP cleaved P-Y or Y-I bonds according to its S'(1) specificity. One of these substrates, Abz-NKPRRPQ-EDDnp was a specific and sensitive substrate for neurolysin (k(cat) = 7.0 s(-1), K(m) = 1.19 microM and k(cat)/K(m) = 5882 mM(-1). s(-1)), while it was completely resistant to NEP and poorly hydrolyzed by TOP and also by prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.21.26). Neurolysin concentrations as low as 1 pM were detected using this substrate under our conditions and its analogue Abz-NKPRAPQ-EDDnp was hydrolyzed by neurolysin with k(cat) = 14.03 s(-1), K(m) = 0.82 microM, and k(cat)/K(m) = 17,110 mM(-1). s(-1), being the best substrate so far described for this peptidase.

  1. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval or disapproval of applications. 4750.3-4 Section 4750.3-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... facilities or transport, the individual may correct the shortcoming and file a new application....

  2. Dissecting Oct3/4-Regulated Gene Networks in Embryonic Stem Cells by Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Ryo; Niwa, Hitoshi; Masui, Shinji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Carter, Mark G.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2006-01-01

    POU transcription factor Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) is required to maintain ES cells in an undifferentiated state. Here we show that global expression profiling of Oct3/4-manipulated ES cells delineates the downstream target genes of Oct3/4. Combined with data from genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, this analysis identifies not only primary downstream targets of Oct3/4, but also secondary or tertiary targets. Furthermore, the analysis also reveals that downstream target genes are regulated either positively or negatively by Oct3/4. Identification of a group of genes that show both activation and repression depending on Oct3/4 expression levels provides a possible mechanism for the requirement of appropriate Oct3/4 expression to maintain undifferentiated ES cells. As a proof-of-principle study, one of the downstream genes, Tcl1, has been analyzed in detail. We show that Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of Tcl1 and activates its transcription. We also show that Tcl1 is involved in the regulation of proliferation, but not differentiation, in ES cells. These findings suggest that the global expression profiling of gene-manipulated ES cells can help to delineate the structure and dynamics of gene regulatory networks. PMID:17183653

  3. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin'sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1985-12-01

    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  4. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in urine by online solid-phase extraction and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with detection by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ti-Yu; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2005-01-01

    A method using an online solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-pairing liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS/MS) was developed for determination of amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (mAmp), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine samples. A SPE cartridge column with both hydrophilic and lipophilic functions was utilized for online extraction. A reversed-phase C18 LC column was employed for LC separation and MS/MS was used for detection. Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the mobile phase as an ion-pairing reagent. This method was fully automated and the extraction and analysis procedures were controlled by a six-port switch valve. Recoveries ranging from 85-101% were measured. Good linear ranges (10-500 ng/mL) for Amp and mAmp were determined. For MDA, MDMA and MDEA, dual linear ranges were obtained from 5-100 and 100-500 ng/mL, respectively. The detection limit of each analytical compound, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, ranged from 1-3 ng/mL. The applicability of this newly developed method was examined by analyzing several urine samples from drug users. Good agreement was obtained between the results from this method and a literature GC/MS method.

  5. Prevalence of use study for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) in military entrance processing stations (MEPS) specimens.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Kettle, Aaron R; Jamerson, Matthew H

    2006-06-01

    The Roche Abuscreen Onlinetrade mark Amphetamine immunoassay (IA), modified to include sodium periodate, and the Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA were used to determine the prevalence of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in urine specimens from applicants seeking to join the United States Armed Forces. Over a 4-month period, a total of 85,658 specimens were IA screened using the Department of Defense 500 ng/mL administrative cutoff level for AMP and MDMA. All presumptively positive specimens were confirmed using a solid-phase extraction procedure coupled with simultaneous analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same cutoff levels as the IA. The Roche Online Amphetamine IA identified 216 specimens as presumptively positive; of these, 70 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and 87 specimens confirmed positive for AMP and/or MAMP, resulting in a confirmation rate of 73%. The Microgenics DRI Ecstasy IA identified eight specimens as presumptively positive; of these, five specimens confirmed positive for MDMA and/or MDA, resulting in a confirmation rate of 63%. The total use prevalence for AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, and/or MDEA in military entrance processing stations specimens over the testing period was determined to be 0.19%.

  6. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of LiSm(PO3)4 phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hassen, N.; Ferhi, M.; Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2015-08-01

    The phosphor LiSm(PO3)4 has been prepared by the solid state reaction and characterized using the techniques XRD, IR and Raman spectroscopies. The optical properties of the Sm3+ ions in this compound have been investigated in detail based on the diffuse reflectance, the excitation, the emission spectra and the photoluminescence decay time. The optical band gap energy of the studied phosphor (Eg ≈ 4.22 eV) has been calculated from the diffuse reflectance by using the Kubelka-Munk function and Tauc's relation. The excitation spectrum shows four photoluminescence bands at 560, 600, 650 and 700 nm corresponding to the 4G5/2 → 6HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) electronic transitions of the Sm3+ ion, respectively. The decay time is a pure radiative transition and the lifetime value for the transition 4G5/2 → 6H7/2 is found equal to 32.5 μs. The effects of the crystal structure and Li+ on the lifetime have been revealed. The CIE chromaticity coordinates reveal that this phosphor can be a promising orange-reddish luminophore for application in LED.

  8. Pulse Responses of the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate)-Based Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fei; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Sizhao; Chang, Chiating; Hu, Yuandong

    2017-03-01

    Pulse responses were studied for the heterojunctions within the structure of Ti/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/Ti. The pulse response was found to resemble that of the action potential after the pulse width was modulated to a time scale of nanoseconds. Using the pulse as a stimulation protocol to simulate synaptic plasticity produced spike rate-dependent plasticity-like phenomena. Thus, the application scope of this conducting polymer-based memristor can be extended from a time scale of milliseconds to one of nanoseconds, depending on the requirement of neuromorphic circuits. Current oscillations were observed with a period within 100 ns. The mechanisms of the behavior response were analyzed according to memristor protocol. An interface barrier is thought to primarily account for the origin of the capacitive feature and the charge q, i.e., one of the basic characteristic of the memristor. The chain structure of this conducting polymer should primarily account for the origin of its inductive feature and the flux φ, i.e., another basic characteristic of the memristor.

  9. Oct3/4-associating proteins from embryonal carcinoma and spermatogenic cells of mouse.

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A; Vorob'ev, V; Drosdowsky, M; Séralini, G E

    1998-03-01

    The octamer-binding protein Oct3/4 was postulated to active transcription through protein-protein interactions with hypothetical cellular coactivator(s). We have used a bacterially produced Oct3/4, as a protein-binding probe, to detect by far-Western assay the Oct3/4-associating proteins (OTAPs) from the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells F9 and pachytene spermatocytes. Both common and cell-specific OTAPs were shown to interact directly with Oct3/4. Differentiation of the EC cells results in disappearance of most of OTAPs, supporting their coactivator nature. Several OTAPs detected in pachytene spermatocyte may represent germ cell-specific Oct3/4 coactivators.

  10. Neuropeptide specificity and inhibition of recombinant isoforms of the endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 family: comparison with the related recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed

    Rioli, V; Kato, A; Portaro, F C; Cury, G K; te Kaat, K; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Camargo, A C; Glucksman, M J; Roberts, J L; Hirose, S; Ferro, E S

    1998-09-08

    Endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 (EP24.16c, neurolysin) and thimet oligopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 are close related members of a large family of metalloproteases. Besides their cytosolic and membrane bound form, endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 appears to be present in the inner membrane of the mitochondria (EP24.16m). We have overexpressed two porcine EP24.16 isoforms in E. coli and purified the recombinant proteins to homogeneity. We show here that these peptidases hydrolyse a series of neuropeptides with similar rates and at sites reminiscent of those elicited by classically purified human brain EP24.16c. All neuropeptides, except neurotensin, were similarly cleaved by recombinant endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15, thimet oligopeptidase), another zinc-containing metalloenzyme structurally related to EP24.16. These two EP24.16 isoforms were drastically inhibited by Pro-Ile and dithiothreitol and remained unaffected by a specific carboalkyl inhibitor (CFP-AAY-pAb) directed toward the related EP24.15. The present purification procedure of EP24.16 should allow to establish, by mutagenesis analysis, the mechanistic properties of the enzyme.

  11. An efficient synthesis of 3,4-Dihydrofuro [3,4-B] [1,4] dioxepine-6,8-dicarboxylic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DENG, D. D.; WANG, L. P.; YAN, H. W.; SUN, X. X.; WANG, Z.

    2017-01-01

    As a class of important conjugated polymers, electroluminescent material of polyfuran possess a lot of merits, including good stability, structure is easy to be modified and controllable electrochemical properties. This study uses ethylene diglycol, diethyl oxalate, 1,3- dibromopropane and so on as raw materials to synthesize 3, 4 - ethylenedioxy furan monomer and similar derivatives via oxidation, acetylation, hydrolysis and elimination reaction, etc.

  12. Neurotoxic Thioether Adducts of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Identified in Human Urine After Ecstasy IngestionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Perfetti, Ximena; O'Mathúna, Brian; Pizarro, Nieves; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Khymenets, Olha; Almeida, Bruno; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.; Farré, Magí; Pascual, Jose Antonio; Joglar, Jesús; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a widely misused synthetic amphetamine derivative and a serotonergic neurotoxicant in animal models and possibly humans. The underlying mechanism of neurotoxicity involves the formation of reactive oxygen species although their source remains unclear. It has been postulated that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated via the formation of bioreactive metabolites. In particular, the primary catechol metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA), subsequently cause the formation of glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates, which retain the ability to redox cycle and are serotonergic neurotoxicants in rats. Although the presence of such metabolites has been recently demonstrated in rat brain microdialysate, their formation in humans has not been reported. The present study describes the detection of 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA) in human urine of 15 recreational users of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) in a controlled setting. The results reveal that in the first 4 h after MDMA ingestion ∼0.002% of the administered dose was recovered as thioether adducts. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase expression, the combination of which are major determinants of steady-state levels of HHMA and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine, probably explain the interindividual variability seen in the recovery of N-Ac-5-Cys-HHMA and N-Ac-5-Cys-HHA. In summary, the formation of neurotoxic thioether adducts of MDMA has been demonstrated for the first time in humans. The findings lend weight to the hypothesis that the bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites is a relevant pathway to neurotoxicity in humans. PMID:19349378

  13. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 channels in dorsal root ganglia following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ritter, David M; Zemel, Benjamin M; Hala, Tamara J; O'Leary, Michael E; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2015-01-21

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2-6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2-6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions.

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescence studies on YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheesh Kumar, Ranganathan; Ponnusamy, Velladurai; Jose, Mundiyanikal Thomas; Sivakumar, Vairan

    2014-12-01

    Terbium (Tb3+) doped yttrium aluminium borate phosphors (YAl3(BO3)4) with different compositions such as YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ (x = 1-8 mol.%) were synthesized using modified solid state reaction technique. The synthesized phosphor was studied using powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), high resolution-scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM). Lattice parameters are calculated for the Tb3+ doped and substituted YAB phosphors using XRD analysis. The phosphor exhibits green emission at 572 nm with 375 nm of excitation. It is found that the Tb3+ ions substitution in the sites Y3+ and Al3+ ions in Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ leads to overlapping of energy levels which affects the PL intensity of the phosphor significantly. Thus, phosphor synthesized with the composition YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+, acquires higher photoluminescence (PL) intensity when compared to Y1-xAl3(BO3)4:Tbx3+ and YAl(3-x)(BO3)4:Tbx3+ phosphors. Temperature dependent PL property (thermal quenching studies) of YAl3(BO3)4:Tb3+ was also performed up to 250 °C. Further, it is found that the PL intensity of the studied phosphor is comparable with commercial green phosphor. HR-SEM analysis demonstrates that the phosphors are grown as nanorods with an average diameter of 50-80 nm and length 250-500 nm.

  15. Dysregulation of Kv3.4 Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, David M.; Zemel, Benjamin M.; Hala, Tamara J.; O'Leary, Michael E.; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients develop chronic pain involving poorly understood central and peripheral mechanisms. Because dysregulation of the voltage-gated Kv3.4 channel has been implicated in the hyperexcitable state of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons following direct injury of sensory nerves, we asked whether such a dysregulation also plays a role in SCI. Kv3.4 channels are expressed in DRG neurons, where they help regulate action potential (AP) repolarization in a manner that depends on the modulation of inactivation by protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of the channel's inactivation domain. Here, we report that, 2 weeks after cervical hemicontusion SCI, injured rats exhibit contralateral hypersensitivity to stimuli accompanied by accentuated repetitive spiking in putative DRG nociceptors. Also in these neurons at 1 week after laminectomy and SCI, Kv3.4 channel inactivation is impaired compared with naive nonsurgical controls. At 2–6 weeks after laminectomy, however, Kv3.4 channel inactivation returns to naive levels. Conversely, Kv3.4 currents at 2–6 weeks post-SCI are downregulated and remain slow-inactivating. Immunohistochemistry indicated that downregulation mainly resulted from decreased surface expression of the Kv3.4 channel, as whole-DRG-protein and single-cell mRNA transcript levels did not change. Furthermore, consistent with Kv3.4 channel dysregulation, PKC activation failed to shorten the AP duration of small-diameter DRG neurons. Finally, re-expressing synthetic Kv3.4 currents under dynamic clamp conditions dampened repetitive spiking in the neurons from SCI rats. These results suggest a novel peripheral mechanism of post-SCI pain sensitization implicating Kv3.4 channel dysregulation and potential Kv3.4-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:25609640

  16. Distinct properties of neuronal and astrocytic endopeptidase 3.4.24.16: a study on differentiation, subcellular distribution, and secretion processes.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Beaudet, A; Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1996-08-15

    Endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 belongs to the zinc-containing metalloprotease family and likely participates in the physiological inactivation of neurotensin. The peptidase displays distinct features in pure primary cultured neurons and astrocytes. Neuronal maturation leads to a decrease in the proportion of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16-bearing neurons and to a concomitant increase in endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity and mRNA content. By contrast, there is no change with time in endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity or content in astrocytes. Primary cultured neurons exhibit both soluble and membrane-associated endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity. The latter behaves as an ectopeptidase on intact plated neurons and resists treatments with 0.2% digitonin and Na2CO3. Further evidence for an association of the enzyme with plasma membranes was provided by cryoprotection experiments and electron microscopic analysis. The membrane-associated form of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 increased during neuronal differentiation and appears to be mainly responsible for the overall augmentation of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 activity observed during neuronal maturation. Unlike neurons, astrocytes only contain soluble endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. Astrocytes secrete the enzyme through monensin, brefeldin A, and forskolin-independent mechanisms. This indicates that endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 is not released by classical regulated or constitutive secreting processes. However, secretion is blocked at 4 degrees C and by 8 bromo cAMP and is enhanced at 42 degrees C, two properties reminiscent of that of other secreted proteins lacking a classical signal peptide. By contrast, neurons appear unable to secrete endopeptidase 3.4.24.16.

  17. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  18. Inhibitors of metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 and EC 3.4.24.16 stabilized against proteolysis by the incorporation of beta-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Steer, David; Lew, Rebecca; Perlmutter, Patrick; Smith, A Ian; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel

    2002-09-03

    The enzyme EC 3.4.24.15 (EP 24.15) is a zinc metalloendopeptidase whose precise function in vivo remains unknown but is thought to participate in the regulated metabolism of a number of specific neuropeptides. The lack of stable and selective inhibitors has hindered the determination of the exact function of EP 24.15. Of the limited number of EP 24.15 inhibitors that have been developed, N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (CFP) is the most widely studied. CFP is a potent and specific inhibitor, but it is unstable in vivo due to cleavage between the alanine and tyrosine residues by the enzyme neprilysin (EP 24.11). This cleavage by EP 24.11 generates a potent inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme, thereby limiting the use of CFP for in vivo studies. To develop specific inhibitors of EP 24.15 that are resistant to in vitro and potentially in vivo proteolysis by EP 24.11, this study incorporated beta-amino acids replacing the Ala-Tyr scissile alpha-amino acids of CFP. Both C2 and C3 substituted beta-amino acids were synthesized and substituted at the EP 24.11 scissile Ala-Tyr bond. Significant EP 24.15 inhibitory activity was observed with some of the beta-amino acid containing analogues. Moreover, binding to EP 24.11 was eliminated, thus rendering all analogues containing beta-amino acids resistant to degradation by EP 24.11. Selective inhibition of either EP 24.15 or EP 24.16 was also observed with some analogues. The results demonstrated the use of beta-amino acids in the design of inhibitors of EP 24.15 and EP 24.16 with K(i)'s in the low micromolar range. At the same time, these analogues were resistant to cleavage by the related metalloendopeptidase EP 24.11, in contrast to the alpha-amino acid based parent peptide. This study has therefore clearly shown the potential of beta-amino acids in the design of stable enzyme inhibitors and their use in generating molecules with selectivity between closely related enzymes.

  19. The Non-linear Health Consequences of Living in Larger Cities.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luis E C; Thorson, Anna E; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization promotes economy, mobility, access, and availability of resources, but on the other hand, generates higher levels of pollution, violence, crime, and mental distress. The health consequences of the agglomeration of people living close together are not fully understood. Particularly, it remains unclear how variations in the population size across cities impact the health of the population. We analyze the deviations from linearity of the scaling of several health-related quantities, such as the incidence and mortality of diseases, external causes of death, wellbeing, and health care availability, in respect to the population size of cities in Brazil, Sweden, and the USA. We find that deaths by non-communicable diseases tend to be relatively less common in larger cities, whereas the per capita incidence of infectious diseases is relatively larger for increasing population size. Healthier lifestyle and availability of medical support are disproportionally higher in larger cities. The results are connected with the optimization of human and physical resources and with the non-linear effects of social networks in larger populations. An urban advantage in terms of health is not evident, and using rates as indicators to compare cities with different population sizes may be insufficient.

  20. Mesoscale Mountains and the Larger-scale Atmospheric Dynamics A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schär, C.

    INTRODUCTION REGIME DIAGRAM FOR FLOW PAST TOPOGRAPHY Balanced Solutions Wake Formation and Transition into the Dissipative Regime Flow Regimes for Major Topographic Obstacles INTERACTIONS WITH THE BALANCED LARGER-SCALE DYNAMICS Surface Potential Temperature Anomalies Potential Vorticity Anomalies NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF ALPINE WAKES OUTLOOK REFERNCES

  1. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin.

  2. The Conversion of Smaller Borane Fragments to Larger Structures. Systematics of Boron Hydride Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Robert W. Parry and Goji Kodama Contract DAAG-29-8rl-K-Ol0l S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK S Department of...Entered; THE CONVERSION OF SMALLER BORANE FRAGMENTS TO LARGER STRUCTURES - SYSTEMATICS OF BORON HYDRIDE REACTIONS FINAL REPORT ROBERT W. PARRY AND GOJI

  3. Features of Capillary Breakup of a Liquid Jet at Ohnesorge Numbers Larger Than Unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the forced capillary breakup of a jet of viscous liquid at a value of the Ohnesorge number larger than unity. The regions of breakup of the jet without the formation of satellites have been determined. The dependences of the dimensions of main and satellite droplets on the wave number have been obtained for different Ohnesorge numbers.

  4. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  5. A Larger and Wealthier Hispanic Community Draws the Attention of College Fund Raisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1997-01-01

    Statistics showing that the U.S. Hispanic population is getting larger and wealthier have altered perceptions that this is a community in need. College officials, particularly in states with large Hispanic populations, are courting Hispanic business owners and establishing networks through Hispanic alumni groups. However, some fear that…

  6. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. 3. View of larger DL&W passenger terminal building looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of larger DL&W passenger terminal building looking southeast from beginning of South Park Avenue. Skyway is at extreme right. Train shed is at extreme left. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. The Brain Connection: The Corpus Callosum is Larger in Left-Handers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witelson, Sandra F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the neurobiological basis for functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, indicating that the size of the corpus callosum is correlated with the neurophysiological measure of hand preference. In postmortem examinations of 42 subjects there were no sex differences, but mixed-handers had significantly larger total areas of the…

  9. Dynamics of ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer with 1-tert-butyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NTC6) in n-hexane and acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Sergey I; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2007-12-20

    The intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction of 1-tert-butyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NTC6) in n-hexane and acetonitrile (MeCN) is investigated by picosecond fluorescence experiments as a function of temperature and by femtosecond transient absorption measurements at room temperature. NTC6 in n-hexane is dual fluorescent from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state, with a quantum yield ratio Phi'(ICT)/Phi(LE) of 0.35 at +25 degrees C and 0.67 at -95 degrees C, whereas in MeCN mainly an ICT emission is observed. From the temperature dependence of Phi'(ICT)/Phi(LE) for NTC6 in n-hexane, an LE/ICT enthalpy difference DeltaH of -2.4 kJ/mol is determined. For comparison, 1-isopropyl-6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (NIC6) is also investigated. This molecule does not undergo an ICT reaction, because of its larger energy gap DeltaE(S1,S2). From the molar absorption coefficient epsilonmax of NTC6 as compared with other aminobenzonitriles, a ground-state amino twist angle theta of approximately 22 degrees is deduced. The increase of epsilonmax between n-hexane and MeCN indicates that theta decreases when the solvent polarity becomes larger. Whereas single-exponential LE fluorescence decays are obtained for NIC6 in n-hexane and MeCN, the LE and ICT decays of NTC6 in these solvents are double exponential. For NTC6 in n-hexane at -95 degrees C, with a shortest decay time of 20 ps, the forward (ka=2.5x10(10) s(-1)) and backward (kd=2.7x10(10) s(-1)) rate constants for the LE<-->ICT reaction are determined from the time-resolved LE and ICT fluorescence spectra. For NTC6 in n-hexane and MeCN, the excited-state absorption (ESA) spectrum at 200 fs after excitation is similar to the LE(ESA) spectra of NIC6 and 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN), showing that LE is the initially excited state for NTC6. These results indicate that the LE states of NTC6, NIC6, and DMABN have a comparable molecular structure. The ICT(ESA) spectrum of NTC6 in n-hexane and Me

  10. 1,3,4-oxadiazole: a privileged structure in antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Zhan, P; Liu, X

    2011-11-01

    1,3,4-oxadiazole, a privileged structure, endows its derivatives with broad and potent biological functions, especially in antiviral activities, including anti-HIV, anti-HCV, anti-HBV, anti-HSV activities, etc. Molecular modeling and pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the introduction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring to the inhibitors can change their polarity, flexibility as well as metabolic stability, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffold can also act as acceptors of hydrogen bonds formation, which make it possible to be used as a isosteric substituent for amide or ester groups. This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring and mainly the discovery, biological activities investigations and structural modifications of several distinct classes of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles as potent antiviral agents. In addition, the binding models of some representative 1,3,4-oxadiazoles were also discussed, which provide rational explanation for their interesting antiviral activities, and also pave the way for further optimization of 1,3,4- oxadiazole based antiviral agents.

  11. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  12. Migraine and the social selection vs causation hypotheses: a question larger than either/or?

    PubMed

    Peterlin, B Lee; Scher, Ann I

    2013-09-10

    For decades, the question of social selection vs social causation has been raised by public health researchers and social scientists to explain the association between socioeconomic factors and mood disorders.(1,2) The social selection or "downward drift" theory postulates that the disease itself limits an individual's educational and occupational achievements, leading to a lower socioeconomic status (SES). In contrast, the social causation hypothesis suggests that factors associated with low SES (e.g., stressful life events, poor health care access) increase the likelihood of disease onset or prolonged disease duration.(3,4) Simply stated, the end result of each hypothesis is as follows:

  13. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  14. [An immunohistochemical study of the expression of transcription factor Oct3/4 in mouse spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Tomilin, A N; Kostyleva, E I; Drosdovskiĭ, M A; Seralini, J E; Vorob'ev, V I

    1996-01-01

    The expression of POU-domain transcription factor Oct3/4 in the testis of adult mice has been studied using indirect immunofluorescence with highly specific antibodies. The protein is shown to be expressed in germ cells of seminiferous epithelium in a stage specific manner. The protein synthesis is initiated in mid-pachytene spermatocytes, increases to reach its peak during meiotic division. The Oct3/4 level remains augmented in early spermatids, but gradually declines during their further developmental advancement. These findings imply that Oct3/4 may have a regulatory function providing for the control of meiosis and/or terminal differentiation of spermatogenic cells.

  15. Scaffold Hopping Toward Agomelatine: Novel 3, 4-Dihydroisoquinoline Compounds as Potential Antidepressant Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Ang, Wei; Long, Haiyue; Chang, Ying; Li, Zicheng; Zhou, Liangxue; Yang, Tao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Youfu

    2016-10-01

    A scaffold-hopping strategy toward Agomelatine based on in silico screening and knowledge analysis was employed to design novel antidepressant agents. A series of 3, 4-dihydroisoquinoline compounds were selected for chemical synthesis and biological assessment. Three compounds (6a-1, 6a-2, 6a-9) demonstrated protective effects on corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Compound 6a-1 also displayed low inhibitory effects on the growth of HEK293 and L02 normal cells and it was further evaluated for its potential antidepressant effects in vivo. The forced swim test (FST) results revealed that compound 6a-1 remarkably reduced the immobility time of rats and the open field test (OFT) results indicated a better general locomotor activity of the rats treated with compound 6a-1 than those with Agomelatine or Fluoxetine. Mechanism studies implied that compound 6a-1 can significantly reduce PC12 cell apoptosis by up-regulation of GSH and down-regulation of ROS in corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of calcium ion concentration and up-regulation of BDNF level in PC12 cells may account for the neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, compound 6a-1 can increase cell survival and cell proliferation, promote cell maturation in the rat hippocampus after chronic treatment. The acute toxicity data in vivo indicated compound 6a-1 exhibited less hepatotoxicity than Agomelatine.

  16. Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology.

    PubMed

    Dumont, G J H; Kramers, C; Sweep, F C G J; Willemsen, J J; Touw, D J; Schoemaker, R C; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Both drugs affect cardiovascular function, hydration and temperature regulation, but may have partly opposing effects. The present study aims to assess the acute physiologic effects of (co-) administration of MDMA and ethanol over time. A four-way, double blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers (9 male and 7 female) between the ages of 18 and 29. MDMA (100 mg) was given orally and blood ethanol concentration was maintained at pseudo-steady state levels of 0.6 per thousand by a three-hour 10% intravenous ethanol clamp. Cardiovascular function, temperature and hydration measures were recorded throughout the study days. Ethanol did not significantly affect physiologic function, with the exception of a short lasting increase in heart rate. MDMA potently increased heart rate and blood pressure and induced fluid retention as well as an increase in temperature. Co-administration of ethanol with MDMA did not affect cardiovascular function compared to the MDMA alone condition, but attenuated the effects of MDMA on fluid retention and showed a trend for attenuation of MDMA-induced temperature increase. In conclusion, co-administration of ethanol and MDMA did not exacerbate physiologic effects compared to all other drug conditions, and moderated some effects of MDMA alone.

  17. Scaffold Hopping Toward Agomelatine: Novel 3, 4-Dihydroisoquinoline Compounds as Potential Antidepressant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ang, Wei; Long, Haiyue; Chang, Ying; Li, Zicheng; Zhou, Liangxue; Yang, Tao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Youfu

    2016-01-01

    A scaffold-hopping strategy toward Agomelatine based on in silico screening and knowledge analysis was employed to design novel antidepressant agents. A series of 3, 4-dihydroisoquinoline compounds were selected for chemical synthesis and biological assessment. Three compounds (6a-1, 6a-2, 6a-9) demonstrated protective effects on corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Compound 6a-1 also displayed low inhibitory effects on the growth of HEK293 and L02 normal cells and it was further evaluated for its potential antidepressant effects in vivo. The forced swim test (FST) results revealed that compound 6a-1 remarkably reduced the immobility time of rats and the open field test (OFT) results indicated a better general locomotor activity of the rats treated with compound 6a-1 than those with Agomelatine or Fluoxetine. Mechanism studies implied that compound 6a-1 can significantly reduce PC12 cell apoptosis by up-regulation of GSH and down-regulation of ROS in corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of calcium ion concentration and up-regulation of BDNF level in PC12 cells may account for the neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, compound 6a-1 can increase cell survival and cell proliferation, promote cell maturation in the rat hippocampus after chronic treatment. The acute toxicity data in vivo indicated compound 6a-1 exhibited less hepatotoxicity than Agomelatine. PMID:27698414

  18. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and pseudoephedrine in soils.

    PubMed

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    This work presents, for the first time, information on the adsorption-desorption characteristics of illicit drugs and precursors in soils and an estimation of their potential bioavailability. The experiment was conducted using a batch equilibrium technique for the parent drugs methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and the precursor pseudoephedrine in three South Australian soils varying in physiochemical properties. The individual compounds exhibited different adsorption mechanisms in the test soils, and the results fitted better with the Freundlich isotherm model (r (2) ≥ 0.99). The maximum adsorption capacity was recorded for pseudoephedrine (2,000 μg g(-1)). However, pseudoephedrine recorded lower organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient values (<250 mL g(-1)), lower magnitudes of Gibb's free energy change, and higher percent desorption (73-92 %) compared to methamphetamine and MDMA. The results thus showed pseudoephedrine to be the most mobile compound in the soils under study, to have the highest availability for degradation of the three compounds, and to have the highest susceptibility to biotic degradation in test soils.

  19. Gas Content and Star Formation Efficiency of Massive Main Sequence Galaxies at z~3-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Karim, Alexander; Sargent, Mark T.; Oesch, Pascal; Le Fevre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Magnelli, Benjamin; Cassata, Paolo; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the neutral gas content and star formation efficiency of massive (with log(stellar masses) > 10), normal star forming galaxies, i.e. they reside on the main sequence of star forming galaxies, are steadily decreasing from the peak of star formation activity (at redshifts of z~2) till today. This decrease is coincident with the observed decline in the cosmic star formation rate density over this time range. However, only few observations have probed the evolution of the gas content and star formation efficiency beyond this peak epoch when the cosmic star formation rate density has been increasing, i.e. at redshifts of z~3-4.We will present new ALMA rest-frame 250um continuum detections of 45 massive, normal star forming galaxies in this critical redshift interval selected in the COSMOS deep field. Using the sub-mm continnum as proxy for the cold neutral gas content, we find gas mass fractions and depletions similar to those reported during the peak epoch of star formation. We will discuss our findings in the context of results from lower redshift observations and model expectations.

  20. Mechanism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Yu, Li-Rong; Lee, Insong J; Ye, Xiaoying; Eddington, Natalie D; Veenstra, Timothy D; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2008-09-01

    Despite numerous reports citing the acute hepatotoxicity caused by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that key mitochondrial proteins are oxidatively modified and inactivated in MDMA-exposed tissues. The aim of this study was to identify and investigate the mechanism of inactivation of oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins, prior to the extensive mitochondrial dysfunction and liver damage following MDMA exposure. MDMA-treated rats showed abnormal liver histology with significant elevation in plasma transaminases, nitric oxide synthase, and the level of hydrogen peroxide. Oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats were labeled with biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins, purified with streptavidin-agarose, and resolved using 2-DE. Comparative 2-DE analysis of biotin-NM-labeled proteins revealed markedly increased levels of oxidatively modified proteins following MDMA exposure. Mass spectrometric analysis identified oxidatively modified mitochondrial proteins involved in energy supply, fat metabolism, antioxidant defense, and chaperone activities. Among these, the activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolases, and ATP synthase were significantly inhibited following MDMA exposure. Our data show for the first time that MDMA causes the oxidative inactivation of key mitochondrial enzymes which most likely contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent liver damage in MDMA-exposed animals.

  1. Osteosarcoma Phenotype Is Inhibited by 3,4-Methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene.

    PubMed

    Messerschmitt, Patrick J; Rettew, Ashley N; Schroeder, Nicholas O; Brookover, Robert E; Jakatdar, Avanti P; Getty, Patrick J; Greenfield, Edward M

    2012-01-01

    β-nitrostyrene compounds, such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene (MNS), inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in tumor cells, but no reports have investigated their role in osteosarcoma. In this study, human osteosarcoma cell families with cell lines of varying tumorigenic and metastatic potential were utilized. Scrape motility assays, colony formation assays, and colony survival assays were performed with osteosarcoma cell lines, both in the presence and absence of MNS. Effects of MNS on human osteoblasts and airway epithelial cells were assessed in monolayer cultures. MNS decreased metastatic cell line motility by 72-76% and colony formation by 95-100%. MNS consistently disrupted preformed colonies in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. MNS had similar effects on human osteoblasts but little effect on airway epithelial cells. An inactive analog of MNS had no detectable effects, demonstrating specificity. MNS decreases motility and colony formation of osteosarcoma cells and disrupts preformed cell colonies, while producing little effect on pulmonary epithelial cells.

  2. Copolyimides Prepared from 3,4'-Oxydianiline and 1,3-Bis(3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene with 3,3', 4,4'-Biphenylcarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Polyimide copolymers were prepared by reacting different ratios of 3,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 1,3-bis(3- aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) with 3,3',4,4'- biphenylcarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and endcappfng with an effective amount of a non-reactive endcapper. Within a narrow ratio of diamines, from -50% ODA/50% APB to -95% ODA/5% APB, the copolyimides prepared with BPDA have a unique combination of properties that make them very attractive for various applications. This unique combination of properties includes low pressure processing (200 psi and below), long term melt stability (several hours at 390 C.), improved toughness, improved solvent resistance, improved adhesive properties, and improved composite mechanical properties.

  3. [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4]: A Pd(0) Tetrahedron with μ3-Bridging Trimethylantimony Ligands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sophie L; Krämer, Tobias; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Macgregor, Stuart A; Reid, Gillian

    2016-06-08

    The palladium(II) chlorostibine complex [PdCl2(SbMe2Cl)2]2 has a dimeric structure in the solid state, stabilized by hyper-coordination at the Lewis amphoteric Sb centers. Reaction with 8 equiv of MeLi forms [Pd4(μ3-SbMe3)4(SbMe3)4], whose structure comprises a tetrahedral Pd(0) core with four terminal SbMe3 ligands and four μ3-SbMe3 ligands, one capping each triangular Pd3 face. Density functional theory calculations, supported by energy decomposition analysis and the natural orbitals for chemical valence scheme, highlight significant donor and acceptor orbital contributions to the bonding between both the terminal and the bridging SbMe3 ligands and the Pd4 core.

  4. Thyroid-vitamin A interactions in Chicks exposed to 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl: influence of low dietary vitamin A and iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, P.A.; Moon, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    Poultry chicks receiving a low vitamin A semipurified diet and exposed to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl became hypothyroid in comparison with unexposed controls. Metabolic rate, total serum thyroxine, total serum triiodothyronine, and food intake decreased significantly while thyroid weight increased. Unexpectedly, growth rate was not affected on this diet. In the case of chicks receiving a low vitamin A-low iodine semipurified diet and exposed to the PCB congener, the hypothyroid response was apparently antagonized. Comparing exposed chicks with unexposed controls, metabolic rate and the proportion of free T/sub 3/ (i.e., %T/sub 3/ resin uptake) increased while total serum thyroxine and thyroid weight were unchanged. In addition, growth rate, food consumption, and serum retinol decreased on this diet. These results are interpreted to mean that (i) growth rate may have been altered by circulating levels of retinol, and (ii) vitamin A insufficiency may predispose birds to the hypothyroid effects of PCBs.

  5. Spectral behavior study of 3-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-1-{6-[3-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-acryloyl]-pyridin-2-yl}-propanone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaber, M.; El-Sayed, Y. S.; Diab, H.

    2011-04-01

    The photophysical properties such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yield ( ϕf) and transition dipole moment ( μ12) of 3-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-1-{6-[3-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-acryloyl]-pyridin-2-yl}-propanone (DMAPAPP) have been studied in different media. DMAPAPP exhibits a large red-shift in both absorption and emission spectra as the solvent polarity increases, indicating a large change in dipole moment of molecule upon excitation. The fluorescence quantum yield depends on the nature of the solvent. The absorption and emission spectra of DMAPAPP in dioxane-water mixture are also studied. The effect of different type of surfactants to determine their critical micellar concentration (CMC) and the microemulsion effect on the electronic absorption and emission spectra of DMAPAPP are recorded. The effect of acidity on the electronic absorption and emission spectra of DMAPAPP is studied to determine the pKa and pKa* values.

  6. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels.

  7. 3,4-Dihydroxy- and 3,4-methylenedioxy- phenanthrene-type alkaloids with high selectivity for D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Laura; Cabedo, Nuria; Ivorra, María Dolores; Sanz, María-Jesús; Castel, Arturo López; Carmen Álvarez, M; Cortes, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine-mediated neurotransmission plays an important role in relevant psychiatric and neurological disorders. Nowadays, there is an enormous interest in the development of new drugs acting at the dopamine receptors (DR) as potential new targets for the treatment of schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have revealed that isoquinoline compounds such as tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs) can behave as selective D2 dopaminergic alkaloids. In the present study we have synthesized five aporphine compounds and five phenanthrene alkaloids and evaluated their potential dopaminergic activity. Binding studies on rat striatal membranes were used to evaluate their affinity and selectivity towards D1 and D2 DR. Phenanthrene type alkaloids, in particular the 3,4-dihydroxy- and 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives, displayed high selectivity towards D2 DR. Therefore, they are potential candidates to be used in the treatment of schizophrenia (antagonists) or Parkinson's disease (agonists) due to their scarce D1 DR-associated side effects.

  8. Synthesis and antitumor activities of novel hybrid molecules containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole bearing Schiff base moiety.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xuan, Li-Na; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Jing, Fen; Li, Sha; Liu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Bao-Quan

    2014-11-15

    A series of novel hybrid molecules containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole bearing Schiff base moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitumor activities against SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and A549 human tumor cell lines by CCK-8 assay. The bioassay results demonstrated that most of the tested compounds showed potent antitumor activities, and some compounds exhibited stronger effects than positive control 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against various cell lines. Among these compounds, compound 8d showed the best inhibitory effect against SMMC-7721 cells, with IC50 value of 2.84 μM. Compounds 8k and 8 n displayed highly effective antitumor activities against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 values of 4.56 and 4.25 μM, respectively. Compounds 8a and 8 n exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against A549 cells, with IC50 values of 4.11 and 4.13 μM, respectively. The pharmacological results suggest that the substituents of phenyl ring on the 1,3,4-oxadiazole are vital for modulating antiproliferative activities against various tumor cell lines.

  9. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  10. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Erickson, David J; Branstetter, Marcia; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-09-15

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  11. New nonbinary quantum codes with larger distance constructed from BCH codes over 𝔽q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Yuena; Guo, Luobin

    2017-03-01

    This paper concentrates on construction of new nonbinary quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of narrow-sense imprimitive BCH codes over finite field 𝔽q2 (q ≥ 3 is an odd prime power). By a careful analysis on properties of cyclotomic cosets in defining set T of these BCH codes, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing BCH codes is determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. [S. A. Aly, A. Klappenecker and P. K. Sarvepalli, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53, 1183 (2007)] for each different code length. Thus families of new nonbinary QECCs are constructed, and the newly obtained QECCs have larger distance than those in previous literature.

  12. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  13. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  14. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  15. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G.; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S.; Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions. PMID:26617418

  16. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S; Zúñiga-Vega, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions.

  17. Assessment of Gaussian-3 and density functional theories for a larger experimental test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtiss, Larry A.; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Redfern, Paul C.; Pople, John A.

    2000-05-01

    The G2/97 test set [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1063 (1997)] for assessing quantum chemical methods used to predict thermochemical data is expanded to include 75 additional enthalpies of formation of larger molecules. This new set, referred to as the G3/99 test set, includes enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and proton affinities in the G2/97 set and 75 new enthalpies of formation. The total number of energies in the G3/99 set is 376. Overall, G3 theory has a mean absolute deviation of 1.07 kcal/mol for the G3/99 test set and does about as well for the new hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons as it does for those in the G2/97 test. However, G3 theory has large deviations for several of the new nonhydrogen systems in the G3/99 test set such as SF6 and PF5. Part of the source of error is traced to the inadequate geometries used in G3 theory for these molecules. Other variations of G3 theory are also assessed such as G3(MP2), G3(MP3), and the versions of G3 theory using scaled energy terms instead of the higher level correction. These variations also do well for the larger hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons, but fail for the same nonhydrogen systems as G3 theory. The density functional methods assessed in this study, including the hybrid B3LYP method, all have much larger deviations from experiment for the new enthalpies of formation in the expanded test set; the mean absolute deviation more than doubles compared to that for the enthalpies in the G2/97 test set. This is due to a cumulative effect of the errors in the larger molecules in the density functional methods.

  18. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    PubMed

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  19. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations.

  20. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles.

  1. 4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW OF ARCH OVER ROADWAY AT SOUTH END OF SPAN, LOOKING SW, SHOWING RIBBED ARCH CONSTRUCTION. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Peacock's Lock Viaduct, Spanning Schuykill River at Reading Railroad, Reading, Berks County, PA

  2. Synthesis, Urease Inhibition, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Molecular Docking Studies of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad; Shoaib, Khurram; Saleem, Muhammad; Hasan Rama, Nasim; Zaib, Sumera; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2012-01-01

    A series of eighteen 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been synthesized by treating aromatic acid hydrazides with carbon disulfide in ethanolic potassium hydroxide yielding potassium salts of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Upon neutralization with 1 N hydrochloric acid yielded crude crystals of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, which were purified by recrystallization in boiling methanol. The synthesized 1,3,4-oxadiazoles derivatives were evaluated in vitro for their urease inhibitory activities, most of the investigated compounds were potent inhibitors of Jack bean urease. The molecular docking studies were performed by docking them into the crystal structure of Jack bean urease to observe the mode of interaction of synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were also tested for antibacterial and antioxidant activities and some derivatives exhibited very promising results. PMID:22934191

  3. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  4. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  5. 4. 3/4 VIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST Milwaukee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 3/4 VIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  6. 5. 3/4 VIEW, WEST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHEAST Milwaukee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW, WEST SIDE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  7. Pseudorotaxane capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) detection in water.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Torres, Beatriz; Pascual, Lluís; Bernardos, Andrea; Marcos, María D; Jeppesen, Jan O; Salinas, Yolanda; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix

    2017-03-23

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

  8. 2. 3/4 view looking SW showing threeroll can mill, reduction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 3/4 view looking SW showing three-roll can mill, reduction gear, flywheel with steam engine in background. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  9. Testing Consent Order on 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride (DCBTF) and Response to the Interagency Testing Committee

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document announces that EPA has signed an enforceable Testing Consent Order with Occidental Chemical Corp. to perform certain chemical fate and environmental effects tests on 3,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride (DCBTF).

  10. Intramolecular Diels–Alder/1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Cascade of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Gregory I.; Fuchs, James R.; Blagg, Brian S. J.; Ishikawa, Hayato; Tao, Houchao; Yuan, Z.-Q.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    Full details of a systematic exploration of the intramolecular [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are disclosed in which the scope and utility of the reaction are defined. PMID:16895427

  11. 33. 3/4 VIEW OF COMPLETED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Erection and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 3/4 VIEW OF COMPLETED BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (Erection and field welding was completed on Monday, May 16, 1949) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  12. 3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH TRUSS ELEVATION, OUTRIGGER SWAY BRACE AT CENTER SPAN, FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM, AND LATERAL BRACING - Achmun Creek Bridge, Spanning Achmun Creek at County Road 222, Ola, Yell County, AR

  13. 3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of newer station's south and east elevations. Earlier photos taken from the tower atop this structure. - Vermilion Life Saving Station, Shore of Lake Superior, 10 miles west of Whitefish Point, Paradise, Chippewa County, MI

  14. Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; Gasser, T.; Fader, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Kato, E.; Li, W.; Lindeskog, M.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Robertson, E.; Viovy, N.; Yue, C.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change and CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  15. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities.

  16. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  17. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  18. Diversity of coordination modes in the polymers based on 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Du Xiaodi; Xiao Hongping; Zhou Xinhui; Wu Tao; You Xiaozeng

    2010-06-15

    Four new compounds [Ni{sub 2}(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Ni(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n} (2), [Mn{sub 2}(2,2'-bpy){sub 4}(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc){sub 2}] (3) and {l_brace}[Mn(1,10-phen){sub 2}(3,4-H{sub 2}bptc)].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (4) (3,4-H{sub 4}bptc=3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine, 2,2'-bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, 1, 10-phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), have been prepared and structurally characterized. In all compounds, the derivative ligands of 3,4-H{sub 4}bptc (3,4-bptc{sup 4-} and 3,4-H{sub 2}bptc{sup 2-}) exhibit different coordination modes and lead to the formation of various architectures. Compounds 1 and 2 display the three-dimensional (3D) framework: 1 shows a 3,4-connected topological network with (8{sup 3})(8{sup 5}.10) topology symbol based on the coordination bonds while in 2, the hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed to connect the 1D linear chain generating a final 3D framework. 3 exhibits the 2D layer constructed from the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the dinuclear manganese units. Complex 4 shows the double layers motif through connecting the 1D zigzag chains with hydrogen-bonded rings. The thermal stability of 1-4 and magnetic property of 1 were also reported. - Graphical abstract: Four coordination compounds exhibiting four coordination modes of the 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand, with three of new in this system, are obtained showing diversified architectures.

  19. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  20. Process For The Preparation Of 3,4-Dihyd Roxybutanoic Acid And Salts Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-06-07

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-linked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  1. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  2. Research Area 3: Mathematical Sciences: 3.4, Discrete Mathematics and Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-10

    Aug-2009 28-Aug-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Research Area 3: Mathematical Sciences: 3.4, Discrete... Mathematics and Computer Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an...ABSTRACT Final Report: Research Area 3: Mathematical Sciences: 3.4, Discrete Mathematics and Computer Science Report Title Many modern applications

  3. Reduced gravity causes larger and lower-angle granular avalanches with less stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Markies, H.; in't Veld, A. C.; Postema, F. N.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials avalanche when a static angle of repose is exceeded and freeze at a dynamic angle of repose. Such avalanches occur subaerially on hillslopes and wind dunes and subaqueously at the lee side of deltas and dunes. Their properties are important for the inference of present morphodynamics and past climate from surface morphology on rocky planetary bodies. The objective of this work is to determine whether the angles of repose depend on gravity; that is, are different on planet Mars or the Moon compared to Earth. Until now it has been assumed that the angles of repose are independent of gravitational acceleration because both mobilising force and friction theoretically depend linearly on gravity. During 33 parabolic flights in a well-controlled research aircraft we imaged avalanching granular materials in rotating drums and Hele-Shaw cells at effective gravitational accelerations of 0.10 g and 0.38 g. Control measurements were done at 1 g in flight and on the ground. The 9 drums had a diameter of 0.2 m and rotated slow enough for discontinuous avalanching. The granular materials had particle sizes of about 0.2, 0.6 or 2 mm, were rounded or angular and had air or water as interstitial fluid. Angles were measured at 25 Hz by image analyses on the digital videos and acceleration of the aircraft was measured at 50 Hz in three directions. Hele-shaw cells were used to study auto-organization processes in discontinuous avalanching bi-dispersed granular materials and their respective individual grain species. In both setups the angular materials had time-averaged angles of about 40 deg and rounded materials about 25 deg for all g, except the finest glass beads in air, which is explained by static electricity. For all materials, the static angle of repose increases about 5 deg with decreasing g (from 1 to 0.1 g), whereas the dynamic angle decreases with about 10 deg. Consequently, the avalanche size increases with decreasing g. The interstitial fluid hardly

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of rat brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16.

    PubMed

    Dauch, P; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1995-11-10

    We have isolated by immunological screening of a lambda ZAPII cDNA library constructed from rat brain mRNAs a cDNA clone encoding endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The longest open reading frame encodes a 704-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 80,202 daltons and bears the consensus sequence of the zinc metalloprotease family. The sequence exhibits a 60.2% homology with those of another zinc metallopeptidase, endopeptidase 3.4.24.15. Northern blot analysis reveals two mRNA species of about 3 and 5 kilobases in rat brain, ileum, kidney, and testis. We have transiently transfected COS-7 cells with pcDNA3 containing the cloned cDNA and established the overexpression of a 70-75-kDa immunoreactive protein. This protein hydrolyzes QFS, a quenched fluorimetric substrate of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16, and cleaves neurotensin at a single peptide bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin (1-10) and neurotensin (11-13). QFS and neurotensin hydrolysis are potently inhibited by the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide blocker Pro-Ile and by dithiothreitol, while the enzymatic activity remains unaffected by phosphoramidon and captopril, the specific inhibitors of endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 and angiotensin-converting enzyme, respectively. Altogether, these physicochemical, biochemical, and immunological properties unambiguously identify endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 as the protein encoded by the isolated cDNA clone.

  5. Novel Variants of Oct-3/4 Gene Expressed in Mouse Somatic Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Mitsuko

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that Oct-3/4 may regulate self-renewal in somatic stem cells, as it does in embryonic stem cells. However, recent reports raise the possibility that detection of human Oct-3/4 expression by RT-PCR is prone to artifacts generated by pseudogene transcripts and argue against a role for Oct-3/4 in somatic cells. In this study, we clarified Oct-3/4 expression in mouse somatic tissues using designed PCR primers, which can exclude amplification of its pseudogenes. We found that novel alternative transcripts are indeed expressed in somatic tissues, rather than the normal length transcripts in germline and ES cells. The alternative transcripts indicate the expression of two kinds of truncated proteins. Furthermore, we determined novel promoter regions that are sufficient for the expression of Oct-3/4 transcript variants in somatic cells. These findings provide new insights into the postnatal role of Oct-3/4 in somatic tissues. PMID:18765667

  6. Spectroscopic study of the magnetic ordering in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalina, E. P.; Popova, M. N.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2010-04-01

    SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 belongs to the family of rare-earth RFe 3(BO 3) 4 multiferroics. We present the first measurements of the optical spectra of SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 (on single crystals) and report the data on the crystal-field levels and their symmetries for the ground multiplet 6H 5/2 [0 ( Γ), 135 ( Γ), and 220 ( Γ) cm -1] and on the ground-state exchange splitting (13.2 cm -1 at 1.7 K), important to interpret the magnetic, magnetoelectric, and thermodynamic properties of this compound. The observed exchange splitting of the Sm 3+ Kramers doublets manifests the magnetic ordering in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 at 32±1 K. From a comparison of the temperature-dependent spectra of the Sm 3+ ion in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4 and in Nd-Gd mixed iron borate where the magnetic spin reorientation has been found earlier, we suggest the easy-plane arrangement of the Fe spins in SmFe 3(BO 3) 4. The samarium iron borate preserves the R32 ( D37) crystal structure at all the investigated temperatures (down to 1.7 K).

  7. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  8. Linear pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and its metabolites in the rat: relationship to pharmacodynamic effects

    PubMed Central

    Anizan, Sebastien; Concheiro, Marta; Lehner, Kurt R.; Bukhari, Mohammad O.; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C.; Baumann, Michael H.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a commonly abused synthetic cathinone in the United States and is associated with dangerous side effects. MDPV is a dopamine transporter blocker that is 10-fold more potent than cocaine as a locomotor stimulant in rats. Previous in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies identified 3,4-dihydroxypyrovalerone (3,4-catechol-PV) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypyrovalerone (4-OH-3-MeO-PV) as the two primary MDPV metabolites. This study examined MDPV pharmacokinetics and metabolism, along with associated pharmacodynamic effects in rats receiving 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.) MDPV. Blood was collected by an indwelling jugular catheter before dosing and at 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes thereafter. Plasma specimens were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Maximum concentrations (Cmax) and area-under-the-curve (AUC) for MDPV and two metabolites increased proportionally with administered dose, showing linear pharmacokinetics. MDPV exhibited the highest Cmax at all doses (74.2–271.3 μg/l) and 4-OH-3-MeOH-PV the highest AUC (11 366–47 724 minutes per μg/l), being the predominant metabolite. MDPV time to Cmax (Tmax) was 12.9–18.6 minutes, while 3,4-catechol-PV and 4-OH-3-MeO-PV peaked later with Tmax 188.6–240 minutes after s.c. dosing. Horizontal locomotor activity (HLA) and stereotypy correlated positively with plasma MDPV concentrations, while HLA correlated negatively with MDPV metabolites. These results suggest that the parent compound mediates motor stimulation after systemic MDPV administration, but additionally, metabolites may be inhibitory, may not be active or may not pass the blood brain barrier. PMID:25475011

  9. Cytotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-alkylamphetamines, MDMA and its analogues, on isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshio; Suzuki, Toshinari; Tayama, Sumiko; Ishii, Hidemi; Ogata, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine-derived designer drugs have been illegally used worldwide as recreational drugs, some of which are known to be hepatotoxic in humans. To compare their cytotoxic effects, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) and its related analogues, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB), 3,4-(methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (BDB) and 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-propane-1-one (methylone) were studied in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. MBDB caused not only concentration (0-4.0 mM)- and time (0-2 h)-dependent cell death accompanied by the formation of cell blebs, and the loss of cellular ATP and adenine nucleotide pools, and reduced glutathione levels, but also the accumulation of oxidized glutathione. Of the other analogues examined, the cytotoxicity of MBDB and BDB was greater than that of MDMA and methylone, suggesting that hepatotoxicity is generally induced by these drugs. In addition, DNA damage and the induction of reactive oxygen species were greater after the incubation of hepatocytes with MBDB (2 and 4 mM) than after that with MDMA. In isolated liver mitochondria, MBDB/BDB resulted in a greater increase in the rate of state 4 oxygen consumption than did MDMA/methylone, indicating an uncoupling effect and a decrease in the rate of state 3 oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, MBDB resulted in mitochondrial swelling dependent on the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); the effect of MDMA was less than that of MBDB. Taken collectively, these results suggest that (1) the onset of cytotoxicity caused by designer drugs such as MBDB and MDMA is linked to mitochondrial failure dependent upon the induction of the MPT accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization and depletion of ATP through uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in rat hepatocytes, and (2) MBDB and MDMA elicit DNA damage, suggesting that nuclei as well as mitochondria are target sites of these compounds.

  10. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  11. Interpretation of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured-rock aquifer over increasingly larger length dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Ladderud, Jeffery; Yager, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger volumes of crystalline rock was conducted in the Piedmont physiographic region near Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Fluid-injection tests were conducted on intervals of boreholes isolating closely spaced fractures. Single-hole tests were conducted by pumping in open boreholes for approximately 30 min, and an interference test was conducted by pumping a single borehole over 3 days while monitoring nearby boreholes. An estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the rock over hundreds of meters was inferred from simulating groundwater inflow into a kilometer-long section of a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority tunnel in the study area, and a groundwater modeling investigation over the Rock Creek watershed provided an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity over kilometers. The majority of groundwater flow is confined to relatively few fractures at a given location. Boreholes installed to depths of approximately 50 m have one or two highly transmissive fractures; the transmissivity of the remaining fractures ranges over five orders of magnitude. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger rock volumes varied by less than half an order of magnitude. While many investigations point to increasing hydraulic conductivity as a function of the measurement scale, a comparison with selected investigations shows that the effective hydraulic conductivity estimated over larger volumes of rock can either increase, decrease, or remain stable as a function of the measurement scale. Caution needs to be exhibited in characterizing effective hydraulic properties in fractured rock for the purposes of groundwater management.

  12. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  13. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  14. Cometabolism of 3,4-dichlorobenzoate by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1.

    PubMed Central

    Adriaens, P; Focht, D D

    1991-01-01

    When Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 was grown on 4-chlorobenzoate (4-CB), it cometabolized 3,4-dichlorobenzoate (3,4-DCB) to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which could be used as a growth substrate. No cometabolism of 3,4-DCB was observed when Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 was grown on benzoate. 4-Carboxyl-1,2-benzoquinone was formed as an intermediate from 3,4-DCB and 3-C-4-OHB in aerobic and anaerobic resting-cell incubations and was the major transient intermediate found when cells were grown on 3-C-4-OHB. The first dechlorination step of 3,4-DCB was catalyzed by the 4-CB dehalogenase, while a soluble dehalogenase was responsible for dechlorination of 3-C-4-OHB. Both enzymes were inducible by the respective chlorinated substrates, as indicated by oxygen uptake experiments. The dehalogenase activity on 3-C-4-OHB, observed in crude cell extracts, was 109 and 44 nmol of 3-C-4-OHB min-1 mg of protein-1 under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 3-Chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate served as a pseudosubstrate for the 4-hydroxybenzoate monooxygenase by effecting oxygen and NADH consumption without being hydroxylated. Contrary to 4-CB metabolism, the results suggest that 3-C-4-OHB was not metabolized via the protocatechuate pathway. Despite the ability of resting cells grown on 4-CB or 3-C-4-OHB to carry out all of the necessary steps for dehalogenation and catabolism of 3,4-DCB, it appeared that 3,4-DCB was unable to induce the necessary 4-CB dehalogenase for the initial p-dehalogenation step.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2036004

  15. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Expression and clinical significance of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Rodrigo, Juan P; Allonca, Eva; García-Carracedo, Darío; Alvarez-Alija, Gustavo; Casado-Zapico, Sara; Fresno, Manuel F; Rodríguez, Carmen; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana M

    2010-08-01

    The concept of ion channels as membrane therapeutic targets and diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers has attracted growing attention. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit during the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). KCNC4 mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR in both HNSCC tissue specimens and derived cell lines. Kv3.4 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and 67 patients with laryngeal dysplasias. Molecular alterations were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Increased KCNC4 mRNA levels were found in 15 (54%) of 28 tumours, compared to the corresponding normal epithelia and varied mRNA levels were detected in 12 HNSCC-derived cell lines analysed. Increased Kv3.4 protein expression was observed in 34 (40%) of 84 carcinomas and also at early stages of HNSCC tumourigenesis. Thus, 35 (52%) of 67 laryngeal lesions displayed Kv3.4-positive staining in the dysplastic areas, whereas both stromal cells and normal adjacent epithelia exhibited negligible expression. No significant correlations were found between Kv3.4-positive expression in HNSCC and clinical data; however, Kv3.4 expression tended to diminish in advanced-stage tumours. Interestingly, patients carrying Kv3.4-positive dysplasias experienced a significantly higher laryngeal cancer incidence than did those with negative lesions (p = 0.0209). In addition, functional studies using HNSCC cells revealed that inhibition of Kv3.4 expression by siRNA leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation via selective cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase without affecting apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that Kv3.4 expression is frequently increased during HNSCC tumourigenesis and correlated significantly with a

  17. CalcHEP 3.4 for collider physics within and beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Christensen, Neil D.; Pukhov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present version 3.4 of the CalcHEP software package which is designed for effective evaluation and simulation of high energy physics collider processes at parton level. The main features of CalcHEP are the computation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event simulation at parton level. The principle attractive key-points along these lines are that it has: (a) an easy startup and usage even for those who are not familiar with CalcHEP and programming; (b) a friendly and convenient graphical user interface (GUI); (c) the option for the user to easily modify a model or introduce a new model by either using the graphical interface or by using an external package with the possibility of cross checking the results in different gauges; (d) a batch interface which allows to perform very complicated and tedious calculations connecting production and decay modes for processes with many particles in the final state. With this features set, CalcHEP can efficiently perform calculations with a high level of automation from a theory in the form of a Lagrangian down to phenomenology in the form of cross sections, parton level event simulation and various kinematical distributions. In this paper we report on the new features of CalcHEP 3.4 which improves the power of our package to be an effective tool for the study of modern collider phenomenology. Program summaryProgram title: CalcHEP Catalogue identifier: AEOV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 818061 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C. Computer: PC, MAC, Unix Workstations. Operating system: Unix. RAM: Depends on process under study

  18. Grade 3/4 Dermatitis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Concurrent Cetuximab and IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, Gabriela; Brown, Michelle; Salgueiro, Eveline Barata; Schmueckle, Hildegard; Romancuk, Natalie; Winkler, Gisela; Lee, Soon Jae; Straeuli, Ariane; Kissling, Beatrix; Dummer, Reinhard; Glanzmann, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the rate of serious (>Grade 2, CTCAE 3.0) dermatitis in our head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concomitant cetuximab (SIB-IMRT-cetuximab). We hypothesized a positive association between the radiation dose to the skin and the degree of dermatitis in patients receiving cetuximab. Methods and Materials: Between April 2006 and December 2009, 99 HNC patients underwent SIB-IMRT-cetuximab. In 69/99 (70%), systemic treatment consisted of concomitant cetuximab only, whereas 30 (30%) were switched from concomitant cisplatin to concomitant cetuximab. Treatment-related dermatitis was prospectively monitored. Ninety-nine patients treated with four to seven concomitant cycles of cisplatin only served as an internal control group. The radiation dose delivered to the skin was measured and related to dermal reactions. Results: Grade 3/4 dermatitis developed in 34% of the cetuximab cohort, which was substantially higher than in the control cohort (3%, p < 0.01). No cases of skin necrosis or other fatal events related to cetuximab have occurred so far. A significantly larger mean skin area was found exposed to high radiation doses in patients with severe cetuximab-related dermatitis, compared with those without (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Concomitant cetuximab resulted in a {approx}10-fold increase in the rate of severe transient dermatitis compared with the use of concomitant cisplatin. We found a positive association between the incidence of Grade 3/4 dermatitis and the radiation dose delivered to the skin in patients receiving cetuximab.

  19. Description of the Weatherization Assistance Program in larger multifamily buildings for Program Year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) in larger multifamily buildings were examined for Program Year 1989. The results show that about 20,000 dwellings in these multifamily buildings were served under the Program that year. This is 9% of the total number of units served nationally, while costs were 7% of total national costs. High levels of activity in larger multifamily buildings were reported for some States, with New York accounting for half of all the residences treated. Owner investment is an important strategy in New York for improving their efforts. A wide range of measures was installed, but the materials costs for the measures are dominated by the cost of windows (80% of the total for that year). Where the whole building was treated, $561 was invested per unit, while for partial-building work the total invested was $417. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program were not estimated, because energy use and cost data adequate for developing such estimates could not be obtained.

  20. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, F; Altenhoff, W; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Thum, C

    2006-02-02

    The most distant known object in the Solar System, 2003 UB313 (97 au from the Sun), was recently discovered near its aphelion. Its high eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic plane, along with its perihelion near the orbit of Neptune, identify it as a member of the 'scattered disk'. This disk of bodies probably originates in the Kuiper belt objects, which orbit near the ecliptic plane in circular orbits between 30 and 50 au, and may include Pluto as a member. The optical brightness of 2003 UB313, if adjusted to Pluto's distance, is greater than that of Pluto, which suggested that it might be larger than Pluto. The actual size, however, could not be determined from the optical measurements because the surface reflectivity (albedo) was unknown. Here we report observations of the thermal emission of 2003 UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, which in combination with the measured optical brightness leads to a diameter of 3,000 +/- 300 +/- 100 km. Here the first error reflects measurement uncertainties, while the second derives from the unknown object orientation. This makes 2003 UB313 the largest known trans-neptunian object, even larger than Pluto (2,300 km). The albedo is 0.60 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.05, which is strikingly similar to that of Pluto, suggesting that the methane seen in the optical spectrum causes a highly reflective icy surface.

  1. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  2. Juvenile exposure to predator cues induces a larger egg size in fish

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Francisca H. I. D.; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When females anticipate a hazardous environment for their offspring, they can increase offspring survival by producing larger young. Early environmental experience determines egg size in different animal taxa. We predicted that a higher perceived predation risk by juveniles would cause an increase in the sizes of eggs that they produce as adults. To test this, we exposed juveniles of the mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus in a split-brood experiment either to cues of a natural predator or to a control situation. After maturation, females that had been confronted with predators produced heavier eggs, whereas clutch size itself was not affected by the treatment. This effect cannot be explained by a differential female body size because the predator treatment did not influence growth trajectories. The observed increase of egg mass is likely to be adaptive, as heavier eggs gave rise to larger young and in fish, juvenile predation risk drops sharply with increasing body size. This study provides the first evidence that predator cues perceived by females early in life positively affect egg mass, suggesting that these cues allow her to predict the predation risk for her offspring. PMID:21976689

  3. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  4. Larger Daphnia at lower temperature: a role for cell size and genome configuration?

    PubMed

    Jalal, Marwa; Wojewodzic, Marcin W; Laane, Carl Morten M; Hessen, Dag O

    2013-09-01

    Experiments with Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex raised at 10 and 20 °C yielded larger adult size at the lower temperature. This must reflect increased cell size, increased cell numbers, or a combination of both. As it is difficult to achieve good estimates on cell size in crustaceans, we, therefore, measured nucleus and genome size using flow cytometry at 10 and 20 °C. DNA was stained with propidium iodide, ethidium bromide, and DAPI. Both nucleus and genome size estimates were elevated at 10 °C compared with 20 °C, suggesting that larger body size at low temperature could partly be accredited to an enlarged nucleus and thus cell size. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed the staining properties of fluorochromes. As differences in nucleotide numbers in response of growth temperature within a life span is unlikely, these results seem accredited to changed DNA-fluorochrome binding properties, presumably reflecting increased DNA condensation at low temperature. This implies that genome size comparisons may be impacted by ambient temperature in ectotherms. It also suggests that temperature-induced structural changes in the genome could affect cell size and for some species even body size.

  5. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-04-19

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan-antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort.

  6. COALESCENCE OF DEEP AND SUPERFICIAL EPILEPTIC FOCI INTO LARGER DISCHARGE UNITS IN ADULT RAT NEOCORTEX

    PubMed Central

    SERAFINI, RUGGERO; ANDRADE, RODRIGO; LOEB, JEFFREY A.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone. PMID:25701714

  7. Genetic evidence for larger African population size during recent human evolution.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H; Jorde, L B

    1999-03-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the long-term average effective size of sub-Saharan Africa is larger than other geographic regions. A method is described that allows estimation of relative long-term regional population sizes. This method is applied to 60 microsatellite DNA loci from a sample of 72 sub-Saharan Africans, 63 East Asians, and 120 Europeans. Average heterozygosity is significantly higher in the sub-Saharan African sample. Expected heterozygosity was computed for each region and locus using a population genetic model based on the null hypothesis of equal long-term population sizes. Average residual heterozygosity is significantly higher in the sub-Saharan African sample, indicating that African population size was larger than other regions during recent human evolution. The best fit of the model is with relative population weights of 0.73 for sub-Saharan Africa, 0.09 for East Asia, and 0.18 for Europe. These results are similar to those obtained using craniometric variation for these three geographic regions. These results, combined with inferences from other genetic studies, support a major role of Africa in the origin of modern humans. It is less clear, however, whether complete African replacement is the most appropriate model. An alternative is an African origin with non-African gene flow. While Africa is an important region in recent human evolution, it is not clear whether the gene pool of our species is completely out of Africa or predominately out of Africa.

  8. Interleukin 2 promotes growth and cytolytic activity in human T3+4-8- thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Martinez, C

    1985-01-01

    Human thymocytes bearing T3 but neither T4 nor T8 antigens (T3+4-8- cells) were obtained after negative selection of thymocytes, either fresh or cultured in medium containing recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), by treatment with Na1/34, OKT4A and B9.4 monoclonal antibodies (which recognize T6, T4, and T8 antigens, respectively) and complement. Quantitative flow cytometry showed a 98% pure population of T3+4-8- lymphocytes, which included proliferating cells. The growth and maturation requirements of these thymocytes were characterized and related to the T3-receptor complex and IL-2 pathways, thought to be used by mature lymphocytes. The results show that addition of recombinant IL-2 promotes, in a dose-dependent way, proliferation and acquisition of effector functions by cultured T3+4-8- thymocytes, the growth being inhibitable by monoclonal antibody 33B73 (anti-Tac). Furthermore, cytolytic activity of T3+4-8- cells induced by recombinant IL-2 is specifically blocked by monoclonal antibody OKT3, showing that it operates via the T3-receptor complex and does not require either T4 or T8 molecules. The finding of in vitro responsiveness to recombinant IL-2 in T3+4-8- thymocytes suggests a role of IL-2 in the growth and maturation of cells committed to the T-cell lineage, during intrathymic differentiation, prior to expression of T4 and T8 molecules. PMID:3929254

  9. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channel: muscling in on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2007-09-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 665), Pannacione et al. provide evidence of a role for the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha subunit Kv3.4 and its ancillary subunit MiRP2 in beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-mediated neuronal death. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 channel complex-previously found to be important in skeletal myocyte physiology-is now argued to be a molecular correlate of the transient outward potassium current up-regulated by Abeta peptide, considered a significant step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. The authors conclude that MiRP2 and Kv3.4 are up-regulated by Abeta peptide in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent fashion at the transcriptional level, and the sea anemone toxin BDS-I is shown to protect against Abeta peptide-mediated cell death by specific blockade of Kv3.4-generated current. The findings lend weight to the premise that specific channels, such as MiRP2-Kv3.4, could hold promise as future therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. High cervical C3-4 'disc' compression associated with basilar invagination.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old male had torticollis and short neck since birth. He presented with symptom of progressive quadriparesis over a two-year period. Investigations revealed basilar invagination with marked rotation in the craniovertebral region and relatively large C3-4 region osteophytes. Serial MRI over two years showed persistent signal opposite C3-4 disc space suggestive of cord compression. Although the cord was humped over the odontoid process, there was no clear radiological evidence that the cord was compromised at this level. During surgery, instability was identified only at the craniovertebral region and not at the level of C3-4. Distraction of the lateral masses of atlas and axis and fixation using interarticular spacers and bone graft and direct screw implantation in the lateral mass of the atlas and pars of the axis resulted in reduction of the basilar invagination and of atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient had marked clinical recovery, despite the fact that no direct procedure was done for C3-4 disc decompression. The case suggests that C3-4 disc changes could be secondary to primary instability at the craniovertebral junction.

  11. Differentiation of human mature thymocytes: existence of a T3+4-8- intermediate stage.

    PubMed

    De la Hera, A; Toribio, M L; Marquez, C; Marcos, M A; Cabrero, E; Martinez-A, C

    1986-06-01

    A T3 complex-bearing subpopulation was characterized within an in vivo cycling T4-8- early thymocyte compartment which contains cells constitutively expressing interleukin 2 and transferrin receptors. We show differentiation in vitro of both mature subsets of thymocytes (T3+4+8- and T3+4-8+) from the above T4-8- compartment, their appearance being preceded by cells in a T3+4-8- intermediate stage. Furthermore, those mature thymocytes generated in vitro contain functionally competent cells which use T3, T4 and T8 structures for their cytolytic activity. The finding of T3+4-8- thymocytes in vivo, together with the observation that T3 antigen expression precedes that of T4 or T8 molecules in vitro, shows that T3 (and presumably Ti) is present early in ontogeny, and suggests that T3+4-8- cells constitute an "intermediate" stage relevant to the connection between early precursors and mature thymocytes during T lymphocyte ontogeny.

  12. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: Synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-01

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L1), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L2) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L4). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L3) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1 M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  13. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-25

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(1)), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(4)). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(3)) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent.

  14. Confocal microscopy reveals thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) and neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16) in the classical secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Garrido, P A; Vandenbulcke, F; Ramjaun, A R; Vincent, B; Checler, F; Ferro, E; Beaudet, A

    1999-04-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15; EP24.15) and neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; EP24.16) are closely related enzymes involved in the metabolic inactivation of bioactive peptides. Both of these enzymes were previously shown to be secreted from a variety of cell types, although their primary sequence lacks a signal peptide. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this secretion, we examined by confocal microscopy the subcellular localization of these two enzymes in the neuroendocrine cell line AtT20. Both EP24.15 and EP24.16 were found by immunohistochemistry to be abundantly expressed in AtT20 cells. Western blotting experiments confirmed that the immunoreactivity detected in the soma of these cells corresponded to previously cloned isoforms of the enzymes. At the subcellular level, both enzymes colocalized extensively with the integral trans-Golgi network protein, syntaxin-6, in the juxtanuclear region. In addition, both EP24.15 and EP24.16 were found within small vesicular organelles distributed throughout the cell body. Some, but not all, of these organelles also stained positively for ACTH. These results demonstrate that both EP24.15 and EP24.16 are present within the classical secretory pathway. Their colocalization with ACTH further suggests that they may be targeted to the regulated secretory pathway, even in the absence of a signal peptide.

  15. Synthesis and theoretical studies of non‒covalent interactions within a newly synthesized chiral 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, Uzma; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Chahkandi, Mohammad; Bhatti, Moazzam H.; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2017-02-01

    In this work the synthesis of a new compound formulated as C12H12N4OS, ((S)-1-(6-Phenyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazin-3-yl)ethanol) (5) reported and theoretical studies of the non‒covalent interactions constructed the related crystalline network described. It has been characterized by IR, Mass, and 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X‒ray diffraction analysis. The binding energy of the non‒covalent interactions constructing the network of 5 have been calculated by dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT‒D). The optimization of the formed network using H‒bonding and π‒stacking revealed that 1‒D coordination chain has been composed of neutral monomeric compound. For this purpose, the independent smallest fragment (monomer) and subsequently the related network, including seven monomers, having all non‒covalent interactions have been optimized. The results demonstrate that hydrogen bonds, especially Osbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯N, and Csbnd H⋯S interactions, govern the network formation. The calculated results of electronic transition in agreement with the experiment ones show eleven major bands derived from σ → π, n → n/σ*/π* aromatic rings to hydroxyl, inter‒atomic of oxygen, and thiadiazine to phenyl ring charge transfer transitions.

  16. Comparing behavioral and chronic endpoints to evaluate the response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl sediment exposures.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Peter F; Leppänen, Matti; Robinson, Sander D; Gossiaux, Duane C; Burton, G Allen; Greenberg, Marc; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Eadie, Brian J; Lansing, Margaret B

    2004-01-01

    The response of Lumbriculus variegatus to 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) was examined with feeding behavior and changes in carbon assimilation by using stable carbon isotopes at 22 and 10 degrees C. The classical measure of feeding behavior determined on a subset of sediment for which the biological burial rate was determined in a companion study allowed direct method comparison. This comparison helped address relationships between biological burial rate, feeding rate, and bioaccumulation. The change in stable isotope composition reflects the total metabolic activity by measuring carbon assimilation rate and was compared to feeding rate, biological burial rate (as determined in the companion study), and reproduction. Decreasing the temperature from 22 to 10 degrees C resulted in a twofold reduction in feeding rate and carbon assimilation. The fractional decline in feeding rate relative to the control mimicked the decline in the biological burial rate with increasing TCBP concentration that was found in the companion study. The bioaccumulation factor declined with increasing TCBP sediment concentration, tracking the feeding rate decline. Stable isotope measures showed differences in metabolic rates between the exposure temperatures but did not distinguish a metabolic rate change at 22 degrees C among TCBP treatments. Likewise, reproduction declined from 22 to 10 degrees C, with no reproduction at 10 degrees C. Like the stable isotope measure, no dose response was found among TCBP treatments at 22 degrees C. The reduction in carbon assimilation rate tracked the reduction in reproduction with lower temperature.

  17. Crystal growth and optical characteristics of beryllium-free polyphosphate, KLa(PO3)4, a possible deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Pai; Sun, Tongqing; Chen, Hong; Liu, Hongde; Chen, Shaolin; Liu, Xuanwen; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-04-01

    Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystals are of great importance as key materials in generating coherent light with wavelength below 200 nm through cascaded frequency conversion of solid-state lasers. However, the solely usable crystal in practice, KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF), is still commercially unavailable because of the high toxicity of beryllium-containing and the extreme difficulty of crystal growth. Here, we report the crystal growth and characteristics of an beryllium-free polyphosphate, KLa(PO3)4. Centimeter-sized single crystals have been easily obtained by the flux method and slow-cooling technique. The second-harmonic generation efficiency of KLa(PO3)4 powder is 0.7 times that of KH2PO4; moreover, the KLa(PO3)4 crystal is phase-matchable. Remarkably, the KLa(PO3)4 crystal exhibits an absorption edge of 162 nm, which is the shortest among phase-matchable phosphates so far. These attributes make KLa(PO3)4 a possible deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal. An analysis of the dipole moments of the polyhedra and theoretical calculations by density functional theory were made to elucidate the structure-properties relationships of KLa(PO3)4.

  18. Crystal growth and optical characteristics of beryllium-free polyphosphate, KLa(PO3)4, a possible deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Pai; Sun, Tongqing; Chen, Hong; Liu, Hongde; Chen, Shaolin; Liu, Xuanwen; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystals are of great importance as key materials in generating coherent light with wavelength below 200 nm through cascaded frequency conversion of solid-state lasers. However, the solely usable crystal in practice, KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF), is still commercially unavailable because of the high toxicity of beryllium-containing and the extreme difficulty of crystal growth. Here, we report the crystal growth and characteristics of an beryllium-free polyphosphate, KLa(PO3)4. Centimeter-sized single crystals have been easily obtained by the flux method and slow-cooling technique. The second-harmonic generation efficiency of KLa(PO3)4 powder is 0.7 times that of KH2PO4; moreover, the KLa(PO3)4 crystal is phase-matchable. Remarkably, the KLa(PO3)4 crystal exhibits an absorption edge of 162 nm, which is the shortest among phase-matchable phosphates so far. These attributes make KLa(PO3)4 a possible deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal. An analysis of the dipole moments of the polyhedra and theoretical calculations by density functional theory were made to elucidate the structure-properties relationships of KLa(PO3)4. PMID:27126353

  19. Crystal growth and optical characteristics of beryllium-free polyphosphate, KLa(PO3)4, a possible deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal.

    PubMed

    Shan, Pai; Sun, Tongqing; Chen, Hong; Liu, Hongde; Chen, Shaolin; Liu, Xuanwen; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-04-29

    Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystals are of great importance as key materials in generating coherent light with wavelength below 200 nm through cascaded frequency conversion of solid-state lasers. However, the solely usable crystal in practice, KBe2BO3F2 (KBBF), is still commercially unavailable because of the high toxicity of beryllium-containing and the extreme difficulty of crystal growth. Here, we report the crystal growth and characteristics of an beryllium-free polyphosphate, KLa(PO3)4. Centimeter-sized single crystals have been easily obtained by the flux method and slow-cooling technique. The second-harmonic generation efficiency of KLa(PO3)4 powder is 0.7 times that of KH2PO4; moreover, the KLa(PO3)4 crystal is phase-matchable. Remarkably, the KLa(PO3)4 crystal exhibits an absorption edge of 162 nm, which is the shortest among phase-matchable phosphates so far. These attributes make KLa(PO3)4 a possible deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal. An analysis of the dipole moments of the polyhedra and theoretical calculations by density functional theory were made to elucidate the structure-properties relationships of KLa(PO3)4.

  20. 3,4-Dichloroaniline revisited: A study on the fate of the priority pollutant in a sediment-water system derived from a rice growing region in Italy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Peng; Schäffer, Andreas; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    As ultimate sink for xenobiotics released into the environment, sediments play an important role concerning the evaluation of the fate of foreign compounds. 3,4-Dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) is a degradation product of herbicide propanil and some urea herbicides. Propanil was extensively used worldwide in rice cultivation. The aim of the study was to examine the fate of (14)C-labeled 3,4-DCA in a sediment-water system; the sediment was derived from a rice field in Northern Italy. After application of (14)C-3,4-DCA, a time-course study was performed using incubation periods from 4h to 56days. Fractions obtained from assays were water phase, sediment phase including methanol and Soxhlet extract as well as non-extractable residues (NER), and mineralized portion ((14)CO2). Soluble fractions were examined by TLC, HPLC and GC-MS. NER found in sediment phases were further fractionated in non-humics, humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. Stability of systems was checked by microbial activity, dissolved oxygen and pH. After 56days of incubation, 23.1% of applied (14)C was mineralized, only 1.30% remained in the water phase, whereas 60.8% was found in the sediment phase, 53.3% of which were NER. Minor metabolites identified were 3,4-dichloroacetanilide (3,4-DCAA) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB; 2.63% after 56days). According to pH, dissolved oxygen and microbial activity, systems appeared to be stable and not influenced by applied 3,4-DCA. Most striking result was the high mineralization rate as compared to previously published data. This finding suggested an adaptation of the microbial community in the sediment possibly due to decade-long treatment of rice fields with propanil.

  1. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; de Lill, Daniel T.

    2015-05-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C6H2O5)(C6H3O5)(H2O)]n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented.

  2. Microbial Hydroxylation of 5-Anilino-1,2,3,4-Thiatriazole

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Robert J.; Longfield, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five fungi, including 100 basidiomycetes and 35 yeasts, 75 actinomycetes, and 40 bacteria were screened for their ability to convert 5-anilino-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (AT) to 5-(p-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (p-HT). Eleven cultures were found that formed p-HT, which was isolated and whose structure was determined. Aspergillus tamarii NRRL 3280 formed 8.6 g of p-HT/liter from 10 g of AT/liter (78.9% conversion) in shaken flasks and 4.57 g of p-HT/liter from 6 g of AT/liter (69.8% conversion) in 30-liter fermentors. Washed cells of A. tamarii NRRL 3280 also carried out this conversion. 5-(o-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (o-HT) was identified as a second product formed by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960. PMID:4699219

  3. Phase transitions and exchange interactions in the SmCr3(BO3)4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobretsova, E. A.; Boldyrev, K. N.; Popova, M. N.; Gavrilkin, S. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mal'tsev, V. V.; Leonyuk, N. I.; Malkin, B. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopic investigation and specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements of SmCr3(BO3)4 crystals were performed. The spectra of the Sm3+ and Cr3+ ions in samarium chromium borate were calculated and parameters of the exchange interactions between the nearest chromium ions, chromium and samarium ions were determined. Three phase transitions were observed at the temperatures T1 = 7.8 ± 0.5 K, T2 = 6.7 ± 0.5 K, and T3 = 4.3 ± 0.2 K, their nature is discussed. The crystal structures with different space symmetry groups R32 and C2/c were found to coexist in a SmCr3(BO3)4 single crystal.

  4. Massive Galaxies Are Larger in Dense Environments: Environmental Dependence of Mass–Size Relation of Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Under the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological models, massive galaxies are expected to be larger in denser environments through frequent hierarchical mergers with other galaxies. Yet, observational studies of low-redshift early-type galaxies have shown no such trend, standing as a puzzle to solve during the past decade. We analyzed 73,116 early-type galaxies at 0.1 ≤ z < 0.15, adopting a robust nonparametric size measurement technique and extending the analysis to many massive galaxies. We find for the first time that local early-type galaxies heavier than 1011.2 M⊙ show a clear environmental dependence in mass–size relation, in such a way that galaxies are as much as 20%–40% larger in the densest environments than in underdense environments. Splitting the sample into the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and non-BCGs does not affect the result. This result agrees with the ΛCDM cosmological simulations and suggests that mergers played a significant role in the growth of massive galaxies in dense environments as expected in theory.

  5. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  6. Octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1

    PubMed Central

    Manka, Jason T.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Venable, Daryl F.; Cho, Hyekyung P.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of SAR in an octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole series of negative allosteric modulators of mGlu1 using a functional cell-based assay is described in this Letter. The octahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole scaffold was chosen as an isosteric replacement for the piperazine ring found in the initial hit compound. Characterization of selected compounds in protein binding assays was used to identify the most promising analogs, which were then profiled in P450 inhibition assays in order to further assess the potential for drug-likeness within this series of compounds. PMID:23932792

  7. 3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale sections and details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Cornice and corbels; cement exterior grilles; wood interior grilles; ceiling beams; exterior wall section. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 10, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 inch scale detail auditorium ceiling. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Section and plan of center part of ceiling. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside California. Sheet 11, job no. 692. Scale 3/4 inch to the foot. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid and salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.

    1994-01-01

    A process for the preparation of 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (1) and salts thereof from a glucose source containing 1,4-1inked glucose as a substituent is described. The process uses an alkali metal hdyroxide and hydrogen peroxide to convert the glucose source to (1). The compound (1) is useful as a chemical intermediate to naturally occurring fatty acids and is used to prepare 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid-gamma-lactone (2) and furanone (3), particularly stereoisomers of these compounds.

  10. [Kv3.4 channel is involved in rat pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Bi, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Da-Ling

    2006-02-25

    We have reported that hypoxia increases the activation of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), which converts arachidonic acid (AA) into 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) in small pulmonary arteries (PAs). Through inhibition of Kv channels, 15-HETE causes more robust concentration-dependent contraction of PA rings from the hypoxic compared to the normoxic controls. However, the subtypes of Kv channels inhibited by 15-HETE are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of Kv3.4 channel in the process of pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by 15-HETE using the tension studies of PA rings from rat with Kv3.4 channel blocker in tissue bath; to explore the role of vascular endothelium in15-HETE-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction through denuded endothelia of PA rings; and to define the downregulation of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with RT-PCR and Western blot. In the present study, healthy Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: Group A with normal oxygen supply and group B with hypoxia. Six days later, the rats were killed. Pulmonary artery rings were prepared for organ bath experiments. Firstly, different concentrations of 15-HETE (10~1 000 nmol/L) were added to the Krebs solution. The isometric tension was recorded using a four-channel force-displacement transducer. Then Kv3.4 channel blocker, 100 nmol/L BDS-I, was added, followed by adding 1 mumol/L 15-HETE, and the isometric tension was recorded. Furthermore, RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to identify the influence of 15-HETE on the expression of Kv3.4 channel in cultured rat PASMCs.The results showed the PA tension was significantly increased both in groups A and B by 15-HETE in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), especially in group B (P<0.05 compared to control); denuded endothelia enhanced 15-HETE concentration-related constrictions in rat PA rings; Kv3.4 channel blocker, BDS

  11. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  12. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  13. n-Propyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyran-oside.

    PubMed

    Mönch, Bettina; Emmerling, Franziska; Kraus, Werner; Becker, Roland; Nehls, Irene

    2013-02-01

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-(acet-oxy-meth-yl)-6-propoxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate], C(17)H(26)O(10), was formed by a Koenigs-Knorr reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl bromide and n-propanol. The central ring adopts a chair conformation. The crystal does not contain any significant inter-actions such as hydrogen bonds.

  14. Syntheses and Degradations of Fluorinated Heterocyclics. 3; Perfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L.; Kaufman, J.; Nakahara, J. H.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-, 2-perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoro-n- heptyl- , and 2 , 5-bisperfluoroalkylether-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized and characterized. 2,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole was thermally and hydrolytically stable at 325 C; however, in the presence of air, degradation took place at 235 C. The perfluoroalkylether analogue exhibited thermal and hydrolytic stability at 325 C; it was found to be unaffected by jet-A fuel and air at 235 C. At 325 C in air some degradation occurred as evidenced by volatiles production, oxygen consumption, and 96% starting material recovery.

  15. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenyl esters as antiseptics for fibrous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanenko, N.I.; Ryakhovskaya, A.I.; Romanenko, O.A.; Garifullina, K.R.

    1983-09-10

    Wastes containing tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes are obtained during production of di- and trichlorobenzenes. One way of utilizing these wastes is conversion into di- and trichlorophenols by saponification. Chlorination of a mixture of di- and trichlorophenols converts it into 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol with high yields (95-96 wt. %). The uses of tetrachlorophenol are limited by its strong specific odor and volatility. The possibility of obtaining esters of 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and saturated aliphatic C/sub 2/-C/sub 12/ monocarboxylic acids, which have good antiseptic properties in relation to fibrous materials are described.

  16. The Donaldson-Witten Function for Gauge Groups of Rank Larger Than One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Moore, Gregory

    We study correlation functions in topologically twisted , d=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for gauge groups of rank larger than one on compact four-manifolds X. We find that the topological invariance of the generator of correlation functions of BRST invariant observables is not spoiled by noncompactness of field space. We show how to express the correlators on simply connected manifolds of b2,+(X)>0 in terms of Seiberg-Witten invariants and the classical cohomology ring of X. For manifolds X of simple type and gauge group SU(N) we give explicit expressions of the correlators as a sum over =1 vacua. We describe two applications of our expressions, one to superconformal field theory and one to large N expansions of SU(N) , d=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  17. Predator-prey body size relationships when predators can consume prey larger than themselves.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takefumi; Ohba, Shin-Ya; Ushio, Masayuki

    2013-06-23

    As predator-prey interactions are inherently size-dependent, predator and prey body sizes are key to understanding their feeding relationships. To describe predator-prey size relationships (PPSRs) when predators can consume prey larger than themselves, we conducted field observations targeting three aquatic hemipteran bugs, and assessed their body masses and those of their prey for each hunting event. The data revealed that their PPSR varied with predator size and species identity, although the use of the averaged sizes masked these effects. Specifically, two predators had slightly decreased predator-prey mass ratios (PPMRs) during growth, whereas the other predator specialized on particular sizes of prey, thereby showing a clear positive size-PPMR relationship. We discussed how these patterns could be different from fish predators swallowing smaller prey whole.

  18. The Photovoltaic Heat Island Effect: Larger solar power plants increase local temperatures.

    PubMed

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Minor, Rebecca L; Allen, Nathan A; Cronin, Alex D; Brooks, Adria E; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell A

    2016-10-13

    While photovoltaic (PV) renewable energy production has surged, concerns remain about whether or not PV power plants induce a "heat island" (PVHI) effect, much like the increase in ambient temperatures relative to wildlands generates an Urban Heat Island effect in cities. Transitions to PV plants alter the way that incoming energy is reflected back to the atmosphere or absorbed, stored, and reradiated because PV plants change the albedo, vegetation, and structure of the terrain. Prior work on the PVHI has been mostly theoretical or based upon simulated models. Furthermore, past empirical work has been limited in scope to a single biome. Because there are still large uncertainties surrounding the potential for a PHVI effect, we examined the PVHI empirically with experiments that spanned three biomes. We found temperatures over a PV plant were regularly 3-4 °C warmer than wildlands at night, which is in direct contrast to other studies based on models that suggested that PV systems should decrease ambient temperatures. Deducing the underlying cause and scale of the PVHI effect and identifying mitigation strategies are key in supporting decision-making regarding PV development, particularly in semiarid landscapes, which are among the most likely for large-scale PV installations.

  19. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2011-11-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  20. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  1. 5-(Adamantan-1-yl)-3-[(4-benzyl­piperazin-1-yl)meth­yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; El-Brollosy, Nasser R.; Attia, Mohamed I.; Said-Abdelbaky, Mohammed; García-Granda, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C24H32N4OS, is a functionalized 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione with substituted piperazine and adamantanyl substituents attached at the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, of the oxadiazole spacer with an approximately C-shaped conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules form dimers via C—H⋯S inter­action. The piperazine ring has a chair conformation; the substituents S, methyl­ene C and adamantane C of the essentially planar oxadiazole ring are approximately in the same plane, with distances of −0.046 (2), −0.085 (5) and 0.003 (4) Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl and oxadiazole rings is 31.3 (3)°. PMID:22798843

  2. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic.

  3. 3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of waterfront facade looking southwest from across the creek. Note the 1965 concrete block addition to the main oyster house. Lifting derrick can be seen at left in front of the building and next to the hoist house. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  4. 7. 3/4 view of sugar mill looking NW showing entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. 3/4 view of sugar mill looking NW showing entry ramp, S and E elevations. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  5. Synthesis and antifungal activity of natural product-based 6-alkyl-2 3 4 5-tetrahydropyridines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven 6-alkyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridines (5a–5g) that mimic the natural products piperideines that were recently identified in the fire ant venom have been synthesized. Compounds 5c–5g with the C-6 alkyl chain lengths from C14 to C18 showed varying degrees of antifungal activities, with 5e (6-hexa...

  6. Transport of 3,4-dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate, an analogue of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Z; Engel, R; Tropp, B E

    1977-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxybutyl-1-phosphonate (DHBP), an analogue of glycerol 3-phosphate, is actively transported by the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli strain 8. The Km for the transport of DHBP is 200 microM. PMID:400804

  7. [Reactive oxygen species and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde in pathogenesis of Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Rybakowska, Iwona; Szreder, Grzegorz; Kaletha, Krystian; Barwina, Małgorzata; Waldman, Wojciech; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, which plays a role in pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, seems to be important also in pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease. Experiments performed recently, revealed in the cerebrum of patients suffering from this disease (induced by the oxidative stress) elevated levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL)--a strong endogenous neurotoxin to dopamine neurons.

  8. Carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing; Sun, Zongtao; Xu, Zhenjian; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Hu; Hua, Yuejin

    2008-12-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans strain R1 synthesizes deinoxanthin, a unique carotenoid product, which contributes to cell resistance following various stresses. The biosynthetic pathway of deinoxanthin is unclear, although several enzymes are presumed to be involved. The gene (dr2250) predicted by gene homologue analysis to encode carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase (CrtD) was deleted to investigate its function. A mutant deficient in the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) was also constructed to verify the catalytic function of the gene product in the native host. Carotenoid analysis of the resultant mutants verified that DR2250 encodes carotenoid 3',4'-desaturase, which catalyses the C-3',4'-desaturation of the monocyclic precursor of deinoxanthin but not acyclic carotenoids. Mutation of the gene homologue of crtLm (dr0801) resulted in accumulation of lycopene, confirming that it encodes the lycopene cyclase in the native host. The lack of CrtD decreased the antioxidant capacity of the mutant deficient in dr2250 compared with the wild-type, indicating that the C-3',4'-desaturation step contributes to the antioxidant capacity of deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans.

  9. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  10. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  11. 43 CFR 3420.3-4 - Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis and scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional tract ranking, selection...) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3-4 Regional tract ranking, selection, environmental analysis... natural environment; and socioeconomic impacts. The subfactors the regional coal team will consider...

  12. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book I: Grades 3, 4, and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets suitable for supplementing social studies units in grades 3, 4, and 5 are presented. Each set lists appropriate resources, concepts, general objectives and instructional objectives for each activity within the set. Grade 3 sets are "You Can Help Conserve Our Natural Resources,""Urban Decay and Urban…

  13. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks...

  14. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks...

  15. 43 CFR 4750.3-4 - Approval or disapproval of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Private Maintenance § 4750.3-4 Approval or disapproval of... authorized officer disapproves an application for private maintenance because the applicant lacks...

  16. The orphan nuclear receptor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase for Oct-3/4 silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Noriko . E-mail: nrksato@rinshoken.or.jp; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Arai, Ken-ichi

    2006-06-09

    Somatic DNA methylation patterns are determined in part by the de novo methylation that occurs after early embryonic demethylation. Oct-3/4, a pluripotency gene, is unmethylated in the blastocyst, but undergoes de novo methylation and silencing during gastrulation. Here we show that the transcriptional repressor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase to the Oct-3/4 promoter and facilitates its methylation. Although acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (K9) and/or 14 (K14) and methylation of H3 at lysine 4 (K4) decrease during this period, as do Oct-3/4 transcript levels, H3K9 and H3K27 methylation levels remain constant, indicating that DNA methylation does not require repressive histone modifications. We found that GCNF interacts directly with Dnmt3 molecule(s) and verified that this interaction induces the methylation of the Oct-3/4 promoter. Our finding suggests a model in which differentiation-induced GCNF recruits de novo DNA methyltransferase and facilitates the silencing of a pluripotency gene.

  17. 5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. 3/4 VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM THE WEST BANK OF THE IOWA RIVER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. PIERS FROM THE OLD BENTON STREET BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN THE WATER TO THE LEFT OF THE BRIDGE Harms - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  18. High-temperature heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, V. M.; Denisova, L. T.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.; Volkov, N. V.; Patrin, G. S.; Chumilina, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    The molar heat capacity of YFe3(BO3)4 has been measured using differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range 339-1086 K. It has been found that the dependence C p = f( T) exhibits an extremum at a temperature of 401 K due to the structural transition.

  19. Synthesis and polymerization of new monomers derived from 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schottland, P.; Stéphan, O.; Le Gall, P.-Y.; Chevrot, C.

    1998-06-01

    We report here the results of the synthesis of soluble polymers derived from 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene. Starting from a 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene monomer functionalized by an hydroxymethyl group, we synthesized several monomers bearing different side groups. The influence of alkyl chain length of side groups was studied in order to improve the solubility of the resulting polymer obtained by chemical oxidation. The optical properties of some chemically polymerized materials are also reported. Nous présentons ici la synthèse et certaines propriétés optiques de polymères solubles dérivés du 3,4-éthylènedioxythiophène. A partir d'un monomère 3,4-éthylènedioxythiophène fonctionnalisé par un groupement hydroxyméthyl, nous avons synthétisé des composés possédant des groupes latéraux de natures différentes. Nous avons examiné l'influence de la longueur de la chaîne d'un substituant alkyl sur la solubilité du polymère correspondant obtenu par oxydation chimique. D'autre part, les propriétés optiques de certains matériaux obtenus chimiquement sont également abordées.

  20. 3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, 3/4 VIEW OF HOT BLAST STOVE ON TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING CAST-IRON RETORTS AND TURNED HEAD (WHERE RAW MATERIALS WERE LOADED INTO FURNACE). - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  1. Novel isocyanide-based three-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2-amine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Ahmad; Maleki, Ali; Mofakham, Hamid; Khavasi, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of a novel class of highly substituted 3,4-dihydroquinoxalin-2-amine derivatives including spirocyclic compounds from three-component condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamines, diverse carbonyl compounds, and isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of p-toluenesulfonic acid in good to excellent yields at room temperature is described.

  2. 33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VERTICAL AND TORSIONAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MN FILM SHOT BY PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  3. 32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL OSCILLATIONS, 3/4 VIEW, 7 NOVEMBER 1940, FROM 16MM FILM SHOT PROFESSOR F.B. FARQUHARSON, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. (LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE TACOMA NARROWS BRIDGE, AT UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (SEATTLE: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 1941) - Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Spanning Narrows at State Route 16, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  4. Inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS3.4A protease 2. Warhead SAR and optimization.

    PubMed

    Perni, Robert B; Pitlik, Janos; Britt, Shawn D; Court, John J; Courtney, Lawrence F; Deininger, David D; Farmer, Luc J; Gates, Cynthia A; Harbeson, Scott L; Levin, Rhonda B; Lin, Chao; Lin, Kai; Moon, Young-Choon; Luong, Yu-Ping; O'Malley, Ethan T; Rao, B Govinda; Thomson, John A; Tung, Roger D; Van Drie, John H; Wei, Yunyi

    2004-03-22

    The alpha-ketoamide warhead (e.g., 15) was found to be a practical replacement for aliphatic aldehydes in a series of HCV NS3.4A protease inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships and prime side optimization are discussed.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of PO3-4 adsorption on blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ensar

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of adsorption of PO(3-)(4) by blast furnace slag were found to be fast, reaching equilibrium in 20 min and following a pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption behavior of PO(3-)(4) on blast furnace slag has been studied as a function of the solution agitation speed, pH, and temperature. Results have been analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The mean energy of adsorption, 10.31 kJ mol(-1), was calculated from the D-R adsorption isotherm. The rate constants were calculated for 293, 298, 303, and 308 K using a pseudo-second-order rate equation and the activation energy (E(a)) was derived using the Arrhenius equation. Thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0), and DeltaG(0) were calculated from the slope and intercept of linear plot of lnK(D) against 1/T. The DeltaH(0) and DeltaG(0) values of PO(3-)(4) adsorption on the blast furnace slag show endothermic heat of adsorption. But there is a negative free energy value, indicating that the process of PO(3-)(4) adsorption is favored at high temperatures.

  6. Polyimides from 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride and Aromatic Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to polyimides. It relates particularly to novel polyimides prepared from 2,3, 3',4' -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride and aromatic diamines. These novel polyimides have low color, good solubility, high thermal emissivity, low solar absorptivity and high tensile strength.

  7. Treatment Implications for Young Adult Users of MDMA (3,4-Methylenedyoxymethamphetamine)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2006-01-01

    Young adults' 3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is a national public health concern. Although research on the epidemiology of MDMA use has increased, inquiry into intervention and treatment is needed. The authors examine results from an epidemiological investigation from a clinical perspective and provide suggestions for clinicians…

  8. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the Nicta; CycD3; 4 gene demonstrate accelerated growth rates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Wang, Myeong Hyeon

    2008-07-31

    D-type cyclins control the onset of cell division and the response to extracellular signals during the G1 phase. In this study, we transformed a D-type cyclin gene, Nicta;CycD3;4, from Nicotiana tabacum using an Agrobacterium-mediated method. A predicted 1.1 kb cyclin gene was present in all of the transgenic plants, but not in wild-type. Northern analyses showed that the expression level of the Nicta;CycD3;4 gene in all of the transgenic plants was strong when compared to the wild-type plants, suggesting that Nicta;CycD3;4 gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was being overexpressed. Our results revealed that transgenic plants overexpressing Nicta;CycD3;4 had an accelerated growth rate when compared to wild-type plants, and that the transgenic plants exhibited a smaller cell size and a decreased cell population in young leaves when compared to wild-type plants.

  10. Vapor phase growth of group 3, 4, and 5 compounds by HCl transport of elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Debnam, W. J., Jr.; Mcnear, M. F.; Crouch, R. K.; Breckenridge, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Technique has been devised for vapor-phase epitaxial growth of group 3, 4, and 5 binary, ternary, or quaternary compounds by HCl transport of the constituent elements or dopants. Technique uses all the constituents of the alloy system in their elemental form. Transport of these elements by an HCl + H2 carrier gas facilitates their transport as subchlorides.

  11. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  12. 3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. N elevation, E wing; 3/4 view of W wing showing E and N elevations; N elevation of Building 69, Plating and Tinning Shop; looking SW. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 66, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. Participation of OCT3/4 and beta-catenin during dysgenetic gonadal malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Palma, Icela; Peña, Rocio-Yolanda; Contreras, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Coyote, Ninel; Eraña, Luis; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana; Queipo, Gloria

    2008-05-18

    Gonadoblastoma (GB) is an in situ tumor consisting of a heterogeneous population of mature and immature germ cells, other cells resembling immature Sertoli/granulosa cells, and Leydig/lutein-like cells, may also be present. GB almost exclusively affects a subset of patients with intersex disorders and in 30% of them overgrowth of the germinal component of the tumor is observed and the lesion is term dysgerminoma/seminoma. Several pathways have been proposed to explain the malignant process, and abnormal OCT3/4 expression is the most robust risk factor for malignant transformation. Some authors have suggested that OCT3/4 and beta-catenin might both be involved in the same oncogenic pathway, as both genes are master regulators of cell differentiation and, overexpression of either gene may result in cancer development. The mechanism by which beta-catenin participates in GB transformation is not completely clear and exploration of the E-cadherin pathway did not conclusively show that this pathway participated in the molecular pathogenesis of GB. Here we analyze seven patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and GB, in an effort to elucidate the participation of beta-catenin and E-cadherin, as well as OCT3/4, in the oncogenic pathways involved in the transformation of GB into seminoma/dysgerminoma. We conclude that the proliferation of immature germ cells in GB may be due to an interaction between OCT3/4 and accumulated beta-catenin in the nuclei of the immature germ cells.

  14. Synthesis of 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-ium bromides and their in vitro acaricidal activity against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Ni; Yang, Xin-Juan; Pan, Le; Hou, Zhe; Geng, Hui-Ling; Song, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Le; Miao, Fang

    2013-01-01

    By employing sanguinarine, a natural active quaternary isoquinoline alkaloid, as a model molecule, a series of structurally simple quaternary 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-ium compounds were designed and synthesized and evaluated for in vitro acaricidal activity against P. cuniculi. A new approach towards the title compounds was developed with isochroman as starting material. The results showed that 22 of 24 tested compounds displayed the activity in varying degrees at 0.4 mg/mL. Fourteen compounds were significantly more effective than ivermectin, a standard acaricide, and 6-methoxy dihydrosanguinarine, a derivative of sanguinarine (p<0.05). And their comprehensive relative activity was 1.4 to 16.5 times than that of ivermectin and 1.5 to 18.8 times than that of 6-methoxy dihydrosanguinarine. The structure-activity relationship indicated that the introduction of a substituent to N-benzene ring, especially halogen atom and trifluoromethyl group, led to great improvement of the activity. The position of fluorine atom, methyl group and hydroxyl group made very significant effects on the activity. It was concluded that 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2-iums are very promising candidates for the development of new isoquinoline acaricidal agents.

  15. Burdigalian turbid water patch reef environment revealed by larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, V.; Renema, W.; Throughflow-project

    2012-04-01

    Ancient isolated patch reefs outcropping from siliciclastic sediments are a trademark for the Miocene carbonate deposits occurring in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. They develop in transitional shelf sediments deposited between deltaic and deep marine deposits (Allen and Chambers, 1998). The Batu Putih Limestone (Wilson, 2005) and similar outcrops in adjacent areas have been characterized as shallow water carbonates influenced by high siliciclastic input, showing low relief patch reefs in turbid waters. Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are excellent markers for biochronology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to reveal age and paleoenvironment of a shallow water carbonate patch reef developed in mixed depositional system by using LBF and microfacies analysis. The studied section is located near Bontang, East Kalimantan, and is approximately 80 m long and 12 m high. It is placed within Miocene sediments in the central part of the Kutai Basin. Patch reef and capping sediments were logged through eight transects along section and divided into nine different lithological units from which samples were collected. Thin sections and isolated specimens of larger benthic foraminifera were analyzed and recognized to species level (where possible) providing age and environmental information. Microfacies analysis of thin sections included carbonate classification (textural scheme of Dunham, 1962) and assemblage composition of LBF, algae and corals relative abundance. Three environmentally indicative groups of LBF were separated based on test morphology, habitat or living relatives (Hallock and Glenn, 1986). Analysed foraminifera assemblage suggests Burdigalian age (Tf1). With use of microfacies analysis nine successive lithological units were grouped into five facies types. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of LBF fossil assemblage indicate two cycles of possible deepening recorded in the section. Based on high muddy matrix ratio in analyzed thin-sections we

  16. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  17. [Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl].

    PubMed

    Koga, N; Kanamaru, T; Oishi, N; Kato, Y; Kimura, R; Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y

    2001-05-01

    In vitro Metabolism of 2,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB138) was studied using liver microsomes from rats, hamsters and guinea pigs. Guinea pig liver microsomes formed four metabolites named as M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 and these metabolites were all increased to about 4-5 fold of untreated microsomes by pretreatment of phenobarbital. Liver microsomes of rats and hamsters showed much less activity to metabolize CB138 than those of guinea pigs. Only phenobarbital-treated microsomes produced very small amounts of M-3 in rats and M-1, M-2 and M-3 in hamsters, but untreated and MC-treated microsomes did not. When mass spectra of the methylated derivatives of M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 were measured in GC/MS, the former two possess the molecular ion of 354 and the latter two had the molecular ion of 388. In addition, the mass fragmentation pattern indicated that M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4 are 2-OH-4,5,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 5-OH-2,4,2',3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3-OH-CB138 and 2-OH-3,4,5,2',3',4'-hexachlorobiphenyl, respectively. Of four metabolites, the chemical structures of M-3 and M-4 were supported by the synthesized authentic compounds. From these results, it is suggested that the metabolism of CB138 in guinea pig liver proceeds mainly via 2,3-epoxide as an intermediate and a PB-inducible P450, CYP2B18, is the most important isozyme in CB138 metabolism.

  18. Molecular and electronic structure of Re2Br4(PMe3)4

    DOE PAGES

    Johnstone, Erik V.; Poineau, Frederic; Todorova, Tanya K.; ...

    2016-07-07

    The dinuclear rhenium(II) complex Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was prepared from the reduction of [Re2Br8]2– with (n-Bu4N)BH4 in the presence of PMe3 in propanol. The complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and UV–visible spectroscopy. It crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group and is isostructural with its molybdenum and technetium analogues. The Re–Re distance (2.2521(3) Å) is slightly longer than the one in Re2Cl4(PMe3)4 (2.247(1) Å). The molecular and electronic structure of Re2X4(PMe3)4 (X = Cl, Br) were studied by multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods. The computed ground-state geometry is in excellent agreement with the experimental structure determined by SCXRD. The calculatedmore » total bond order (2.75) is consistent with the presence of an electron-rich triple bond and is similar to the one found for Re2Cl4(PMe3)4. The electronic absorption spectrum of Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was recorded in benzene and shows a series of low-intensity bands in the range 10 000–26 000 cm–1. The absorption bands were assigned based on calculations of the excitation energies with the multireference wave functions followed by second-order perturbation theory using the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. As a result, calculations predict that the lowest energy band corresponds to the δ* → σ* transition, while the next higher energy bands were attributed to the δ* → π*, δ → σ*, and δ → π* transitions.« less

  19. Changes in Hardware in Order to Accommodate Compliant Foil Air Bearings of a Larger Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Compliant foil air bearings are at the forefront of the Oil-Free turbomachinery revolution of supporting gas turbine engines with air lubricated hydrodynamic bearings. Foil air bearings have existed for almost fifty years, yet their commercialization has been confined to relatively small, high-speed systems characterized by low temperatures and loads, such as in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and micro-turbines. Recent breakthroughs in foil air bearing design and solid lubricant coating technology, have caused a resurgence of research towards applying Oil-Free technology to more demanding applications on the scale of small and mid range aircraft gas turbine engines. In order to foster the transition of Oil-Free technology into gas turbine engines, in-house experiments need to be performed on foil air bearings to further the understanding of their complex operating principles. During my internship at NASA Glenn in the summer of 2003, a series of tests were performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump- type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. From these tests, a temperature profile was compiled, indicating that the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible. The tests further indicated that both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. As a result of the findings from the tests done during the summer of 2003, it was decided that further testing would need to be done, but with a bearing of a larger diameter. The bearing diameter would now be increased from two inches to three inches. All of the currently used testing apparatus was designed specifically for a bearing that was two inches in diameter. Thus, my project for the summer of 2004 was to focus specifically on the scatter shield put around the testing rig while running the bearings. Essentially

  20. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  1. Oral fluid and plasma 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and metabolite correlation after controlled oral MDMA administration.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Barnes, Allan J; Hartman, Rebecca L; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Kolbrich-Spargo, Erin A; Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a noninvasive sample collection for drug testing. However, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) in OF has not been adequately characterized in comparison to plasma. We administered oral low-dose (1.0 mg/kg) and high-dose (1.6 mg/kg) MDMA to 26 participants and collected simultaneous OF and plasma specimens for up to 143 h after dosing. We compared OF/plasma (OF/P) ratios, time of initial detection (t first), maximal concentrations (C max), time of peak concentrations (t max), time of last detection (t last), clearance, and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)-to-MDMA ratios over time. For OF MDMA and MDA, C max was higher, t last was later, and clearance was slower compared to plasma. For OF MDA only, t first was later compared to plasma. Median (range) OF/P ratios were 5.6 (0.1-52.3) for MDMA and 3.7 (0.7-24.3) for MDA. OF and plasma concentrations were weakly but significantly correlated (MDMA: R(2) = 0.438, MDA: R(2) = 0.197, p < 0.0001). Median OF/P ratios were significantly higher following high dose administration: MDMA low = 5.2 (0.1-40.4), high = 6.0 (0.4-52.3, p < 0.05); MDA low = 3.3 (0.7-17.1), high = 4.1 (0.9-24.3, p < 0.001). There was a large inter-subject variation in OF/P ratios. The MDA/MDMA ratios in plasma were higher than those in OF (p < 0.001), and the MDA/MDMA ratios significantly increased over time in OF and plasma. The MDMA and MDA concentrations were higher in OF than in plasma. OF and plasma concentrations were correlated, but large inter-subject variability precludes the estimation of plasma concentrations from OF.

  2. Direct electrostatic toner marking with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)polystyrenesulfonate bilayer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Mandakini; Law, Kock-Yee; Zhang, Yuanjia

    2012-10-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is the one of the most promising and widely used materials for low cost large area flexible displays, owing to its easy solution processing and micro/nano scale patternability. In this work, hole injection between PEDOT:PSS thin film and molecularly doped polymer layers of arylamine has been studied in a bilayer device configuration. The electrical properties of the bilayer devices have been examined by studying their charge-discharge behavior, current-voltage (I-V), and time-of-flight (TOF) characteristics. The work function of the PEDOT:PSS and arylamine has been estimated by electrochemical measurements. Results show that PEDOT:PSS is an efficient hole injector to arylamine owing to its favorable molecular energetics. The efficiency of hole injection depends on the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS film and the strength of the electric field across the bilayer device. The interfacial electrical contact behavior between PEDOT and arylamine studied by steady state I-V measurements and TOF measurements suggests that for highly conductive PEDOT:PSS, the discharge of the bilayer device is limited by the hole mobility in the charge transport layer whereas it is injection limited for more resistive PEDOT:PSS films. Printing experiments were performed on a modified xerographic DC12 printer as well as a modified DC8000 development housing. The overall results show that the latent image produced by discharging the bilayer device can be developed electrostatically with toner. More importantly, we found that the PEDOT:PSS bilayer device can be charged, discharged, and developed by just loading it against a negatively biased magnetic toner brush. We suggest coupling this direct toner marking process with an active backplane for digital printing application. The proposed digital printer appears to be very simple and compact as printing can be done without using a charger and the laser ROS system and replacing the

  3. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  4. Developmental reversals in risky decision making: intelligence agents show larger decision biases than college students.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Chick, Christina F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Hsia, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups' decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making.

  5. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  6. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  7. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  8. Brighter-colored paper wasps (Polistes dominula) have larger poison glands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aposematism is a defense system against predators consisting of the toxicity warning using conspicuous coloration. If the toxin production and aposematic coloration is costly, only individuals in good physical condition could simultaneously produce abundant poison and striking coloration. In such cases, the aposematic coloration not only indicates that the animal is toxic, but also the toxicity level of individuals. The costs associated with the production of aposematic coloration would ensure that individuals honestly indicate their toxicity levels. In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between the brightness of warning coloration and toxicity level using as a model the paper wasp (Polistes dominula). Results We collected wasps from 30 different nests and photographed them to measure the brightness of warning coloration in the abdomen. We also measured the volume of the poison gland, as well as the length, and the width of the abdomen. The results show a positive relationship between brightness and poison-gland size, which remained positive even after controlling for the body size and abdomen width. Conclusion The results suggest that the coloration pattern of these wasps is a true sign of toxicity level: wasps with brighter colors are more poisonous (they have larger poison glands). PMID:22901602

  9. Larger and near-term baby retinopathy: a rare case series

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, T R; Rath, S; Jalali, S; Pradhan, L; Kesarwani, S; Nayak, M; Mishra, B; Panda, K G; Suttar, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report retinopathy in a series of four babies unusually beyond the screening standards reported so far in the literature. Methods During routine screening for retinopathy of prematurity, we detected retinopathy in four babies who were surprisingly bigger and older than the screening standards. The gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), post menstrual age at first examination and significant perinatal events were noted. The retinopathy details imaged by the RetCam were classified as per ICROP revisited standards. Result The GA ranged from 36 to 39 weeks and BW from 2.4 to 3.0 kg. Three of them had retinopathy in zone III that regressed spontaneously and one had marked plus with vascular arcades and shunts in zone II that regressed after laser photocoagulation. All of them had fetal distress and multiple systemic comorbidities in the neonatal period. Conclusion This report makes one aware of the possibility of retinopathy in newborn of older GA and larger BW especially with fetal distress and stormy neonatal course. PMID:25359288

  10. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  11. Organizing DNA Origami Tiles Into Larger Structures Using Pre-formed Scaffold Frames

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA molecules as programmable information-coding polymers to create higher order structures at the nanometer scale. An important milestone in structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single-stranded viral genome (scaffold strand) is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands). The achievable dimensions of the DNA origami tiles units are currently limited by the length of the scaffold strand. Here we demonstrate a strategy referred to as ‘super-origami’ or ‘origami of origami’ to scale up DNA origami technology. First, this method uses a collection of bridge strands to pre-fold a single stranded DNA scaffold into a loose framework. Subsequently, pre-formed individual DNA origami tiles are directed onto the loose framework so that each origami tile serves as a large staple. Using this strategy, we demonstrate the ability to organize DNA origami nanostructures into larger spatially addressable architectures. PMID:21682348

  12. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  14. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  15. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  16. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  17. ACOs Holding Commercial Contracts Are Larger And More Efficient Than Noncommercial ACOs

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, David; Phipps-Taylor, Madeleine C.; Stachowski, Courtney A.; Kao, Lee-Sien; Shortell, Stephen M.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Colla, Carrie H.

    2016-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have diverse contracting arrangements and have displayed wide variations in their performance. Using data from national surveys of 399 ACOs, we examined differences between the 228 commercial ACOs (those with commercial payer contracts) and the 171 noncommercial ACOs (those with only public contracts, such as with Medicare or Medicaid). Commercial ACOs were significantly larger and more integrated with hospitals, and had lower benchmark expenditures and higher quality scores, compared to noncommercial ACOs. Among all of the ACOs, there was low uptake of quality and efficiency activities. However, commercial ACOs reported more use of disease monitoring tools, patient satisfaction data, and quality improvement methods than did noncommercial ACOs. Few ACOs reported having high-level performance monitoring capabilities. About two-thirds of the ACOs had established processes for distributing any savings accrued, and these ACOs allocated approximately the same amount of savings to the ACOs themselves, participating member organizations, and physicians. Our findings demonstrate that ACO delivery systems remain at a nascent stage. Structural differences between commercial and noncommercial ACOs are important factors to consider as public policy efforts continue to evolve. PMID:27702959

  18. Aspirations and common tensions: larger lessons from the third US national climate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Susanne C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Moss, Richard H.; Buizer, James L.

    2015-10-21

    The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) was produced by experts in response to the US Global Change Research Act of 1990. Based on lessons learned from previous domestic and international assessments, the NCA3 was designed to speak to a broad public and inform the concerns of policy- and decision-makers at different scales. The NCA3 was also intended to be the first step in an ongoing assessment process that would build the nation’s capacity to respond to climate change. This concluding paper draws larger lessons from the insights gained throughout the assessment process that are of significance to future US and international assessment designers. We bring attention to process and products delivered, communication and engagement efforts, and how they contributed to the sustained assessment. Based on areas where expectations were exceeded or not fully met, we address four common tensions that all assessment designers must confront and manage: between (1) core assessment ingredients (knowledge base, institutional set-up, principled process, and the people involved), (2) national scope and subnational adaptive management information needs, (3) scope, complexity, and manageability, and (4) deliberate evaluation and ongoing learning approaches. Managing these tensions, amidst the social and political contexts in which assessments are conducted, is critical to ensure that assessments are feasible and productive, while its outcomes are perceived as credible, salient, and legitimate.

  19. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion

    PubMed Central

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees. PMID:27846252

  20. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  1. Selection does not favor larger body size at lower temperature in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, R Craig; Moya-Laraño, Jordi; Fox, Charles W

    2008-10-01

    Body size of many animals increases with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule (Bergmann clines). Latitudinal gradients in mean temperature are frequently assumed to be the underlying cause of this pattern because temperature covaries systematically with latitude, but whether and how temperature mediates selection on body size is unclear. To test the hypothesis that the "relative" advantage of being larger is greatest at cooler temperatures we compare the fitness of replicate lines of the seed beetle, Stator limbatus, for which body size was manipulated via artificial selection ("Large,"Control," and "Small" lines), when raised at low (22 degrees C) and high (34 degrees C) temperatures. Large-bodied beetles (Large lines) took the longest to develop but had the highest lifetime fecundity, and highest fitness (r(C)), at both low and high temperatures. However, the relative difference between the Large and Small lines did not change with temperature (replicate 2) or was greatest at high temperature (replicate 1), contrary to the prediction that the fitness advantage of being large relative to being small will decline with increasing temperature. Our results are consistent with two previous studies of this seed beetle, but inconsistent with prior studies that suggest that temperature-mediated selection on body size is a major contributor to the production of Bergmann clines. We conclude that other environmental and ecological variables that covary with latitude are more likely to produce the gradient in natural selection responsible for generating Bergmann clines.

  2. Building a larger tent for public health: implications of the SOPHE-AAHE unification.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Robert Mark

    2013-04-01

    The unification of the American Association for Health Education (AAHE) and the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) generates a long-desired synergy, a ramping up of our leadership influence in promoting health. It also serves as an ongoing opportunity to reflect on how we synergize the distinct philosophic, scientific, and practical approaches that our AAHE colleagues bring in constructing a larger tent for public health education. Running parallel to our union with AAHE is the undertaking by several schools of health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) to become schools of public health. The unification between AAHE and SOPHE can be of enormous benefit to such a process. Just as the harmonious integration of two organizations with similar but distinct perspectives depends on compromise and transcendence, the schools that they embody-both public health and HPER-might consider ways to engage in continued dialogue to assure a more expansive paradigm for public health. SOPHE has an important role to play in this process, and with the additional insight and influence that our AAHE colleagues bring, we can become more instrumental as a boundary spanner. Mechanisms for such integration are discussed.

  3. Postoperative irradiation in patients with pT3-4N0 laryngeal cancer: results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Tomasz; Nowak-Sadzikowska, Jadwiga; Mucha-Małecka, Anna; Szyszka-Charewicz, Bogumiła; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Gliński, Bogdan

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 60 % of patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer (LALC) treated primarily with surgery require adjuvant radiotherapy. In the available literature predominate series of patients were with pathologically confirmed node-positive status. Subgroups of pN0 patients with LALC are scarce. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with pathological stage T3-4N0M0 and identification of prognostic factors in this group. Between 1975 and 2005, 138 patients with squamous pT3-4N0 laryngeal cancer were irradiated postoperatively. Primary surgical treatment consisted of total laryngectomy and cervical lymphadenectomy. The median time between surgery and the implementation of radiotherapy was 56 days. The median total dose was 60 Gy (range 40-70 Gy). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS5) was achieved in 76 % of patients. Cancer recurrence was observed in 34 patients. In 28 (82 %) cases it was locoregional failure. DFS5 rates for pT3 and pT4 were 92 and 69 %, for margin status R0, R1 and R2 were 82, 72 and 67 %, respectively. The pharyngeal invasion was related to a decrease in DFS5 from 80 to 59 %. Postoperative irradiation in patients with pT3-4N0 LALC is an effective treatment method. The main reason of the failure is local recurrence. The following independent prognostic factors were identified in this group of patients: pT stage, surgical margin status and pharyngeal invasion.

  4. Sensory properties of hybrid composites based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-porous silicon-carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenych, Igor B.; Aksimentyeva, Olena I.; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S.; Horbenko, Yulia Yu; Yarytska, Lidia I.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we have prepared film sensor elements based on a hybrid system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-porous silicon nanocrystals-carbon nanotubes on flexible polymer substrates. Our FTIR spectroscopy-based studies for the molecular structure of the materials obtained suggest some interaction of their components in the hybrid layer. The influence of adsorption of water molecules on the conductivity and capacitance of the hybrid composites has been investigated in the temperature range of 20°C to 40°C. We have detected essential changes in the electrical conductivity and capacitance which depend on the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. For estimating the sensing properties of our composites, we have analyzed the sensing abilities of the hybrid systems and their dynamic characteristics. The hybrid composites as working materials for the sensors provide improved performance of the latter. In particular, the response time is reduced by 3 to 5 times.

  5. Can Contemporary Patients with Biopsy Gleason Score 3+4 Be Eligible for Active Surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ohseong; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, In Jae; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Hong, Sung Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We analyzed whether expansion of existing active surveillance (AS) protocols to include men with biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3+4 prostate cancer (PCa) would significantly alter pathologic and biochemical outcomes of potential candidates of AS. Methods Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our center between 2006 and 2013, we identified 577 patients (group A) who preoperatively fulfilled at least one of 6 different AS criteria. Also, we identified 217 patients (group B) with biopsy GS 3+4 but fulfilled non-GS criteria from at least one of 6 AS criteria. Designating group C as expanded group incorporating all patients in group A and B, we compared risk of unfavorable disease (pathologic GS ≥4+3 and/or pathologic T stage ≥pT3a) and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival between groups. Results Rates of unfavorable disease were not significantly different between patients of group A and C who met AS criteria from 5 institutions (all p>0.05), not including University of Toronto (p<0.001). Also BCR-free survivals were not significantly different between patients in group A and C meeting each of 6 AS criteria (all p>0.05). Among group B, PSAD>0.15 ng/mL/cm3 (p = 0.011) and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core>4 mm (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease. When these two criteria were newly applied in defining group B, rates of unfavorable disease in group A and B was 15.6% and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.886). Conclusion Overall rate of pathologically aggressive PCa harbored by potential candidates for AS may not be increased significantly with expansion of criteria to biopsy GS 3+4 under most contemporary AS protocols. PSAD and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core may be useful predictors of more aggressive disease among potential candidates for AS with biopsy GS 3+4. PMID:25268898

  6. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  7. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles and 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazines carrying thioalkyl and sulphonyl phenoxy moieties.

    PubMed

    Karabasanagouda, T; Adhikari, Airody Vasudeva; Shetty, N Suchetha

    2007-04-01

    Thirty one new 6-aryl-3-{(4-substituted phenoxy) methyl}-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (6a-s) and 6-aryl-3-[(4-substituted phenoxy methyl]-7H-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazines (7a-l) have been synthesized from 4-thioalkyl phenols (1a-b) through a multi-step reaction sequence. Compounds 1a-b reacted with ethyl chloroacetate in presence of acetone and potassium carbonate to give ethyl [4-(thioalkyl) phenoxy] acetates (2a-b). Further, 2a was oxidized to [4-(methyl sulphonyl) phenoxy] acetate (2c) using hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid. Reactions of (2a-c) with hydrazine hydrate in alcoholic medium furnished 2-[4-thiosubstituted phenoxy] acetohydrazides (3a-b) and 2-[4-methyl sulphonyl phenoxy] acetohydrazide (3c) which on treatment with carbon disulphide and methanolic potassium hydroxide yielded corresponding potassium dithiocarbazates (4a-c). They were then converted to 4-amino-5-[(4-thioalkyl phenoxy) methyl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols (5a-b) and 4-amino-5-[(4-methyl sulphonyl phenoxy) methyl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (5c) by refluxing them with aqueous hydrazine hydrate. The title compounds 6a-s were prepared by condensing 5a-c with various aromatic carboxylic acids in presence of phosphorus oxychloride. The intermediates 5a-c, on condensation with various substituted phenacyl bromides afforded a series of title compounds (7a-l). The structures of new compounds 2a-7l were established on the basis of their elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral data. All the title compounds were subjected to in vitro antibacterial testing against four pathogenic strains and antifungal screening against three fungi. Preliminary results indicate that some of them exhibited promising activities and they deserve more consideration as potential antimicrobials.

  8. 17 CFR 3.4 - Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity. 3.4 Section 3.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.4 Registration in one capacity...

  9. 17 CFR 3.4 - Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Registration in one capacity not included in registration in any other capacity. 3.4 Section 3.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REGISTRATION Registration § 3.4 Registration in one capacity...

  10. The role of subsurface flows in solar surface convection: modeling the spectrum of supergranular and larger scale flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. W.; Rast, M. P.; Cameron, R. H.; Rempel, M.; Roudier, T.

    2014-09-20

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions. (1) The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. (2) Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also seen in the fully nonlinear three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations employing a realistic equation of state. This adds to other recent evidence suggesting that the amplitudes of large-scale convective motions in the Sun are significantly lower than expected. Employing the same feature tracking algorithm used with observational data on the simulation output, we show that the observed low wavenumber power can be reproduced in hydrodynamic models if the amplitudes of large-scale modes in the deep layers are artificially reduced. Since the large-scale modes have reduced amplitudes, modes on the scale of supergranulation and smaller remain important to convective heat flux even in the deep layers, suggesting that small-scale convective correlations are maintained through the bulk of the solar convection zone.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  12. Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

  13. Strongmen sport is associated with larger absolute heart size and impaired cardiac relaxation.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Vasiliauskas, Donatas; Marcinkeviciene, Jolanta E; Grizas, Vytautas; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Malkova, Dalia

    2011-10-01

    This study was carried out to compare cardiac structure and function and blood lipids among Strongmen, sedentary controls, and marathoners. Echocardiography was performed, and endothelial function, blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 27 Caucasian adult men (8 Strongmen, 10 marathoners, 9 controls). Absolute cardiac size parameters such as left ventricular (LV) diameter and wall thickness of Strongmen were higher (p < 0.05), but relative (body surface area indexed) parameters were not different between controls and Strongmen. In Strongmen, the relative LV diameter (p < 0.05), wall thickness (p < 0.001), and LV mass index (p < 0.01) were lower than in marathoners. The absolute but not relative right ventricular diameter was larger in Strongmen as compared with controls, whereas all of the measured relative cardiac size parameters were higher in marathoners as opposed to in controls. The endothelial function and the ratio of wall thickness to chamber diameter were similar among the groups (p > 0.05). Maximal oxygen uptake of Strongmen was lower than in controls (p < 0.05) and marathoners (p < 0.001). Global diastolic LV function of Strongmen was impaired in comparison to controls (p < 0.05) and marathoners (p < 0.05). Plasma lipids were not different between Strongmen and sedentary controls, but in comparison to runners, Strongmen had higher low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01). Participation in Strongmen sport is associated with higher absolute but not relative cardiac size parameters, impaired myocardial relaxation, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, Strongmen may demand greater attention as an extreme group of athletes with regard to cardiovascular risk.

  14. Using hydrochemical tracers to conceptualise hydrological function in a larger scale catchment draining contrasting geologic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capell, R.; Tetzlaff, D.; Malcolm, I. A.; Hartley, A. J.; Soulsby, C.

    2011-09-01

    SummaryA year-long multivariate tracer study in the 749 km 2 catchment of the North-Esk in north east Scotland was carried out to infer the dominant runoff generation processes in two markedly different geologic provinces. The upper 60% of the catchment has montane headwaters dominated by impermeable metamorphic rocks, steep topography, peaty soils and a sub-arctic climate with over 1400 mm of precipitation. The lowlands of the catchment are underlain by a major sandstone aquifer, and mainly have freely draining, fertile soils that support intensive arable farming under a drier climate with around 800 mm of precipitation. Storm runoff in the uplands is dominated by near-surface processes in soils and sedimentary layers which generate around 60% of annual stream flows with water of low alkalinity and ionic strength. In contrast, tributaries in the lower parts of the catchment are dominated by groundwater-fed base flows which account for 75% of annual runoff and are characterised by alkaline waters with high concentrations of base cations and high levels of nitrate. Multivariate statistical methods were used to derive a generic typology of catchment source waters, their spatial and temporal dynamics and particularly, how they integrate together at the larger catchment scale. The uplands dominate the winter high flow response of the whole catchment. The influence of lowland groundwater from major aquifers becomes more apparent under low flows. However, groundwater from small upland aquifers plays a critical role for ecosystem service in dry periods providing baseflows which dilute pollutant inputs from lowland areas at the large catchment scale.

  15. Weapons make the man (larger): formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies.

  16. Weapons Make the Man (Larger): Formidability Is Represented as Size and Strength in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans – and likely many other social vertebrates – navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  17. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2013-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification

  18. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  19. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  20. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jamie E.; Brown, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion’s habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal