Science.gov

Sample records for 3-5 contents include

  1. Including Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Psychology Content Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Robin M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the reasons for including diversity, specifically gender, race, and ethnicity, within content courses and discusses six primary challenges that tend to be associated with attempts to infuse diversity within psychology content courses. Provides recommendations addressing diversity in a process-oriented fashion that does not promote…

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF 190 METAL-POOR STARS INCLUDING 10 NEW STARS WITH [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5 , ,

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5. We identify a sample of 'normal' metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to 'normal' stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T {sub eff}, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions.

  4. The Most Metal-poor Stars. II. Chemical Abundances of 190 Metal-poor Stars Including 10 New Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Christlieb, N.; Asplund, M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] <= -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] <= -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] <= -3.5. We identify a sample of "normal" metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to "normal" stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T eff, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal 281.D-5015).

  5. Dark matter inelastic up-scattering with the interstellar plasma: A new source of x-ray lines, including at 3.5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Hambleton, Kevin; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim

    2016-05-01

    We explore the phenomenology of a class of models where the dark matter particle can inelastically up-scatter to a heavier excited state via off-diagonal dipolar interactions with the interstellar plasma (gas or free electrons). The heavier particle then rapidly decays back to the dark matter particle plus a quasimonochromatic photon. For the process to occur at appreciable rates, the mass splitting between the heavier state and the dark matter must be comparable to, or smaller than, the kinetic energy of particles in the plasma. As a result, the predicted photon line falls in the soft x-ray range, or, potentially, at arbitrarily lower energies. We explore experimental constraints from cosmology and particle physics, and present accurate calculations of the dark matter thermal relic density and of the flux of monochromatic x rays from thermal plasma excitation. We find that the model provides a natural explanation for the observed 3.5 keV line from clusters of galaxies and from the Galactic center, and is consistent with null detections of the line from dwarf galaxies. The unique line shape, which will be resolved by future observations with the Hitomi (formerly Astro-H) satellite, and the predicted unique morphology and target-temperature dependence will enable easy discrimination of this class of models versus other scenarios for the generation of the 3.5 keV line or of any other unidentified line across the electromagnetic spectrum.

  6. Ternary Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates: subsolidus phase relations at 3.5 GPa and a thermodynamic solid solution model including order/disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzolin, E.; Schmidt, M. W.; Poli, S.

    2011-02-01

    Subduction carries atmospheric and crustal carbon hosted in the altered oceanic crystalline basement and in pelagic sediments back into the mantle. Reactions involving complex carbonate solid solutions(s) lead to the transfer of carbon into the mantle, where it may be stored as graphite/diamond, in fluids or melts, or in carbonates. To constrain the thermodynamics and thus reactions of the ternary Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate solid solution, piston cylinder experiments have been performed in the system CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 at a pressure of 3.5 GPa and temperatures of 900-1,100°C. At 900°C, the system has two miscibility gaps: the solvus dolomite-calcite, which closes at X MgCO3 ~0.7, and the solvus dolomite-magnesite, which ranges from the Mg to the Fe side of the ternary. With increasing temperature, the two miscibility gaps become narrower until complete solid solutions between CaCO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 is reached at 1,100°C and between CaCO3-FeCO3 at 1,000°C. The solvi are characterized by strong compositional asymmetry and by an order-disorder mechanism. To deal with these features, a solid solution model based on the van Laar macroscopic formalism has been calculated for ternary carbonates. This thermodynamic solid solution model is able to reproduce the experimentally constrained phase relations in the system CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 in a broad P-T range. To test our model, calculated phase equilibria were compared with experiments performed in carbonated mafic protolithes, demonstrating the reliability of our solid solution model at pressures up to 6 GPa in complex systems.

  7. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  8. A high-content cellular senescence screen identifies candidate tumor suppressors, including EPHA3.

    PubMed

    Lahtela, Jenni; Corson, Laura B; Hemmes, Annabrita; Brauer, Matthew J; Koopal, Sonja; Lee, James; Hunsaker, Thomas L; Jackson, Peter K; Verschuren, Emmy W

    2013-02-15

    Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16 (INK4a) expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated. PMID:23324396

  9. A high-content cellular senescence screen identifies candidate tumor suppressors, including EPHA3

    PubMed Central

    Lahtela, Jenni; Corson, Laura B.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Brauer, Matthew J.; Koopal, Sonja; Lee, James; Hunsaker, Thomas L.; Jackson, Peter K.; Verschuren, Emmy W.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of a cellular senescence program is a common response to prolonged oncogene activation or tumor suppressor loss, providing a physiological mechanism for tumor suppression in premalignant cells. The link between senescence and tumor suppression supports the hypothesis that a loss-of-function screen measuring bona fide senescence marker activation should identify candidate tumor suppressors. Using a high-content siRNA screening assay for cell morphology and proliferation measures, we identify 12 senescence-regulating kinases and determine their senescence marker signatures, including elevation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, DNA damage and p53 or p16INK4a expression. Consistent with our hypothesis, SNP array CGH data supports loss of gene copy number of five senescence-suppressing genes across multiple tumor samples. One such candidate is the EPHA3 receptor tyrosine kinase, a gene commonly mutated in human cancer. We demonstrate that selected intracellular EPHA3 tumor-associated point mutations decrease receptor expression level and/or receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity. Our study therefore describes a new strategy to mine for novel candidate tumor suppressors and provides compelling evidence that EPHA3 mutations may promote tumorigenesis only when key senescence-inducing pathways have been inactivated. PMID:23324396

  10. Square One TV Content Analysis: Final Report (Including Season Five Show Rundowns).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Joel; And Others

    This report summarizes the mathematical and pedagogical content of the 230 programs in the SQUARE ONE TV library after five seasons of production, relating that content to the three goals of the series: (1) to promote positive attitudes toward, and enthusiasm for, mathematics; (2) to encourage the use and application of problem-solving processes;…

  11. 77 FR 19718 - Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content Services Including On-Site Workers From Aerotek, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Federal Register on February 8, 2012 (77 FR 6590). At the request of the New Jersey State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content Services Including On... at Dow Jones Corporation, Dow Jones Content Services Princeton, New Jersey. The workers are...

  12. Professional Development for Researchers in Solid Earth Science Evolved to Include Scientific and Educational Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Olds, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Integrated measures of crustal deformation provide valuable insight about tectonic and human-induced processes for scientists and educators alike. UNAVCO in conjunction with EarthScope initiated a series of short courses for researchers to learn the processing and interpretation of data from new technologies such as high precision GPS, Strainmeter, InSar and LiDAR that provide deformation information relevant to many geoscience sub-disciplines. Intensive short courses of a few days and the widespread availability of processed data through large projects such as EarthScope and GEON enable more geoscientists to incorporate these data into diverse projects. Characteristics of the UNAVCO Short Course Series, reaching over 400 participants since 2005, include having short course faculty who have pioneered development of each technology; open web-access to course materials; processing software installed on class-ready computers; no course fees; scholarships for students, post-doctoral fellows, and emerging faculty when needed; formative evaluation of the courses; community-based decisions on topics; and recruitment of participants across relevant geoscience disciplines. In 2009, when EarthScope airborne LiDAR data became available to the public through OpenTopographhy, teaching materials were provided to these researchers to incorporate the latest technologies into teaching. Multiple data sets across technologies have been developed with instructions on how to access the various data sets and incorporate them into geological problem sets. Courses in GPS, airborne LiDAR, strainmeter, and InSAR concentrate on data processing with examples of various geoscience applications. Ground-based LiDAR courses also include data acquisition. Google Earth is used to integrate various forms of data in educational applications. Various types of EarthScope data can now be used by a variety of geoscientists, and the number of scientists who have the skills and tools to use these various

  13. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  14. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  15. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  16. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  17. 77 FR 41807 - Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content Services Division, Including On-Site Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on February 8, 2012 (77 FR 6590). At the request of a... Employment and Training Administration Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content Services Division... January 26, 2011, applicable to workers of Dow Jones & Company, Inc., Dow Jones Content...

  18. Effect of content of chiral selector and pore size of core-shell type silica support on the performance of amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phases in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Silvia; Fanali, Salvatore; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2014-10-10

    In this study the separation performance of various chiral stationary phases (CSPs) made of polysaccharide-based chiral selectors coated onto superficially porous (core-shell or fused-core) silica supports were evaluated. The CSPs obtained by coating of various amounts of chiral selector (1-5%) onto supports of various pore size (100 and 300 Å) were studied. Their evaluation was pursued in both chiral nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and chiral capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Among the goals of this study was to re-examine our previous unexpected finding of better performance of superficially porous CSP under CEC conditions compared to nano-LC conditions for a new set of chiral compounds, as well as to study the effect of varying the chiral selector content and nominal pore size of supporting silica on the performance of core-shell silica-based polysaccharide-type CSPs. Based on the results of this study it can be seen that CSPs based on superficially porous silica can successfully be used for the separation of enantiomers in both nano-LC and CEC mode. Only a slight advantage of CEC over nano-LC mode was observed in this study from the viewpoint of plate numbers, especially at higher mobile phase flow rates. It must also be noted that the optimal theoretical plate height is still too high and further optimization of superficially porous CSPs is necessary for both nano-LC and CEC applications. PMID:24908153

  19. Do Evidence-Based Group Parenting Programs for High-Risk or Maltreating Parents Include Content about Psychological Maltreatment?: A Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy; Schniederman, Mel; Brassard, Marla R.; Donnelly, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is a widespread form of child maltreatment, both in high-risk and maltreating parents, yet there are no intervention programs that target it directly. In this study, the content of parenting programs for high-risk and maltreating parents was assessed to determine whether the program manuals include content on PM.…

  20. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  1. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  2. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  3. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  4. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  5. Driver Performance Measurement Research. Volume 2: Guide for Training Observer/Raters in the Driver Performance Measurements Procedure. (Including Course and Content).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, R. O.; And Others

    The Final Report, Volume 1, covers research results of the Michigan State University Driver Performance Measurement Project. This volume (Volume 2) constitutes a guide for training observers/raters in the driver performance measurement procedures developed in this research by MSU. The guide includes a training course plan and content materials…

  6. 41 CFR 51-3.5 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fees. 51-3.5 Section 51-3... FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 3-CENTRAL NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-3.5 Fees. A central nonprofit agency may charge fees to nonprofit agencies for facilitating...

  7. Calibration and Validation of WRF 3.0-CLM3.5 in Snowpack Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wen, L.; Subin, Z. M.; Miller, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 3.0. The performance of WRF3.0-CLM3.5 in simulating snowpack was extensively evaluated with in-situ observations from a mountainous site called Col de Porte, located in northern Alps region of France, and the Columbia River Basin, located in the northwestern United States. CLM3.5 was configured with a five-layer snow scheme, and includes snow compaction and liquid water transfer processes, and a sophisticated snow albedo scheme. WRF3.0-CLM3.5 was forced with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data to simulate for the 1988-1989 snow season for the Col de Porte site and the 2001-2002 season for the Columbia River Basin, with 60km-20km two-way nested domains. The initial simulations show that WRF3.0-CLM3.5 significantly improves snow simulations when compared to those produced with the WRF3.0 coupled to the Noah land surface scheme at the both study sites. However, WRF3.0-CLM3.5 still tends to underestimate the observed snowpack. Calibration with the observed data from the Col de Porte site indicates that the snow water content bias mainly results from stronger, high elevation incoming solar radiation. An adjustment for the radiation scheme in WRF3.0 was made to reduce the incoming radiation to better fit with the observations. This adjustment improves snow simulations at both Col de Porte site and the Columbia River Basin. Additional offline snow simulations with CLM3.5 driven with observed forcing data were performed at the Col de Porte site. These offline simulations are compared to the results produced with the coupled WRF3.0-CLM3.5. Through this comparison, snow-atmosphere interactions are quantitatively indentified. The improved snow simulations in WRF3.0-CLM3.5 will benefit regional hydro-climate research and

  8. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  9. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  10. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  11. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  12. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  13. Phylogenomic and structural analyses of 18 complete plastomes across nearly all families of early-diverging eudicots, including an angiosperm-wide analysis of IR gene content evolution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanxia; Moore, Michael J; Zhang, Shoujun; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E; Zhao, Tingting; Meng, Aiping; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Jianqiang; Wang, Hengchang

    2016-03-01

    The grade of early-diverging eudicots includes five major lineages: Ranunculales, Trochodendrales, Buxales, Proteales and Sabiaceae. To examine the evolution of plastome structure in early-diverging eudicots, we determined the complete plastome sequences of eight previously unsequenced early-diverging eudicot taxa, Pachysandra terminalis (Buxaceae), Meliosma aff. cuneifolia (Sabiaceae), Sabia yunnanensis (Sabiaceae), Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae), Euptelea pleiosperma (Eupteleaceae), Akebia trifoliata (Lardizabalaceae), Stephania japonica (Menispermaceae) and Papaver somniferum (Papaveraceae), and compared them to previously published plastomes of the early-diverging eudicots Buxus, Tetracentron, Trochodendron, Nelumbo, Platanus, Nandina, Megaleranthis, Ranunculus, Mahonia and Macadamia. All of the newly sequenced plastomes share the same 79 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes, except for that of Epimedium, in which infA is pseudogenized and clpP is highly divergent and possibly a pseudogene. The boundaries of the plastid Inverted Repeat (IR) were found to vary significantly across early-diverging eudicots; IRs ranged from 24.3 to 36.4kb in length and contained from 18 to 33 genes. Based on gene content, the IR was classified into six types, with shifts among types characterized by high levels of homoplasy. Reconstruction of ancestral IR gene content suggested that 18 genes were likely present in the IR region of the ancestor of eudicots. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of a 79-gene, 97-taxon data set that included all available early-diverging eudicots and representative sampling of remaining angiosperm diversity largely agreed with previous estimates of early-diverging eudicot relationships, but resolved Trochodendrales rather than Buxales as sister to Gunneridae, albeit with relatively weak bootstrap support, conflicting with what has been found for these three clades in most previous analyses. In addition, Proteales was

  14. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho. PMID:23610899

  15. The 3.5-meter telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael H.

    1994-04-01

    The 3.5-m telescope enclosure is designed to perform two functions as part of the U.S. Air Force's 3.5-m telescope system: (1) to provide weather and temperature protection when the telescope is not in use and (2) to permit open-air operation of the telescope while minimizing atmospheric disturbances in the field of view (FOV). The use of a standard rotating dome is impractical because of the large telescope and its high rotational rate and acceleration. The enclosure is a 40-ft tall cylinder with a diameter of 72 ft. This steel and aluminum structure does not rotate but collapses vertically to fully expose the telescope to the open air and to provide it with an unobscured view of the horizon at all azimuthal angles. To lessen wind disturbances in the FOV, the enclosure has a moderately sloped roof and smooth, vertical walls. To minimize thermal flow, the outer surface has a high-reflectivity, low-emissivity coating and ambient air is forced through the double-skinned walls and roof. These measures make it possible to keep the enclosure surface temperature near that of the ambient air during viewing. With these features, the enclosure adds minimal degradation to the seeing.

  16. Microbial degradation and toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Park, Joonhong

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, current knowledge on the potential fate, microbial degradation, and toxicity of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was thoroughly reviewed, focusing on the toxicological assessment of a variety of potential RDX degradation pathways in bacteria and fungi. The present review on microbial degradation pathways and toxicities of degradation intermediates suggests that, among aerobic RDX degradation pathways, the one via denitration may be preferred in a toxicological perspective, and that among anaerobic pathways, those forming 4- nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) via ring cleavage of 1-nitroso- 3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (MNX) may be toxicologically advantageous owing to its potential mineralization under partial or complete anoxic conditions. These findings provide important information on RDX-degrading microbial pathways, toxicologically most suitable to be stimulated in contaminated fields. PMID:23075780

  17. Invitations to Cells: Life's Building Blocks. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about cells which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures, extension…

  18. Invitations to Heredity: Generation to Generation. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about heredity and genetics which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  19. Invitations to Evolving. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about evolution which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  20. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  1. Invitations to Interdependence: Caught in the Web. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about ecosystems which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  2. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r(->), r(->)'). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r(->), r(->)') onto a semilocal model density matrix γ(SL)(ρ(r(->)), ∇ρ(r(->)), r(->) - r(->)'). γSL depends on the electron density ρ(r(->) at reference point r(->), and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r(->) - r(->)' dependence of γSL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γSL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms. PMID:25053297

  3. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  4. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  5. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10–15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann–Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  6. The impact of including spatially longitudinal heterogeneities of vessel oxygen content and vascular fraction in 3D tumor oxygenation models on predicted radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerlöf, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2014-04-15

    fraction and D{sub 99}, necrotic fractions ranging from 0% to 97%, and a maximal D{sub 99} increment of 57%. Only minor differences were observed between different vessel architectures, i.e., CVF vs VVF. In the smallest tumor with a low necrotic fraction, the D{sub 99} strictly decreased with increasing blood velocity. Increasing blood velocity also decreased the necrotic fraction in all tumor sizes. VF had the most profound influence on both the necrotic fraction and on D{sub 99}. Conclusions: Our present analysis of necrotic formation and the impact of tumor oxygenation on D{sub 99} demonstrated the importance of including longitudinal variations in vessel oxygen content in tumor models. For small tumors, radiosensitivity was particularly dependent on VF and slightly dependent on the blood velocity and vessel arrangement. These dependences decreased with increasing tumor size, because the necrotic fraction also increased, thereby decreasing the number of viable tumor cells that required sterilization. The authors anticipate that the present model will be useful for estimating tumor oxygenation and radiation response in future detailed studies.

  7. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  8. Theoretical studies on the formation mechanism and explosive performance of nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kiyull; Park, Young Hee; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung; Koo, Hyun-Joo

    2010-10-01

    To develop new highly energetic materials, we have considered the design of molecules with high nitrogen content. Possible candidates include 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. In this work, we studied potential synthetic routes for melamine using the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The mechanisms studied here are stepwise mechanism beginning with the dimerization of cyanamide and one-step termolecular mechanism. The same type of mechanism is also applied to nitro-substituted 1,3,5-triazines. Values for the heat of formation in the solid phase were predicted from density functional theory calculations. Densities were estimated from a regression equation obtained by molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The Cheetah program was used to study the explosive performance of these compounds. In this study, we found that the explosive properties of 2-amino-4, 6-dinitro-1, 3,5-triazine (ADNTA), and 2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (TNTA) are similar to those of RDX and HMX, respectively. PMID:20652990

  9. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  10. PETSc Users Manual Revision 3.5

    SciTech Connect

    Balay, S.; Abhyankar, S.; Adams, M.; Brown, J.; Brune, P.; Buschelman, K.; Eijkhout, V.; Gropp, W.; Kaushik, D.; Knepley, M.; McInnes, L. Curfman; Rupp, K.; Smith, B.; Zhang, H.

    2014-09-08

    This manual describes the use of PETSc for the numerical solution of partial differential equations and related problems on high-performance computers. The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is a suite of data structures and routines that provide the building blocks for the implementation of large-scale application codes on parallel (and serial) computers. PETSc uses the MPI standard for all message-passing communication. PETSc includes an expanding suite of parallel linear, nonlinear equation solvers and time integrators that may be used in application codes written in Fortran, C, C++, Python, and MATLAB (sequential). PETSc provides many of the mechanisms needed within parallel application codes, such as parallel matrix and vector assembly routines. The library is organized hierarchically, enabling users to employ the level of abstraction that is most appropriate for a particular problem. By using techniques of object-oriented programming, PETSc provides enormous flexibility for users. PETSc is a sophisticated set of software tools; as such, for some users it initially has a much steeper learning curve than a simple subroutine library. In particular, for individuals without some computer science background, experience programming in C, C++ or Fortran and experience using a debugger such as gdb or dbx, it may require a significant amount of time to take full advantage of the features that enable efficient software use. However, the power of the PETSc design and the algorithms it incorporates may make the efficient implementation of many application codes simpler than “rolling them” yourself. ;For many tasks a package such as MATLAB is often the best tool; PETSc is not intended for the classes of problems for which effective MATLAB code can be written. PETSc also has a MATLAB interface, so portions of your code can be written in MATLAB to “try out” the PETSc solvers. The resulting code will not be scalable however because

  11. Fatty acid composition, including CLA's isomers and cholesterol content of m. longissimus lumborum and m. semimebranosus of Katahdin, Suffolk, Katahdin x Suffolk, and Suffolk x Katahdin lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipids in meat products have important human health implications. Muscle tissues from Katahdin (KK), Suffolk (SS), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS), and Suffolk x Katahdin (SS) lambs were analyzed to determine the effect of breed-type on muscle fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)...

  12. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  13. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  14. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  15. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  16. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  17. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  18. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  19. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  20. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  1. 28 CFR 3.5 - Forfeiture of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forfeiture of gambling devices. 3.5 Section 3.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.5 Forfeiture of gambling devices. For purposes of seizure and forfeiture of gambling devices see section 8 of this chapter....

  2. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  3. A call to improve the validity of criterion-based content analysis (CBCA): Results from a field-based study including 60 children's statements of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Welle, Ida; Berclaz, Michel; Lacasa, Marie-Josée; Niveau, Gérard

    2016-10-01

    The growing awareness of sexually-abused children has led to a major shift: previously considered untrustworthy, children are now regarded as competent in providing medico-legal evidence. Professionals undertaking the challenging task of assessing the child's credibility need to rely upon approved evaluation methods. The Criteria-Based Content Analysis is a tool developed to assess the truthfulness of a child's verbal statement. This field-based study explores its validity and its limitations. Three independent experts rated the verbatim statements of 60 real-life alleged victims of sexual abuse. The CBCA scoring and final assessment of credibility were linked to the outcomes: confirmed or unconfirmed allegation of sexual abuse. Inter-rater reliability coefficient was 0.74. The average overall accuracy rate corresponding to confirmed and unconfirmed cases was 75%. Among the confirmed allegations, the accuracy rate reached 90%, whereas the probability of discriminating the true negative cases within the unconfirmed cases was lower than chance level. Of all the 19 criteria, items 6 "Reproduction of conversation" and 12 "Accounts of subjective mental state" were the strongest predictors of genuine accounts. A significant association between age and CBCA scores was noted, the effect of age on CBCA scores was strongest in the unconfirmed cases. Although some may argue that the validity of the CBCA is reasonably acceptable, results from this field study are less convincing. Increasing the diagnostic accuracy of the CBCA by adding new criteria, so as to raise the percentage of correct classifications in the confirmed accounts as well as in the unconfirmed accounts, would represent a major improvement. PMID:27570234

  4. Molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Sylke; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2009-11-28

    In the context of a continuing investigation of factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials to detonation initiation, we have carried out a molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane). An empirical force field that is capable of handling flexible molecules in a pliable crystal was used. Voids ranging in size from 2 to 30 adjacent vacated sites were created in model lattices of 216 or 512 molecules. Energetic and geometric ground state properties were determined. The void formation energy per molecule removed was found to decrease from 50 kcal/mol for a single vacancy to about 23+/-2 kcal/mol for voids larger than one unit cell (8 molecules). Analysis of the local binding energies in the vicinity of a void reveals not only the expected decrease for molecules directly on the void surface but also a wide spread of values in the first 5-10 A away from the surface; this includes some molecules with local binding energies significantly higher than in the defect-free lattice. Molecular conformational changes and reorientations begin to be found in the vicinities of voids larger than one unit cell. Thermal behavior investigated includes void and molecular diffusion coefficients and fluctuations in void size. PMID:19947705

  5. Identification of adducts formed by reaction of N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liang; Sun, Hsiao-Lan; Wishnok, John S.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Skipper, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic amines constitute one of the most extensively studied classes of chemical carcinogens. Although monocyclic aromatic amines are generally regarded as weak carcinogens, a recent epidemiologic study of bladder cancer found that the arylamine 3,5-dimethylaniline (3,5-DMA) may play a significant role in the etiology of this disease in man. Investigations using experimental animals also strongly suggested that DNA adducts—of indeterminate structure—formed by 3,5-DMA might account for its presumptive activity. The present study was undertaken to determine the structures of the major DNA adducts formed in vitro by the known, and possibly carcinogenic, N-hydroxylated metabolite. Calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was modified by reaction with N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline (N-AcO-3,5-DMA). After enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA to individual 2'-deoxyribonucleosides, adduct profiles were determined using HPLC/MS. 3,5-DMA formed four major DNA adducts, one to 2’-deoxyguanosine (dG), two to 2’-deoxyadenosine (dA), and one to 2’-deoxycytidine (dC). Reactions of N-AcO-3,5-DMA with dG, dA, and dC produced the same adducts as reaction with ct-DNA with very similar profiles. Adducts were isolated chromatographically and unambiguously characterized as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dG-C8−3,5-DMA), 4-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-N6-3,5-DMA), N-(deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-C8−3,5-DMA), and N-(deoxycytidin-5-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dC-C5−3,5-DMA) by high-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) and NMR spectroscopy including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional NMR. This report includes the first detailed description of a dC adduct of an aromatic amine. The present results provide chemical support for a carcinogenic mechanism of action by 3,5-DMA based on N-hydroxylation and the intermediacy of a nitrenium ion in the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:18020398

  6. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation. PMID:26669878

  7. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  8. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  9. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  11. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil properties affect the toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Lanno, Roman

    2013-11-01

    The authors investigated individual toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the enchytraeid reproduction test. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks that can be used for developing ecological soil-screening levels for ecological risk assessments of contaminated soils and to identify and characterize the predominant soil physicochemical parameters that can affect the toxicities of TNT and RDX to E. crypticus. Soils, which had a wide range of physicochemical parameters, included Teller sandy loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Richfield clay loam, Kirkland clay loam, and Webster clay loam. Analyses of quantitative relationships between the toxicological benchmarks for TNT and soil property measurements identified soil organic matter content as the dominant property mitigating TNT toxicity for juvenile production by E. crypticus in freshly amended soil. Both the clay and organic matter contents of the soil modulated reproduction toxicity of TNT that was weathered and aged in soil for 3 mo. Toxicity of RDX for E. crypticus was greater in the coarse-textured sandy loam soils compared with the fine-textured clay loam soils. The present studies revealed alterations in toxicity to E. crypticus after weathering and aging TNT in soil, and these alterations were soil- and endpoint-specific. PMID:23955807

  13. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  14. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  17. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  18. The possible relationship between expressions of TRPC3/5 channels and cognitive changes in rat model of chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuan; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-09-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) is a nonselective cation channel dominantly permeable to Ca(2+). It consists of seven homologues, TRPC1-TRPC7, based on their sequence similarity. According to some researches, the expression of TRPC3/5 in hippocampus is related to the morphological changes of hippocampus, including axon length and dendritic spine density [1]. This study observed whether the expression of TRPC3/5 was changed in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression of rat model and can the altered TRPC3/5 expression affect the morphology of neurons in hippocampus of depressive rats as well as the cognitive ability. A total of 16 rats were equally and randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the depression model group, which underwent a process of CUS for three weeks. Western blot assay was conducted to test the content of TRPC3/5 in hippocampus, and Golgi-Cox staining was used to observe the morphological changes of neurons in hippocampus. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to observe the changes of spatial cognitive ability of rats while the long-term potentiation was applied to evaluate synaptic plasticity. Results showed that there was a difference in the expression of TRPC3/5 in hippocampal neurons, as well as the neuron morphology between control group and depression model group. At the same time the cognitive ability and synaptic plasticity were significantly changed. Results suggest that there is an association between expressions of TRPC3/5 and cognitive changes in CUS rat model, and the mechanism maybe that the different expressions of TRPC3/5 can cause morphological changes of the neurons in hippocampus, which has a profound impact on the spatial cognitive ability and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25958233

  19. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  20. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  1. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  2. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  3. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  4. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  5. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  6. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  7. Experimental evaluation of a Mach 3.5 axisymmetric inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Koncsek, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results for a large scale inlet model designed for Mach 3.5 are presented and compared with analytical predictions. The inlet is an axisymmetric mixed-compression type with a lip diameter of 49.723 cm. The inlet design was developed using analytical procedures. Data are shown for freestream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The test results indicate that boundary layer bleed requirements can be accurately predicted. Good agreement was obtained with analytical predictions of the flowfield structure and boundary layer development in the supersonic diffuser yielding high performance at the design Mach number. The highest engine face total pressure recovery at Mach 3.5 was 85.8%; this was obtained at 0.05 Mach tolerance with only 2.8% total pressure distortion and 13.4% bleed. In the started Mach number range from 1.6 to 3.5, the total pressure recovery in the throat, downstream of the terminal normal shock, ranged between 91% and 95%. Total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser varied from 3% to 13%. The higher losses occuring between Mach 2.5 and 3.2 were believed to be caused by the rapid rate of increase in the area of the diffuser just downstream of the throat, possibly coupled with inadequate centerbody throat bleed. In the unstarted mode at transonic speeds, the maximum inlet flow was over 99% of the theoretical maximum capture mass-flow.

  8. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  9. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  10. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  11. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  12. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  13. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  14. 21 CFR 556.220 - 3,5-Dinitrobenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature. The 3,5-DNBA therefrom is treated a second time with activated carbon and then recrystallized three more times from specially denatured alcohol 3A. The third crystallization is washed with diethyl... be run five different times. Plot equivalent concentration in tissue versus mean absorbance at...

  15. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  16. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  17. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  18. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  19. Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Kharas, Katharine; Burns, Marilyn

    Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help 3-5 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…

  20. 39 CFR 3.5 - Delegation of authority by Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.5 Delegation of authority by Board. As authorized by 39 U.S.C. 402, these bylaws... that this delegation of authority does not conflict with powers reserved to the Governors or to...

  1. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total C), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (60% of total N) through intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (O2NNHCH2NHNO2). Likewise, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was degraded to HCHO, CH3OH, and N2O (16.5%) with a removal rate (0.39 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) similar to that of RDX (0.41 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) (biomass, 0.91 g [dry weight] of cells · liter−1). These findings suggested the possible involvement of a common initial reaction, possibly denitration, followed by ring cleavage and decomposition in water. The trace amounts of MNX detected during RDX degradation and the trace amounts of hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine detected during MNX degradation suggested that another minor degradation pathway was also present that reduced —NO2 groups to the corresponding —NO groups. PMID:12406722

  2. Chemiluminescence detection of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine explosives.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, David N; Barnett, Neil W; Agg, Kent M; Graham, Duncan; Lenehan, Claire E; Prior, Chad; Lim, Kieran F; Francis, Paul S

    2012-01-15

    A simple controlled chemical reduction of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine compounds with zinc amalgam generates species that elicit intense chemiluminescence with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III), which extends this widely utilised chemiluminescence reagent to a new class of analyte and presents a sound chemical basis for a screening test for nitramine high explosives. Examination of the chemiluminescence profiles under stopped-flow conditions revealed contributions from multiple transient species formed in the initial reduction step. PMID:22265569

  3. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.; Tyson, C.A.; Johnson, J.S.

    1982-10-11

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 and 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. The only effects that were considered treatment-related were a squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of high-dose rats and the increased incidence of dried red material on the faces of these rats during exposures compared with other groups.

  4. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Galbičková, Blanka; Ševčíková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  5. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Perkins, Edward J; Meyer, Sharon A

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ~50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs=47 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs=24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1(+)) or erythroid (CD71(+)) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. PMID:23219714

  6. Cusp-related Pc3-5 Wave Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.; Belakhovsky, V.; Lessard, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Pc3-5 pulsations were found to be an ubiquitous element of dayside ULF wave activity at the cusp region. We examine observations of Pc3-5 wave activity by search coil and flux-gate magnetometers at three locations on Svalbard, covering geomagnetic latitudes 74o-76o. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal from the SuperDARN Finland radar covering the Svalbard archipelago. The ULF meridional spatial structure is examined using the amplitude-phase gradient technique. This analysis shows no specific mode conversion pattern near the cusp region. The amplitude gradient mainly has the same direction at all frequencies, and only during periods when the cusp is shifted to very high latitudes, the gradient may change sign. The phase delay is chaotic and does not show any consistent pattern. This behavior corresponds to the occurrence of a localized peak in the latitudinal distribution of Pc3-5 power, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but about several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. We suppose that compressional Pc3 fluctuations leaking from the magnetosheath into the entry layer of the magnetosphere can modulate the precipitating electron fluxes, which produce the ground response.

  7. Lateral Transfer of Genes for Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Degradation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Andeer, Peter F.; Stahl, David A.; Bruce, Neil C.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  8. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  9. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  10. Oligoribonucleotides containing 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages exhibit binding selectivity for 3',5'-RNA over 3',5'-ssDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Giannaris, P A; Damha, M J

    1993-01-01

    Oligoribonucleotides containing 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages have been synthesized on a solid support by the 'silyl-phosphoramidite' method. The stability of complexes formed between these oligonucleotides and complementary 3',5'-RNA strands have been studied using oligoadenylates and a variety of oligonucleotides of mixed base sequences including phosphorothioate backbones. In many cases, particularly for 2',5'-linked adenylates, the UV melting profiles are quite sharp and exhibit large hyperchromic changes. Substituting a few 3',5'-linkages with the 2',5'-linkage within an oligomer lowers the Tm of the complex and the degree of destabilization depends on the neighboring residues and neighboring linkages. The 2',5'-linked oligoribonucleotides prepared in this study exhibited remarkable selectivity for complementary single stranded RNA over DNA. For example, in 0.01 M phosphate buffer--0.10 M NaCl (pH 7.0), no association was observed between 2',5'-r(CCC UCU CCC UUC U) and its Watson-Crick DNA complement 3',5'-d(AGAAGGGAGAGGG). However, 2',5'-r(CCC UCU CCC UUC U) with its RNA complement 3',5'-r(AGAAGGGAGAGGG) forms a duplex which melts at 40 degrees C. The decamer 2',5'-r(Ap)9A forms a complex with both poly dT and poly rU but the complex [2',5'-r(Ap)9A]:[poly dT] is unstable (Tm, -1 degree C) and is seen only at high salt concentrations. In view of their unnatural character and remarkable selectivity for single stranded RNA, 2',5'-oligo-RNAs and their derivatives may find use as selective inhibitors of viral mRNA translation, and as affinity ligands for the purification of cellular RNA. Images PMID:7694233

  11. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  12. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  13. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions. PMID:25911044

  14. Fluorescent and nonfluorescent crystals of N-(3,5-dihalogenosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimoto, Masanobu; Yoshida, Narihiro; Sugimoto, Atsuki; Teramoto, Naozumi; Nakajima, Kiyohiko

    2016-02-01

    Crystals of N-(3,5-diXsalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (X = fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo) were prepared, and their structural and luminescence properties in the solid state were investigated. Only fluorescent orange crystals were obtained for N-(3,5-difluorosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (1). Both fluorescent orange crystals (2a) and nonfluorescent red-orange crystals (2b) were obtained for N-(3,5-dichlorosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline. Slightly fluorescent orange crystals were obtained for N-(3,5-dibromosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (3) and N-(3,5-diiodosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (4). Fluorescence spectra of 1, 2a, 3, and 4 in the solid state show a fluorescence band at around 600 nm by excitation at 480 nm. The fluorescence intensities were in the order 1 > 2a > 3 > 4. X-ray crystal-structure analyses of 1, 2a, and 2b were obtained. The N-salicylideneaniline molecules in all of the crystals have planar structures. The molecules in both 1 and 2b take the enol form, while the molecules in 2a take the cis-keto form. The crystals 2a include water of crystallization, which is hydrogen bonded to the adjacent N-salicylideneaniline molecules. Molecules in fluorescent 2a are arranged in stacks along the a-axis to form a columnar structure in the crystals. In contrast, molecules in nonfluorescent 2b are strongly π-π stacked to form dimers in crystals. The orange crystals 2a were transformed to the red-orange crystals 2b by removal of water of crystallization upon heating at 70 °C.

  15. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots. PMID:24281674

  16. Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34)

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2004-01-01

    A pink-pigmented symbiotic bacterium was isolated from hybrid poplar tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34). The bacterium was identified by 16S and 16S-23S intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA analysis as a Methylobacterium sp. (strain BJ001). The isolated bacterium was able to use methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy, which is a specific attribute of the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterium in pure culture was shown to degrade the toxic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX). [U-ring-14C]TNT (25 mg liter−1) was fully transformed in less than 10 days. Metabolites included the reduction derivatives amino-dinitrotoluenes and diamino-nitrotoluenes. No significant release of 14CO2 was recorded from [14C]TNT. In addition, the isolated methylotroph was shown to transform [U-14C]RDX (20 mg liter−1) and [U-14C]HMX (2.5 mg liter−1) in less than 40 days. After 55 days of incubation, 58.0% of initial [14C]RDX and 61.4% of initial [14C]HMX were mineralized into 14CO2. The radioactivity remaining in solution accounted for 12.8 and 12.7% of initial [14C]RDX and [14C]HMX, respectively. Metabolites detected from RDX transformation included a mononitroso RDX derivative and a polar compound tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine. Since members of the genus Methylobacterium are distributed in a wide diversity of natural environments and are very often associated with plants, Methylobacterium sp. strain BJ001 may be involved in natural attenuation or in situ biodegradation (including phytoremediation) of explosive-contaminated sites. PMID:14711682

  17. Multi temporal regression method for mid infrared [3-5microm] emissivity outdoor.

    PubMed

    Nerry, Françoise; Malaplate, Alain; Stoll, Marc

    2004-12-27

    An experimental study to address issues encountered in the determination of surface bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity of materials [3-5microm] region has been conducted in outdoors conditions. The measurement protocol included radiometric infrared camera acquisitions in both [3-5microm] (band-2) and [8-14microm] (band-3). The band-2 bi-directional reflectivity is obtained from a sequence of sunlit and shade measurements. Best results are found with measurements relative to a diffuse aluminum reflector. Direct inversion of band-2 radiometric signal is unstable. A multitemporal method is introduced and the slope of the linear regression is the searched emisssivity. A detailed analysis is conducted to assess the impact of different sources of systematic errors. The proposed method is found to have a good potential with an estimated measurement error in the range of 2%. PMID:19488308

  18. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  19. Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteironeto, Othon Derego

    1988-11-01

    Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors has been studied in the temperature range of 300 to 600 C. Two members of this class of materials, namely InP and GaAs, were the object of the experimental work carried out here. The main analytical tools used were transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM was employed to access microstructural changes and SIMS to access the composition redistribution that takes place as a consequence of the oxidation reaction. Below 400 C oxidation of both materials led to the formation of amorphous scales, which consisted of a mixture of gallium and arsenic oxides in the case of GaAs, and indium phosphate and oxide in the case of InP. The oxidation kinetics of InP was found to be slower than that of GaAs. In the high temperature regime, i.e., above 400 C, the oxidation of both materials resulted in crystalline products. Precipitation of the group 5 element at the scale/semiconductor interface took place during oxidation. At the GaAs/Ga2O3interface, As precipitates were formed with a truncated square pyramid shape bound by (111) sub GaAs planes. The precipitates found at the InPO4/InP interface were either a phosphorus rich phase or red phosphorus. Strong vaporization under the electron beam prohibited a more accurate determination. The morphology of those precipitates were very similar to the As ones in GaAs.

  20. Towards engineering degradation of the explosive pollutant hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Astrid; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Strand, Stuart E; Bruce, Neil C

    2013-03-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a serious environmental pollutant on military land. This compound is the most widely used explosive and pollution has arisen primarily as the result of military training, along with munition manufacturing and disassembly processes. This toxic explosive is recalcitrant to degradation in the environment and leaches rapidly into groundwater, where accumulation in aquifers is threatening drinking water supplies (Clausen, et al., 2004). While plants have only limited degradative activity towards RDX, microorganisms, including Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y, have been isolated from contaminated land. Despite the presence of microbial RDX-metabolising activity in contaminated soils, the persistence of RDX in leachate from contaminated soil indicates that this activity or biomass is insufficient, limiting its use to remediate polluted soils. Bacterial activity in the rhizosphere is of magnitudes greater than in the surrounding soil, and the roots of grass species on training ranges in the United States are known to penetrate deeply into the soil, producing a compact root system and providing an ideal environment to support the capture of RDX by microorganisms in the rhizosphere. Here, we have investigated the ability of the root-colonising bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express XplA, to degrade RDX in the rhizosphere. PMID:23289483

  1. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes. PMID:21601233

  2. The effect of polystyrene beads on cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate concentration in leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Manganiello, V; Evans, W H; Stossel, T P; Mason, R J; Vaughan, M

    1971-12-01

    After incubation with polystyrene latex beads for 5 min. the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) content of human peripheral blood leukocyte suspensions was increased severalfold. Preparations enriched in mononuclear cells and containing only 0-20% polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and no visible platelets exhibited a quantitatively similar response. Purified fractions of cells containing 85-90% PMN responded to polystyrene beads with a much smaller increase in cyclic AMP content. Phagocytosis of paraffin oil emulsion in the unfractionated mixed human leukocyte preparation was associated with little or no change in cyclic AMP levels. There was no change in cyclic AMP content of rabbit alveolar macrophages or guinea pig PMN during phagocytosis of polystyrene beads. All of these observations are consistent with the view that particle uptake per se does not increase cyclic AMP levels in phagocytic cells. It seems probable that the increase in cyclic AMP concentration that results when unfractionated human blood leukocytes are incubated with polystyrene beads occurs in cells other than PMN. PMID:4331596

  3. The role of biotransformation and oxidative stress in 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) induced nephrotoxicity in isolated renal cortical cells from male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher R; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O

    2016-02-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (∼ 4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  4. Heteroadamantanes and their derivatives. 4. Synthesis of 1,3,5-triazaadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A.I.; Kosmakov, V.A.; Unkovskii, B.V.

    1985-12-01

    Reduction of 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of Raney nickel gave 7-hydroxyamino- and 7-amino-1,3,5-triazaadamantane, from which 7-chloro-, 7-bromo-, and 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantanes were synthesized by substitutive deamination. Desulfurization of 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantane in the presence of Raney nickel gave 1,3,5-triazaadamantane.

  5. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report 3/5

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  6. Career Education in Business Education: 3. 5trategies for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ristau, Robert A.

    This monograph covers strategies, methods, and practices best suited for infusing career education into the teaching of business. Chapter 1 considers the relationship between business education and career education, including the career education movement, career development tasks, responses of business education, and goals and objectives of…

  7. Math for All Participant Book (3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Babette; Dubitsky, Barbara; Cohen, Marvin; Marschke-Tobier, Karen; Melnick, Hal; Metnetsky, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Developed by the Education Development Center and Bank Street College of Education, this professional development program shows general and special education teachers how to collaborate to provide a high-quality, standards-based mathematics education to all students, including those with disabilities. The Math for All learning experiences detailed…

  8. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A; Freitag, M; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, H; Xiang, R; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D,

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  9. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  10. Identification and characterisation of CYP75A31, a new flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, isolated from Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the regulation of the flavonoid pathway is important for maximising the nutritional value of crop plants and possibly enhancing their resistance towards pathogens. The flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) enzyme functions at an important branch point between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis, as is evident from studies in petunia (Petunia hybrida), and potato (Solanum tuberosum). The present work involves the identification and characterisation of a F3'5'H gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the examination of its putative role in flavonoid metabolism. Results The cloned and sequenced tomato F3'5'H gene was named CYP75A31. The gene was inserted into the pYeDP60 expression vector and the corresponding protein produced in yeast for functional characterisation. Several putative substrates for F3'5'H were tested in vitro using enzyme assays on microsome preparations. The results showed that two hydroxylation steps occurred. Expression of the CYP75A31 gene was also tested in vivo, in various parts of the vegetative tomato plant, along with other key genes of the flavonoid pathway using real-time PCR. A clear response to nitrogen depletion was shown for CYP75A31 and all other genes tested. The content of rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside was found to increase as a response to nitrogen depletion in most parts of the plant, however the growth conditions used in this study did not lead to accumulation of anthocyanins. Conclusions CYP75A31 (NCBI accession number GQ904194), encodes a flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, which accepts flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols as substrates. The expression of the CYP75A31 gene was found to increase in response to nitrogen deprivation, in accordance with other genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, as expected for a gene involved in flavonoid metabolism. PMID:20128892

  11. [Effect of a complex treatment, including glutargin and erbisol on the blood plasma content of protein P53, apoptotic markers of type II, activity of caspases and the level of sCD 117 in patients with autonomic-vascular dystonia].

    PubMed

    Krychun, I I

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that the blood content of protein P53 diminishes by 27%, the blood level of sTRAIL increases by 22%, sCD 117 increases by 44% in patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypertonic type that is accompanied by an increase of the activity of caspases-1 however the activity of caspases-3 and - 8 as well as the blood content of TNF-alpha do not change. Multimodality therapy using glutargin does not influence on the level of the blood plasma TNF-alpha and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8, normalizes the blood content of sTRAIL and sCD 117, however does not change the plasma concentration of protein P53 which remains lower by 35% than the control indices. In patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypotonic type the concentration of blood plasma protein P53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8 correspond to the control values against a background of an almost twofold increase of the plasma sCD 117 level. The use of erbisol in a complex of therapeutic agents does not change the activity of caspases-l,-3,-8 and does not influence on the blood content of protein p53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and diminishes the plasma level of sCD 117 up to control values. A considerable elevation of the blood content of type II apoptotic factors is characteristic of the mixed type of vegeto-vascular dystonia: the level of protein p53 increases 2,4 times, TNF-alpha - 1,9 times, sTRAIL - 2,3 times that is accompanied by an increased activity of caspase-1 - 4,1 times, caspase-3 - 3,3 times, caspase-8 - 3,8 times and an increase of the plasma concentration of sCD 117 - 3,5 times. The use of erbisol and glutargin in multimodality therapy normalizes the plasma concentration of TNF-alpha and diminishes the blood content of protein P53 by 33% and sTRAIL - by 42% which, nevertheless remains higher than the control value by 58% and 36% respectively. The combined effects of glutargin and erbisol in patients of this group are characterized by a

  12. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  13. Binding and degradation of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine by rat intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, J J; de Luze, A; Nguyen, T T

    1993-06-01

    Intestinal bacteria hydrolyze conjugates of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) secreted in bile, but it is not clear whether they have any other role in metabolism, storage, transport, or action of thyroid hormone in the intestines. We have examined aspects of T3 and T4 binding and degradation processes in fresh feces and cecum contents, obtained from normal control rats and from rats partially decontaminated by treatment with oral antibiotics for 2-3 wk. Samples were homogenized in phosphate buffer, fractionated, and subjected to various test conditions and incubated at 37 degrees C with 125I-labeled T3 (T3*) or T4 (T4*) for 2 or 24 h. Supernatants of high-speed centrifuged incubates were chromatographed to test for degradation products, and percentage binding was measured in the pellets. Substantial binding of T3* and T4* was found in all control rat feces and cecum content samples by 2 h, but binding was absent or significantly reduced in partially decontaminated rat samples. Bacterial binding of T3* and T4* were further shown to be competitive with graded doses of bovine serum albumin. Considerable degradation of T3* and T4* to labeled iodide (I*) only was also observed in feces and cecum content samples and was much greater in control rat than in corresponding partially decontaminated rat samples. Light had no effects in our system and heat reduced I* production. Propylthiouracil and sodium ipodate had little effect or equivocal effects, but dithiothreitol substantially inhibited I* production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8333521

  14. Analysis application in biological field and prediction of human diseases with dual luminescence molecular of 3.5-generations polyamidoamine dendrimers-porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Shao-Qin; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Zheng, Mei-Xia; Zhang, Bin

    2010-09-01

    A new phosphorescence-labelling reagent (3.5-G-D-P labelling reagent) was developed, based on 3.5-generation polyamidoamine dendrimers (3.5-G-D) as internal acceptor to capture porphyrin (P) molecular. In the disturber of heavy atom, 3.5-G-D-P could emit room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of 3.5-G-D and P on the surface of polyamide membrane (PAM), respectively. Products (3.5-G-D-P-WGA) of 3.5-G-D-P labelling triticum vulgaris lectin (WGA) could emit strong and stable RTP signal on the surface of PAM, and it also could take specific affinity adsorption reaction (AA) with alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The product of the AA reaction (3.5-G-D-P-WGA-ALP) could keep the RTP characteristics of 3.5-G-D-P very well, and the Δ Ip of the system was linear correlation to the content of ALP. The Δ Ip of the system with Tween-80 was once for P and twice for 3.5-G-D more than that without Tween-80. Thus, the affinity adsorption solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) for the determination of trace ALP has been established using Tween-80-3.5-G-D-P to label WGA. The detection limit (LD) of this method was 0.12 fg spot -1 for 3.5-G-D and 0.18 fg spot -1 for P with direct method, 0.14 fg spot -1 for 3.5-G-D and 0.17 fg spot -1 for P with sandwich method, respectively, and the sensitivity was obviously high. This research showed that either using 3.5-G-D or P excitation/emission wavelength to determine the content of ALP in human serum, the results were coincided with ELISA, and the flexibility of AA-SS-RTP was obviously improved and the applicability was wider. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism of determining ALP by direct method AA-SS-RTP was discussed.

  15. Geochemical and petrological study of Barberton Greenstone Belt cherts (3.2-3.5 Ga), South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledevin, M.; Arndt, N.; Simionovici, A.

    2011-12-01

    The massive deposition of cherts during Archean time provides important information about conditions on the sea floor during the early history of the Earth. We studied samples from four sites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (3.2-3.5 Ga), South Africa, including fresh ICDP core samples, to understand their formation. We identified three different origins for cherts: direct precipitation from seawater, precipitation in fractures from silica-rich fluids, and replacement of preexisting rocks (silicification) at or near the surface. To better constrain the various formation processes of cherts, we use a petrological, rheological and geochemical approach: both macro- and micro- structural observations are used to understand early physical behavior of chert, silica precipitation, and silicification processes. Rheological information is obtained by careful field observations: we observe a complex behavior for cherts, with ductile to brittle deformation structures, sometimes both in the same layer, extremely fast diagenetic induration processes, and evidence of an early colloidal silica phase. High-resolution analyses (RAMAN, synchrotron and lab-based X-Ray microfluorescence, cathodoluminescence) are used to link micro-scale element distribution with microstructures, and to understand micro-scale formation processes. These approaches will be complemented by stable isotope (Si and O) and fluid inclusions analyses. Coupling petrological informations and geochemical analyses allow us to define reliable criteria to differentiate the three origins of cherts. When petrological observations show a secondary silicification of previously deposited sediments (e.g. laminations, ripple marks, silicified ashes), samples have trace element patterns with high HREE contents, and strong negative Sr and Li anomalies. In comparison, when cherts seem to be chemically precipitated on the sea floor, patterns show lower HREE and higher LILE contents, with a strong positive Ba anomaly and

  16. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Montgomery, P.

    2012-05-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 μm in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 × 1012 to 3.5 × 1015 cm-2. The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C(α, α)C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H(α, H)α), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of ˜5 × 1013 He+ cm-2. The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of ˜5 × 1014 He+ cm-2 approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He+ beam is made.

  17. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  18. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  19. The Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model LIM3.5: global and regional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, C.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Madec, G.; Fichefet, T.; Flavoni, S.; Barthélemy, A.; Benshila, R.; Chanut, J.; Levy, C.; Masson, S.; Vivier, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the new 3.5 version of the Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model (LIM) integrated in NEMO 3.6. The main novelty is the improvement of model robustness and versatility for a wide range of applications, from global to regional scales. Several modifications to the code were required. First, the time stepping scheme of the model was changed from parallel to sequential (ice dynamics first, then thermodynamics). Such a scheme enables to diagnose the different physical processes responsible for exchanges through the air-ice-ocean interfaces, as well as the online inspection of mass, heat and salt conservation properties of the code. In the course of these developments, several minor conservation leaks were found and fixed, so that LIM3.5 is exactly conservative. Second, lateral boundary conditions for regional ice-covered configurations have been implemented. To illustrate the new capabilities, two simulations are performed. One is a global simulation at a nominal 2° resolution forced by atmospheric climatologies and is found reasonably realistic although no specific tuning was done. The other is a regional simulation at 2 km resolution around the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, with prescribed conditions at the four boundaries including tides. The simulation is able to resolve small-scale features and transient events such as the opening and closing of coastal polynyas. The ice mass budgets for both simulations are illustrated and mostly differ by the strength of ice formation in open water. LIM3.5 now forms a solid base for future scientific studies and model developments.

  20. Performance of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope. II - Pointing and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Russell; Hull, Charles; Siegmund, Walter

    1990-07-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope, loated in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico at an elevation of 2.8 km, is awaiting the installation of the primary mirror. The design of this telescope includes a number of innovative features including a lightweight honeycomb borosilicate mirror, friction drives and encoding, and complete computer control to facilitate remote use. A 0.3-m telescope was attached to the telescope mount to monitor tracking and pointing performance. Currently, the telescope tracks open-loop to 0.3 arcsec rms over 10 min and points to 5 arcsec rms. Improvements to the servosystem and encoder mounting should make it possible to meet the goals of tracking to 0.2 arcsec rms and pointing to 1 arcsec rms.

  1. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for identifying the designated agency component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.5 Procedures for identifying...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  7. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  8. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  10. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  11. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  12. Proceedings of the 1998 Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Cocoa Beach, Florida; November 3-5, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.

    1998-12-17

    This proceedings is the compilation of all papers presented at the 11th PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Doubletree Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida, on November 3-5, 1998. The workshop was hosted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. This year's workshop included presentations from 29 speakers and had 110 attendees.

  13. Inositol lipids: from an archaeal origin to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate faults in human disease.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein, I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from archaeons - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway (TORC1); and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways. PMID:23902363

  14. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX. PMID:7811097

  15. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  16. Role of Nitrogen Limitation in Transformation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Gordonia sp. Strain KTR9

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dawn E.; Jung, Carina M.; Eberly, Jed O.; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  17. Role of nitrogen limitation in transformation of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) by Gordonia sp. strain KTR9.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Jung, Carina M; Eberly, Jed O; Mohn, William W; Eltis, Lindsay D; Crocker, Fiona H

    2013-03-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  18. Lanthanum inhibition of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced enterosorption and its effects on intestinal mucosa cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels.

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, G J; Amer, M S

    1975-01-01

    Several trivalent cations, including lanthanum (La3+), inhibited the secretion (enterosorption) induced by the enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli in the rabbit ileum in vivo. High concentrations (greater than 10 mM) of La3+ were required to inhibit cholera enterotoxin (CE)-induced enterosorption, probably because of the adsorption of the La3+ often potentiated the CE-induced enterosorption. If luminal La3+ exposure followed CE exposure, some recovery of the enterosorptive response was observed. The longer the lag between the CE exposure and the La3+ exposure, the greater was the recovery of the enterosorptive response. Lanthanum inhibited HCO3- secretion more than Cl- secretion. By altering the luminal fluid pH at the time of La3+ exposure, it was found that La3+ was adsorbed to negatively charged luminal sites, having an apparent pK between 2.5 and 3.0. Although La3+ antagonized the enterosorptive response to CE, it mimicked rather than antagonized the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate elevation and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate depression induced by the toxin. It is therefore concluded that the La3+ inhibition of the CE-induced enterosorption must have occurred at a site following the generation of the cyclic nucleotides. Cholera enterotoxin caused complex time-dependent changes in the mucosal cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels, as revealed by studying tissue cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate ratios. The possible roles these two cyclic nucleotides may play in the pathogenesis of the cholera diarrhea are discussed. PMID:164410

  19. Equations of state of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, Jared C.; Stoltz, Chad A.; Mason, Brian P.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Ball, Jason R.; Peiris, Suhithi M.

    2011-10-01

    2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) is an energetic ingredient that has an impact sensitivity close to that of TATB, yet a calculated energy content close to HMX. Reported tests of formulated LLM-105 reveal that it is a good candidate for a new insensitive high-performance explosive. As use of LLM-105 increases, thermodynamic parameters and phase stability will need to be determined for accurate modeling. In order to accomplish this goal, isothermal equations of state of LLM-105 at static high-pressure and temperature were investigated using synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cells. Data at ambient temperature, 100 °C (373 K), and 180 °C (453 K) were used to obtain isothermal equations of state, and data at ambient pressure were used to obtain the volume thermal expansion coefficient. At ambient temperature, 100 °C (373 K), and 180 °C (453 K) no phase change was evident up to the highest measured pressure; and at ambient pressure, LLM-105 was stable up to 240 °C (513 K) and thermally decomposed by 260 °C (533 K).

  20. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoic acid-capped upconverting nanocrystals for the selective detection of melamine.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Chanchal; Adusumalli, Venkata N K B; Mahalingam, Venkataramanan

    2014-05-28

    In this Research Article, we report for the first time the use of upconverting nanoparticles to detect melamine up to nanomolar concentration. Detection of melamine is important as it is one of the adulterant in protein rich food products due to its high nitrogen content. In this work, we have shown how the electron deficient 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNB)-coated Er/Yb-NaYF4 nanocrystals can specifically bind to electron rich melamine and alter the upconverting property of the nanocrystals. This selective binding led to the quenching of the upconversion emission from the nanocrystals. The high selectivity is verified by the addition of various analytes similar in structure with that of melamine. In addition, the selective quenching of the upconversion emission is reversible with the addition of dilute acid. This process has been repeated for more than five cycles with only a slight decrease in the sensing ability. The study was also extended to real milk samples, where the milk adulterated with melamine quenches the emission intensity of the DNB coated NaYF4:Er/Yb nanocrystals, whereas hardly any change is noted for the unadulterated milk sample. The high robustness and the sharp emission peaks make Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals a potential melamine sensing material over other organic fluorophores and nanocrystals possessing broad emissions. PMID:24742261

  1. "Prime Online": Developing Grades 3-5 Teachers' Content Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics in an Online Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Stephen J.; Prosser, Sherri K.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Algina, James; Bae, Jungah

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify components of an asynchronous online teacher professional development program, "Prime Online," that potentially affected participants' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Twenty-three third- through fifth-grade general education and special education teachers completed a yearlong online teacher…

  2. [Effect of zinc deficiency on 3',5'-cyclic-AMP content and parameters of energy metabolism in the rat].

    PubMed

    Roth, H P; Kirchgessner, M

    1983-06-01

    Loss of appetite, strongly reduced feed intake, and stop in weight gain are characteristic signs of alimentary zinc deficiency. The present paper investigates some parameters of the energy metabolism of Zn-deficient rats in order to obtain information on possible disturbances. The blood of Zn-deficient rats showed an increased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) in comparison to ad-libitum- and pair-fed control animals. Therefore the concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was reduced and the concentration of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) increased in deficient animals. As a consequence, the ratio ATP/ADP was strongly reduced in Zn-deficient rats compared with both control groups. The concentration of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was reduced in the blood of Zn-deficient rats. The levels of c-AMP in serum and urine were markedly increased in Zn-deficient rats in comparison with both control groups. Key enzymes of energetic utilization of carbohydrates such as fructose-1.6-biphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were reduced in their activities in livers and kidneys of Zn-deficient animals. The results show that alimentary Zn deficiency impairs some parameters of the energy metabolism. The problems of reduced feed intake in Zn deficiency still remain unsolved. PMID:6308919

  3. Modeling tree scattering in rural residential areas at 3.5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chee, Kin Lien; Catalán, Ferran; Torrico, Saúl A.; Kürner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    paper addresses the modeling of tree scattering in rural residential areas at 3.5 GHz using a 3-D ray-optical approach. In this approach, a 3-D digital map of rural residential areas is constructed, where the terrain's signature, buildings, as well as vegetation are included. In particular, a tree is modeled as a cylindrical volume with radii varying from 2 to 5 m. Trees within a tree group are assumed to be uniformly distributed with a separation distance varying from 10 to 20 m. The scattered fields within a tree volume are determined by using the Foldy-Lax multiple scattering theory. Measurement data derived from cross-season measurement campaigns in a vegetated rural area in Germany are used to verify the simulation results.

  4. Expression of Porcine Fusion Protein IRF7/3(5D) Efficiently Controls Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Díaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Hickman, Danielle; Long, Charles R.; Zhu, James; Rodríguez, Luis L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type I, II, or III interferons (IFNs) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector expressing IFNs can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. In this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poIRF7/3(5D), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of IFN activity against FMD virus (FMDV). We showed that poIRF7/3(5D) is a potent inducer of type I IFNs, including alpha IFN (IFN-α), IFN-β, and IFN-ω but not type III IFN (interleukin-28B), without inducing cytotoxicity. Expression of poIRF7/3(5D) significantly and steadily reduced FMDV titers by up to 6 log10 units in swine and bovine cell lines. Treatment with an IFN receptor inhibitor (B18R) combined with an anti-IFN-α antibody neutralized the antiviral activity in the supernatants of cells transduced with an Ad5 vector expressing poIRF7/3(5D) [Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D)]. However, several transcripts with known antiviral function, including type I IFNs, were still highly upregulated (range of increase, 8-fold to over 500-fold) by poIRF7/3(5D) in the presence of B18R. Furthermore, the sera of mice treated with Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) showed antiviral activity that was associated with the induction of high levels of IFN-α and resulted in complete protection against FMDV challenge at 6, 24, or 48 h posttreatment. This study highlights for the first time the antiviral potential of Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) in vitro and in vivo against FMDV. IMPORTANCE FMD remains one of the most devastating diseases that affect livestock worldwide. Effective vaccine formulations are available but are serotype specific and require approximately 7 days before they are able to elicit protective immunity. We have shown that vector-delivered IFN is an option to protect animals against many FMDV serotypes as soon as 24 h

  5. Content-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and Motivation in the Content-Based…

  6. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  7. Catalytic solid substrate-room-temperature phosphorimetry detection for trace cadmium with Cd2+ -3.5-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer-Tween-80 complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hong-Xin; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Shao-Qin; Lin, Xuan; Cai, Wen-Lian; Lin, Chang-Qing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    3.5-Generation polyamidoamine dendrimers (3.5-G-D) emitted strong and stable room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on filter paper when Pb2+ was used as a heavy atom perturber. The RTP signal of 3.5-G-D was sharply enhanced upon the formation of 3.5-G-D-Tween-80 micelle compound. The complex Cd2+ -3.5-G-D-Tween-80, generated in the coordination reaction between Cd2+ and the tertiary amidocyanogen on the outer layer of 3.5-G-D in 3.5-G-D-Tween-80 micelle compound, could catalyze KBrO3 to oxidize 3.5-G-D in 3.5-G-D-Tween-80, which caused the sharp quenching of the RTP signal of the system. The phosphorescence intensity change (ΔI(p) ) of the system had a linear relationship with the content of Cd2+. Thus a new catalytic solid substrate-room-temperature phosphorimetry (SS-RTP) for the determination of trace cadmium has been established. This highly selective and sensitive method has been applied to determine trace cadmium in biological samples with a limit of detection (LD) of 1.2 ag per spot (when the sample volume was 0.4 μL per spot, the corresponding concentration was 3.0 × 10(-15)  g mL(-1) ), the results agreeing with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mechanism of catalytic SS-RTP for the determination of trace cadmium was also discussed. PMID:22021248

  8. The State of the Earth's Atmosphere 3.5 Ga Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, B.; Avice, G.; Kuga, M.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere evolved through time upon escape to space and exchange of volatile elements with the Earth's solid reservoirs (mantle, crust). We are currently investigating the composition of the ancient atmosphere by analyzing gases trapped in Archean chemical sedimentary rocks, including fluid inclusions in Archean hydrothermal quartz. The rationale of the study is that trapped noble gases, as well as nitrogen for some of the samples, represent ancient atmospheric gases that were dissolved in surface fluids (seawater, freshwater), so that their isotope compositions and elemental ratios reflect those of the Archean atmosphere at the time of trapping. Particular care was given to select samples for which fluids did not exchange significantly since the epoch of trapping. Data show that: (i) the felsic continental crust grew up mostly during the time interval 3.5-2.7 Ga ago [1]; (ii) the atmospheric nitrogen isotope composition and density were comparable to the modern one, implying the existence of a significant terrestrial magnetic field at that time [2]; (iii) Archean neon and krypton isotopic ratios were similar to their modern ones; but (iv) the xenon isotopic composition was isotopically fractionated and intermediate between those of potential cosmochemical (chondritic, solar) end-members and of the present-day atmosphere[3,4]. These differences are attributed to different ionization efficiencies for atmospheric species, and subsequent escape to space for Xe [3-5]. Together with the constant Ne, Kr and N isotope compositions, they shed strong constraints on the nature of the solar UV flux 1Ga after Earth's formation. [1] Pujol. M. et al. (2013), Nature 498, 87-90. [2] Marty B. et al. (2013), Science 342, 101-104. [3] Pujol M. et al. (2011), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 308, 298-306. [4] Avice G. & Marty B. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, In press. [5] Hébrard E. & Marty B. (2014), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 385, 40-48.

  9. Biodegradation of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Ring Cleavage Product 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 μmol kg−1), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 μmol kg−1), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 μmol kg−1), and traces of NDAB (3.8 μmol kg−1). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 ± 22 μmol kg−1) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  10. Biodegradation of the hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine ring cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J; Bottaro, Jeffrey C; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 micromol kg(-1)), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 micromol kg(-1)), and traces of NDAB (3.8 micromol kg(-1)). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 +/- 22 micromol kg(-1)) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  11. Colorado Model Content Standards: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

  12. Down-Regulation of Porcine Heart Diaphorase Reactivity by Trimanganese Hexakis(3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate), Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)6, and Down-Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase Reactivity by Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) and Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4).

    PubMed

    Booth, B L; Pitters, E; Mayer, B; Sorenson, J R

    1999-01-01

    Purposes of this work were to examine the plausible down-regulation of porcine heart diaphorase (PHD) enzyme reactivity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme reactivity by trimanganese hexakis(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate), [Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)] as well as dicopper tetrakis(3,5- diisopropylsalicylate, [Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4)] as a mechanistic accounting for their pharmacological activities.Porcine heart disease was found to oxidize 114 muM reduced nicotinamide-adenine- dinucleotide-'(3)-phosphate (NADPH) with a corresponding reduction of an equivalent concentration of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP). As reported for Cu(II)(2) (3,5-DIPS)(4), addition of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) to this reaction mixture decreased the reduction of DCPIP without significantly affecting the oxidation of NADPH. The concentration of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) that produced a 50% decrease in DCPIP reduction (IC(50)) was found to be 5muM. Mechanistically, this inhibition of DCPIP reduction with ongoing NADPH oxidation by PHD was found to be due to the ability of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) to serve as a catalytic electron acceptor for reduced PHD as had been reported for Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4). This catalytic decrease in reduction of DCPIP by Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) was enhanced by the presence of a large concentration of DCPIP and decreased by the presence of a large concentration of NADPH, consistent with what had been observed for the activity of Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4)Oxidation of NADPH by PHD in the presence of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) and the absence of DCPIP was linearly related to the concentration of added Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) through the concentration range of 2.4 muM to 38muM with a 50% recovery of NADPH oxidation by PHD at a concentration of 6 muM Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)Conversion of [(3)H] L-Arginine to [(3)H] L-Citrulline by purified rat brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was decreased in a concentrated related fashion with the addition of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) as well as Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4) which is an extention of

  13. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  14. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  15. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  16. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  17. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for identifying the designated agency component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket...

  18. Method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5- dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nawata, K.; Hiratsuka, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol is described which is characterized by recrystallization of 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol using one or more aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene or pseudocumene.

  19. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  1. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  5. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  6. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  7. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid. PMID:25625780

  8. Design of the Apache-Point Observatory 3.5-METER Telescope - Part Four - Optics Support and Azimuth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannery, E. J.; Siegmund, W. A.; Balick, B.; Gunnels, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter altitude-azimuth telescope features lightweight honeycomb optics, a fast f/1.75 primary figure, multiple on-line instrument capability and a control system designed for efficient remote operation. Friction coupled rollers drive the axes and couple the encoders. The authors have concentrated particularly on reducing local seeing effects by controlling heat in the vicinity of the telescope. Measures include mass reduction, emissivity control, insulation and forced ventilation.

  9. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  10. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  11. Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Ochoa, Kelly M; Francisco, Michael J San; Cox, Stephen B; Dixon, Kenneth; Anderson, Todd A; Cobb, George P

    2013-06-01

    Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation are 3 critical aspects affecting toxicant action in animals. In the present study, B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus) were exposed for 28 d to contaminated feed that contained 1 of 5 different hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) concentrations: 0 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg. The authors quantified RDX and its reductive transformation products hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in the stomach, intestine, plasma, liver, and brain of these mice. Average RDX concentrations followed a dose-dependent pattern for all matrices tested. No controls had concentrations above limits of detection. Average RDX concentrations in tissues of exposed mice ranged from 11.1 ng/mL to 182 ng/mL, 25.6 ng/g to 3319 ng/g, 123 ng/g to 233 ng/g, 144 ng/g to 35 900 ng/g, and 51.1 ng/g to 2697 ng/g in the plasma, brain, liver, stomach, and intestine, respectively. A considerable amount of RDX was present in the brain, especially in the highest-exposure group. This is consistent with the widely observed central nervous system effects caused by γ-aminobutyric acid inhibition associated with RDX exposure. N-nitroso metabolites of RDX were also present in tested tissues in a dose-dependent pattern. Average MNX concentrations in the stomachs of mice exposed to RDX ranged from nondetectable in control exposures to 490 ng/g in the highest-exposure groups. In the brain, MNX accumulated at a maximum average concentration of 165.1 ng/g, suggesting the potential formation of MNX from RDX within the brain. At higher exposures, DNX and TNX were present in the stomach, plasma, and brain of mice. The presence of RDX metabolites at notable amounts in different tissues suggests that RDX can transform into its N-nitroso metabolites in vivo by an undefined mechanism. PMID:23423972

  12. Genetically encoded fluorescent probe to visualize intracellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate localization and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Mingkun; Tsang, Wai Lok; Zhang, Yanling; Yau, Richard Gar Wai; Weisman, Lois S.; Xu, Haoxing

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is a low-abundance phosphoinositide presumed to be localized to endosomes and lysosomes, where it recruits cytoplasmic peripheral proteins and regulates endolysosome-localized membrane channel activity. Cells lacking PI(3,5)P2 exhibit lysosomal trafficking defects, and human mutations in the PI(3,5)P2-metabolizing enzymes cause lysosome-related diseases. The spatial and temporal dynamics of PI(3,5)P2, however, remain unclear due to the lack of a reliable detection method. Of the seven known phosphoinositides, only PI(3,5)P2 binds, in the low nanomolar range, to a cytoplasmic phosphoinositide-interacting domain (ML1N) to activate late endosome and lysosome (LEL)-localized transient receptor potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channels. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe, generated by the fusion of fluorescence tags to the tandem repeats of ML1N. The probe was mainly localized to the membranes of Lamp1-positive compartments, and the localization pattern was dynamically altered by either mutations in the probe, or by genetically or pharmacologically manipulating the cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2. Through the use of time-lapse live-cell imaging, we found that the localization of the PI(3,5)P2 probe was regulated by serum withdrawal/addition, undergoing rapid changes immediately before membrane fusion of two LELs. Our development of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe may facilitate studies of both intracellular signal transduction and membrane trafficking in the endosomes and lysosomes. PMID:24324172

  13. SUZUKI-MIYAURA COUPLING REACTIONS OF 3,5-DICHLORO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOLE

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Boykin, David W.

    2014-01-01

    3,5-Dichloro-1,2,4-thiadiazole was allowed to react with different arylboronic acids under different Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions: at room temperature 5-aryl-3-chloro-1,2,4-thiadiazoles were obtained and at toluene reflux temperature the products were 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles. Sequential coupling reactions lead to 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles with non-identical aryl groups. The structure of 3-methoxy-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole was established from X-ray crystallographic data. PMID:24644388

  14. Novel reaction of N,N'-bisarylmethanediamines with formaldehyde. Synthesis of some new 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Salimi, Farshid; Olyaei, Abolfazl

    2006-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2-pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl) methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa-hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino-pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyl)dimethylenetriamine (7a) as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated. PMID:17971727

  15. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  16. Complex brecciation and shock effects in the Buck Mountain Wash (H3-5) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Melinda; Ruzicka, Alex; Pugh, Richard; Sloan, Larry; Thompson, Edwin

    2007-06-01

    Buck Mountain Wash (BMW) is a new genomict breccia (H3-5) found in the Franconia (H5) strewn field in Arizona that shows complex brecciation and shock effects. It contains three distinct chondritic lithologies in sharp contact: a) a main lithology that consists primarily of petrographic type 5 material but which has finely intermixed type 3 and 4 material, b) a shock-blackened (shock stage S5) type 3 lithology (lithology A), and c) a shock-blackened type 3/4 lithology (lithology B). Buck Mountain Wash was lithified after impact-mixing and impact-melting of weakly and strongly metamorphosed materials, possibly at depth in the regolith of the parent body. Shock effects included brecciation on a fine scale, localized impact-melting of silicates, partial melting, and mobilization of metal-sulfide, and chemical fractionations that produced non-H-group composition kamacite by two disequilibrium mechanisms. Shock heating did not cause significant thermal metamorphism in the shock-blackened lithologies of BMW, except possibly in areas adjacent to whole-rock shock melt. During lithification, cooling must have been rapid at high temperatures to preserve glass and inhomogeneous silicate compositions, but not so fast at lower temperatures as to produce dendritic metal-sulfide globules or martensite.

  17. Dehalogenation of the Herbicides Bromoxynil (3,5-Dibromo-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) and Ioxynil (3,5-Diiodino-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) by Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans

    PubMed Central

    Cupples, Alison M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Sims, Gerald K.

    2005-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans has been shown to grow by coupling the oxidation of lactate to the metabolic reductive dehalogenation of ortho chlorines on polysubstituted phenols. Here, we examine the ability of D. chlororespirans to debrominate and deiodinate the polysubstituted herbicides bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), ioxynil (3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), and the bromoxynil metabolite 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate (DBHB). Stoichiometric debromination of bromoxynil to 4-cyanophenol and DBHB to 4-hydroxybenzoate occurred. Further, bromoxynil (35 to 75 μM) and DBHB (250 to 260 μM) were used as electron acceptors for growth. Doubling times for growth (means ± standard deviations for triplicate cultures) on bromoxynil (18.4 ± 5.2 h) and DBHB (11.9 ± 1.4 h), determined by rate of [14C]lactate uptake into biomass, were similar to those previously reported for this microorganism during growth on pyruvate (15.4 h). In contrast, ioxynil was not deiodinated when added alone or when added with bromoxynil; however, ioxynil dehalogenation, with stoichiometric conversion to 4-cyanophenol, was observed when the culture was amended with 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (a previously reported electron acceptor). To our knowledge, this is the first direct report of deiodination by a bacterium in the Desulfitobacterium genus and the first report of an anaerobic pure culture with the ability to transform bromoxynil or ioxynil. This research provides valuable insights into the substrate range of D. chlororespirans. PMID:16000784

  18. Small-angle X-ray analysis of the effect of grain size on the thermal damage of octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7-tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7 tetrazocine-based plastic-bounded expolsives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guan-Yun; Tian, Qiang; Liu, Jia-Hui; Chen, Bo; Sun, Guang-Ai; Huang, Ming; Li, Xiu-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The microstructure evolution of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) after thermal stimulus plays a key role in PBX performance. In this paper, the nanoscale pores of thermal-treated octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX)-based PBXs with different HMX particle sizes [approximately 40 (FHP) and 100 μm (LHP)] were measured using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). No obvious pore variations were found in the LHP samples heated at 160 °C for 6 h, whereas the amount of pores of FHP decreased when subjected to 160 °C for 6 h. At 180 °C, the average pore radii of FHP and LHP decreased from approximately 45 nm to 25 nm, and the total pore volume increased distinctively because of phase transformation. The LHP sample reached a high level of pore content after being held at 180 °C for 1 h, whereas FHP required 3 h. Both FHP and LHP had relatively high pore volumes when subjected to 200 °C for 1 and 3 h.

  19. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  20. Progreso con el "Telescopio de Nueva Tecnologia" de 3.5 m (NTT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Desde septiembre de 1980 cuando el primer artlculo sobre el Telescopio ESO de Nueva Tecnologla de 3.5 m fue publicado en "EI Mensajero", el diserio para este instrumento ha hecho progresos satisfactorios.

  1. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  2. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid’s synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2. PMID:26460749

  3. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1(+) and Rab7(+) vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1(+)perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. PMID:27008179

  4. Urine Metabolomics by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy Indicates Associations between Serum 3,5-T2 Concentrations and Intermediary Metabolism in Euthyroid Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pietzner, Maik; Homuth, Georg; Budde, Kathrin; Lehmphul, Ina; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Köhrle, Josef; Friedrich, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Context 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) is a thyroid hormone metabolite which exhibited versatile effects in rodent models, including the prevention of insulin resistance or hepatic steatosis typically forced by a high-fat diet. With respect to euthyroid humans, we recently observed a putative link between serum 3,5-T2 and glucose but not lipid metabolism. Objective The aim of the present study was to widely screen the urine metabolome for associations with serum 3,5-T2 concentrations in healthy individuals. Study Design and Methods Urine metabolites of 715 euthyroid participants of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression models were used to detect associations between urine metabolites and serum 3,5-T2 concentrations. Results Serum 3,5-T2 concentrations were positively associated with urinary levels of trigonelline, pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate. In detail, the odds for intermediate or suppressed serum 3,5-T2 concentrations doubled owing to a 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in urine trigonelline levels, or increased by 29-50% in relation to a 1-SD decrease in urine pyroglutamate, acetone and hippurate levels. Conclusion Our findings in humans confirmed the metabolic effects of circulating 3,5-T2 on glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and enhanced drug metabolism as postulated before based on interventional pharmacological studies in rodents. Of note, 3,5-T2 exhibited a unique urinary metabolic profile distinct from previously published results for the classical thyroid hormones. PMID:26601079

  5. Discovery and SAR of muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1) allosteric activators from a molecular libraries high throughput screen. Part I: 2,5-dibenzyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-ones as positive allosteric modulators

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changho; Chatterjee, Arindam; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Panarese, Joseph D.; Niswender, Colleen; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2014-01-01

    Results from a 2012 high-throughput screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR) against the human muscarinic receptor subtype 1 (M1) for positive allosteric modulators is reported. A content-rich screen utilizing an intracellular calcium mobilization triple-addition protocol allowed for assessment of all three modes of pharmacology at M1, including agonist, positive allosteric modulator, and antagonist activities in a single screening platform. We disclose a dibenzyl-2H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]quinolin-3(5H)-one hit (DBPQ, CID 915409) and examine N-benzyl pharmacophore/SAR relationships versus previously reported quinolin-3(5H)-ones and isatins, including ML137. SAR and consideration of recently reported crystal structures, homology modeling, and structure-function relationships using point mutations suggests a shared binding mode orientation at the putative common allosteric binding site directed by the pendant N-benzyl substructure. PMID:25435150

  6. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  7. Mechanism of Austenite Formation from Spheroidized Microstructure in an Intermediate Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Qingquan; Gouné, Mohamed; Perlade, Astrid; Pardoen, Thomas; Jacques, Pascal; Bouaziz, Olivier; Bréchet, Yves

    2016-05-01

    The austenitization from a spheroidized microstructure during intercritical annealing was studied in a Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn alloy. The austenite grains preferentially nucleate and grow from intergranular cementite. The nucleation at intragranular cementite is significantly retarded or even suppressed. The DICTRA software, assuming local equilibrium conditions, was used to simulate the austenite growth kinetics at various temperatures and for analyzing the austenite growth mechanism. The results indicate that both the mode and the kinetics of austenite growth strongly depend on cementite composition. With sufficiently high cementite Mn content, the austenite growth is essentially composed of two stages, involving the partitioning growth controlled by Mn diffusion inside ferrite, followed by a stage controlled by Mn diffusion within austenite for final equilibration. The partitioning growth results in a homogeneous distribution of carbon within austenite, which is supported by NanoSIMS carbon mapping.

  8. Mechanism of Austenite Formation from Spheroidized Microstructure in an Intermediate Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Qingquan; Gouné, Mohamed; Perlade, Astrid; Pardoen, Thomas; Jacques, Pascal; Bouaziz, Olivier; Bréchet, Yves

    2016-07-01

    The austenitization from a spheroidized microstructure during intercritical annealing was studied in a Fe-0.1C-3.5Mn alloy. The austenite grains preferentially nucleate and grow from intergranular cementite. The nucleation at intragranular cementite is significantly retarded or even suppressed. The DICTRA software, assuming local equilibrium conditions, was used to simulate the austenite growth kinetics at various temperatures and for analyzing the austenite growth mechanism. The results indicate that both the mode and the kinetics of austenite growth strongly depend on cementite composition. With sufficiently high cementite Mn content, the austenite growth is essentially composed of two stages, involving the partitioning growth controlled by Mn diffusion inside ferrite, followed by a stage controlled by Mn diffusion within austenite for final equilibration. The partitioning growth results in a homogeneous distribution of carbon within austenite, which is supported by NanoSIMS carbon mapping.

  9. Decaying vector dark matter as an explanation for the 3.5 keV line from galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, Yasaman; Akbarieh, Amin Rezaei E-mail: am_rezaei@physics.sharif.ir

    2014-11-01

    We present a Vector Dark Matter (VDM) model that explains the 3.5 keV line recently observed in the XMM-Newton observatory data from galaxy clusters. In this model, dark matter is composed of two vector bosons, V and V', which couple to the photon through an effective generalized Chern-Simons coupling, g{sub V}. V' is slightly heavier than V with a mass splitting m{sub V'} – m{sub V} ≅ 3.5 keV. The decay of V' to V and a photon gives rise to the 3.5 keV line. The production of V and V' takes place in the early universe within the freeze-in framework through the effective g{sub V} coupling when m{sub V'} < T < Λ, Λ being the cut-off above which the effective g{sub V} coupling is not valid. We introduce a high energy model that gives rise to the g{sub V} coupling at low energies. To do this, V and V' are promoted to gauge bosons of spontaneously broken new U(1){sub V} and U(1){sub V'} gauge symmetries, respectively. The high energy sector includes milli-charged chiral fermions that lead to the g{sub V} coupling at low energy via triangle diagrams.

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  12. 75 FR 55327 - Tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (Dazomet); Notice of Receipt of Request to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... or domestic dwelling contents; evaporated condenser water systems; irrigation systems; and metal... condenser water systems Irrigation systems 67869-46 VeriGuard OD Verichem, Inc. Metal working Fluids Table...

  13. Complex formation of vanadium(IV) with 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Bernd; Steinhauser, Stefan; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele; Nagy, László

    2004-05-17

    The complex formation of vanadium(IV) with 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci) was studied in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The formation constants of [V(IV)O(taci)](2+), [V(IV)O(tdci)](2+), and [V(IV)(tdci)(2)](4+) and of the deprotonation product [V(IV)(tdci)(2)H(-)(1)](3+) were determined (25 degrees C, 0.1 M KNO(3)). Cyclic voltammetry measurements established a reversible one-electron transfer for the [V(IV)(tdci)(2)H(-)(m)]((4)(-)(m))/[V(III)(tdci)(2)H(-)(n)]((3)(-)(n)) couple (0

  14. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  15. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development. PMID:25837094

  16. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  17. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-01-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  18. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-08-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  19. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, Hubert; Furnes, Harald; McLoughlin, Nicola; Banerjee, Neil R.; Connell, Laurie B.; Templeton, Alexis

    2008-08-01

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  20. Evolution of Mediterranean sea surface temperatures 3.5-1.5 Ma: Regional and hemispheric influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Ng, Gideon; Cleaveland Peterson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We present a composite time series of Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and marine biomarker accumulation for the time span from 3.5 to 1.525 Ma, based on alkenone unsaturation and concentration from hemipelagic sediments outcropping in southern Italy and Sicily. Paleotemperature data define three regimes: a late Pliocene climate on average 4- 5 °C warmer than modern, a latest Pliocene to early Pleistocene onset of 41 kyr cycles, and a major increase in the range of glacial-interglacial temperature change at ∼ 1.84 Ma that shortly precedes the former definition of the Plio-Pleistocene boundary in the Crotone sequence. Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) cycles are dominated by precession, with a ∼ 1.5 °C range. Obliquity-related rhythms influence SST significantly shortly after ∼ 2.8 Ma (equivalent to MIS G10) and dominate after ∼ 2.51 Ma (equivalent to MIS 100). However, little, if any, long-term cooling occurred on an interglacial basis until after ∼ 1.85 Ma. Alkenone concentrations provide a good proxy for the accumulation of marine organic matter, and primarily reflect regional hydrology. Organic sedimentation, including the formation of layers highly enriched in organic matter ("sapropels") was paced throughout by precessional variations despite changes in both average regional temperature, and the shift in temperature variance to the 41 kyr obliquity cycle in the latest Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Our reconstruction therefore highlights the intermingling of both hemispheric-wide changes in temperature and regional variations in the hydrological cycle that combined to force major evolutionary changes in the fauna and flora of northern Africa and the southern Mediterranean in late Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene time.

  1. Approaching Academic Digital Content Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital content management in higher education. Highlights include learning objects that make content more modular so it can be used in other courses or by other institutions; and a system at Ohio State University for content management that includes the creation of learner profiles. (LRW)

  2. Ab initio equation of state of the organic molecular crystal: beta-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine.

    PubMed

    Zerilli, Frank J; Kuklja, Maija M

    2010-04-29

    We apply a simple strategy for calculating from first principles a thermodynamically complete equation of state for molecular crystals using readily available quantum chemistry techniques. The strategy involves a combination of separate methods for the temperature-independent mechanical compression and the thermal vibrational contributions to the free energy. A first principles equation of state for beta-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (beta-HMX) has been calculated for temperatures between 0 and 400 K and for specific volumes from 0.42 to 0.55 cm(3)/g, corresponding to relative volumes from 0.8 to 1.03. The calculated 300 K isotherm agrees very well with the experimentally measured pressure-volume relation. We also discuss thermodynamic properties of the material such as the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, the Gruneisen parameter, and the specific heat (1.0 kJ/kg/K at 300 K and atmospheric pressure). The developed computational approach exhibits a reliable predictive power and is easily transferable to other molecular materials. PMID:20364852

  3. Synthesis, structural and computational characterization of 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic acid and 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, M. Hakkı; Paşaoğlu, Hümeyra; Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Arzu Özek

    2015-07-01

    The benzoic acid compounds 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid (2A35Br) and 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic (2A35I) acid have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and computational methods. Molecular geometry, intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction technique. Fundamental vibrational bands of the title compounds were founded by FT-IR and UV-Vis method was used to obtain electronic bands. Geometry optimizations and the calculation of IR frequencies were performed both Gaussian type orbitals at Gaussian 09W and Slater type orbitals at ADF2009.01 software. The calculations are compatible with the experiment results. In addition, geometrical parameters, energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps and electrophilicity indexes have been calculated for thirty possible positional isomers of 2A35Br and 2A35I. Calculations show that 2A35Br and 2A35I isomers have the lowest energy, the narrowest HOMO-LUMO gap and the highest electrophilicity index values. Molecular electrostatic potential maps, Fukui indices, natural bond orbital analysis, thermodynamic parameters and non-linear optical properties of the 2A35Br and 2A35I were also investigated by theoretical calculations.

  4. Assessing the non-cancer risk for RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L; Reddy, Gunda; Williams, Larry R; Johnson, Mark S

    2012-02-01

    RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is an explosive used in military applications. It has been detected in ground water surrounding US military installations and at manufacturing facilities. RDX has been shown to produce hepatotoxicity, testicular, and neurological effects in animals, the latter also in humans. The current chronic oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day was derived based on prostate effects in rats. Here, we provide a reevaluation of the risk associated with RDX exposure by examining old and new data and using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches. Candidate non-cancer endpoints in rodents were evaluated and the most plausible mode(s) of action were determined. A PBPK model was used to derive appropriate internal doses based on the mode of action, and then a benchmark dose (BMD) and the lower confidence limit on the BMD (BMDL) were determined using these internal doses in animals. Uncertainty factors (UF) were applied to the animal BMDL or no-observed effect level and a human PBPK model was used to determine a human equivalent dose resulting in the candidate RfDs (cRfDs). A proposed chronic RfD of 0.07 mg/kg/day, based on multiple effects observed in rats, was selected from among the cRfDs. PMID:22197625

  5. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. PMID:22841928

  6. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment. PMID:23837558

  7. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  8. Human monocyte killing of Staphylococcus aureus: modulation by agonists of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    O'Dorisio, M S; Vandenbark, G R; LoBuglio, A F

    1979-01-01

    This study was designed to test whether cyclic nucleotides play a role in the regulation of bacterial killing by human monocytes. Agents were tested for their ability to activate monocyte adenylate or guanylate cyclase in cell-free preparations, to increase cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in intact human monocytes, and to modulate monocyte-induced killing of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Prostaglandin E1 and cholera toxin activated monocyte adenylate cyclase and inhibited monocyte killing of S. aureus. An adenylate cyclase inhibitor, RMI 12330A, reversed the prostaglandin E1-mediated inhibition of bacterial killing, thus implicating cAMP as the intracellular mediator of this inhibition. In contrast, monocyte cGMP levels were increased 5- and 17-fold by 5-hydroxytryptamine and N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, respectively, but neither agent was effective in modulating monocyte bactericidal activity. Thus, modulation of bactericidal activity in human monocytes did not conform to the yin/yang theory of opposing actions by cAMP and cGMP, for although monocyte-mediated killing of S. aureus was inhibited by cAMP agonists, it was not enhanced by cGMP agonists. PMID:44704

  9. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  10. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  11. Anaerobic transformation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by ovine rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Craig, A M

    2012-01-01

    Explosives such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) provide a challenge in terms of bioremediation. In the present study, sheep rumen was studied for its potential to detoxify HMX using analytical chemistry and molecular microbial ecology tools. Results indicated significant loss (p < 0.05) of HMX at 8 h post-incubation and complete disappearance of the parent molecule after 16 h. Qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis provided evidence for the formation of 1-NO-HMX and MEDINA metabolites. A total of 1006 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced and the Classifier tool of the RDPII database was used to sort the sequences at their phylum level. Most sequences were associated with either the phylum Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Significant differences at the phylum level (p < 0.001) were found between 0 h and 8 h HMX treatments. Using LibCompare analysis, 8 h HMX treatment showed enrichment of clones (p < 0.01) belonging to the genus Prevotella. From these results, it could be concluded that members of the genus Prevotella are enriched in the rumen and are capable of detoxifying HMX. PMID:22903090

  12. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  13. Mars - Subsurface properties from observed longitudinal variation of the 3.5-mm brightness temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, E. E.; Andrew, B. H.; Briggs, F. H.; Jakosky, B. M.; Palluconi, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive 3.5-mm measurements are reported which show a variation in the brightness temperature of Mars, with the Central Meridian Longitude that is generally in phase with the variation at 2.8 cm and is opposite in sign from the variations at 20 microns. It is pointed out that the phase result is not unexpected, since 3.5 mm is longer than the wavelength at which the phase behavior is expected to change. The result that the 3.5-mm rotation curve amplitude is larger than the amplitudes at both 20 microns and 2.8 cm, however, is unexpected. This result, it is noted, can be explained as a consequence of subsurface scattering from rocks smaller than 1.5 cm in radius. A correlation of subsurface scatterers with the location of the high-thermal inertial regions would be consistent with the hypothesis that rock abundance predominates in determining the thermal inertia.

  14. Hydrostatic supports for telescopes: the experience of 3.5 NTT with a glance at VTL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreolli, C.; Andreolli, C.

    1988-10-01

    Today's large telescopes use hydrostatic supports to give their axes of motion the highest precision and stiffness. Since their performance of a hydrostatic bearing depend as much on the pad as on the structures directly concerned, certain designing expedients that are peculiar of large machine tools can be adopted profitably with telescopes as well. This was the case with 3.5 m NTT. It may be assumed correctly that the experience made with 3.5 m NTT, may be extended successfully to telescopes of a larger size.

  15. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of 3,5-disubstituted analogues of paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Bessems, J G; Te Koppele, J M; Van Dijk, P A; Van Stee, L L; Commandeur, J N; Vermeulen, N P

    1996-06-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-dependent binding of paracetamol and a series of 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -CH3, -C2H5, -iC3H7) have been determined with beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF)-induced rat liver microsomes and produced reverse type I spectral changes. Ks,app varied from 0.14 mM for 3,5-diiC3H7-paracetamol to 2.8 mM for paracetamol. 2. All seven analogues underwent rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation, as reflected by the formation of GSSG in the presence of GSH. The GSSG-formation was increased in all cases upon pretreatment of rats by beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF) and was generally decreased upon pretreatment by phenobarbital (PB). 3. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 as well as horseradish peroxidase catalysed the formation of 3,5-disubstituted NAPQI analogues from the corresponding parent compounds, as identified by UV-spectrophotometry of the NAPQI analogues and by GC/MS detection of the following GSH-conjugates: 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dimethyl-1,4-dihydroxybenzene, 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dichloro-paracetamol, and 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dibromo-paracetamol. 4. In liver microsomal (beta NF-induced) incubations, apparent K(m) values, as determined for the cytochrome P450 catalysis-dependent oxidation of GSH, for seven 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -CH3, -C2H5, iC3H7) varied from 0.07 to 0.64 mM. Paracetamol exhibited an apparent K(m) of 0.73 mM. Apparent Vmax values for the cytochrome P450 catalysis dependent oxidation of GSH varied from 0.66 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for paracetamol to 3.0 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for 3,5-dimethyl-paracetamol. PMID:8810035

  16. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions. PMID:27392318

  17. Ninety-day study of inhaled 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene in rats. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Palmer, D.

    1981-09-23

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 weeks or 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. Squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia were observed in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of several high-dose rats.

  18. CHRNA3/5, IREB2, and ADCY2 Are Associated with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Jan; Wan, Emily S.; Hersh, Craig P.; Castaldi, Peter J.; Schwinder, Eric; Hawrylkiewicz, Iwona; Sliwinski, Pawel; Cho, Michael H.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or lung function with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes in a novel cohort of patients with severe to very severe COPD. We examined 315 cases of COPD and 330 Caucasian control smokers from Poland. We included three SNPs previously associated with COPD: rs7671167 (FAM13A), rs13180 (IREB2), and rs8034191 (CHRNA 3/5), and four SNPs associated with lung function in a genome-wide association study of general population samples: rs2070600 (AGER), rs11134242 (ADCY2), rs4316710 (THSD4), and rs17096090 (INTS12). We tested for associations with severe COPD and COPD-related phenotypes, including lung function, smoking behavior, and body mass index. Subjects with COPD were older (average age 62 versus 58 years, P < 0.01), with more pack-years of smoking (45 versus 33 pack-years, P < 0.01). CHRNA3/5 (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–2.4; P = 7.4 × 10−7), IREB2 (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5–0.9; P = 3.4 × 10−3), and ADCY2 (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7; P = 0.01) demonstrated significant associations with COPD. FAM13A (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7–1.0; P = 0.11) approached statistical significance. FAM13A and ADCY2 also demonstrated a significant association with lung function. Thus, in severe to very severe COPD, we demonstrate a replication of association between two SNPs previously associated with COPD (CHRNA3/5 and IREB2), as well as an association with COPD of one locus initially associated with lung function (ADCY2). PMID:22461431

  19. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  20. Accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McMurry, S T; Jones, L E; Smith, P N; Cobb, G P; Anderson, T A; Lovern, M B; Cox, S; Pan, X

    2012-03-01

    Environmental contamination by energetic compounds is an increasing international concern, although little is known of their accumulation in and affect on wildlife. Reptiles are often good models for contaminants studies due to natural history traits that increase their potential for exposure. We report a study to assess accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, High Melting Explosive) in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) was estimated to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight in adult male and female anoles using a standard up-and-down method. Accumulation of HMX was assessed in adult females via dietary exposure and into eggs by two routes (directly from the soil and via maternal transfer). HMX readily accumulated into adult females in a dose-dependent manner and into eggs following both exposure pathways. However, total HMX in soil-exposed eggs was up to 40-times greater than those exposed via maternal transfer. Although there was a suggestion of an HMX-induced reduction in body weight in adult females, overall there were no effects observed over the 12 week exposure period. The only significant effect on eggs was a 50% reduction in hatching success for eggs exposed to 2000 mg/kg HMX in the soil during incubation. Growth and survival of hatchlings was not affected by HMX exposure. Our results demonstrate that HMX accumulates through the food chain and into eggs from the soil, but likely poses minimal threat to lizards except to hatching success in eggs incubated in soils with HMX levels near maximum environmental concentrations. PMID:21947615

  1. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use. PMID:23523880

  2. Analysis of the xplAB-containing gene cluster involved in the bacterial degradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Strand, Stuart E; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-11-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  3. Geochemical and microbiological processes contributing to the transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in contaminated aquifer material.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Finneran, Kevin T

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a potential human carcinogen, and its contamination of subsurface environments is a significant threat to public health. This study investigated abiotic and biological degradation of RDX in contaminated aquifer material. Anoxic batch systems were started with and without pre-aeration of aquifer material to distinguish initial biological RDX reduction from abiotic RDX reduction. Aerating the sediment eliminated chemical reductants in the native aquifer sediment, primarily Fe(II) sorbed to mineral surfaces. RDX (50 μM) was completely reduced and transformed to ring cleavage products when excess concentrations (2mM) of acetate or lactate were provided as the electron donor for aerated sediment. RDX was reduced concurrently with Fe(III) when acetate was provided, while RDX, Fe(III), and sulfate were reduced simultaneously with lactate amendment. Betaproteobacteria were the dominant microorganisms associated with RDX and Fe(III)/sulfate reduction. In particular, Rhodoferax spp. increased from 21% to 35% and from 28% to 60% after biostimulation by acetate and lactate, respectively. Rarefaction analyses demonstrated that microbial diversity decreased in electron-donor-amended systems with active RDX degradation. Although significant amounts of Fe(III) and/or sulfate were reduced after biostimulation, solid-phase reactive minerals such as magnetite or ferrous sulfides were not observed, suggesting that RDX reduction in the aquifer sediment is due to Fe(II) adsorbed to solid surfaces as a result of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activity. These results suggest that both biotic and abiotic processes play an important role in RDX reduction under in situ conditions. PMID:21664641

  4. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  5. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors. PMID:19432505

  6. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  7. Mineralization of the Cyclic Nitramine Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Gordonia and Williamsia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Karen T.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a cyclic nitroamine explosive that is a major component in many military high-explosive formulations. In this study, two aerobic bacteria that are capable of using RDX as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen to support their growth were isolated from surface soil. These bacterial strains were identified by their fatty acid profiles and 16S ribosomal gene sequences as Williamsia sp. KTR4 and Gordonia sp. KTR9. The physiology of each strain was characterized with respect to the rates of RDX degradation and [U-14C]RDX mineralization when RDX was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in the presence and absence of competing carbon and nitrogen sources. Strains KTR4 and KTR9 degraded 180 μM RDX within 72 h when RDX served as the only added carbon and nitrogen source while growing to total protein concentrations of 18.6 and 16.5 μg/ml, respectively. Mineralization of [U-14C]RDX to 14CO2 was 30% by strain KTR4 and 27% by KTR9 when RDX was the only added source of carbon and nitrogen. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 greatly inhibited KTR9's degradation of RDX but had little effect on that of KTR4. These are the first two pure bacterial cultures isolated that are able to use RDX as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. These two genera possess different physiologies with respect to RDX mineralization, and each can serve as a useful microbiological model for the study of RDX biodegradation with regard to physiology, biochemistry, and genetics. PMID:16332812

  8. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Characterization of polymorphic states in energetic samples of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Erik D; Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Tripathi, Ashish; Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Pellegrino, Paul M; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-06-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be "trained" to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other. PMID:22732532

  10. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  11. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  12. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  13. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  14. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  15. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  16. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  17. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  18. Synthesis and Structure of Alkylzinc 3,5-Diphenylpyrazolates: Dramatic Influence of Steric and Solvent Effects.

    PubMed

    Komorski, Szymon; Leszczyński, Michał K; Justyniak, Iwona; Lewiński, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of R2Zn (R = Et, (t)Bu) with 3,5-diphenylpyrazole results in the formation of three structurally diverse alkylzinc pyrazolates: a novel dinuclear tetrahydrofuran solvate, an unprecedented trimeric structure, and a spiro trinuclear aggregate. Structural analysis of the resulting complexes provides a new look at the aggregation and stabilization of alkylzinc species. PMID:27186891

  19. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  20. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  1. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  2. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  3. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). 721.4265 Section 721.4265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  4. Earthwatch: Designing Environmental Education into the Curriculum. Volume I, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry, Ed.; Hungerford, Nancy, Ed.

    This environmental education activities package for grades 3-5 contains activities in the following curriculum areas: (1) social science; (2) science; (3) language arts; and (4) mathematics. The activities are divided into seven sections based on seven environmental topics: (1) ecosystems; (2) population; (3) energy and resources; (4) economics,…

  5. FIFTH SYMPOSIUM ON FUGITIVE EMISSIONS: MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL (MAY 3-5, 1982, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the Fifth Symposium on Fugitive Emissions: Measurement and Control, May 3-5, 1982, in Charleston, SC. The Symposium was sponsored by the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (known then as the Industrial Environmental...

  6. Teacher Implementation of Guided Reading and the Effect on Students in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored implementing guided reading in grades 3-5 in a suburban school district located in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how teachers implement guided reading in their classrooms and how the use of guided reading affects student achievement in Text Structure and Vocabulary, Reading…

  7. Chemistry of the pyrazolidines. 26. Alkylation of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines

    SciTech Connect

    Moldarev, B.L.; Aronzon, M.E.; Adanin, V.M.; Zyakun, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    The reaction of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines with alkyl halides in the presence of sodium alkoxide gave 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-4-benzyliden- and 1-phenyl-2,4-dialkyl-4-(..cap alpha..-alkoxybenzyl)-3,4-dioxopyrazolines. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, and PMR spectroscopy, and by mass-spectrometry.

  8. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  9. Algebraic Reasoning: Professor Arbegla Introduces Variables and Functions. GEMS Teacher's Guide for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln

    This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…

  10. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  11. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  12. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  13. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  14. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  15. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  16. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  17. Clostridium geopurificans strain MJ1 sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that grows via fermentation and reduces the cyclic nitramine explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; Wei, Na; Millerick, Kayleigh; Popovic, Jovan; Finneran, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    A fermentative, non-spore forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain MJ1(T), was isolated from an RDX contaminated aquifer at a live-fire training site in Northwest NJ, United States. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA base composition, strain MJ1(T) was assigned to the Firmicutes. The DNA G+C content was 42.8 mol%. Fermentative growth was supported by glucose and citrate in a defined basal medium. The bacterium is a strict anaerobe that grows between at pH 6.0 and pH 8.0 and 18 and 37 °C. The culture did not grow with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) as the electron acceptor or mineralize RDX under these conditions. However, MJ1(T) transformed RDX into MNX, methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, formate, ammonium, nitrous oxide, and nitrate. The nearest phylogenetic relative with a validly published name was Desulfotomaculum guttoideum (95 % similarity). However, MJ1(T) was also related to Clostridium celerecrescens DSM 5628 (95 %), Clostridium indolis DSM 755 (94 %), and Clostridium sphenoides DSM 632 (94 %). DNA:DNA hybridization with these strains was between 6.7 and 58.7 percent. The dominant cellular fatty acids (greater than 5 % of the total, which was 99.0 % recovery) were 16:0 fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) (32.12 %), 18:1cis 11 dimethyl acetal (DMA) (16.47 %), 16:1cis 9 DMA (10.28 %), 16:1cis 9 FAME (8.10 %), and 18:1cis 9 DMA (5.36 %). On the basis of morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic data, Clostridium geopurificans is proposed as a new species in genus Clostridium, with strain MJ1(T) as the type strain. PMID:24522483

  18. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures.

  19. Simulated impact of vegetation on climate across the North American monsoon region in CCSM3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Michael; Gutzler, David

    2012-02-01

    The influence of prescribed changes in vegetation on the climate of the North American monsoon region is examined using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model Version 3.5 (NCAR CCSM3.5). Initial value ensemble experiments are performed in which the vegetation cover fraction over the North American monsoon region is reduced by 0.2 and the intra-annual climatic response is assessed probabilistically in each one-year ensemble experiment. Changes in the surface radiation budget include decreases in sensible and latent heat fluxes and increases in upward longwave and downward shortwave radiation fluxes, with small net changes in surface albedo. The climatic responses to reduced vegetation cover fraction include year-round increases in ground and surface air temperature, a dampened hydrologic cycle with decreased springtime evaporation, springtime and autumnal precipitation, and autumnal cloud cover, and enhanced atmospheric subsidence in late autumn. Decreased vegetation shifts the monsoon season over the Southwest United States earlier in the year. Within the North American monsoon region, the most robust vegetation feedbacks to climate are found over woody landscapes.

  20. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  1. Determination of Key Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine with Rhodococcus sp. Strain DN22†

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Fiurasek, Petr; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 can convert hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to nitrite, but information on degradation products or the fate of carbon is not known. The present study describes aerobic biodegradation of RDX (175 μM) when used as an N source for strain DN22. RDX was converted to nitrite (NO2−) (30%), nitrous oxide (N2O) (3.2%), ammonia (10%), and formaldehyde (HCHO) (27%), which later converted to carbon dioxide. In experiments with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric (GC/MS) analysis revealed N2O with two molecular mass ions: one at 44 Da, corresponding to 14N14NO, and the second at 45 Da, corresponding to 15N14NO. The nonlabeled N2O could be formed only from -NO2, whereas the 15N-labeled one was presumed to originate from a nitramine group (15N-14NO2) in RDX. Liquid chromatographic (LC)-MS electrospray analyses indicated the formation of a dead end product with a deprotonated molecular mass ion [M-H] at 118 Da. High-resolution MS indicated a molecular formula of C2H5N3O3. When the experiment was repeated with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, the [M-H] appeared at 120 Da, indicating that two of the three N atoms in the metabolite originated from the ring in RDX. When [U-14C]-RDX was used in the experiment, 64% of the original radioactivity in RDX incorporated into the metabolite with a molecular weight (MW) of 119 (high-pressure LC/radioactivity) and 30% in 14CO2 (mineralization) after 4 days of incubation, suggesting that one of the carbon atoms in RDX was converted to CO2 and the other two were incorporated in the ring cleavage product with an MW of 119. Based on the above stoichiometry, we propose a degradation pathway for RDX based on initial denitration followed by ring cleavage to formaldehyde and the dead end product with an MW of 119. PMID:11772623

  2. The beta]-[delta phase transition in the energetic nitramine-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine: Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Asay, B. W.; Dickson, P. M.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we present second harmonic generation (SHG) experiments designed to confirm the mechanism and quantify the transformation kinetics of the beta]-[delta solid state phase transition in the organic nitramine molecule octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). The beta phase adopts a centrosymmetric crystallographic configuration (P21)/c while the delta phase adopts a noncentrosymmetric one (P61(P65)). As expected, this results in a very poor generation of SHG intensity from the beta phase, while the delta phase is very efficient, rivaling KH2PO4 in absolute efficiency. SHG thus provides a very high sensitivity zero background probe of the delta phase. We discuss the use of this signal as a quantitative measure of the delta phase mole fraction in ensembles of free HMX crystals and crystals embedded in a visco-elastic polymer matrix. We report imaging experiments where the spatial characteristics of the transformation are shown to be consistent with nucleation from a low density of initial sites, followed by rapid growth. We also report experiments where the total integrated SHG is measured and used to infer the transition progress as a function of time in a series of isothermal experiments on both beta]-[delta conversion and delta]-[beta reversion. Additionally, reversibility experiments are reported which are used to verify both the volumetric mechanism of SHG generation in this system and the independence of these results to the internal stress state of the polycrystalline samples. We compare the measured SHG intensity as a function of time for a range of temperatures with predictions of the two state kinetic model presented in the accompanying paper [B. F. Henson [et al.], J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3780 (2002)]. We perform a set of parameter optimization calculations based on agreement with the predictions of the model. Optimization does not significantly change the kinetic parameters that are thermodynamically constrained by the model, but

  3. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N–H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗})/S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N–X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH{sub 3}) or internal conversion to the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  4. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James O F; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W; Paterson, Martin J; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N-H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S1(ππ(∗)) and S2(3s/πσ(∗)). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S1(ππ(∗))/S2(3s/πσ(∗)) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S2(3s/πσ(∗)) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N-X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH3) or internal conversion to the S1(ππ(∗)) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S2(3s/πσ(∗)) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system. PMID:25796251

  5. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N-H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S1(ππ∗) and S2(3s/πσ∗). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S1(ππ∗)/S2(3s/πσ∗) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S2(3s/πσ∗) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N-X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH3) or internal conversion to the S1(ππ∗) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S2(3s/πσ∗) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  6. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials...

  7. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  8. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  9. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  10. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  11. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  12. Magnetic hard disk overcoats in the 3-5 nm thickness range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, E. V.; Yang, M. M.; Chao, J. L.; Russak, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Protective properties of 3-5 nm thick carbon overcoat layers deposited on magnetic hard disks by ion beam deposition (IBD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were investigated. It is found that these overcoats are superior to the sputtered carbon films at thicknesses below 5 nm. Low-stiction performance of 3-nm-thick IBD films without any detectable wear was observed during 50 000 contact start-stop cycles at 55 °C and 10% relative humidity. Surface concentration of cobalt ions is reduced by as much as an order of magnitude as compared to the media with sputtered overcoats. Polarization resistivity values for IBD and PECVD overcoats are by an order of magnitude higher. The results show that thickness of protective carbon overcoats on magnetic hard disks can be reduced to 3-5 nm without compromising media reliability requirements. This reduction is critical for the continuing growth of storage density.

  13. 1s2s2p2 5p3 5S transition in B ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannervik, S.; Cederquist, H.; Martinson, I.; Brage, T.; Froese Fischer, C.

    1987-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been made of the 1s2s2p2 5P-1s2p3 5S transition in B ii. The experimental wavelength and lifetime (1323.92+/-0.07 Å and 0.65+/-0.01 ns), determined by beam-foil spectroscopy, are more than five times more accurate than previous experimental results. Our theoretical data, from multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations, 1311.6 Å and 0.601 ns, are in excellent agreement with previous theoretical predictions of Beck and Nicolaides [Phys. Lett. 61A, 227 (1977)]. We have also observed the 1s2p3 5S-1s2p23s 5P transition, at 857.7+/-0.2 Å, in accord with the theoretical value 859.1 Å.

  14. 3.5-GHz intra-burst repetition rate ultrafast Yb-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Akçaalan, Önder; Ilday, F. Ömer

    2016-05-01

    We report on an all-fiber Yb laser amplifier system with an intra-burst repetition rate of 3.5 GHz. The system is able to produce minimum of 15-ns long bursts containing approximately 50 pulses with a total energy of 215 μJ at a burst repetition rate of 1 kHz. The individual pulses are compressed down to the subpicosecond level. The seed signal from a 108 MHz fiber oscillator is converted to approximately 3.5 GHz by a multiplier consisting of six cascaded 50/50 couplers, and then amplified in ten stages. The highly cascaded amplification suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at low repetition rates. Nonlinear interactions between overlapping pulses within a burst is also discussed.

  15. Natural course of LGI1 encephalitis: 3-5 years of follow-up without immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Szots, Monika; Marton, Annamaria; Kover, Ferenc; Kiss, Tunde; Berki, Timea; Nagy, Ferenc; Illes, Zsolt

    2014-08-15

    Antibodies against LGI1 (leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein) are associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is characterized by a favorable outcome following immunotherapy. Here, we present two cases, where antibodies against LGI1 were detected in the sera 36 and 53 months after acute LE, respectively, and none of the patients received immunotherapy. LE showed characteristics of LGI1 encephalitis in both cases, including low sodium content in the sera; disorientation, hallucination, short-term memory loss; and epileptic seizures. One patient had faciobrachial tonic seizures. MRI indicated bilateral inflammation of the hippocampus in one case. We reviewed longitudinal clinical and MRI data covering 53 and 36 months after LE without immunotherapy, respectively. Both patients became seizure-free and spontaneously recovered with mild/moderate cognitive impairment. No relapses have been observed. Follow-up brain MRI indicated early hippocampal sclerosis and global brain atrophy in one case characterized by more pronounced cognitive deficit. Memory and verbal fluency were affected most during the natural course of LGI1 encephalitis. LGI1 encephalitis had a monophasic course and spontaneously improved, suggesting that a relatively benign natural course may contribute to the favorable outcome observed after immunotherapy. Our data also indicate that LGI1 antibodies can be present in the sera without clinical disease activity. PMID:24928080

  16. Synthesis and crystal structure of cadmium coordination polymer with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.-H.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.-Y.; Zhang, N.-X.; Yi, Z.-H.

    2015-11-01

    The title compound [Cd(HBTA)(H2O)2] n (H3BTA = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure analysis. The crystal possesses a two dimensional sheet structure formed by Cd(II) metal centers and HBTA2- ligands showing honeycomb caves. The compound exhibits intensive photoluminescence.

  17. Synthesis of 3,5- and 3,6-linked calix[n]naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Shorthill, Berkeley J; Granucci, Robert G; Powell, Douglas R; Glass, Timothy E

    2002-02-01

    The preparation of calix[n]naphthalenes from derivatives of 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene is described. 1,8-Dialkyl substitution is used to direct the regiochemistry of the acid-catalyzed condensation reactions. Acyclic peri substituents lead to a 3,5-linked calix[3]naphthalene, whereas cyclic peri substituents give predominantly a calix[5]naphthalene with the corresponding 3,6-linkage. The 3,6-linked calix[4]naphthalene is prepared in pure form by a dimerization strategy. PMID:11856035

  18. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  19. A short and modular approach towards 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Nebe, Marco M; Zinn, Sina; Opatz, Till

    2016-08-01

    3,5-Dialkyl indolizidines have been prepared in four linear steps from commercially available starting materials. The sequence involves two direct α-functionalization steps and a subsequent reductive amination and provides diastereoselective access to both C-3 epimers of the 5,9-trans-substituted indolizines. The naturally occurring indolizidines 195B and 223AB have been synthesized using this methodology. PMID:27377480

  20. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  1. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  2. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services. PMID:19132096

  3. Magnetostructural transition in Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. S.; Mudryk, Ya.; Paudyal, D.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic and crystallographic properties of Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5 were investigated using dc magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of an oriented single crystal, combined with temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray powder diffraction. The compound undergoes an unusual magnetostructural transition at 40 K and a nonmagnetic second-order transition around 63 K. The detailed crystallographic study of Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5 shows that contrary to the R5(SixGe1-x)4 systems ( R is a rare-earth metal), the structural transition occurs without shear displacements of the [R5T4]∞2 slabs ( T=Si , Ge, and Sb), and a substantial volume change (-0.5%) does not lead to a change in crystallographic symmetry. The first-principles electronic structure calculations show higher interslab than intraslab ferromagnetic exchange interaction indicating that Sm5Ge4 type of structure supports a ferromagnetic ground state in Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5 .

  4. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  5. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1990-01-01

    About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

  6. Structure and applications of metal-organic framework based on cyanide and 3,5-dichloropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; El-bendary, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    The reaction of the aqueous/acetonitrile solutions of K3[Cu(CN)4] and 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-dClpy), in the presence of Me3SnCl affords a new metal-organic framework (MOF), 3∞[(CuCN)2·(3,5-dClpy)2], 1. The structure of the MOF 1 was characterized by IR, UV-visible, TGA and X-ray single crystal analysis. The structure of MOF 1 consists of CuCN building blocks which are connected by CN group forming 1D-zig-zag chains. Each chain is bridged to another chain by hydrogen bonding organizing 2D-sheets. The structure of 1 is further close packed by hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and lp-π interactions creating 3D-network. The emission spectra and the thermodynamic parameters from TGA of the MOF 1 were discussed. The MOF 1 was used as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative discoloration of methylene blue dye (MB) by dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The in vitro cytotoxic activity has been evaluated against the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. The cytotoxic effect of the MOF 1 on the viability of MCF-7 cells was determined by MTT assay.

  7. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  8. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  9. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  10. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  12. Where do the 3.5 keV photons come from? A morphological study of the Galactic Center and of Perseus

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Eric; Jeltema, Tesla; Profumo, Stefano E-mail: tesla@ucsc.edu

    2015-02-01

    We test the origin of the 3.5 keV line photons by analyzing the morphology of the emission at that energy from the Galactic Center and from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. We employ a variety of different templates to model the continuum emission and analyze the resulting radial and azimuthal distribution of the residual emission. We then perform a pixel-by-pixel binned likelihood analysis including line emission templates and dark matter templates and assess the correlation of the 3.5 keV emission with these templates. We conclude that the radial and azimuthal distribution of the residual emission is incompatible with a dark matter origin for both the Galactic center and Perseus; the Galactic center 3.5 keV line photons trace the morphology of lines at comparable energy, while the Perseus 3.5 keV photons are highly correlated with the cluster's cool core, and exhibit a morphology incompatible with dark matter decay. The template analysis additionally allows us to set the most stringent constraints to date on lines in the 3.5 keV range from dark matter decay.

  13. Theoretical study of the resonance Raman spectra for meso-tetrakis(3,5-di-tertiarybutylphenyl)-porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ren-hui; Wei, Wen-mei; Zhu, Li-li; Shi, Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Applying time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), we study the resonance Raman spectra for the Q and B bands of the meso-tetrakis(3,5-di-tertiarybutylphenyl)-porphyrin (H2TBPP) molecule including both Raman A term (Franck-Condon term) and Raman B term (Herzberg-Teller term) contributions. It is found that Raman B term can be one order of magnitude larger than Raman A term and dominates resonance Raman for the Q band resonance. In comparison with the recent experimental Raman spectra of H2TBPP with incident light frequency 532 nm, we predict the absence of 1580 cm-1 band in the resonance Raman spectra which agrees well with the experimental results, whereas the previous theoretical calculation using non-resonance strategy failed to do so.

  14. Synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of 3,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles containing flurophenyl and trifluoromethanephenyl moieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ya; Tseng, Wen-Che; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kaneko, Kimiyoshi; Takayama, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Masayuki; Yang, Wen-Chin; Wu, Jin Bin; Juang, Shin-Hun; Wong, Fung Fuh

    2011-09-15

    An efficient 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition method was performed for the synthesis of a series of monofluoro- and trifluoromethane-3,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles. This efficient cycloaddition method was to react hydrazonoyl hydrochlorides with a series of aldehydes in the presence of NEt(3) as catalytic basic agent to provide the corresponding product in 28-94%. Their growth inhibitory results against cancer cells indicated that some of the fluorine- and trifluoromethane-containing compounds could effectively inhibit the growth of NCI-H226 and T-cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells. Among the compounds, trifluoromethane-containing 1,2,4-triazoles possessed the five-membered ring groups on the C-5 position of the triazolic ring, including cyclopentyl, 3-furyl, 3-thienyl, and 2-pyrrolyl, possessed the significant inhibitory activity for NCI-H226 cancer cells. PMID:21802949

  15. Use of an indwelling peripheral catheter for 3-5 day chemotherapy administration in the outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Shotkin, J D; Lombardo, F

    1996-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) and clinical pharmacists in the Hematology-Oncology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center conducted a descriptive study to determine the effectiveness and safety of using indwelling peripheral intravenous catheters (pics) for daily administration of various chemotherapeutic agents given intermittently over a 3-5 day period to outpatients. Eighty-nine adult outpatients requiring daily doses of chemotherapy including Fluorouracil (5-FU) (Solopak, Elk Grove Village, IL), Leucovorin (Immunex, Seattle, WA), Cisplatin (CDDP) (Bristol-Meyers, Princeton, NJ), Etoposide (VP-16), (Gensia, Irving, CA), Topotecan (SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA), or Taxol (Mead Johnson, Princeton, NJ), plus antiemetics were studied. Vialon 20-, 22-, or 24-gauge indwelling PICs (Becton Dickinson, Sandy, UT), were placed. Approximately 80% of patients successfully completed treatment with the original PIC in place. Daily flushing of the PIC with 2 ml [corrected] of Heplock U100 (Elkins-Sinn, Cherry Hill, NJ), maintained Heplock patency. PMID:9060358

  16. Gold(I) complexes with alkylated PTA (1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) phosphanes as anticancer metallodrugs.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Elena; Gascón, Sonia; Atrián-Blasco, Elena; Rodriguez-Yoldi, M Jesus; Cerrada, Elena; Laguna, Mariano

    2014-05-22

    New stable thiolate gold(I) derivatives containing the alkylated phosphanes [PTA-CH2Ph]Br and [PTA-CH2COOMe]Br derived from 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) have been prepared by different routes of synthesis. By the use of basic media to deprotonate the corresponding thiol in the former and by transmetallation reactions from tin (IV) complexes, in the later, thus avoiding side reactions on the phosphane. Strong antiproliferative effects are observed for most of the compounds, including the chloro- and bromo precursors with the series of phosphanes derived from PTA, in human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, PD7 and TC7 clones). Apoptosis-induced cell death is found for all compounds, being the thiolate derivatives with [PTA-CH2Ph]Br the most effective, as shown by an annexin-V/propidium iodide double-staining assay. PMID:24732792

  17. Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-12-04

    An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

  18. A new 3,5-bisporphyrinylpyridine derivative as a fluorescent ratiometric probe for zinc ions.

    PubMed

    Moura, Nuno M M; Núñez, Cristina; Santos, Sérgio M; Faustino, M Amparo F; Cavaleiro, José A S; Almeida Paz, Filipe A; Neves, M Graça P M S; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2014-05-26

    A new 3,5-disubstituted pyridine with two porphyrin moieties was prepared through an efficient synthetic approach involving 2-formyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (1), piperidine, and catalytic amounts of [La(OTf)3]. 3,5-Bis(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin-2-ylmethyl)pyridine (2) was fully characterized and its sensing ability towards Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Ag(+) was evaluated in solution by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and in gas phase by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF mass spectrometry. Strong changes in the ground and excited state were detected in the case of the soft metal ions Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+). A three-metal-per-ligand molar ratio was obtained in all cases and a significant ratiometric behavior was observed in the presence of Zn(2+) with the appearance of a new band at 608 nm, which can be assigned to a metal-to-ligand charge transfer. The system was able to quantify 79 ppb of Zn(2+) and the theoretical calculations are in accordance with the stoichiometry observed in solution. The gas-phase sensorial ability of compound 2 towards all metal ions was confirmed by using MALDI-TOF MS and in solid state by using polymeric films of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) doped with ligand 2. The results showed that compound 2 can be analytically used to develop new colorimetric molecular devices that are able to discriminate between Hg(2+) and Zn(2+) in solid phase. The crystal structure of Zn(II) complex of 3,5-bisporphyrinylpyridine was unequivocally elucidated by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:24782336

  19. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  20. Hyperpigmentation mechanism of methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate through activation of p38 and MITF induction of tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Woo, Je-Tae; Lee, Ik-Soo; Cha, Byung-Yoon

    2015-07-01

    Methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate (3,5-diCQM) has been used for the treatment of various diseases in oriental medicine, but its effect on melanogenesis has not been reported yet. In this study, the molecular mechanism of 3,5-diCQM-induced melanogenesis was investigated. It was found that 3,5-diCQM induced synthesis of melanin pigments in murine B16F10 melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 3,5-diCQM for 48 h increased extracellular and intracellular melanin production and tyrosinase activity. The expressions of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and TRP2 were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner 48 h after 3,5-diCQM treatment. Western blot analysis showed that 3,5-diCQM increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP responsive element binding as well as the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. In addition, 3,5-diCQM-stimulated cAMP production, and 3,5-diCQM-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis were attenuated by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. These results suggested that 3,5-diCQM-mediated activation of the p38 pathway may represent a novel approach for an effective therapy for vitiligo and hair graying. PMID:26018825

  1. Sodium Tetrakis[(3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBArF24): Safe Preparation, Standardized Purification, and Analysis of Hydration

    PubMed Central

    Yakelis, Neal A.; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    A safe, convenient preparation of the reagent sodium tetrakis[(3,5-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBArF24) has been devised by utilizing a magnesium-bromine exchange reaction in the absence of metallic magnesium. Purified material was then rigorously dried over P2O5 (NaBArF24 with < 500 ppm H2O by mass) or recrystallized as a hydrate (NaBArF24·2.6 ± 0.1H2O). Accurate analysis of the water content of these samples by 1H NMR was accomplished by using dimethylzirconocene [Cp2Zr(CH3)2]. PMID:19079785

  2. 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine Oxidation on Paper Devices for Horseradish Peroxidase-based Assays.

    PubMed

    Busa, Lori Shayne Alamo; Komatsu, Takeshi; Mohammadi, Saeed; Maeki, Masatoshi; Ishida, Akihiko; Tani, Hirofumi; Tokeshi, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    We report on the colorimetric oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide using horseradish peroxidase on photolithography-fabricated (P-PAD) and wax-printed (W-PAD) paper-based analytical devices. Fabricating PADs via photolithography exposes the hydrophilic areas to polymers (photoresists) and solvents, not only reducing the hydrophilicity, but also affecting the TMB-H2O2 assay system with an unavoidable incomplete elimination of photoresist during fabrication. Detection signals are then observed in the presence of photoresist residues on the P-PAD, even at a blank HRP concentration. PMID:27506705

  3. Mature Teratoma of the Temporal Bone in 3.5-Month-Old Baby Girl

    PubMed Central

    Alqurashi, Alshema; Bakry, Essa; Straube, Marta; Rickert, Christian H.; Mir-Salim, Parwis

    2015-01-01

    Mature teratoma is a benign germ cell tumor rarely located in the temporal bone. We are reporting a case of a mature teratoma of the temporal bone in a healthy borne 3.5-month-old baby girl with a 2-day suggestive history of otitis media and polypoidal mass expulsing from the external auditory canal of the left ear. A definitive diagnosis is made after complete excision and histological examination of the tissue. Total surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:25945275

  4. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  5. Antimicrobial effects of esters and amides of 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kellová, G; Sturdík, E; Stibrányi, L; Drobnica, L; Augustín, J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of 18 newly synthesized esters and amides of 3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acid on bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans), molds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium cyclopium, Rhizopus oryzae) and algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus) was investigated. The MIC values revealed antimycotic, antialgal and antibacterial activity of the studied derivatives. The antimycotic activity was found to decrease with increasing the length of the alkyl chain of esters and after introduction of amino nitrogen into the furylethylene backbone. The inhibitory effect on growth is caused by blocking bioenergetic processes, glycolysis in particular. PMID:6714854

  6. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). Version 3.5, Quick Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.; Reece, W.J.; Gertman, D.I.

    1992-10-01

    This Reference Guide contains instructions on how to install and use Version 3.5 of the NRC-sponsored Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR). The NUCLARR data management system is contained in compressed files on the floppy diskettes that accompany this Reference Guide. NUCLARR is comprised of hardware component failure data (HCFD) and human error probability (HEP) data, both of which are available via a user-friendly, menu driven retrieval system. The data may be saved to a file in a format compatible with IRRAS 3.0 and commercially available statistical packages, or used to formulate log-plots and reports of data retrieval and aggregation findings.

  7. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  8. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  9. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  10. Identification of the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes from Antarctic moss and their regulation during abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenghao; Ju, Jianfang; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-06-10

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant secondary metabolites, and their hydroxylation pattern determines their color, stability, and antioxidant capacity. The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of flavonoids is determined by the activity of two members of cytochrome P450 protein (P450) family, the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3',5'H). However, they are still not well documented in lower plants such as bryophytes. We report the identification of gene encoding F3'H, F3',5'H from Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans and their transcriptional regulation under different stress conditions. Totally, sixteen cDNAs were isolated from P. nutans by RT-PCR and RACE techniques, all of which were predicted to code for F3'Hs or F3',5'Hs based on their annotations of Blast results. Amino acid alignment showed that they possessed the featured conserved domains of flavonoid hydroxylase, including proline-rich "hinge" region, EXXR motif, oxygen binding pocket motif, heme binding domain and substrate recognition sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that moss F3'Hs and F3',5'Hs were highly conserved and have independent evolution from the monocots, dicots and ferns. Meanwhile, real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression profiling of flavonoid hydroxylase genes was influenced by diverse abiotic stresses including cold, salinity, drought or UV-B radiation and plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) or jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Since 3',4',5'-hydroxylated flavonoid-derivatives may serve a multitude of functions, including antioxidant activity and UV filters, the evolution and expression profile of flavonoid hydroxylase probably reflect the adaptive value of Antarctic moss in the acclimation of polar environment. PMID:24631264

  11. Synthesis and photo-physical properties of fluorescent 1,3,5-triazine styryl derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organic fluorophore contains well-defined D-π-A (Donor-π system-Acceptor) push-pull system have wide application in the field of NLO, OLED and high tech application. Electron donor diphenyl, triphenyl and carbazole conjugated with electron acceptor terminal through π-system were reported recently for high-tech applications. N,N-Dialkyl substituted 1,3,5-triazine also acts as donor keeping this idea in mind we developed D-π-A styryl dyes. Results Novel "Y"-shaped acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor type of compounds were synthesized from 4,4'-((6-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4diyl)bis(oxy)) dibenzaldehyde (DIPOD) as electron donors and different active methylene compounds as electron acceptors by conventional Knoevenagel condensation reaction. Their photophysical and thermal properties were investigated. Conclusion It was found that the strong electron acceptor-donor chromophoric system of these compounds showed high Stoke's shift and excellent thermal stability. Compounds showed positive solvatofluorism behavior from nonpolar to polar solvent. All compounds have good thermal stability. PMID:22142453

  12. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and <111>-oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  13. Study on kinetics of cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen in 3.5% sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjuan; Zhang, Dun; Wu, Jiajia

    2010-09-01

    Electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen in seawater on metals is of great importance for corrosion studies. The present paper studied cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen on Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE). The cyclic voltammetric results demonstrated the cathodic process on Q235 carbon steel in O2-saturated 3.5% NaCl solution contains three reactions: dissolved oxygen reduction, iron oxides reduction and hydrogen evolution. The peak potential of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is -0.85 V vs Ag/AgCl, 3 molL-1 KCl. The EIS results indicated that the ORR occurring on Q235 carbon steel is a 4-electron process and that no finite diffusion is caused by the intermediate of H2O2 produced by ORR. The RDE and RRDE voltammograms confirmed the EIS results and it was found that the number of transferred electrons for ORR was nearly 4, i.e., dissolved oxygen reduced to water.

  14. 3,5-Dimethylisoxazoles Act As Acetyl-lysine-mimetic Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Histone–lysine acetylation is a vital chromatin post-translational modification involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Bromodomains bind acetylated lysines, acting as readers of the histone-acetylation code. Competitive inhibitors of this interaction have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. With 57 distinct bromodomains known, the discovery of subtype-selective inhibitors of the histone–bromodomain interaction is of great importance. We have identified the 3,5-dimethylisoxazole moiety as a novel acetyl-lysine bioisostere, which displaces acetylated histone-mimicking peptides from bromodomains. Using X-ray crystallographic analysis, we have determined the interactions responsible for the activity and selectivity of 4-substituted 3,5-dimethylisoxazoles against a selection of phylogenetically diverse bromodomains. By exploiting these interactions, we have developed compound 4d, which has IC50 values of <5 μM for the bromodomain-containing proteins BRD2(1) and BRD4(1). These compounds are promising leads for the further development of selective probes for the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family and CREBBP bromodomains. PMID:21851057

  15. Design and realization of a planar ultrawideband antenna with notch band at 3.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Azim, Rezaul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band. PMID:25133245

  16. Formation of guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine in a flavinogenic strain of Eremothecium ashbyii.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, H; Nishikawa, Y; Nakajima, K

    1976-01-01

    The addition of caffeine caused the accumulation of a new nucleotide compound simultaneously with the rigid inhibition of ribofalvin production in non-growing cells of Eremothecium ashbyii. In the present study we tried to identify the structure of the nucleotide compound using non-growing cells of the mold. 1) It became possible to obtain a large amount of mycelia by masscultivation in a reagent tank. 2) A new nucleotide compound, referred to as compound A in the paper, was extracted with perchloric acid solution and purified by the following subsequent procedures: 1) Dowex 1 x 2 (HCOO-) column, 2) charcoal treatment, 3) DEAE-Sephadex A25 (CI-) column, 4) Dowex 1 x 2 (C1-) column, and 5) DEAE-Sephadex A25 (HCO3-) column. 3) The structure of the new nucleotide compound was proved to be guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine (GpA) from the results of the following analyses: 1) alkaline degradation, 2) UV-spectra, IR-spectra and NMR-spectra, and 3) enzymatic treatments with RNase T2 and phosphodiesterase. 4) The roles of caffeine and guanine ribonucleotidyl-(3'-5')-adenosine in connection with flavinogenesis of this mold were discussed. PMID:182940

  17. Proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, Tetsuo; Ueda, Kouhei; Oguni, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    On the polycrystalline sample of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid, 4-NH2-3,5-X2C6H2COOH, which has a symmetric dimer structure in the crystal, the proton tunneling in the hydrogen bonds has been investigated by NQR and NMR spin-lattice relaxation times T1 measurements. Two 35Cl NQR lines of the X = Cl derivative show the existence of two crystallographically inequivalent chlorine atoms in the high-temperature phase, in consistency with the reported crystal structure. Below 138 K, each splits into a doublet indicating the symmetry breaking of the benzoic acid dimer. The proton dynamics was analyzed by a coherent and incoherent tunneling models, for the high- and low-temperature phases, respectively. The temperature dependence of the correlation time of proton translation was estimated. As for the X = I derivative, the proton dynamics was discussed similarly by 1H NMR T1 data by assuming occurrence of a phase transition at low-temperature.

  18. IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPOSOMES AND OPTISON® BY ACOUSTIC SCATTERING AT 3.5 MHZ

    PubMed Central

    Coussios, Constantin-C.; Holland, Christy K.; Jakubowska, Ludwika; Huang, Shao-Ling; Macdonald, Robert C.; Nagaraj, Ashwin; McPherson, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that can encapsulate both gas and fluid. With antibody conjugation, new formulations, known as immunoliposomes, can be targeted to atheroma and other pathologic components and are, thus, being developed as novel diagnostic ultrasound (US) echo contrast agents to enhance atherosclerosis imaging. The majority of these echogenic liposomes range in diameter from 0.25 to 5.0 µm. To quantify the echogenicity of liposome suspensions of varying concentrations, the backscattering coefficient at 3.5 MHz was determined experimentally. The backscattering coefficient was also estimated theoretically as a function of air volume fraction by modeling the encapsulated air as a free air bubble and assuming single bubble scattering. For most of the liposome concentrations examined in this study (on the order of 108/mL), the backscattering coefficient equals or exceeds that of Optison® at the human clinical dosage (on the order of 104/mL). Experimental measurement of the decrease in backscattering coefficient shows promise as a sensitive method for determining whether liposomes are left intact or destroyed during imaging; thus, helping to explore their potential as a vehicle for targeted drug delivery. In addition, the attenuation of US through liposome suspensions is negligible at 3.5 MHz relative to the attenuation through Optison® (0.25 dB/cm), suggesting that liposomes have a much higher scatter-to-attenuation ratio and could be more efficient as contrast agents. PMID:14998670

  19. The Intrinsic Shape of Sagittarius A* at 3.5 mm Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Blackburn, Lindy; Fish, Vincent L.; Loinard, Laurent; Reid, Mark J.; Castillo, Edgar; Chael, Andrew A.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Hughes, David H.; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Lu, Ru-Sen; Montaña, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Sánchez, David; Schloerb, F. Peter; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Shiokawa, Hotaka; SooHoo, Jason; Vertatschitsch, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The radio emission from Sgr A{}\\ast is thought to be powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole of ∼ 4× {10}6 {M}ȯ at the Galactic Center. At millimeter wavelengths, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can directly resolve the bright innermost accretion region of Sgr A{}\\ast . Motivated by the addition of many sensitive long baselines in the north–south direction, we developed a full VLBI capability at the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). We successfully detected Sgr A{}\\ast at 3.5 mm with an array consisting of six Very Long Baseline Array telescopes and the LMT. We model the source as an elliptical Gaussian brightness distribution and estimate the scattered size and orientation of the source from closure amplitude and self-calibration analysis, obtaining consistent results between methods and epochs. We then use the known scattering kernel to determine the intrinsic two-dimensional source size at 3.5 mm: (147+/- 7 μ {{as}})× (120+/- 12 μ {{as}}), at position angle 88^\\circ +/- 7^\\circ east of north. Finally, we detect non-zero closure phases on some baseline triangles, but we show that these are consistent with being introduced by refractive scattering in the interstellar medium and do not require intrinsic source asymmetry to explain.

  20. A competition model of exogenous orienting in 3.5-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Dannemiller, J L

    1998-03-01

    Four experiments are reported on exogenous (stimulus-driven) orienting in 3.5-month-old infants. A small moving bar embedded in a field of static bars was used to draw the infant's attention to one side of the display or the other. The bars could be either red or green. In all four of these experiments sensitivity to this small moving bar was affected significantly by how unevenly the red and green bars were distributed across the visual field. Sensitivity to the moving bar was lower when most of the red bars were in the field contralateral to this probe suggesting competition between the motion stimulus and contralaterally placed red but not green bars on a small, but significant proportion of trials. This basic effect replicated in four separate experiments and depended coarsely on how unevenly the red and the green bars were distributed across the field. A competition model of exogenous orienting with a winner-take-all rule captured the most important features of the data. The distribution of color within the visual field can bias attention significantly at 3.5 months making it either more or less likely that an infant will detect a moving stimulus. PMID:9514768

  1. Acoustic characterization of liposome suspensions and Optison® at 3.5 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussios, Constantin-C.; Holland, Christy K.; Jakubowska, Ludwika; Huang, Shao-Ling; MacDonald, Robert C.; Nagaraj, Ashwin; McPherson, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Liposomes-phospholipid vesicles that can encapsulate both gas and fluid-are currently being developed as contrast agents and vehicles for targeted drug delivery. The backscattering coefficient and attenuation of liposome suspensions were measured at 3.5 MHz as a function of liposome concentration and compared to those of Optison®. The backscattering coefficient of liposomes at concentrations in excess of 1.15×108/ml exceeds that of Optison® at the clinical dose (5.0-8.0×104/ml). On the other hand, the attenuation of ultrasound through liposome suspensions is negligible relative to the attenuation through Optison® (0.25 dB/cm), suggesting that liposomes have a much higher scatter-to-attenuation ratio and could be more efficient as contrast agents. A theoretical model that treats the gas within the liposomes as a free air bubble was used to estimate the backscattering coefficient and correlated well with experimental results. Church's model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)] for Albunex® was also found to provide an accurate estimate of the backscattering coefficient of Optison®. These models suggest that the marked difference in attenuation between the two agents can be attributed to the fact that liposomes are sub-resonant in size at 3.5 MHz, but Optison® microspheres act as resonant scatterers. a)Currently at Boston University.

  2. Anti-biofilm mechanisms of 3,5-di-tert-butylphenol against clinically relevant fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rathna, Janarthanam; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2016-10-01

    The methanolic extract (PFME) of Pleurotus florida was assessed for anti-biofilm activity against Candida species. 3,5-Di-tert-butylphenol (3,5-DTB) was identified as the major antifungal constituent in PFME. In its pure form 3,5-DTB inhibits, disrupts, and reduces the viability of biofilm cells as seen from scanning electron and confocal microscopy studies. Microscopic studies and propidium iodide uptake assays confirmed that 3,5-DTB damages the cell membrane of Candida cells. In addition, 3,5-DTB induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which contribute to its pronounced anti-biofilm activity. The results of the present study show that 3,5-DTB exhibits combined anti-biofilm and conventional fungicidal activity against Candida species and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27535698

  3. Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  4. Shaping Digital Library Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rush G.

    2002-01-01

    Explores issues related to the selection and purchase of digital content in academic libraries, including commercially-produced databases, electronic journals, and books and other electronic resources that are purchased from vendors; and in-house digitization projects. Considers the degree to which standard collection management principles apply.…

  5. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  6. 40 CFR 721.9750 - 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9750 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine... identified generically as 2-chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride (PMN P-91-659)...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Strain P7-3-5, a New Flavobacteriaceae Bacterium Isolated from Intertidal Sand

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Ying; Qin, Qi-Long; Liu, Ang; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The Flavobacteriaceae bacterium strain P7-3-5 was isolated from intertidal sand of the Yellow Sea, China. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P7-3-5 formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae. The genome of strain P7-3-5 was sequenced to facilitate the physiological, ecological, and evolutionary studies of the bacteria within the family Flavobacteriaceae. PMID:23144387

  8. Genomic and Transcriptomic Studies of an RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine)-Degrading Actinobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao-Ping; Zhu, Song-Hua; Casabon, Israël; Hallam, Steven J.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Mohn, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomic analyses, and metabolic reconstruction were used to investigate Gordonia sp. strain KTR9's ability to catabolize a range of compounds, including explosives and steroids. Aspects of this mycolic acid-containing actinobacterium's catabolic potential were experimentally verified and compared with those of rhodococci and mycobacteria. PMID:22923396

  9. Genomic and transcriptomic studies of an RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading actinobacterium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao-Ping; Zhu, Song-Hua; Casabon, Israël; Hallam, Steven J; Crocker, Fiona H; Mohn, William W; Indest, Karl J; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2012-11-01

    Whole-genome sequencing, transcriptomic analyses, and metabolic reconstruction were used to investigate Gordonia sp. strain KTR9's ability to catabolize a range of compounds, including explosives and steroids. Aspects of this mycolic acid-containing actinobacterium's catabolic potential were experimentally verified and compared with those of rhodococci and mycobacteria. PMID:22923396

  10. The effect of chemical structure on the stability of physical vapor deposited glasses of 1,3,5-triarylbenzene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Cheng, Kevin; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Gao, Feng; Li, Chen; Tong, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Chih; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, William; Klinge, Lindsey; Walsh, Patrick J; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-08-28

    We detail the formation and properties associated with stable glasses (SG) formed by a series of structural analogues of 1,3-bis(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (α,α,β-TNB), a well-studied SG former. Five compounds with similar structural properties were synthesized and physical vapor-deposited with a constant deposition rate at various substrate temperatures (Tdep) in the range between 0.73 Tg and 0.96 Tg. These molecules include α,α,β-TNB, 3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbenzene (α,α-P), 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene (α,α-A), 9,9'-(5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)dianthracene (β-AA), and 3,3',5,5'-tetra(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl (α,α,α,α-TNBP). Ellipsometry was used to study the transformations from the as-deposited glasses into ordinary glasses (OG). The stability of each film was evaluated by measuring the fictive temperature (Tf) and density difference between the as-deposited glass and OG. It is demonstrated that all five molecules can form SGs upon vapor deposition in this temperature range. In-depth studies on the dependence of the stability of as-deposited glasses upon Tdep were performed with three molecules, α,α,β-TNB, α,α-P, and α,α-A. The general trends of stability were comparable at the same Tdep/Tg for these three compounds. Similar to previous studies on α,α,β-TNB, vapor-deposited glasses of α,α-P and α,α-A formed the most stable structures around Tdep = 0.8-0.85 Tg. The most stable glass of each molecule showed the lowest thermal expansion coefficient compared to OG and a positive optical birefringence. However, the SGs of α,α-A were less stable compared to α,α-P and α,α,β-TNB at the relative Tdep/Tg. Based on Arrhenius extrapolation of the aging time, as a measure of stability, the most stable α,α-A glass was only aged for a few years as opposed to hundreds or thousands of years for other glasses. We hypothesize that the reduced stability is due to slower mobility at the free surface of

  11. Synthesis and high-throughput characterization of structural analogues of molecular glassformers: 1,3,5-trisarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianyi; Cheng, Kevin; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Gao, Feng; Glor, Ethan C; Li, Mu; Walsh, Patrick J; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-10-14

    We report the synthesis and characterization of an analogous series of small organic molecules derived from a well-known glass former, 1,3-bis(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (α,α,β-TNB). Synthesized molecules include α,α,β-TNB, 3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbenzene (α,α-P), 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene (α,α-A), 9,9'-(5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)dianthracene (β-AA) and 3,3',5,5'-tetra(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl (α,α,α,α-TNBP). The design of molecules was based on increasing molecular weight with varied π-π interactions in one or more substituents. The synthesis is based on Suzuki cross-coupling of 1-bromo-3-chloro-5-iodobenzene with arylboronic acids, which allows attachment of various substituents to tailor the chemical structure. The bulk compounds were characterized using NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thin films of these compounds were produced using physical vapor deposition and were subsequently annealed above the glass transition temperatures (Tg). For each molecular glass, cooling rate-dependent glass transition temperature measurements (CR-Tg) were performed using ellipsometry as a high-throughput method to characterize thin film properties. CR-Tg allows rapid characterization of glassy properties, such as Tg, apparent thermal expansion coefficients, apparent activation energy at Tg and fragility. DSC measurements confirmed the general trend that increasing molecular weight leads to increasing melting point (Tm) and Tg. Furthermore, CR-Tg provided evidence that the introduction of stronger π-interacting substituents in the chosen set of structural analogues increases fragility and decreases the ability to form glasses, such that β-AA has the largest fragility and highest tendency to crystallize among all the compounds. These strong interactions also significantly elevate Tg and promote more harmonic intermolecular potentials, as observed by decreasing value of the apparent

  12. Characterization of large volume 3.5″×8″ LaBr3:Ce detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaz, A.; Pellegri, L.; Riboldi, S.; Camera, F.; Blasi, N.; Boiano, C.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Ceruti, S.; Coelli, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Csatlòs, M.; Frega, S.; Gulyàs, J.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Lodetti, S.; Million, B.; Owens, A.; Quarati, F.; Stuhl, L.; Wieland, O.

    2013-11-01

    The properties of large volume cylindrical 3.5″×8″ (89 mm×203 mm) LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL photo-multiplier tube were investigated. These crystals are among the largest ones ever produced and still need to be fully characterized to determine how these detectors can be utilized and in which applications. We tested the detectors using monochromatic γ-ray sources and in-beam reactions producing γ rays up to 22.6 MeV; we acquired PMT signal pulses and calculated detector energy resolution and response linearity as a function of γ-ray energy. Two different voltage dividers were coupled to the Hamamatsu R10233-100SEL PMT: the Hamamatsu E1198-26, based on straightforward resistive network design, and the “LABRVD”, specifically designed for our large volume LaBr3:Ce scintillation detectors, which also includes active semiconductor devices. Because of the extremely high light yield of LaBr3:Ce crystals we observed that, depending on the choice of PMT, voltage divider and applied voltage, some significant deviation from the ideally proportional response of the detector and some pulse shape deformation appear. In addition, crystal non-homogeneities and PMT gain drifts affect the (measured) energy resolution especially in case of high-energy γ rays. We also measured the time resolution of detectors with different sizes (from 1″×1″ up to 3.5″×8″), correlating the results with both the intrinsic properties of PMTs and GEANT simulations of the scintillation light collection process. The detector absolute full energy efficiency was measured and simulated up to γ-rays of 30 MeV

  13. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  14. catena-Poly[[[diaqua-cadmium(II)]-bis-[μ-3,5-bis-(isonicotinamido)benzoato

    PubMed

    Chen, Man-Sheng; Deng, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Kuang, Dai-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, {[Cd(C(19)H(13)N(4)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n) or {[Cd(BBA)(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·4H(2)O}(n), where BBA is 3,5-bis-(iso-nicotin-amido)-benzoate, is isotypic with its Mn isologue [Chen et al. (2009 ▶). J. Coord. Chem.62, 2421-2428]. The cation sits on a twofold axis and is six-coordinated in a slightly distorted octa-hedral geometry; the polyhedra are linked into zigzag chains, which are further connected by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds as well as π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance of 3.639 (2) Å], giving a three-dimensional supra-molecular framework. PMID:21587402

  15. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate waves in dictyostelium discoideum: a demonstration by isotope dilution-fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchik, K.J.; Devreotes, P.N.

    1981-04-24

    The distribution of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in fields of aggregating amoebae of Dictyostelium discoidenum was examined by a novel isotope dilution-fluorographic technique. Cellular cyclic AMP was visualized by its competition with exogenous /sup 3/H-labeled cyclic AMP for high-affinity binding sites on protein kinase immobilized on a Millipore filter used to blot the monolayer. The cyclic AMP was distributed in spiral or concentric circular wave patterns which centered on the foci of the aggregations. These patterns were correlated with those of cell shape change that propagate through the monolayers. These observations support the hypothesis that the aggregation process in Dictyostelium is mediated by the periodic relay of cyclic AMP signals and suggest a simple scheme for the dynamics of the aggregation process.

  16. Radar observations at 3.5 and 12.6 cm wavelength of asteroid 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the asteroid 433 Eros using 3.5 and 12.6 cm radar waves indicates that the surface is very much rougher than any planetary or lunar surface observed by this method. A surface completely covered with sharp edges, pits, subsurface holes, or embedded chunks with scale sizes on the order of our wavelengths seems to be indicated. A model based on a rough rotating triaxial ellipsoid having radii in the rotation equator of 18.6 and 7.9 km agrees well with our data, although a strong wobble in the apparent center frequency of the spectra as rotation progresses indicates that one side may be more reflective than the other, or more likely, that the projected axis of rotation does not equally divide the projected area.

  17. Detecting extra-solar planets with the Japanese 3.5 m SPICA space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Lyu; Enya, Keigo; Tanaka, Shinichiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Kataza, Hirokazu; Tamura, Motohide; Guyon, Olivier

    2007-04-01

    We present the 3.5 m SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) space telescope, the launch of which is schedule around year 2015 by the Japanese HII-A rocket, and specifically discuss its use in the context of direct observation of extra-solar planets. This actively cooled (4.5 K), single aperture telescope will operate in the mid and far infrared spectral regions, and up to submillimetric wavelengths (200 μm). The lowest spectral region (5 to 20 μm), where the spatial resolution is the most favorable, will be dedicated to high contrast imaging with coronagraphy. This article describes the SPICA coronagraph project in terms of science, as well as our efforts to study a suitable instrumental concept, compatible with the constraints of the telescope architecture. To cite this article: L. Abe et al., C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  18. Widespread effusive volcanism on Mercury likely ended by about 3.5 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Chapman, Clark R.; Denevi, Brett W.; Evans, Alexander J.; Klimczak, Christian; Banks, Maria E.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-07-01

    Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that the largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury were emplaced around 3.7 Ga, as determined with recent model production function chronologies for impact crater formation on that planet. To test the hypothesis that all major smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced by about that time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for the nine next-largest deposits, which we interpret also as volcanic. Our crater density measurements are consistent with those of the largest areas of smooth plains on the planet. Model ages based on recent crater production rate estimates for Mercury imply that the main phase of plains volcanism on Mercury had ended by ~3.5 Ga, with only small-scale volcanism enduring beyond that time. Cessation of widespread effusive volcanism is attributable to interior cooling and contraction of the innermost planet.

  19. Heat transfer mapping in 3-5 μm planar light emitting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.; Dazzi, A.; Gross, N.; Ortega, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    We report on the heat distribution inside a p+-InAsSb(Zn)/n-InAsSbP/n-InAs planar structure, emitting at 4.3 μm at 300 K. The experimental setup consists of both an infrared scanning microscope and a fiber tip as remote heat sensors (spatial resolution of some μm) operating in a time-resolved (10 μs temporal resolution) manner in the 3-5 μm spectral range. By comparing light and heat maps, we show that current crowding generates local hot regions (somewhat like heat traps) and remarkable temperature gradients (up to 3000 °C/cm) inside the emitting structure.

  20. DFT STUDY OF CO AND NO ADSORPTION ON BORON NITRIDE (BN)n = 3 - 5 NANOCLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Pangh, Abdolhakim; Ghorbanpour, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of CO and NO molecules by different orientations on (BN)n=3-5 clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Total electronic energies have been corrected for geometrical counterpoise (gCP) and dispersion (D3) energies at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Formation of a new sigma bond between the gas and (BN)3 cluster, atom in molecules (AIM) results, density of states spectrums (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, and visualization of wave function of molecular orbitals in the nearest bonding regions to the Fermi level have confirmed that adsorption of CO by carbon end atom, and NO by nitrogen end atom is covalent in nature, so that the charge transfer is occurred from gas molecule to the cluster.

  1. Geophysical detection of relict metasomatism from an Archean (approximately 3.5 Ga) subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Rondenay, Stéphane; Evans, Rob L; Snyder, David B

    2009-11-20

    When plate tectonics started on Earth has been uncertain, and its role in the assembly of early continents is not well understood. By synthesizing coincident seismic and electrical profiles, we show that subduction processes formed the Archean Slave craton in Canada. The spatial overlap between a seismic discontinuity and a conductive anomaly at approximately 100 kilometers depth, in conjunction with the occurrence of mantle xenoliths rich in secondary minerals representative of a metasomatic front, supports cratonic assembly by subduction and accretion of lithospheric fragments. Although evidence of cratonic assembly is rarely preserved, these results suggest that plate tectonics was operating as early as Paleoarchean times, approximately 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). PMID:19965424

  2. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength. [of sun, Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Rhodes, P. J.; Davis, J. H.; Hollis, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Careful observations have been made at 86.1 GHz to derive the absolute brightness temperatures of the sun (7914 + or - 192 K), Venus (357.5 + or - 13.1 K), Jupiter (179.4 + or - 4.7 K), and Saturn (153.4 + or - 4.8 K) with a standard error of about three percent. This is a significant improvement in accuracy over previous results at millimeter wavelengths. A stable transmitter and novel superheterodyne receiver were constructed and used to determine the effective collecting area of the Millimeter Wave Observatory (MWO) 4.9-m antenna relative to a previously calibrated standard gain horn. The thermal scale was set by calibrating the radiometer with carefully constructed and tested hot and cold loads. The brightness temperatures may be used to establish an absolute calibration scale and to determine the antenna aperture and beam efficiencies of other radio telescopes at 3.5-mm wavelength.

  3. Failure analysis of a 3.5 inch, 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, Kenneth H.

    1987-01-01

    The 3.5 inch, 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen cell was on a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) test regime and was being cycled at 10 C and 60 percent depth of discharge. At cycle number 511 the Automatic Control and Data Acquisition System (ACDAS) terminated the test when the end of discharge voltage dropped below the 1.00 volt cutoff. Upon removal of the stack assembly from the pressure vessel, portions of the zircar separator were found to be completely missing. Upon further examination portions of both the positive and negative plates were found to be missing from its substrate and several gas screens were damaged due to excessive heat which caused fusing. The postulated cause of failure is free electrolyte in the cell which caused oxygen channelization resulting in localized recombination which degraded the stack components.

  4. Optimization of 3,5-Dimethylisoxazole Derivatives as Potent Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested. PMID:23517011

  5. Mean flow and noise measurements in a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Moore, W. O., III

    1982-01-01

    The use of Mach 3.5 two-dimensional rapid expansion nozzle for wind tunnel testing at supersonic speeds and low noise conditions encountered in high altitude flights is described. The supersonic pilot quiet tunnel is located at the NASA Langley Research Center and a description of the facility is provided, along with instrumentation and noise measurement test data at 30, 50, and 75 psia. The mean pitot pressure distributions, rms noise levels, the effect of unit Reynolds number, wall waviness, wall contaminants, and the effects of closing the bleed valve are analyzed. Typical laminar and turbulent spectra are presented, along with a summary of the effect of slot throat adjustment on the power spectra. Comparisons are made of the power spectra with the bleed valve open and closed, and of the rms fluctuating pressures with levels from conventional nozzles, and the performance capabilities are evaluated for use in transition studies.

  6. ACIRF user's guide for the general model (Version 3.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Roger A.

    1992-06-01

    Design and evaluation of Radio Frequency (RF) systems that must operate through ionospheric disturbances require an accurate channel model. Such a model can be used to construct realizations of the received signal for use in digital simulations of transionospheric communications links and radars or hardware channel simulators. This report describes the Fortran program ACIRF (Version 3.5) that generates realizations of the channel impulse response functions at the outputs of multiple antennas with arbitrary beamwidths, pointing angles, and relative positions. A general model that varies smoothly between the frozen-in and turbulent models is used for the temporal fluctuations of the impulse response functions. Examples are given which illustrate the effects on the received signal of the variation from the turbulent to frozen-in models, and the effects of antennas with arbitrary sizes and pointing angles. ACIRF inputs and outputs are described.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations on 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Tokay, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    In this study 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans were synthesized from benzaldehyde-N-phenylhydrazone and appropriate phenyldiazonium salts having CH(3), Br, and Cl at the o-, m-, and p-positions of 1-phenyl ring. Their structures were determined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectra. Bathochromic effect in accordance with the electron-donating effect of CH(3), Br, and Cl group and its magnitude were dependent upon type and position of substituent on the ring. The ground-state geometries and absorption wavelengths for 1-phenyl substituted formazans were studied with density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The calculations were carried out by using PBE1PBE functional with 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set for lambda(max) of the UV-vis spectra for the studied formazans. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental and computed values. PMID:19910246

  8. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  9. Disruption of crystalline structure of Sn3.5Ag induced by electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Han-Chie; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2016-03-01

    This study presented the disruption of the Sn and Ag3Sn lattice structures of Sn3.5Ag solder induced by electric current at 5-7 × 103 A/cm2 with a high resolution transmission electron microscope investigation and electron diffraction analysis. The electric current stressing induced a high degree of strain on the alloy, as estimated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shift of the current stressed specimen. The XRD peak intensity of the Sn matrix and the Ag3Sn intermetallic compound diminished to nearly undetectable after 2 h of current stressing. The electric current stressing gave rise to a high dislocation density of up to 1017/m2. The grain morphology of the Sn matrix became invisible after prolonged current stressing as a result of the coalescence of dislocations.

  10. The 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group: A remnant of ancient oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between seawater and submarine volcanic rock has had important consequences for the chemistry of the ocean during the Phanerozoic. Most extant terranes have been regionally metamorphosed to the amphibolite and granulite facies, so that their precursor lithologies and structures are not readily determinable. However, the 3.5 b.y. old supracrustal rocks of the Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa, have not been subjected to high grade regional metamorphism, and therefore there was reason to hope that a laboratory investigation might reveal the extent to which these rocks had been exposed to subseafloor hydrothermal activity. Hart and de Wit describe bulk geochemical evidence from the entire suite as well as field evidence which support the concept of hydrothermal activity in the Barberton Mountain Land. Mineralogical and textural features which unequivocally mark it as a submarine sequence emplaced in a midocean ridge/fracture zone or back arc/fracture zone environment are briefly discussed.

  11. Hydrothermal alteration in the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R.; Dewit, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    K-Ar studies of authigenic and alteration phases from the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht group of South Africa delineate hydrothermal metamorphism that ended 3.3 b.y. years ago. A whole rock K-Ar errochron from analysis of barite, dolomite, chert, and serpentinite (komatiite) gives an age of 3.3 b.y. with an intercept of 1,678 + or - 103. The 3.3. b.y. age for the metamorphism in the Onverwacht was confirmed by the Argon isotopes stepwise heating experiments of komatiites and basaltic komatiites from the Onverwacht Group. In addition, the errochron suggests all the phase studied equilibrated with a reservoir of hydrothermal argon with relatively uniform isotopic composition. The concept of hydrothermal activity in the Onverwacht Group is discussed and illustrated with photographs.

  12. Effects of wind-tunnel noise on swept-cylinder transition at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Beckwith, I. E.; Chen, F.-J.

    1986-01-01

    Transition data are reported for circular cylinders at swept angles of 45 and 60 degrees in the Mach 3.5 pilot-low-disturbance tunnel where free-stream noise levels are varied from approximately .05-0.5 percent in terms of the rms fluctuating pressure normalized by the mean static pressure. Results indicate that end plate or boundary layer trip disturbances at the upstream end of the cylinders cause turbulent flow along the entire test Reynolds number range of 10-170 thousand per inch. With all end plate and trip disturbances removed, transition at the attachment lines occurred at free-stream Reynolds numbers based on diameters of about 70-80 thousand, independent of stream noise levels. The installation of small trips on the attachement lines caused transition at lower Reynolds numbers, depending on both the roughness height and the wind tunnel noise level.

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluation of GPR40/FFAR1 agonists containing 3,5-dimethylisoxazole.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingyun; Zhang, Jian; Si, Lianghui; Han, Li; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Hui; Xing, Junhao; Zhao, Leilei; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2016-06-30

    GPR40 is an attractive target due to its glucose-stimulated insulin secretion effect with low risk of causing hypoglycemia, which also can be seen from the clinical studies using TAK-875 (fasiglifam). In the present studies, we discovered a series of analogues containing 3,5-dimethylisoxazole as potent GPR40 agonists, especially compound 11k with an EC50 value of 15.9 nM. Moreover, compound 11k reduced glucose excursion to 23.1% in ICR mice and 29.5% in type 2 diabetic C57BL/6 mice at 30 mg/kg. It also exhibited satisfactory PK profile. Docking studies were conducted to explain the interaction mode of this series. In summary, compound 11k with robust efficacy in vitro and in vivo is a promising drug candidate for further investigation. PMID:27054485

  14. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. PMID:20831186

  15. The structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideaki; Kato, Koji; Yamashita, Eiki; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Zhou, Yong; Yao, Min; Iwasaki, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masato; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2009-01-16

    Vaults are among the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles and are found in numerous eukaryotic species. Roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, but the cellular function remains unclear. We have determined the x-ray structure of rat liver vault at 3.5 angstrom resolution and show that the cage structure consists of a dimer of half-vaults, with each half-vault comprising 39 identical major vault protein (MVP) chains. Each MVP monomer folds into 12 domains: nine structural repeat domains, a shoulder domain, a cap-helix domain, and a cap-ring domain. Interactions between the 42-turn-long cap-helix domains are key to stabilizing the particle. The shoulder domain is structurally similar to a core domain of stomatin, a lipid-raft component in erythrocytes and epithelial cells. PMID:19150846

  16. Hazard identification for 3,5-dichlorophenol in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Zagorc-Koncan, Jana; Zgajnar Gotvajn, Andreja; Tisler, Tatjana

    2002-01-01

    The risk assessment of substances in various environmental compartments is essential for their proper, safe and environmentally friendly production, handling, use and final deposition or destruction. Hazard identification is an important part of risk assessment. The aim of our research was to present a methodology for the hazard identification of substances dangerous to the aquatic environment according to the 93/21/EEC Directive relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances, from the adverse effect assessment of chemicals in European Union. A battery of toxicity tests and biodegradability studies with 3,5-dichlorophenol were performed. The substance was classified as toxic to aquatic organisms with possible long-term adverse effects. The presented methodology assures reliable data for the classification and labelling of substances according to their harmful effect on aquatic biota, suitable for the competent authorities at the national and EU level. PMID:12097992

  17. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  18. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  19. Aryl-1,3,5-triazine derivatives as histamine H4 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Łażewska, Dorota; Więcek, Małgorzata; Ner, Joanna; Kamińska, Katarzyna; Kottke, Tim; Schwed, J Stephan; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kuder, Kamil; Latacz, Gniewomir; Grosicki, Marek; Sapa, Jacek; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Stark, Holger; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-08-18

    A series of novel 2-amino-4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine derivatives with different aryl substituents in the 6-position was designed, synthesized and evaluated for histamine H4 receptor (H4R) affinity in Sf9 cells expressing human H4R co-expressed with G-protein subunits. Triazine derivative 8 with a 6-(p-chlorophenyl) substituent showed the highest affinity with hH4R Ki value of 203 nM and was classified as an antagonist in cAMP accumulation assay. This compound, identified as a new lead structure, demonstrated also anti-inflammatory properties in preliminary studies in mice (carrageenan-induced edema test) and neither possessed significant antiproliferative activity, nor modulated CYP3A4 activity up to concentration of 25 μM. In order to discuss structure-activity relationships molecular modeling and docking studies were undertaken. PMID:24996140

  20. Crossflow Instability on a Wedge-Cone at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Balakumar, P.; McDaniel, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-on activity to the HyBoLT flight experiment, a six degree half angle wedge-cone model at zero angle of attack has been employed to experimentally and computationally study the boundary layer crossflow instability at Mach 3.5 under low disturbance freestream conditions. Computed meanflow and linear stability analysis results are presented along with corresponding experimental Pitot probe data. Using a model-mounted probe survey apparatus, data acquired to date show a well defined stationary crossflow vortex pattern on the flat wedge surface. This effort paves the way for additional detailed, calibrated flow field measurements of the crossflow instability, both stationary and traveling modes, and transition-to-turbulence under quiet flow conditions as a means of validating existing stability theory and providing a foundation for dynamic flight instrumentation development.

  1. Delivery of 3-5 μm laser radiation by a hollow waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, M.; Jelínková, H.; Miyagi, M.; Iwai, K.; Doroshenko, M.

    2014-04-01

    Radiation delivery is required for various applications—mainly in medicine or industry. Due to the necessity of delivering IR, UV or powerful radiation, its transfer by hollow waveguides was investigated because standard glass fibers cause serious losses. Our special waveguide was based on a fused silica glass capillary tube with an inner silver layer and dielectric film (cyclic olefin polymer (COP)). Three lasers were designed and constructed as mid-infrared sources, namely Er:YAG (2.94 μm), Dy: PbGa2S4 (4.3 μm) and Fe:ZnSe (4.45 μm). The delivered spatial beam profile and transfer capability of 3-5 μm radiation by the COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide were characterized.

  2. 3,5-Difluorobenzonitrile: ab initio calculations, FTIR and Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, V K; Alcolea Palafox, M; Tanwar, R P; Mittal, Lalit

    2002-07-01

    Geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and several thermodynamic parameters were calculated using ab initio quantum chemical methods for the 3,5-difluorobenzonitrile molecule. The results were compared with the experimental values. With the help of three specific scaling procedures, the observed vibrational wavenumbers in FTIR and Raman spectra were analysed and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule. Most of the modes have wavenumbers in the expected range and the error obtained was in general very low. Using PEDs the contributions were determined for the different modes to each wavenumber. From the PED, it is apparent that the frequency corresponding to C[triple bond]N stretching contains 87% contribution from the C[triple bond]N stretching force constant and it mixes with the C-CN stretching mode 13 to the extent of 12%. Other general conclusions were also deduced. PMID:12164497

  3. True ferroelectric switching in thin films of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA).

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, A V; Putzeys, T; Urbanavičiūtė, I; Janssen, R A J; Wübbenhorst, M; Sijbesma, R P; Kemerink, M

    2016-08-24

    We have investigated the ferroelectric polarization switching properties of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA), which is a model system for a large class of novel organic ferroelectric materials. In the solid state BTAs form a liquid crystalline columnar hexagonal phase that provides long range order that was previously shown to give rise to hysteretic dipolar switching. In this work the nature of the polar switching process is investigated by a combination of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, depth-resolved pyroelectric response measurements, and classical frequency- and time-dependent electrical switching. We show that BTAs, when brought in a homeotropically aligned hexagonal liquid crystalline phase, are truly ferroelectric. Analysis of the transient switching behavior suggests that the ferroelectric switching is limited by a highly dispersive nucleation process, giving rise to a wide distribution of switching times. PMID:27510767

  4. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Imagery Using Modtran 3.5 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Fabian O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    When performing satellite remote sensing of the earth in the solar spectrum, atmospheric scattering and absorption effects provide the sensors corrupted information about the target's radiance characteristics. We are faced with the problem of reconstructing the signal that was reflected from the target, from the data sensed by the remote sensing instrument. This article presents a method for simulating radiance characteristic curves of satellite images using a MODTRAN 3.5 band model (BM) code to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), and proposes a method for the implementation of an adaptive system for automated atmospheric corrections. The simulation procedure is carried out as follows: (1) for each satellite digital image a radiance characteristic curve is obtained by performing a digital number (DN) to radiance conversion, (2) using MODTRAN 3.5 a simulation of the images characteristic curves is generated, (3) the output of the code is processed to generate radiance characteristic curves for the simulated cases. The simulation algorithm was used to simulate Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for two types of locations: the ocean surface, and a forest surface. The simulation procedure was validated by computing the error between the empirical and simulated radiance curves. While results in the visible region of the spectrum where not very accurate, those for the infrared region of the spectrum were encouraging. This information can be used for correction of the atmospheric effects. For the simulation over ocean, the lowest error produced in this region was of the order of 105 and up to 14 times smaller than errors in the visible region. For the same spectral region on the forest case, the lowest error produced was of the order of 10-4, and up to 41 times smaller than errors in the visible region,

  5. Optical spectroscopy of europium 3,5-dinitrosalicylates-Intense red luminophores.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, K; Tsaryuk, V; Kudryashova, V; Zolin, V; Yakovlev, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2009-06-01

    It was found, that alkali metal-europium dinitrosalicylates of composition M(3)Eu(3,5-NO(2)-Sal)(3).nH(2)O (M=Li, Na, K, Cs) are intense red luminophores with wide excitation band. Using methods of optical spectroscopy we studied the influence of nitrogroups and alkali metal counterions on Eu(3+) luminescence efficiency and on processes of excitation energy transfer to Eu(3+) ion in compounds synthesized. The Eu(3+) luminescence and Eu(3+) luminescence excitation spectra, as well as vibrational IR and Raman spectra were investigated. Details of the structure of compounds were discussed. The network of hydrogen bonds in lanthanide dinitrosalicylates is weakening at introduction of large alkali metal ions in compounds and at the increase of the temperature. As a consequence, the long-wavelength shift of the intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) band in Eu(3+) excitation spectra arises at inclusion of Cs(+) cations instead of Li(+) in the crystal lattice of europium dinitrosalicylates and at heating of these compounds. To obtain the energy of the lowest excited triplet state the phosphorescence spectra of alkali metal-gadolinium compounds M(3)Gd(3,5-NO(2)-Sal)(3).nH(2)O, of alkali metal dinitrosalicylate and salicylate salts were measured with time delay. Change of the energies of ligand electronic states and ligand-metal charge transfer state (LM CTS) can give a two-three orders of magnitude enhancement of the Eu(3+) luminescence efficiency in dinitrosalicylates in comparison with salicylates and ten-fold enhancement at the substitution of Li(+) and Na(+) for Cs(+) in dinitrosalicylates. PMID:19186098

  6. Structure of the mouse Stat 3/5 locus: evolution from Drosophila to zebrafish to mouse.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, K; Cui, Y; Riedlinger, G; Robinson, P; Lehoczky, J; Zon, L; Oka, T; Dewar, K; Hennighausen, L

    2001-01-15

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) are transcription factors that can be activated by many cytokines. While Drosophila contains only one Stat (d-Stat), mammals contain seven, with STATs 3, 5a, and 5b being the closest functional relatives. To understand the evolutionary relationship between d-Stat and vertebrate STATs 3 and 5, we isolated, sequenced, and analyzed the zebrafish Stat3 (z-Stat3) gene and a 500-kb region spanning mouse chromosome 11, 60.5 cM containing three Stat genes (m-Stats). Within this region we identified the genes encoding m-Stats 3, 5a, and 5b, Cnp1, Hcrt/Orexin, Ptrf, GCN5, mDj11, and four new genes. The 5' ends of the m-Stat5a and m-Stat5b genes are juxtaposed to each other, and the 3' ends of the m-Stat3 and Stat5a genes face each other. While the m-Stat5a and m-Stat3 genes have one promoter each, which are active in many tissues, the m-Stat5b gene acquired two distinct promoters. The distal promoter is expressed ubiquitously, and transcription from the proximal promoter is restricted to liver, muscle, and mammary tissue. Through a comparison of exon-intron boundaries from the m-Stat3, m-Stat5a, and m-Stat5b, z-Stat3, and d-Stat genes, we deduced their evolutionary relationship. We propose that the Stat3 and Stat5 lineages are derived from the duplication of a common primordial gene and that d-Stat is a part of the Stat5 lineage. PMID:11161808

  7. Corrosion behavior of aluminum-alumina composites in aerated 3.5 percent chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo Hurtado, Paul Omar

    Aluminum based metal matrix composites are finding many applications in engineering. Of these Al-Al2O3 composites appear to have promise in a number of defense applications because of their mechanical properties. However, their corrosion behavior remains suspect, especially in marine environments. While efforts are being made to improve the corrosion resistance of Al-Al2O3 composites, the mechanism of corrosion is not well known. In this study, the corrosion behavior of powder metallurgy processed Al-Cu alloy reinforced with 10, 15, 20 and 25 vol. % Al2O3 particles (XT 1129, XT 2009, XT 2048, XT 2031) was evaluated in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution using microstructural and electrochemical measurements. AA1100-O and AA2024T4 monolithic alloys were also studied for comparison purposes. The composites and unreinforced alloys were subjected to potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) testing. Addition of 25 vol. % Al2O 3 to the base alloys was found to increase its corrosion resistance considerably. Microstructural studies revealed the presence of intermetallic Al2Cu particles in these composites that appeared to play an important role in the observations. Pitting potential for these composites was near corrosion potential values, and repassivation potential was below the corresponding corrosion potential, indicating that these materials begin to corrode spontaneously as soon as they come in contact with the 3.5 % NaCl solution. EIS measurements indicate the occurrence of adsorption/diffusion phenomena at the interface of the composites which ultimately initiate localized or pitting corrosion. Polarization resistance values were extracted from the EIS data for all the materials tested. Electrically equivalent circuits are proposed to describe and substantiate the corrosive processes occurring in these Al-Al2O 3 composite materials.

  8. Stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Pfisterer, Richard N.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.

    2003-02-01

    A stray light analysis of the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 meter telescope system was done to understand the performance for a variety of imaging modes. The telescope system consists of the 3.5-m telescope, its enclosure, and its associated imaging cameras. The purpose of the study was to assess the stray light performance of this system, identify where modification(s) would improve the system off-axis rejection characteristics, and assess the effectiveness of those modifications. A detailed telescope system geometry model was created, and scatter models were created for telescope and enclosure components. The computer model we created duplicated the pinhole stray light images taken with the telescope, thereby verifying the model. The Point Source Transmittance (PST), a commonly used metric for assessing stray light was used to evaluate the stray light performance of the system for a number of off-axis angles and to suggest modifications to enhance the system. The baseline PST of the existing system shows virtually no falloff with off-axis angle in the plane of the observatory slit. This is the result of (1) the focal plane having a large, unobstructed view of the Nasmyth mirror and cell, primary mirror cell, and baffles mounted on the Nasmyth cell, (2) relatively unobstructed illumination of telescope over a large range of angles in the plane of the slit, and (3) secondary and Nasmyth baffles that are not enclosed. These attributes create a series of first-level scatter paths that directly illuminate the focal plane. Our approach to stray light reduction was to address the light paths revealed by the various PST calculations. Our calculations have shown that significant gains can be realized with simple modifications to the telescope system.

  9. Transfer capability of 3-5 μm radiation by hollow glass waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Iwai, Katsumasa; Matsuura, Yuji; Doroshenko, Maxim

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was the delivery investigation of 3 - 5 μm laser radiation by a hollow glass waveguide. The waveguide was formed by a supporting fused silica glass capillary tube with a silver layer deposited on the inside wall. As an inner dielectric material film, a cyclic olefin polymer (COP) was used. The primary parameters of the sample investigated were the inner/outer diameter 700/850 μm and the length of up to 110 cm. As radiation sources, three lasers generating in mid-infrared spectral region were designed and constructed. The flash-lamp-pumped Er:YAG laser operated at 2.94 μm wavelength. The second system was 4.3 μm Dy:PbGa2S4 laser. Its coherent pumping was performed by the flashlamp pumped Er:YLF laser generating at 1.73 μm wavelength. The third laser emitting at 4.45 μm was based on Fe:ZnSe active medium pumped by electro-optically Q-switched Er:YAG laser radiation (2.94 μm). The study presented describes a transfer capability of 3 - 5 μm radiation by COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide. The delivery efficiency and spatial structure were investigated. The transmission measured reached 84 %, 58 %, and 64 % for Er:YAG (2.94 μm), Dy:PbGa2S4 (4.3 μm), and Fe:ZnSe (4.45 μm) laser systems, respectively. The spatial beam structure transferred was similar for all systems. The laser delivery system based on COP/Ag hollow glass waveguide can be useful for some mid-infrared radiation applications.

  10. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine (3,5-T2) Exerts Thyromimetic Effects on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, Body Composition, and Energy Metabolism in Male Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lietzow, Julika; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Hoefig, Carolin S.; Wiedmer, Petra; Schweizer, Ulrich; Köhrle, Josef; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Effective and safe antiobesity drugs are still needed in face of the obesity pandemic worldwide. Recent interventions in rodents revealed 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) as a metabolically active iodothyronine affecting energy and lipid metabolism without thyromimetic side effects typically associated with T3 administration. Accordingly, 3,5-T2 has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis. In contrast to other observations, our experiments revealed dose-dependent thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 akin to those of T3 in diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. 3,5-T2 treatment exerted a negative feedback regulation on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, similar to T3. This is demonstrated by decreased expression of genes responsive to thyroid hormones (TH) in pituitary resulting in a suppressed thyroid function with lower T4 and T3 concentrations in serum and liver of 3,5-T2-treated mice. Analyses of hepatic TH target genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed T3-like changes in gene expression and increased type I-deiodinase activity after application of 3,5-T2 (2.5 μg/g body weight). Reduced hepatic triglyceride and serum cholesterol concentrations reflected enhanced lipid metabolism. Desired increased metabolic rate and reduction of different fat depots were, however, compromised by increased food intake preventing significant body weight loss. Moreover, enlarged heart weights indicate potential cardiac side effects of 3,5-T2 beyond hepatic thyromimetic actions. Altogether, the observed thyromimetic effects of 3,5-T2 in several mouse TH target tissues raise concern about indiscriminate administration of 3,5-T2 as powerful natural hormone for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and pandemic obesity. PMID:25322465

  11. Microstructural characterization and mechanical property of active soldering anodized 6061 Al alloy using Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Lin Tsai, Yi-Chia

    2012-06-15

    Active solders Sn-3.5Ag-xTi varied from x = 0 to 6 wt.% Ti addition were prepared by vacuum arc re-melting and the resultant phase formation and variation of microstructure with titanium concentration were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Sn-3.5Ag-xTi active solders are used as metallic filler to join with anodized 6061 Al alloy for potential applications of providing a higher heat conduction path. Their joints and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated in terms of titanium content. The mechanical property of joints was measured by shear testing. The joint strength was very dependent on the titanium content. Solder with a 0.5 wt.% Ti addition can successfully wet and bond to the anodized aluminum oxide layers of Al alloy and posses a shear strength of 16.28 {+-} 0.64 MPa. The maximum bonding strength reached 22.24 {+-} 0.70 MPa at a 3 wt.% Ti addition. Interfacial reaction phase and chemical composition were identified by a transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the Ti element reacts with anodized aluminum oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti phases at the joint interfaces. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active solder joining of anodized Al alloy needs 0.5 wt.% Ti addition for Sn-3.5Ag. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum bonding strength occurs at 3 wt.% Ti addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ti reacts with anodized Al oxide to form Al{sub 3}Ti-rich and Al{sub 3}Ti at joint interface.

  12. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size <55, and proximity to tidal salt marsh or barrier islands (< 2 miles). Fourteen teachers and approximately 240 students participated in the SCAC program between 2010 and 2013. The SCAC framework uses a scaffolding and multi-pronged approach for teacher professional development and student engagement. The scaffolding approach to curriculum implementation focuses on one grade level per year (Year 1 = 3rd; Year 2 = 4th, and Year 3 = 5th), thus building student and teacher literacy in ocean sciences. The coach-mentor model of teacher professional development was also used for the implementation of the program which differs from the traditional 'train the trainer' method in allowing for more frequent and consistent interaction by COSEE SE staff with the students and teachers during the school year. The coach mentor model enabled the creation of a community of practice where teachers served as both learners and practitioners of student learning. Methods for student engagement aligned with the NGSS and included hands-on classroom activities, use of 'hook' species such as loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) and smooth cord grass (Spartina alterniflora), field experiences to explore local ecosystems, interactions with

  13. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Classification of...

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  16. 26 CFR 31.3406(b)(3)-5 - Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... party network transactions. 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Section 31.3406(b)(3)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Reportable payments of payment card and third party network transactions. (a) Payment card and third party network transactions subject to backup withholding. The gross amount of a reportable transaction that...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9750 - 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-triazine, dihydrochloride. 721.9750 Section 721.9750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9750 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine... identified generically as 2-chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride (PMN P-91-659)...

  18. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  19. A novel imaging method revealed phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate-rich domains in the endosome/lysosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Sho; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a new method to observe distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] using electron microscopy. In freeze-fracture replicas of quick-frozen samples, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was labeled specifically using recombinant ATG18 tagged with glutathione S-transferase and 4×FLAG, which was mixed with an excess of recombinant PX domain to suppress binding of ATG18 to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Using this method, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was found to be enriched in limited domains in the yeast vacuole and mammalian endosomes. In the yeast vacuole exposed to hyperosmolar stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was distributed at a significantly higher density in the intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient liquid-ordered domains than in the surrounding IMP-rich domains. In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was observed in endosomes of tubulo-vesicular morphology labeled for RAB5 or RAB7. Notably, distribution density of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in the endosome was significantly higher in the vesicular portion than in the tubular portion. The nano-scale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 revealed in the present study is important to understand its functional roles in the vacuole and endosomes. PMID:27195064

  20. Delaware Student Testing Program. State Summary Report: Reading, Mathematics, Writing Spring. 2002 Administration: Grades 3, 5, 8, and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    The results in this report, from the fifth administration of the grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 reading, mathematics, and writing portions of the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP), represent an important step in Delawares efforts to educate all students to a higher level. Reading, mathematics, and writing data for grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 are…

  1. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  2. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  3. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  4. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  5. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  6. Steady advance of stem cell therapies: report from the 2011 World Stem Cell Summit, Pasadena, California, October 3-5.

    PubMed

    Swan, Melanie

    2011-12-01

    Stem cell research and related therapies (including regenerative medicine and cellular therapies) could have a significant near-term impact on worldwide public health and aging. One reason is the industry's strong linkage between policy, science, industry, and patient advocacy, as was clear in the attendance and programming at the 7(th) annual World Stem Cell Summit held in Pasadena, California, October 3-5, 2011. A special conference session sponsored by the SENS Foundation discussed how stem cell therapies are being used to extend healthy life span. Stem cells are useful not only in cell-replacement therapies, but also in disease modeling, drug discovery, and drug toxicity screening. Stem cell therapies are currently being applied to over 50 diseases, including heart, lung, neurodegenerative, and eye disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dozens of companies are developing therapeutic solutions that are in different stages of clinical use and clinical trials. Some high-profile therapies include Dendreon's Provenge for prostate cancer, Geron's first-ever embryonic stem cell trials for spinal cord injury, Fibrocell's laViv cellular therapy for wrinkles, and well-established commercial skin substitutes (Organogenesis' Apligraf and Advanced BioHealing's Dermagraft). Stem cell policy issues under consideration include medical tourism, standards for large-scale stem cell manufacturing, and lingering ethical debates over the use of embryonic stem cells. Contemporary stem cell science advances include a focus on techniques for the direct reprogramming of cells from one lineage to another without returning to pluripotency as an intermediary step, improved means of generating and characterizing induced pluripotent cells, and progress in approaches to neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22175514

  7. Modulation of 3',5'-cyclic AMP homeostasis in human platelets by coffee and individual coffee constituents.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Gina A; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eirich, Marion; Erk, Thomas; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2014-11-14

    3',5'-Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important second messengers in mammalian cells, mediating a multitude of diverse cellular signalling responses. Its homeostasis is primarily regulated by adenylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases (PDE), the activities of which are partially dependent on the downstream events of adenosine receptor signalling. The present study was conducted to determine whether coffee constituents other than caffeine can influence the homeostasis of intracellular cAMP in vitro and in vivo by evaluating the effects of selected constituents present in coffee, coffee brews and coffee extracts on platelet PDE activity. In addition, to evaluate the potential effects of these constituents on platelet cAMP concentrations and PDE activity in humans, a 7-week pilot intervention study with eight subjects was conducted. The subjects consumed a regular commercial coffee and a low-caffeine coffee at a rate of 750 ml/d for 2 weeks each. The in vivo results revealed a highly significant inhibition of PDE activity (P< 0·001) after coffee intervention that was not directly dependent on the caffeine content of coffee. Although our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that caffeine plays some role in the modulation of platelet cAMP status, other natural and roasting-associated compounds such as pyrazines and other currently unidentified species also appear to contribute significantly. In conclusion, moderate consumption of coffee can modulate platelet PDE activity and cAMP concentrations in humans, which may contribute to the putative beneficial health effects of coffee. Further detailed mechanistic investigations will be required to substantiate these beneficial effects and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25247601

  8. Copper-Mediated [3 + 2] Oxidative Cyclization Reaction of N-Tosylhydrazones and β-Ketoesters: Synthesis of 2,3,5-Trisubstituted Furans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yubing; Li, Xianwei; Yu, Yue; Zhu, Chuanle; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-06-17

    The first attempt at utilizing N-tosylhydrazones as two-carbon synthons has been successfully achieved, which underwent a copper-mediated [3 + 2] oxidative cyclization reaction to afford 2,3,5-trisubstituted furans in moderate to good yields. The features of this method include inexpensive metal catalyst, readily available substrates, high regioselectivity, and convenient operation. The studies provide important approaches for further exploration of the powerful and diverse reaction abilities of N-tosylhydrazones. PMID:27227374

  9. 3,5-Dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-l-thyronine therapy in diabetic pregnancy: stimulation of rabbit fetal lung phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, N; Melmed, S

    1981-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy is associated with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome due to impaired synthesis of fetal lung surfactant. Pharmacologic agents that promote fetal lung maturity are diabetogenic and have limited use in the management of diabetic pregnancy for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Maternal administration of a thyroid analog 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine (DIMIT) results in significant enhancement of fetal lung phospholipid synthesis and accelerated lung maturity. We therefore studied the effects of DIMIT (0.5 mg/kg per d, s.c.) administration to pregnant alloxan-diabetic rabbits on days 25 and 26 of gestation. DIMIT treatment of diabetic maternal rabbits (DD) was associated with reduction of maternal blood glucose (115 +/- 13 vs. 275 +/- 72 mg/dl, P less than 0.05) and fetal glucose (64 +/- 6 vs. 274 +/- 47 mg/dl, P less than 0.001) compared with saline-injected diabetic (D) mothers. Reduction of fetal insulin levels was also associated with maternal DIMIT therapy in diabetic rabbits (56 +/- 5 (D) vs. 24 +/- 4 microunits/ml, P less than 0.001). Maternal diabetes resulted in significant reduction of fetal lung weight (370 +/- 20 vs. 520 +/- 30 mg, P less than 0.005) and lung protein content (6.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7 mg/gm, P less than 0.005), which were restored to normal in offspring of DIMIT-treated diabetic rabbits. Maternal DIMIT administration caused significant reduction in fetal lung glycogen content in control (62 +/- 5.8 vs. 25 +/- 5.9 micrograms/mg protein, P less than 0.001) and diabetic (56 +/- 7 vs. 34 +/- 5 micrograms/mg protein, P less than 0.02) offspring. Whereas maternal diabetes was associated with reduction of all major phospholipid species in fetal lung-comprising surfactant, these were restored with DIMIT therapy. The results demonstrate that short-term maternal administration of DIMIT in pregnant diabetic rabbits not only promotes fetal lung phospholipid synthesis, but also appears to

  10. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate silica hybrid spheres for enantioseparation of chiral β-blockers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xilun; Bao, Zongbi; Xing, Huabin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Qiwei; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-12-20

    A cellulose derivative-based chiral stationary phase (CSP) is considered one of the most widely applied CSPs due to its powerful enantioseparation ability. The high loading capacity and mechanical strength of CSPs are crucial for their application in preparative chromatography, such as a simulated moving bed. Compared to traditional cellulose-based CSPs that have been adsorbed onto chromatographic supports, organic-inorganic hybrid CSPs exhibit a potentially higher loading capacity and mechanical strength by increasing the density of chiral recognition groups. A hybrid cellulose 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate chiral stationary phase (organic/inorganic: 70/30, w/w) was prepared via a sol-gel method and characterized with several analytical techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and (29)Si cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((29)Si CP/MAS NMR). In addition, the as-synthesized hybrid chiral silica spheres were treated with an end-capping process to mask the residual silica hydroxyl groups. Compared to a commercial Chiralpak IB column, better separation of β-blocker drugs, including pindolol (selectivity of 5.55), metoprolol (2.30), propranolol (1.96), bisoprolol (1.74) and atenolol (1.46), on the end-capped CSP was achieved using liquid chromatography, which suggests that the packing material synthesized in this work has sufficient chiral discriminating ability for the effective separation of β-blocker drugs. PMID:24231262

  11. Inhibition by morphine of prostaglandin E1-stimulated secretion and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate formation in the rat jejunum in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Beubler, E.; Lembeck, F.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effects were studied of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), theophylline and morphine on net water flux and mucosal cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in the jejunum of anaesthetized rats in vivo. 2 Infusion of PGE1 (3.2 micrograms/min, i.a.) caused a reversal from net water absorption to net secretion and enhanced the mucosal cyclic AMP content by 54%. 3 Theophylline (5 mg/ml, intraluminal) similarly produced a reversal from net water absorption to net secretion and increased mucosal cyclic AMP content by 54%. Additional intra-arterial infusion of PGE1 resulted in a massive increase in net water secretion and an increase in mucosal cyclic AMP content by about 200%. 4 Pretreatment with morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced the effect of PGE1 on net water flux and completely inhibited its effect on the mucosal cyclic AMP content. Naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) abolished both effects of morphine. 5 A good correlation (r = 0.99) was demonstrated between mucosal cyclic AMP levels and net water flux. 6 The present results demonstrate that PGE1 stimulates intestinal fluid secretion by increasing mucosal cyclic AMP levels. The antidiarrhoeal effect of morphine can be explained by its inhibition of the PGE-mediated increase in cyclic AMP levels, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in intestinal secretion. PMID:6301596

  12. 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenylate cyclase in phototransduction by limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J E; Kaupp, U B; Malbon, C C

    1984-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological measurements were made on photoreceptor cells from Limulus ventral eyes to investigate the possible role of cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase in the visual transduction mechanism. Cyclic AMP content in a photoreceptor-enriched fraction (the end organs) of Limulus ventral eyes was approximately 15 pmol/mg protein. The cyclic AMP content was increased by bathing eyes in 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine or forskolin and was increased almost 100-fold when bathed in both. Illumination did not change cyclic AMP content significantly in any of these conditions. Discrete events that can be recorded electrophysiologically occur spontaneously in darkness. An increase in the frequency of discrete events is evoked by dim illumination. The discrete events are a sign of excitation of Limulus photoreceptor cells. Drug-induced changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness were not correlated with changes in cyclic AMP content. Adenylate cyclase activity measured from a small number of pooled photoreceptor clusters was stimulated by fluoride and vanadate ions, hydrolysis-resistant analogues of GTP, cholera toxin and forskolin. The Limulus enzyme is similar pharmacologically to mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Activation of adenylate cyclase by drugs was not correlated with changes in the rate of occurrence of discrete events recorded electrophysiologically in darkness. A heat-treated Lubrol extract of membranes from Limulus ventral eyes reconstituted the adenylate cyclase activity of membranes from S49 mouse lymphoma cyc- mutant cells which lack a functional regulatory protein. These findings suggest that Limulus ventral eye photoreceptors contain a regulatory protein that mediates the activation of adenylate cyclase by guanine nucleotides, fluoride or cholera toxin. This regulatory protein is homologous with that found in mammalian and avian adenylate cyclases. Our findings suggest that

  13. The Rest-Frame Optical Luminosity Functions of Galaxies at 2<=z<=3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, D.; van Dokkum, P.; Quadri, R.; Rudnick, G.; Franx, M.; Lira, P.; Wuyts, S.; Gawiser, E.; Christlein, D.; Toft, S.

    2007-02-01

    We present the rest-frame optical (B, V, and R band) luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 2<=z<=3.5, measured from a K-selected sample constructed from the deep NIR MUSYC, the ultradeep FIRES, and the GOODS-CDFS. This sample is unique for its combination of area and range of luminosities. The faint-end slopes of the LFs at z>2 are consistent with those at z~0. The characteristic magnitudes are significantly brighter than the local values (e.g., ~1.2 mag in the R band), while the measured values for Φ* are typically ~5 times smaller. The B-band luminosity density at z~2.3 is similar to the local value, and in the R band it is ~2 times smaller than the local value. We present the LF of distant red galaxies (DRGs), which we compare to that of non-DRGs. While DRGs and non-DRGs are characterized by similar LFs at the bright end, the faint-end slope of the non-DRG LF is much steeper than that of DRGs. The contribution of DRGs to the global densities down to the faintest probed luminosities is 14%-25% in number and 22%-33% in luminosity. From the derived rest-frame U-V colors and stellar population synthesis models, we estimate the mass-to-light ratios (M/L) of the different subsamples. The M/L ratios of DRGs are ~5 times higher (in the R and V bands) than those of non-DRGs. The global stellar mass density at 2<=z<=3.5 appears to be dominated by DRGs, whose contribution is of order ~60%-80% of the global value. Qualitatively similar results are obtained when the population is split by rest-frame U-V color instead of observed J-K color. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatories on Paranal, Chile as part of the ESO program 164.O-0612.

  14. Cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate in cerebrospinal fluid during thermoregulation and fever.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1976-01-01

    1. Samples of cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.) have been taken from the cisterna magna of unanaesthetized cats, whilst rectal temperature was recorded, during exposure of the animals to various ambient temperatures and during fever induced by pyrogen. The concentration of adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in samples of c.s.f. has been assayed. 2. Cats exposed to low ambient temperatures (-2 to +2 degrees C) for 3 h maintained body temperature by both behavioural and autonomic heat gain activity. Exposure of cats to high ambient temperatures (44 - 45 degrees C) for 3.5 h caused a rise in body temperatures of about 2.5 degrees C, despite behavioural and autonomic heat loss activity. Neither cold nor heat stress had a significant effect on c.s.f. cyclic AMP. 3. Fever induced by intravenous Shigella dysenteriae (2 and 20 mug/kg) was associated with a dose-related increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in c.s.f. Paracetamol (75 mg/kg) injected I.P. before the onset of fever, suppressed the increase in both temperature and c.s.f. cyclic AMP in response to pyrogen. Paracetamol (50 and 100 mg/kg), injected after the onset of fever, caused a fall in temperature, which was not associated with a decrease in the concentration of cyclic AMP in c.s.f. 4. Fever induced in cats by intravenous Shigella dysenteriae (20 mug/kg) was associated with an increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in plasma as well as in c.s.f. 5. The sodium salt of cyclic AMP (0.1-10 mg/kg) injected I.V. into unanaesthetized cats caused a dose-related hypothermia, which was associated with autonomic heat loss activity and a dose-related increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP in cisternal c.s.f., which was not mimicked by adenosine. 6. It is concluded that the raised concentrations of cyclic AMP in c.s.f., in response to pyrogen I.V., do not mediate fever in the cat and that the concentration of cyclic AMP in cisternal c.s.f. may be affected by changes in the plasma concentration of the

  15. Barium aluminides Ba{sub x}Al{sub 5}(x=3,3.5,4)

    SciTech Connect

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2009-05-15

    Three aluminides of the series Ba{sub x}Al{sub 5}(x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba{sub 7}Al{sub 10} was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3-barm, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12)pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagome (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al{sub 5}. The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ({sup 27}Al-NMR chemical shift delta=660pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagome net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(delta=490ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5} and Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}, the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc; Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5}: a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}: a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba{sub 7}Al{sub 10}. - Al{sub 5} layers of Kagome nets in the new binary electron precise Zintl compound Ba{sub 3.5}Al{sub 5}, also found in Ba{sub 3}Al{sub 5} and Ba{sub 4}Al{sub 5}.

  16. Environment-assisted cracking of iron aluminide in 3.5% NaCl solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.; Qiao, L.; Mao, X.

    1996-03-15

    In 3.5% NaCl solution, the environment-assisted cracking behavior of an iron aluminide alloy was studied. Slow strain rate tests were done at different electrochemical potentials. A 55% loss in ductility was found when tested at anodic potentials, which suggests a material degradation by the aqueous environment. Results of the experiments that were carried out using pre-immersed specimens and notched tensile specimens confirmed this material degradation to be stress corrosion cracking (SCC). To identify the mechanism, an electrochemical permeation technique was employed. By measuring the diffusible hydrogen concentration, sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement has been assessed at different potentials. Fracture surfaces were examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fracture mode was found to be mainly transgranular quasi-cleavage, except the ones tested at anodic potentials (that are 0 mV and {minus}100 mV vs SCE) on which intergranular SCC was found near the edge. It is believed that these cracks were initiated from the pits. These results indicate that the environment-assisted cracking is an intergranular SCC, controlled by anodic dissolution mechanism.

  17. High-resolution simulation and forecasting of Jeddah floods using WRF version 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; McCabe, M. F.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Evans, J. P.; Kucera, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling flash flood events in arid environments is a difficult but important task that has impacts on both water resource related issues and also emergency management and response. The challenge is often related to adequately describing the precursor intense rainfall events that cause these flood responses, as they are generally poorly simulated and forecast. Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has suffered from a number of flash floods over the last decade, following short-intense rainfall events. The research presented here focuses on examining four historic Jeddah flash floods (Nov. 25-26 2009, Dec. 29-30 2010, Jan. 14-15 2011 and Jan. 25-26 2011) and investigates the feasibility of using numerical weather prediction models to achieve a more realistic simulation of these flood-producing rainfall events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.5) is used to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions via a high-resolution inner domain (1-km) around Jeddah. A range of different convective closure and microphysics parameterization, together with high-resolution (4-km) sea surface temperature data are employed. Through examining comparisons between the WRF model output and in-situ, radar and satellite data, the characteristics and mechanism producing the extreme rainfall events are discussed and the capacity of the WRF model to accurately forecast these rainstorms is evaluated.

  18. Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan; Linza, Robert; Garcia, Sam; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Creel, Jonathan; Norton, Robert; Urbin, John; Howe, Don

    2008-01-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5KW at 20K, are used at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryo-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. Equipment refurbishment and upgrades to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the mechanical and control issues that necessitated the equipment refurbishment and controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The upgrades -- the controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology and the newly refurbished equipment -- have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e.: at various loads in the vacuum chambers). Capabilities, configuration, and performance data pre, and post, upgrading will be presented.

  19. Floating Pressure Conversion of Two 3.5 KW, 20 K, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, J.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Creel, J.; Norton, R.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.; Lauterbach, J.; Urbin, J.; Howe, D.

    2010-04-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

  20. FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

    2010-04-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle “floating pressure” control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

  1. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. PMID:7948694

  2. A 3.5-Gyr-old galaxy at redshift 1.55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, James; Peacock, John; Spinrad, Hyron; Dey, Arjun; Jimenez, Raul; Stern, Daniel; Windhorst, Rogier

    1996-06-01

    ONE of the most direct methods of constraining the epoch at which the first galaxies formed-and thereby to constrain the age of the Universe-is to identify and date the oldest galaxies at high redshift. But most distant galaxies have been identified on the basis of their abnormal brightness in some spectral region1-4 such selection criteria are biased towards objects with pronounced nuclear activity or young star-forming systems, in which the spectral signature of older stellar populations will be concealed. Here we report the discovery of a weak and extremely red radio galaxy (53W091) at z = 1.55, and present spectroscopic evidence that its red colour results from a population of old stars. Comparing our spectral data with models of the evolution of stellar populations, we estimate that we are observing this galaxy at least 3.5 Gyr after star-formation activity ceased. This implies an extremely high formation redshift (z > 4) for 53W091 and, by inference, other elliptical galaxies. Moreover, the age of 53W091 is greater than the predicted age of the Universe at z = 1.55, under the assumption of a standard Einstein-de Sitter cosmology (for any Hubble constant greater than 50kms-1 Mpc-1), indicating that this cosmological model can be formally excluded.

  3. Structure of Sputnik, a virophage, at 3.5-Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Wong, Jimson; Klose, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-11-01

    "Sputnik" is a dsDNA virus, referred to as a virophage, that is coassembled with Mimivirus in the host amoeba. We have used cryo-EM to produce an electron density map of the icosahedral Sputnik virus at 3.5-Å resolution, sufficient to verify the identity of most amino acids in the capsid proteins and to establish the identity of the pentameric protein forming the fivefold vertices. It was also shown that the virus lacks an internal membrane. The capsid is organized into a T = 27 lattice in which there are 260 trimeric capsomers and 12 pentameric capsomers. The trimeric capsomers consist of three double "jelly-roll" major capsid proteins creating pseudohexameric capsomer symmetry. The pentameric capsomers consist of five single jelly-roll proteins. The release of the genome by displacing one or more of the pentameric capsomers may be the result of a low-pH environment. These results suggest a mechanism of Sputnik DNA ejection that probably also occurs in other big icosahedral double jelly-roll viruses such as Adenovirus. In this study, the near-atomic resolution structure of a virus has been established where crystallization for X-ray crystallography was not feasible. PMID:23091035

  4. Polymeric sodium 3,5-dicarboxybenzenesulfonate-urea-water (1/1/1).

    PubMed

    Stoś, Elzbieta; Lis, Tadeusz; Videnova-Adrabińska, Veneta

    2004-03-01

    In the title compound, poly[sodium-mu(4)-3,5-dicarboxybenzenesulfonato-kappa4O:O':O":O"'-mu(2)-urea-kappa2O:N] monohydrate], [[Na(C8H5O7S)(CH4N2O)] x H2O]n, the organic anions are arranged almost vertically within (001) monolayers, with the sulfonate and carboxylic acid groups pointing into the interlayer region. The inversion-related aromatic rings of the anions inside the layers are arrayed via offset face-to-face interactions into molecular stacks along the crystallographic a axis. The 'up' and 'down' arrangement of the aromatic portions makes both faces of the layers ionic and hydrophilic, whereas the interiors of the layers are primarily hydrophobic. The interleaving of the anions is such that the carboxylic acid groups are oriented more toward the interior than are the sulfonate groups. The aromatic rings in neighbouring layers are arranged in a herring-bone fashion. The coordination sphere of the Na+ ions contains two sulfonate and two carboxylic acid O atoms, from a total of four different acid anions belonging to two neighbouring anionic monolayers. The urea molecules are positioned between translation-related anionic stacks inside the (001) layers, serving a triple function, viz. they fill in the large meshes (empty cavities) formed within the anionic-cationic network, and they provide additional Na+ coordination and hydrogen-bond sites. PMID:15004360

  5. The ultraviolet dayglow at solar maximum. 1 - Far UV spectroscopy at 3.5 A resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastes, R. W.; Feldman, P. D.; Gentieu, E. P.; Christensen, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    The earth's far ultraviolet dayglow (1080-1515 A) was observed at about 3.5 A resolution during a period of high solar activity near solar maximum om June 27, 1980. The observations were made at local noon by rocket-borne spectrometers viewing toward the earth's northern limb at 90 deg zenith angle (ZA) at altitudes between 100 and 245 km, and at 98 deg ZA between 245 and 260 km. The zenith angle was 8.9 deg. These spectra are compared with earlier lower-resolution dayglow data obtained during a period of lower solar activity and with auroral spectra. The brightness ratio of O I 1356 to the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) system, an indicator of the O to N2 density ratio, is lower than that previously measured at mid-latitudes and closer to the value found in aurorae. In the LBH system a depletion of the bands originating on the v-prime = 3 vibrational level of the excited state is found. Some weak N2 Birge-Hopfield bands and N I lines only marginally detected previously in the dayglow are confirmed.

  6. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-Yin

    1996-05-01

    The synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from trichlorotrinitrobenzene (TCTNB) in toluene and ammonium hydroxide solution under the influence of ultrasonic waves was investigated. When the two-phase reaction mixture was irradiated with high intensity ultrasound at ambient temperature, fine-particle TATB (FP-TATB) was produced. This sonochemically produced TATB powder is lemon color in appearance and was analyzed to have the same explosive properties as reported in the literature. That is, it is insensitive to impact stimuli, and thermally stable. The median particle diameter of FP-TATB was calculated to be around 14 {mu}m, and the powder can be pressed to a density of 1.82 g/cm{sup 3} without a binder. The amination process is simple and requires neither the monitoring of the ammonia gas pressure nor the controlling of the reaction temperature during amination reaction, and we anticipate no problem in large scale production of FP-TATB.

  7. Electromigration induced Kirkendall void growth in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong; Yu, Jin

    2014-02-28

    Effects of electric current flow on the Kirkendall void formation at solder joints were investigated using Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints specially designed to have localized nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface. Under the current density of 1 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, kinetics of Kirkendall void growth and intermetallic compound thickening were affected by the electromigration (EM), and both showed the polarity effect. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} showed a strong susceptibility to the polarity effect, while Cu{sub 3}Sn did not. The electromigration force induced additional tensile (or compressive) stress at the cathode (or anode), which accelerated (or decelerated) the void growth. From the measurements of the fraction of void at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface on SEM micrographs and analysis of the kinetics of void growth, the magnitude of the local stress induced by EM was estimated to be 9 MPa at the anode and −7 MPa at the cathode.

  8. The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féjard, L.; Champion, J. P.; Jouvard, J. M.; Brown, L. R.; Pine, A. S.

    2000-05-01

    The analysis of the linestrengths of the infrared spectrum of methane (12 and 13) in the 3-5 μm region has been revisited on the basis of new measurements from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak under various optical densities. A simultaneous fit of these new data with previously reported tunable difference-frequency laser data has been done. An effective transition moment model in tensorial form up to the third order of approximation within the Pentad scheme has been used. The standard deviations achieved are very close to the experimental precision: 3 and 1.5%, respectively, for the two sets of data for the 12CH4 molecule, representing a substantial improvement with respect to earlier studies. The integrated bandstrengths obtained in the present work differ from previously reported values by factors ranging from -5 to +6%. The correction for the ν3 band, the strongest band of the Pentad system, is +2% with respect to the study of Hilico et al. [J. C. Hilico, J. P. Champion, S. Toumi, V. G. Tyuterev, and S. A. Tashkun, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 455-476 (1994)].

  9. Control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels by depolarizing agents in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Trevillyan, J M; Pall, M L

    1979-01-01

    It has been reported that diverse treatments which depolarize the plasma membrane of Neurospora crassa produce rapid increases in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels. In the current study, membrane active antibiotics, which are known or putative depolarizing agents, were found to produce similar cyclic AMP increases, not only in N. crassa, but also in the distantly related fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mucor racemosus. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, which have been found to depolarize Neurospora, also produced cyclic AMP increases in all three fungi. The time course of the cyclic AMP response to these various treatments was similar in all three fungi. The fungal studies and studies on depolarized central nervous tissue suggest that cyclic AMP increases may be produced in response to plasma membrane depolarization in diverse eucaryotic cells. A model is proposed for eucaryotic microorganisms in which membrane depolarization serves as a signal of breakdown of the plasma membrane integrity. The subsequent cyclic AMP increase, in turn, may mediate cellular response to help protect the plasma membrane from chemical and mechanical threats to its integrity. PMID:220213

  10. DNA binding studies of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol pesticide metabolite.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Shariati, Zohreh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Ghobadi, Sirous

    2012-07-01

    3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a stable metabolite of two major pesticides, Chlopyrifos insecticide and Triclopyr herbicide, which are widely used in the world. The potential health hazard associated with TCP is identified due to its high affinity to the DNA molecule. Therefore, in this study, the interaction of native calf thymus DNA with TCP has been investigated using spectrophotometric, circular dichroism (CD), spectrofluorometric, viscometric and voltametric techniques. It was found that TCP molecules could interact with DNA via a groove-binding mode, as evidenced by hyperchromism, with no red shift in the UV absorption band of TCP, no changes in K(b) values in the presence of salt, no significant changes in the specific viscosity and CD spectra of DNA, and a decrease in peak currents with no shift in the voltamogram. In addition, TCP is able to release Hoechst 33258, a strong groove binder, in the DNA solutions. The results are indicative of the groove-binding mode of TCP to DNA. PMID:22519761

  11. Structural, antimicrobial and computational characterization of 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atiş, Murat; Karipcin, Fatma; Sarıboğa, Bahtiyar; Taş, Murat; Çelik, Hasan

    2012-12-01

    A new thiourea derivative, 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea (bcht) has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol with benzoyl isothiocyanate. The title compound has been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 13C, 1H NMR spectroscopy and the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of bcht derived from X-ray diffraction of a single crystal has been presented. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using density functional method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete assignments of all vibrational modes were performed on the basis of the total energy distributions (TED). Isotropic chemical shifts (13C NMR and 1H NMR) were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Theoretical calculations of bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and nuclear magnetic resonance are in good agreement with experimental results. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ACN and MeOH were recorded. Bcht was also screened for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  12. Nitrogen-rich salts based on energetic nitroaminodiazido[1,3,5]triazine and guanazine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangen; Zhang, Yanqiang; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2011-02-01

    Highly dense nitrogen-rich ionic compounds are potential high-performance energetic materials for use in military and industrial venues. Guanazinium salts with promising energetic anions and a family of energetic salts based on nitrogen-rich cations and the 6-nitroamino-2,4-diazido[1,3,5]triazine anion (NADAT) were prepared and fully characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystal structures of neutral NADAT (2) and its biguanidinium salt 5 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (2: orthorhombic, Pnma; 5: monoclinic, P2(1)). Additionally, the isomerization behavior of 2 in solution was investigated by proton-decoupled (13)C and (15)N NMR spectroscopy. All the new salts exhibit desirable physical properties, such as relatively high densities (1.63-1.78 g cm(-3)) and moderate thermal stabilities (T(d) = 130-196 °C for 3-10 and 209-257 °C for 11-15). Theoretical performance calculations (Gaussian 03 and Cheetah 5.0) gave detonation pressures and velocities for the ionic compounds 3-15 in the range of 21.0-30.3 GPa and 7675-9048 m s(-1), respectively, which makes them competitive energetic materials. PMID:21268156

  13. 3',5'Di-O-trityluridine inhibits in vitro flavivirus replication.

    PubMed

    De Burghgraeve, Tine; Selisko, Barbara; Kaptein, Suzanne; Chatelain, Grégory; Leyssen, Pieter; Debing, Yannick; Jacobs, Michael; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Canard, Bruno; Neyts, Johan

    2013-05-01

    The dengue fever virus (DENV) and the yellow fever virus (YFV) are members of the genus flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. An estimated 50-100 million cases of DENV infections occur each year and approximately half a million patients require hospitalization. There is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment available. There is an urgent need for potent and safe inhibitors of DENV replication; ideally such compounds should have broad-spectrum activity against flaviviruses. We here report on the in vitro activity of 3',5'di-O-trityluridine on flavivirus replication. The compound results in a dose-dependent inhibition of (i) DENV- and YFV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) (EC₅₀ values in the low micromolar range for the 4 DENV serotypes), (ii) RNA replication (DENV-2 EC₅₀=1.5 μM; YFV-17D EC₅₀=0.83 μM) and (iii) viral antigen production. Antiviral activity was also demonstrated in DENV subgenomic replicons (which do not encode the structural viral proteins) (EC₅₀=2.3 μM), indicating that the compound inhibits intracellular events of the viral replication cycle. Preliminary data indicate that the molecule may inhibit the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PMID:23470860

  14. Attempts to detect cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in higher plants by three assay methods.

    PubMed

    Bressan, R A; Ross, C W

    1976-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (Avena sativa L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were measured with a modified Gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. The incorporation of adenosine-8-(14)C into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic AMP was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. The binding assay proved reliable for mouse and rat liver analyses, but was nonspecific for plant tissues. It responded to various components from lettuce and potato tissues chromatographically similar to but not identical with cyclic AMP. The protein kinase activation assay was much more specific, but it also exhibited positive responses in the presence of compounds not chromatographically identical to cyclic AMP. The concentrations of cyclic AMP in the plant tissues tested were at the lower limits of detection and characterization obtainable with these assays. The estimates of maximal levels were much lower than reported in many previous studies. PMID:16659419

  15. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26949227

  16. Characterization and proteomic analysis of the Pseudomonas sp. HK-6 xenB knockout mutant under RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bheong-Uk; Choi, Moon-Seop; Oh, Kye-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. HK-6 is able to utilize RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) as its sole nitrogen source. The role of the xenB gene, encoding xenobiotic reductase B, was investigated using HK-6 xenB knockout mutants. The xenB mutant degraded RDX to a level that was 10-fold less than that obtained with the wild-type HK-6 strain. After 60 days of culture with 25 or 50 μM RDX, no residual RDX was detected in the supernatants of the wild-type aerobically grown cultures, whereas approximately 90 % of the RDX remained in the xenB mutant cultures. The xenB mutant bacteria exhibited a 10(2)-10(4)-fold decrease in survival rate compared to the wild-type. The expression of DnaK and GroEL proteins, two typical stress shock proteins (SSPs), in the xenB mutant increased after immediate exposure to RDX, yet dramatically decreased after 4 h of exposure. In addition, DnaK and GroEL were more highly expressed in the cultures with 25 μM RDX in the medium but showed low expression in the cultures with 50 or 75 μM RDX. The expression levels of the dnaK and groEL genes measured by RT-qPCR were also much lower in the xenB genetic background. Analyses of the proteomes of the HK-6 and xenB mutant cells grown under conditions of RDX stress showed increased induction of several proteins, such as Alg8, alginate biosynthesis sensor histidine kinase, and OprH in the xenB mutants when compared to wild-type. However, many proteins, including two SSPs (DnaK and GroEL) and proteins involved in metabolism, exhibited lower expression levels in the xenB mutant than in the wild-type HK-6 strain. The xenB knockout mutation leads to reduced RDX degradation ability, which renders the mutant more sensitive to RDX stress and results in a lower survival rate and an altered proteomic profile under RDX stress. PMID:25239011

  17. Microbial Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl under Anaerobic Conditions in the Absence of Soil or Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Leah; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial enrichment cultures developed with Baltimore Harbor (BH) sediments were found to reductively dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,5,6-CB) when incubated in a minimal estuarine medium containing short-chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of sediment. Primary enrichment cultures formed both meta and ortho dechlorination products from 2,3,5,6-CB. The lag time preceding dechlorination decreased from 30 to less than 20 days as the cultures were sequentially transferred into estuarine medium containing dried, sterile BH sediment. In addition, only ortho dechlorination was observed following transfer of the cultures. Sequential transfer into medium without added sediment also resulted in the development of a strict ortho-dechlorinating culture following a lag of more than 100 days. Upon further transfer into the minimal medium without sediment, the lag time decreased to less than 50 days. At this stage all cultures, regardless of the presence of sediment, would produce 2,3,5-CB and 3,5-CB from 2,3,5,6-CB. The strict ortho-dechlorinating activity in the sediment-free cultures has remained stable for more than 1 year through several transfers. These results reveal that the classical microbial enrichment technique using a minimal medium with a single polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener selected for ortho dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-CB. Furthermore, this is the first report of sustained anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the complete absence of soil or sediment. PMID:9687458

  18. Integrating Standards Including All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Nolet, Victor; Rhim, Lauren Morando; Henderson, Kelly

    1999-01-01

    Examines the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Ac,t noting the law's alignment with standards-based reforms and new provisions in four areas: individualized education programs, state performance goals, student assessments, and funding. Discusses content standards and the general education curriculum, case studies of…

  19. Antinociceptive effect of a novel armed spider peptide Tx3-5 in pathological pain models in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara M; Silva, Cássia R; Trevisan, Gabriela; Villarinho, Jardel G; Cordeiro, Marta N; Richardson, Michael; Borges, Márcia H; Castro, Célio J; Gomez, Marcus V; Ferreira, Juliano

    2016-05-01

    The venom of the Brazilian armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer is a rich source of biologically active peptides that have potential as analgesic drugs. In this study, we investigated the analgesic and adverse effects of peptide 3-5 (Tx3-5), purified from P. nigriventer venom, in several mouse models of pain. Tx3-5 was administered by intrathecal injection to mice selected as models of postoperative (plantar incision), neuropathic (partial sciatic nerve ligation) and cancer-related pain (inoculation with melanoma cells) in animals that were either sensitive or tolerant to morphine. Intrathecal administration of Tx3-5 (3-300 fmol/site) in mice could either prevent or reverse postoperative nociception, with a 50 % inhibitory dose (ID50) of 16.6 (3.2-87.2) fmol/site and a maximum inhibition of 87 ± 10 % at a dose of 30 fmol/site. Its effect was prevented by the selective activator of L-type calcium channel Bay-K8644 (10 μg/site). Tx3-5 (30 fmol/site) also produced a partial antinociceptive effect in a neuropathic pain model (inhibition of 67 ± 10 %). Additionally, treatment with Tx3-5 (30 fmol/site) nearly abolished cancer-related nociception with similar efficacy in both morphine-sensitive and morphine-tolerant mice (96 ± 7 and 100 % inhibition, respectively). Notably, Tx3-5 did not produce visible adverse effects at doses that produced antinociception and presented a TD50 of 1125 (893-1418) fmol/site. Finally, Tx3-5 did not alter the normal mechanical or thermal sensitivity of the animals or cause immunogenicity. Our results suggest that Tx3-5 is a strong drug candidate for the treatment of painful conditions. PMID:26898377

  20. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Daniel F.; Snikeris, Jaclyn; Popov, Violeta; Perry, Rachel J.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Samuel, Varman T.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d) or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32). This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003). There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a), genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase), and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase). Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be necessary before

  1. 3,5 Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) Does Not Prevent Hepatic Steatosis or Insulin Resistance in Fat-Fed Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Vatner, Daniel F; Snikeris, Jaclyn; Popov, Violeta; Perry, Rachel J; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Samuel, Varman T

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d) or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis. Insulin action was quantified in vivo by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. T2 did not alter fasting plasma glucose or insulin concentration. Basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) rate was unchanged. During the clamp, there was no difference in insulin stimulated whole body glucose disposal. Insulin suppressed EGP by 60% ± 10 in T2-treated rats as compared with 47% ± 4 suppression in the vehicle group (p = 0.32). This was associated with an improvement in hepatic insulin signaling; insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation was ~2.5 fold greater in the T2-treated group as compared with the vehicle-treated group (p = 0.003). There was no change in expression of genes thought to mediate the effect of T2 on hepatic metabolism, including genes that regulate hepatic lipid oxidation (ppara, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a), genes that regulate hepatic fatty acid synthesis (srebp1c, acetyl coa carboxylase, fatty acid synthase), and genes involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (L-pyruvate kinase, glucose 6 phosphatase). Therefore, in contrast with previous reports, in Sprague Dawley rats fed an unsaturated fat diet, T2 administration failed to improve NAFLD or whole body insulin sensitivity. Though there was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin signaling, this was not associated with significant differences in hepatic insulin action. Further study will be necessary before

  2. The aromatic alcohol dehydrogenases in Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B. 9869 grown on 3,5-xylenol and p-cresol.

    PubMed Central

    Keat, M J; Hopper, D J

    1978-01-01

    Whole cells of Pseudomonas putida N.C.I.B 9869, when grown on either 3,5-xylenol or p-cresol, oxidized both m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohols. Two distinct NAD+-dependent m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenases were purified from cells grown on 3,5-xylenol. Each is active with a range of aromatic alcohols, including both m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, but differ in their relative rates with the various substrates. An NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also partially purified from p-cresol grown cells. This too was active with m- and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and other aromatic alcohols, but was not identical with either of the other two dehydrogenases. All three enzymes were unstable, but were stabilized by dithiothreitol and all were inhibited with p-chloromercuribenzoate. All were specific for NAD+ and each was shown to catalyse conversion of alcohol into aldehyde. PMID:743216

  3. Comparison of the holding power of 3.5-mm cortical versus 4.0-mm cancellous orthopedic screws in the pelvis of immature dogs (cadavers).

    PubMed

    Sardinas, J C; Kraus, K H; Sisson, R D

    1995-02-01

    A 3.5-mm cortical orthopedic screw was compared with a 4.0-mm cancellous screw for maximal load to failure in the pelvis of immature dogs. The pelvis from young cadavers (7 to 13 months old) was divided into hemipelves and used for testing of the 2 screw types. Two sites in each hemipelvis were used, mid-shaft of the ilium and mid-sacrum, including the wing of the ilium. The screws were extracted, and maximal load to failure and mode of failure were recorded. Maximal load to failure per millimeter of engaged thread was calculated. In either pelvic site, the 4.0-mm cancellous screw required a significantly (P < 0.05) higher pullout force per millimeter of engaged screw threads than did the 3.5-mm cortical bone screw. PMID:7717594

  4. Use of solvent extraction in the production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    A process for the production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole (ADNT) has been developed. The process includes solvent extraction of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole (DNT) with water-insoluble, high-molecular-weight amines and the preparation of the ammonium salt with anhydrous ammonia. The extraction of DNT is based on the reaction of the free-base form of the amine with the organic acid to form the water-insoluble DNT-amine salt. The production of ADNT is achieved by regeneration of the amine to its free-base form with a basic stripping agent in a suitable diluent. The complete process requires 6 to 7 h on a laboratory bench scale and appears to be feasible for large-scale production. The process could be applied to the production of any ammonium salt with properties similar to those of ADNT.

  5. Pulmonary function in men after oxygen breathing at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 h

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. M.; Jackson, R. M.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Gelfand, R.; Hiller, W. D. B.; Unger, M.

    1991-01-01

    A complete description of pulmonary measurements obtained after continuous O2 exposure of 13 healthy men at 3.0 ATA for 3.5 h is presented. Measurements included flow-volume loops, spirometry, and airway resistance(n = 12); CO diffusing capacity (n = 11); closing volumes (n= 6); and air vs. HeO2 forced vital capacity maneuvers (n = 5). The average difference in maximum mid expiratory flows at 50 percent vital capacity on air and HeO2 was found to be significantly reduced postexposure by 18 percent. Raw and CO diffusing capacity were not changed postexposure. It is concluded that the relatively large change in forced expiratory flow at 25-75 percent of vital capacity compared with the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s, the reduction in density dependence of flow, and the normal Raw postexposure are all consistent with flow limitation in peripheral airways as a major cause of the observed reduction in expiratory flow.

  6. High Anodic Performance of Co 1,3,5-Benzenetricarboxylate Coordination Polymers for Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Lou, Xiaobing; Shen, Ming; Hu, Xiaoshi; Guo, Zhi; Wang, Yong; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun

    2016-06-22

    We report the designed synthesis of Co 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate coordination polymers (CPs) via a straightforward hydrothermal method, in which three kinds of reaction solvents are selected to form CPs with various morphologies and dimensions. When tested as anode materials in Li-ion battery, the cycling stabilities of the three CoBTC CPs at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) have not evident difference; however, the reversible capacities are widely divergent when the current density is increased to 2 A g(-1). The optimized product CoBTC-EtOH maintains a reversible capacity of 473 mAh g(-1) at a rate of 2 A g(-1) after 500 galvanostatic charging/discharging cycles while retaining a nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency. The hollow microspherical morphology, accessible specific area, and the absence of coordination solvent of CoBTC-EtOH might be responsible for such difference. Furthermore, the ex situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of CoBTC-EtOH under different states-of-charge suggest that the Co ions remain in the Co(2+) state during the charging/discharging process. Therefore, Li ions are inserted to the organic moiety (including the carboxylate groups and the benzene ring) of CoBTC without the direct engagement of Co ions during electrochemical cycling. PMID:27142789

  7. Spectroscopic studies and molecular orbital calculations of charge transfer complexation between 3,5-dimethylpyrazole with DDQ in acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeeb, Moustafa M.; Al-Attas, Amirah S.; Al-Raimi, Doaa S.

    2015-05-01

    Charge transfer (CT) interaction between 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP) with the π-acceptor 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ) has been investigated spectrophotometrically in acetonitrile (AN). Simultaneous reddish brown color has been observed upon mixing donor with acceptor solutions attributing to CT complex formation. The electronic spectra of the formed complex exhibited multi-charge transfer bands at 429, 447, 506, 542 and 589 nm, respectively. Job's method of continuous variations and spectrophotometric titration methods confirmed the formation of the studied complex in 1:2 ratio between DMP and DDQ. Benesi-Hildebrand equation has been applied to calculate the stability constant of the formed complex where it recorded high value supporting formation of stable complex. Molecular orbital calculations using MM2 method and GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) interface computations as a package of ChemBio3D Ultra12 software were carried out for more analysis of the formed complex in the gas phase. The computational analysis included energy minimisation, stabilisation energy, molecular geometry, Mullikan charges, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces of reactants and complex as well as characterization of the higher occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lower unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) surfaces of the complex. A good consistency between experimental and theoretical results has been recorded.

  8. Male reproductive toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    1,3-Dinitrobenzene has been characterized as a testicular toxicant in both laboratory rats and mice. Recently, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) has been shown to elicit testicular toxicity in rats. Given the need for data with which to do ecological risk assessments of munitions waste and by-products (including nitrobenzenes), male white-footed mice were fed a diet containing 0, 1 50, 375, or 750 mg TNB/kg diet (20 animals per treatment) for 90 days. Testis weight and epididymis weight variables exhibited considerable variation at time of animal sacrifice and were found not to differ significantly by ANOVA or by Tukey`s Studentized Range Test (SAS, Cary, NC). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility. Optimization of the CeliTrak/S{trademark} (Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, CA) CASA system for tracking sperm heads was performed on sperm from untreated Peromyscus. Cauda epididymal sperm from treated animals were videotaped at 200 frames per second. In addition to the percentage of motile sperm, sperm head curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), and amplitude of head displacement (ALH) were measured. These measurements were also characterized by considerable within-treatment variation, and again no statistical significance was found. Discussion is made regarding the relevance of this feral rodent model for male reproductive toxicity assessment.

  9. 3,5-T2 is an alternative ligand for the thyroid hormone receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Navarrete-Ramírez, P; Hernández-Puga, G; Villalobos, P; Holzer, G; Renaud, J P; Laudet, V; Orozco, A

    2013-08-01

    Several liganded nuclear receptors have alternative ligands acting in a tissue-specific fashion and playing important biological roles. We present evidence that 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)), a naturally occurring iodothyronine that results from T(3) outer-ring deiodination, is an alternative ligand for thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1). In tilapia, 2 TRβ isoforms differing by 9 amino acids in the ligand-binding domain were cloned. Binding and transactivation studies showed that T(2) activates the human and the long tilapia TRβ1 isoform, but not the short one. A chimeric human TRβ1 (hTRβ1) that contained the 9-amino-acid insert showed no response to T(2), suggesting that the conformation of the hTRβ1 naturally allows T(2) binding and that other regions of the receptor are implicated in TR activation by T(2). Indeed, further analysis showed that the N terminus is essential for T(2)-mediated transactivation but not for that by T(3) in the long and hTRβ1, suggesting a functional interaction between the N-terminal domain and the insertion in the ligand-binding domain. To establish the functional relevance of T(2)-mediated TRβ1 binding and activation, mRNA expression and its regulation by T(2) and T(3) was evaluated for both isoforms. Our data show that long TRβ1expression is 10(6)-fold higher than that of the short isoform, and T(3) and T(2) differentially regulate the expression of these 2 TRβ1 isoforms in vivo. Taken together, our results prompted a reevaluation of the role and mechanism of action of thyroid hormone metabolites previously believed to be inactive. More generally, we propose that classical liganded receptors are only partially locked to very specific ligands and that alternative ligands may play a role in the tissue-specific action of receptors. PMID:23736295

  10. Yeast 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase: an affinity tag for protein purification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Jianhui; Yang, Yilin; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yanxing; Yang, Ling; Sun, Meihao

    2014-05-01

    Affinity chromatography is one of the most popular methods for protein purification. Each tag method has its advantages and disadvantages, and combination of different tags and developing of new tags had been proposed and performed. Yeast 3',5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase, also known as HAL2, hydrolyzes 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) with submicromolar Km, which indicated the tight interactions between HAL2 and PAP. In order to explore the feasibility of HAL2 as a protein purification affinity tag, HAL2 was further characterized with PAP as substrate. Results demonstrated that KmPAP and kcatPAP were ∼0.3μM and ∼11s(-)(1), respectively. Kd for PAP was 0.008μM in the presence of Ca(2+). pH was also found to affect interactions between HAL2 and PAP, with tightest binding (Kd∼8nM) at pH 7.5 and 8. The purification protocol was rationally designed based on nanomolar affinity to PAP agarose in the presence of Ca(2+), which could satisfy the metal requirement for PAP binding, prevent hydrolysis of immobilized PAP and could be chelated by ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for elution. A series of expression vectors were further constructed and Escherichia coli adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) was prokaryotically expressed, purified and characterized. Ready to use expression vector with eight commonly used restriction enzyme recognition sites in multiple cloning site was subsequently constructed. By comparing with current popular tags, HAL2 was found to be an efficient and economical tag for prokaryotic protein expression and purification. PMID:24613729

  11. Thermal Considerations of Space Solar Power Concepts with 3.5 GW RF Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal challenge of the Space Solar Power (SSP) design concepts with a 3.5 GW radio-frequency (RF) output. High efficiency klystrons are thermally more favored than solid state (butterstick) to convert direct current (DC) electricity to radio-frequency (RF) energy at the transmitters in these concepts. Using klystrons, the heat dissipation is 0.72 GW. Using solid state, the heat dissipation is 2.33 GW. The heat dissipation of the klystrons is 85% at 500C, 10% at 300C, and 5% at 125C. All the heat dissipation of the solid state is at 100C. Using klystrons, the radiator area is 74,500 square m Using solid state, the radiator area is 2,362,200 square m Space constructable heat pipe radiators are assumed in the thermal analysis. Also, to make the SSP concepts feasible, the mass of the heat transport system must be minimized. The heat transport distance from the transmitters to the radiators must be minimized. It can be accomplished by dividing the radiator into a cluster of small radiators, so that the heat transport distances between the klystrons and radiators can be minimized. The area of each small radiator is on the order of 1 square m. Two concepts for accommodating a cluster of small radiators are presented. If the distance between the transmitters and radiators is 1.5 m or less, constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) are acceptable for heat transport. If the distance exceeds 1.5 m, loop heat pipes (LHPs) are needed.

  12. Pulse radiolysis studies of 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Singh, Beena G; Sharma, Asmita; Jain, Vimal K; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2014-11-01

    One electron redox reaction of two asymmetric 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers attached to ethanoic acid (DPSeEA) and propionic acid (DPSePA) were studied by pulse radiolysis technique using transient absorption detection. The reaction of the hydroxyl ((•)OH) radical with DPSeEA or DPSePA at pH 7 produced transients absorbing at 500 nm and at 300 nm, respectively. The absorbance at 500 nm increased with increasing parent concentration indicating formation of dimer radical cations. From the absorbance changes, the equilibrium constants for the formation of dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated as 2020 and 1608 M(-1), respectively. The rate constants at pH 7 for the reaction of the (•)OH radical with DPSeEA and DPSePA were determined to be 9.6 × 10(9) and 1.4 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA decayed by first order kinetics with a rate constant of 2.8 × 10(4) and 5.5 × 10(3) s(-1), respectively. The yield of radical cations of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated from the secondary electron transfer reaction, which corresponds to 38% and 48% of (•)OH radical yield, respectively. Some fraction of monomer radical cation undergoes decarboxylation reaction, and the yield of decarboxylation was 25% and 20% for DPSeEA and DPSePA, respectively. These results have implication in understanding their antioxidant activity. The reaction of trichloromethyl peroxyl radical, glutathione, and ascorbic acid further support their antioxidant behavior. PMID:25342303

  13. Relaxant mechanisms of 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone on isolated human cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Jansakul, Chaweewan; Tachanaparuksa, Kuldej; Mulvany, Michael J; Sukpondma, Youwapa

    2012-09-15

    We have investigated effects and mechanisms responsible for the activity of 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) on isolated human cavernosum. PMF is the major flavone isolated from Kaempferia parviflora claimed to act as an aphrodisiac. PMF caused relaxation of phenylephrine precontracted human cavernosal strips, and this effect was slightly inhibited by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, but not by ODQ (soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), TEA (tetraethylammonium, blocker of voltage-dependent K(+) channels) or glybenclamide (blocker of ATP-dependent K(+) channels). PMF did not significantly inhibit the relaxant activity of glyceryltrinitrate or acetylcholine on human cavernosal strips precontracted with phenylephrine. In contrast, sildenafil (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) potentiated the relaxant activity of glyceryl trinitrate but not of acetylcholine. In normal Krebs solution with nifedipine (blocker of l-type Ca(2+) channels), or in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution, PMF caused a further inhibition of human cavernosum contracted with phenylephrine. In human cavernosum treated with thapsigargin (inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase) in Ca(2+)-free medium, PMF suppressed the concentration-response curve of human cavernosum to phenylephrine and a further suppression was found when SKF-96365 (a blocker of store-operated Ca(2+) channels and Y-27632 (inhibitor of Rho-kinase)), but not nifedipine, were added sequentially. Thus, PMF had only a weak effect on the release of nitric oxide, and had no effect as a K(ATP)- or K(Ca) channel opener, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a store-operated Ca(2+) channel blocker or a Rho-kinase inhibitor. Therefore, these studies suggest that PMF causes relaxation of human cavernosum through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels and other mechanisms associated with calcium mobilization. PMID:22800934

  14. Normal coordinate analysis, hydrogen bonding, and conformation analysis of heptane-3,5-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani-Ghoshkhaneh, Samira; Vakili, Mohammad; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramaraz; Berenji, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform Raman and infrared spectral measurements have been made for the heptane-3,5-dione (HPD) and simultaneously compared with those of acetylacetone (AA) to give a clear understanding of substitution effect of ethyl groups (in β-positions) on the structure, electron delocalization, and intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB). Molecular structure, conformational stabilities, and intramolecular hydrogen bonding of different oxo-enol forms of HPD, have been investigated by MP2, BLYP, B2PLYP, TPSSh, and B3LYP methods, using various basis sets, and experimental results. The energy differences between four stable E1-E4 chelated forms are relatively negligible. The theoretical and experimental results obtained for stable oxo-enol forms of HPD have been compared with each other and also with those of AA. According to the theoretical calculations, HPD has a hydrogen bond strength of about 15.9 kcal/mol, calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level, which is the same as AA, 15.9 kcal/mol. This similarity in the IHB strength is also consistent with the experimental results of the band frequency shifts for the OH/OD and O···O stretching and OH/OD out-of-plane bending frequencies and chemical shift of the O-H group. The molecular stability and the hydrogen bond strength also were investigated by applying the topological analysis, geometry calculations, and spectroscopic results. Potential energy distribution (PED) and normal coordinate analysis have also been performed. A complete assignment of the observed band frequencies has been suggested the presence of four HPD forms at comparable amounts in the sample.

  15. Adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in Thermomonospora curvata during cellulase biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Neubauer, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1983-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose requires the synergistic activity of at least three enzymes: exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.91), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.4), and beta-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21). Despite extensive studies on a variety of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the mechanism(s) regulating the biosynthesis of this inducible catabolic enzyme complex remains unknown. The intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) have been shown to play a major role in mediating catabolite repression of enzyme biosynthesis. The cAMP acts through a cAMP receptor protein (termed CRP or CAP) which is a dimer having two identical subunits each capable of binding one molecule of cAMP. The N-terminal domain of the CRP binds the cAMP while the C-terminal domain binds to DNA at the promotor region of a cAMP-dependent operon and stimulates transcription by promoting the formation of a preinitiation complex between RNA polymerase and the DNA. Intracellular cAMP levels in E. coli (the prototype organism for such studies) are influenced by the type and availability of carbon source used for growth. High intracellular cAMP levels should lead to higher concentrations of cAMP-CRP complexes which should increase the transcription rates for cAMP-dependent operons (such as the lac operon of beta-galactosidase) and indeed the differential rate of beta-galactosidase biosynthesis correlates to intracellular cAMP levels. In the case of cellulase, catabolite repression by glucose or other readily metabolizable compounds closely controls production in an apparently similar manner and therefore a correlation may exist between enzyme biosynthesis and intracellular cAMP levels. This communication describes the fluctuation in cAMP levels during cellulase induction and repression in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata.

  16. Goldstone/VLA 3.5-cm Mars Radar Observations - Volcanic Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizek, Malynda R.; Butler, B. J.; Slade, M. A.; Haldemann, A. F.; Muhleman, D. O.; Mao, T. F.

    2006-09-01

    Radar experiments provide a powerful means to probe surface and subsurface regions of planetary bodies to determine their chemical, physical, and geological properties. The 2003 Mars opposition provided an excellent opportunity for experiments using the combined Goldstone/VLA 3.5-cm radar instrument. The combination of the proximity of Mars (<0.4 AU) and the VLA being in its highest resolution configuration gave a linear surface resolution of less than 100 km. Observations were taken on four dates near the 2003 opposition: August 11, 19, 28, and September 8. These observations provided the highest resolution images of Mars to date from the combined Goldstone/VLA radar. The images that result from these observations, as well as those obtained in previous observations, give us an opportunity to make comparisons between Mars' two major volcanic regions. The Tharsis and Elysium volcanic regions are the two most reflective non-polar areas on the planet, but they show marked differences in their brightness. While Olympus Mons and the Tharsis volcanoes are fairly bright reflectors, they are only a little more than half as bright as the caldera of Elysium Mons. The Elysium Planitia has a bright, well defined outline, much different than its surroundings. The Daedalia Planum is also extremely bright, near the base of Arsia Mons. Although the lava flows in these regions are of approximately the same age, they exhibit a wide range of reflectiveness. We will present possible explanations for these differences, taking into account age, composition, and morphology variations between the regions. Analysis of the radar echoes from other regions is presented in a companion paper in these proceedings (Butler et al.). The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. this work was supported by the NSF REU program at NRAO.

  17. An updated set of nutations derived from the reanalysis of 3.5 decades VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Koot, Laurence; Rivoldini, Attilio; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    The global VLBI observation started in the 1979. After that the qualities of the measurements are continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 models was introduced in 2002 (Mathews, et.al. 2002, [1]) and it has a good agreement (5 μas) on the short period nutation series (<400 days) with the values derived from 2 decades (1979-2000) VLBI data while a higher uncertainties up to 56 μas for those longer periods (>400 days) nutation series (Herring et.al. 2002). In MHB2000, the forcing frequencies of the nutation series are solved by least-squares fitting to the VLBI data in frequency domain. Koot et al. (2008), have processed another similar set of nutation series by inversing the time series of VLBI data (1984-2005) using a Bayesian approach. In the present work, we will repeat both approaches using the up-to-date 3.5 decades VLBI observations (1980-2014) meanwhile paying more attention on the results of longer period (>400 days). Finally some features of Earth's interior structure will be discussed based on the determined nutation series. [1] Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. & Buffett, B.A., 2002. Modeling of nutation and precession: new nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2068, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000390. [2] Herring, T. A., P. M. Mathews, and B. A. Buffett, Modeling of nutation and precession: Very long baseline interferometry results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 2069, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000165, 2002 [3] Koot, L., Rivoldini, A., de Viron, O. & Dehant, V., 2008. Estimation of Earth interior parameters from a Bayesian inversion of very long baseline interferometry nutation time series, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 8414, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005409.

  18. Highly-Selective and Reversible O₂ Binding in Cr₃(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)₂

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Leslie J; Dinca, Mircea; Yano, Junko; Chavan, Sachin; Bordiga, Silvia; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-16

    Reaction of Cr(CO)₆ with trimesic acid in DMF affords the metal–organic framework Cr₃(BTC)₂∙nDMF (BTC3- = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate), which is isostructural to Cu₃(BTC)₂∙3H₂O. Exchanging DMF for methanol and heating at 160 °C under dynamic vacuum for 48 h results in the desolvated framework Cr₃(BTC)₂. Nitrogen gas adsorption measurements performed at 77 K revealed a type I isotherm, indicating BET and Langmuir surface areas of 1810 and 2040 m²/g, respectively. At 298 K, the O₂ adsorption isotherm for Cr₃(BTC)₂ rises steeply to a capacity of 11 wt % at 2 mbar, while the corresponding N₂ adsorption isotherm displays very little uptake, gradually rising to a capacity of 0.58 wt % at 1 bar. Accordingly, the material displays an unprecedented O₂/N₂ selectivity factor of 22. Deoxygenation of the sample could be accomplished by heating at 50 °C under vacuum for 48 h, leading to a gradually diminishing uptake capacity over the course of 15 consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra suggest formation of an O₂ adduct with partial charge transfer from the CrII centers exposed on the surface of the framework. Neutron powder diffraction data confirm this mechanism of O₂ binding and indicate a lengthening of the Cr–Cr distance within the paddle-wheel units of the framework from 2.06(2) to 2.8(1) Å.

  19. Measurements of Diffuse Sky Emission Components in High Galactic Latitudes at 3.5 and 4.9 um Using Dirbe and WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Kawara, K.; Matsuura, S.; Kataza, H.; Arai, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Using all-sky maps obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer/Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) at 3.5 and 4.9 μm, we present a reanalysis of diffuse sky emissions such as zodiacal light (ZL), diffuse Galactic light (DGL), integrated starlight (ISL), and isotropic residual emission including the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our new analysis, which includes an improved estimate of ISL using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data, enabled us to find the DGL signal in a direct linear correlation between diffuse near-infrared and 100 μm emission at high Galactic latitudes (| b| \\gt 35^\\circ ). At 3.5 μm, the high-latitude DGL result is comparable to the low-latitude value derived from the previous DIRBE analysis. In comparison with models of the DGL spectrum assuming a size distribution of dust grains composed of amorphous silicate, graphite, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the measured DGL values at 3.5 and 4.9 μm constrain the mass fraction of PAH particles in the total dust species to be more than ˜2%. This was consistent with the results of Spitzer/IRAC toward the lower Galactic latitude regions. The derived residual emission of 8.9 ± 3.4 nWm-2 sr-1 at 3.5 μm is marginally consistent with the level of integrated galaxy light and the EBL constraints from the γ-ray observations. The residual emission at 4.9 μm is not significantly detected due to the large uncertainty in the ZL subtraction, the same as in previous studies. Combined with our reanalysis of the DIRBE data at 1.25 and 2.2 μm, the residual emission in the near-infrared exhibits the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum.

  20. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  1. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  2. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  3. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  4. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  5. 10 CFR 501.62 - Petition contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petition contents. 501.62 Section 501.62 Energy DEPARTMENT... Certifications § 501.62 Petition contents. (a) A petition for exemption should include the following information... the person who can supply further information. (b) Table of contents. Include only those...

  6. Atomic ordering and thermoelectric properties of the n-type clathrate Ba8Ni3.5Ge42.1square0.4.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L T K; Aydemir, U; Baitinger, M; Bauer, E; Borrmann, H; Burkhardt, U; Custers, J; Haghighirad, A; Höfler, R; Luther, K D; Ritter, F; Assmus, W; Grin, Yu; Paschen, S

    2010-01-28

    Single crystals of the type-I clathrate Ba(8)Ni(3.5)Ge(42.1)square(0.4) (space group Pm3n, no. 223, a = 10.798(2) A, l = 30 mm, slashed circle = 8 mm) were grown from the melt using the Bridgman technique. Their composition, determined by microprobe analysis, reveals a distinctly lower Ni content than previously reported for the lower limit (x = 5.4) of the homogeneity range of the clathrate-I phase Ba(8)Ni(x)Ge(46-x). From single crystal X-ray diffraction data we introduce a crystal structure model that takes point defects (vacancies) square in the Ge network into account. It reveals that both Ni and square accumulate at a single site (6c) and that, as a consequence, the Ge network distorts considerably. Ba(8)Ni(3.5)Ge(42.1)square(0.4) shows metal-like behaviour (drho/dT > 0) albeit with high resistivity at room temperature (rho(300 K) approximately 1 mOmega cm). Together with the low charge carrier concentration of 2.3 e(-)/unit cell at 300 K this is typical of a degenerate semiconductor. The lattice thermal conductivity is distinctly smaller than that of Ba(8)Ge(43)square(3), where the vacancies partially order, and smaller than those of Ba-Ni-Ge type-I clathrates without vacancies, suggesting that disordered vacancies efficiently scatter heat-transporting phonons. We provide evidence that the maximum value of the thermoelectric figure of merit reached in Ba(8)Ni(3.5)Ge(42.1)square(0.4), ZT(680 K) congruent with 0.21, can be further improved by adjusting the charge carrier concentration. PMID:20066193

  7. New approach to immunochemical determinations for triclopyr and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by using a bifunctional hapten, and evaluation of polyclonal antiserum.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiki; Hoshino, Ryoko; Kanzaki, Yukiko; Tokumoto, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-06-19

    The present work describes the design and synthesis of the structurally unique hapten, "bifunctional hapten", to produce a group-specific polyclonal antiserum to triclopyr and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. A bifunctional hapten was designed and synthesized by conjugating commercially available Nepsilon-2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-L-lysine to triclopyr, and then coupling this to carrier proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA). The synthesized bifunctional hapten greatly raised the antiserum titer in comparison with that of the conventional hapten, triclopyr. Antiserum with a sufficiently high titer to provide the determinations of targeted compounds was obtained only 63 days after the primary immunization. The obtained antiserum showed the highest affinity to triclopyr (IC(50) = 3.5 nM) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (IC(50) = 5.1 nM) in homologous ELISA. The cross-reactivities to various agrochemicals and some chlorinated phenolic compounds were determined. Significant cross-reactivity was found to the herbicide 2,4,5-T. The antiserum reacted to both triclopyr and its metabolite. Assay sensitivity was evaluated for effects of various assay conditions, including pH value and concentrations of organic solvents and detergents. Under optimized assay conditions, the quantitative working range of triclopyr ELISA was from 0.1 to 5.2 ng/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.037 ng/mL, and an IC(50) of 0.72 ng/mL. On the other hand, the quantitative working range of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol ELISA was from 0.13 to 6.0 ng/mL with a LOD of 0.052 ng/mL, and an IC(50) of 0.95 ng/mL. Water samples fortified with triclopyr or its metabolite at 1, 5, and 10 ng/mL were directly analyzed without extraction and cleanup by the proposed ELISA. The mean recovery was 101.6%, and the mean coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.1% in the case of the triclopyr ELISA. In the case of the 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol ELISA, the mean recovery was 99.8%, and the mean CV was 9.5%. The proposed

  8. CARMENES: First Results from the CAHA 3.5m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-12-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been developed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions (see also Quirrenbach et al. 2010; 2012; 2014). CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of the CARMENES project is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M⊕ planet in the HZ of an M5 star. A long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement will permit to attain such goals. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M⊙), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M⊕ and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., et al. (2010). CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy III. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 773513Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Seifert, W., et al. (2012). CARMENES. I: Instrument

  9. Teaching Reading and Writing. Literature in the Content Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

    1995-01-01

    Describes strategies for using content area literature to develop understanding and involvement in content areas: reading aloud in content areas, allowing time to read literature in content areas, discussing the readings, including literature circles in the content areas, incorporating readers' theater, incorporating content journal writing, and…

  10. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    PubMed

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum. PMID:24250783

  11. Development of cellulose derivatives as novel enteric coating agents soluble at pH 3.5-4.5 and higher.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, H; Obara, S; Minemura, K; Tanaka, T

    1997-08-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was selected as a base polymer to develop novel enteric coating agents for acid protection which can dissolve at pH around 4, and was modified with trimellitic acid or maleic acid at various degrees of substitution. These carboxylic acids have higher dissociation constants and higher solubility in water than the carboxylic acids of existing enteric coating polymers. The synthesized polymers were micronized and dispersed in aqueous medium to determine their pKa values by potentiometric titration. The pH of dissolution and the water vapor permeability of the cast films prepared from organic solutions were also evaluated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose trimellitate (HPMCT) showed good acid resistance, and the pH at which it dissolves can be controlled in the range of pH 3.5 to 4.5 by varying the content of trimellityl groups and the methoxyl substitution of the base polymer. PMID:9301034

  12. Protonation equilibria of ( octakis(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-, (3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-, and (3,5-di- tert-butylphenoxy)phthalocyaninato) manganese(III) acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchenkova, E. N.; Lomova, T. N.

    2015-02-01

    Acid-base reactions of ( octakis(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)phtalocyaninato) manganese(III) acetate (AcO)MnPc(3-CF3Ph)8, ( octakis(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)phtalocyaninato) manganese(III) acetate (AcO)MnPc(3-CF3PhO)8 and ( octakis(3,5-di- tert-butylphenoxy) phtalocyaninato) manganese(III) acetate (AcO)MnPc(3,5-di- t BuPhO)8 are studied spectrophotometrically in a trifluoroacetic acid-dichloromethane system by molar ratios method. Protonation of complexes is found to include two reversible stepwise reactions that are bi- and trimolecular. The thermodynamic stability constants of the acid forms and their dependence on the chemical structure of the molecules is determined using data on Hammett's acidity functions H 0 for a mixed solvent. Substituents 3-CF3Ph, 3-CF3PhO, and 3,5-di- t BuPhO display positive electronic effects with respect to the macrocycle and reaction centers that are enhanced when the second and third proton bond in one stage.

  13. Microstructure of Precipitation Hardenable Powder Metallurgical Ni Alloys Containing 35 to 45 pct Cr and 3.5 to 6 pct Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlet, Uffe D.; Dahl, Kristian V.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2014-10-01

    Ni-based alloys with high Cr contents are not only known for their excellent high temperature and hot corrosion resistance, but are also known for poor mechanical properties and difficult workability. Powder metallurgical (PM) manufacturing of alloys may overcome several of the shortcomings encountered in materials manufacturing involving solidification. In the present work, six PM Ni-based alloys containing 35 to 45 wt pct Cr and 3.5 to 6 wt pct Nb were produced and compacted via hot isostatic pressing. Samples were heat treated for up to 1656 hours at either 923 K or 973 K (650 °C or 700 °C), and the microstructures and mechanical properties were quantified and compared to thermodynamic calculations. For the majority of the investigated alloys, the high Cr and Nb contents caused development of primary populations of globular α-Cr and δ (Ni3Nb). Transmission electron microscopy of selected alloys confirmed the additional presence of metastable γ″ (Ni3Nb). A co-dependent growth morphology was found, where the preferred growth direction of γ″, the {001} planes of γ-Ni, caused precipitates of both α-Cr and δ to appear in the form of mutually perpendicular oriented disks or plates. Solution heat treatment at 1373 K (1100 °C) followed by aging at 973 K (700 °C) produced a significant strength increase for all alloys, and an aged yield strength of 990 MPa combined with an elongation of 21 pct is documented for Ni 40 wt pct Cr 3.5 wt pct Nb.

  14. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations. PMID:25695201

  15. Feasibility studies of the growth of 3-5 compounds of boron by MOCVD. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Manasevit, H.M.

    1988-03-01

    Boron-arsenic and boron-phosphorus films have been grown on Si sapphire and silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) by pyrolyzing Group 3 alkyls of boron, i.e., trimethylborane (TMB) and triethylborane (TEB), in the presence of AsH/sub 3/ and PH/sub 3/, respectively, in an H/sub 2/ atmosphere. No evidence for reaction between the alkyls and the hydrides on mixing at room temperature was found. However, the films were predominantly amorphous. The film growth rate was found to depend on the concentration of alkyl boron compound and was essentially constant when TEB and AsH/sub 3/ were pyrolyzed over the temperature range 550 C to 900 C. The films were found to contain mainly carbon impurities (the amount varying with growth temperature), some oxygen, and were highly stressed and bowed on Si substrates, with some crazing evident in thin (2 micron) B-P and thick (5 micron) B-As films. The carbon level was generally higher in films grown using TEB as the boron source. Films grown from PH/sub 3/ and TMB showed a higher carbon content than those grown from AsH/sub 3/ and TMB. Based on their B/As and B/P ratios, films with nominal compositions B/sub12-16 As2/ and B/sub1.1-1.3/ P were grown using TMB as the boron source.

  16. Regulation by guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate of phospholipid methylation during chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, S; García Gil, M; Mato, J M

    1980-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, the chemoattractant cyclic AMP activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, giving a brief up to 10-fold increase in the intracellular cyclic GMP content. The addition of physiological cyclic GMP concentrations to a homogenate of D. discoideum cells markedly increased the incorporation of the 3H-labeled methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine into mono- and dimethylated phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Lipid methylation was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, which inhibits transmethylation. When whole cells prelabeled with L-[methyl-3H]methionine were exposed to cyclic AMP, a rapid transient increase in the amount of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine was observed. The time course of [methyl-3H]phosphatidylcholine formation agrees with its being mediated by the intracellular increase in cyclic GMP originating during chemotactic stimulation. Addition of the 8-Br derivative of cyclic GMP to whole cells also increased the levels of labeled phosphatidylcholine. It is therefore likely that cyclic GMP contributes to chemotaxis by regulating membrane function via phospholipid methylation. PMID:6261233

  17. Feasibility studies of the growth of 3-5 compounds of boron by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manasevit, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Boron-arsenic and boron-phosphorus films have been grown on Si sapphire and silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) by pyrolyzing Group 3 alkyls of boron, i.e., trimethylborane (TMB) and triethylborane (TEB), in the presence of AsH3 and PH3, respectively, in an H2 atmosphere. No evidence for reaction between the alkyls and the hydrides on mixing at room temperature was found. However, the films were predominantly amorphous. The film growth rate was found to depend on the concentration of alkyl boron compound and was essentially constant when TEB and AsH3 were pyrolyzed over the temperature range 550 C to 900 C. The films were found to contain mainly carbon impurities (the amount varying with growth temperature), some oxygen, and were highly stressed and bowed on Si substrates, with some crazing evident in thin (2 micron) B-P and thick (5 micron) B-As films. The carbon level was generally higher in films grown using TEB as the boron source. Films grown from PH3 and TMB showed a higher carbon content than those grown from AsH3 and TMB. Based on their B/As and B/P ratios, films with nominal compositions B sub12-16 As2 and B sub1.1-1.3 P were grown using TMB as the boron source.

  18. Genotoxicity of 2,6- and 3,5-Dimethylaniline in Cultured Mammalian Cells: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Kim, Min Young; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2012-01-01

    Several alkylanilines with structures more complex than toluidines have been associated epidemiologically with human cancer. Their mechanism of action remains largely undetermined, and there is no reported evidence that it replicates that of multicyclic aromatic amines even though the principal metabolic pathways of P450-mediated hydroxylation and phase II conjugation are very similar. As a means to elucidate their mechanisms of action, lethality and mutagenicity in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt +/−) gene induced in several Chinese hamster ovary cell types by 2,6- and 3,5-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA, 3,5-DMA) and their N- and ring-hydroxyl derivatives (N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, 3,5-DMAP) were assessed. Dose-response relationships were determined in the parental AA8 cell line, its repair-deficient UV5 subclone and other repair-deficient 5P3NAT2 or -proficient 5P3NAT2R9 subclones engineered to express mouse cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) and human N-acetyltransferase (NAT2), and also in AS52 cells harboring the bacterial guanine-hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene. Mutations in the gpt gene of AS52 cells were characterized and found to be dominated by G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C transitions. Separately, treatment of AS52 cells with N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, 3,5-DMAP, and 3,5-DMAP led to intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for at least 24h after removal of the mutagens in every case. Using the comet assay, DNA strand breaks were observed in a dose-dependent manner in AS52 cells when treated with each of the four N-OH-2,6-DMA, N-OH-3,5-DMA, 2,6-DMAP, and 3,5-DMAP derivatives. Comparative evaluation of the results indicates that the principal mechanism of mutagenic action is likely to be through redox cycling of intracellularly bound aminophenol/quinone imine structures to generate ROS rather than through formation of covalent DNA adducts. PMID:22831970

  19. Biosensor for the enantioselective analysis of the thyroid hormones (+)-3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and (+)-3,3',5,5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (T4).

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Hassan V; Stefan, Raluca-Ioana; Litescu, Simona; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2002-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on L-aminoacid oxidase is proposed for enantioselective assay of (+)-3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (L-T3) and (+)-3,3',5,5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (L-T4), due to the fact that only the L enantiomer has the hormonal activity. The construction of the amperometric biosensor is simple and reproducible. The analytical information obtained from enantioselective analysis are reliable. The RSD <1% assured by using the amperometric biosensors for L enantiomers assay as raw materials, and from tablets, demonstrated their suitability for the analysis of T3 and T4 at ppb concentration levels. PMID:12033642

  20. A molecular dynamics study of the early-time mechanical heating in shock-loaded octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    We study the shock-induced hot spot formation mechanism of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosives by molecular dynamics, compare different kinds of desensitizers and different shock velocities. A set of programs is written to calculate the physical picture of shock loading. Based on the simulations and analyses, the hot spots are found at the interface and are heated by plastic work in three ways: the interface intrinsic dissipation, the pore collapse, and the coating layer deformation. The work/heat transition rate is proved to be increasing with a loading speed.

  1. Nutrition effects on the biofilm immobilization and 3,5-DNBA degradation of Comamonas testosteroni A3 during bioaugmentation treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongqin; Meng, Xiangxun; Xie, Liqun; Xu, Hongqing; Li, Mengying

    2015-01-01

    The survival of inoculated microbes is critical for successful bioaugmentation in wastewater treatment. The influence of readily available nutrients (RANs) on the colonization of two functional bacteria, Pseudomonas putida M9, a strong biofilm-forming strain, and Comamonas testosteroni A3, a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (3,5-DNBA)-degrading strain, in biofilms was studied with 3,5-dinitrobenoic acid synthetic wastewater (DCMM) complemented with various ratios of Luria-Bertani broth (LB). With the increase in LB rate, the biofilm biomass was increased, the percentage of gfp-labeled M9 measured in the mixed culture enhanced, and also M9 became dominant. In laboratory-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors, with the increase in 3,5-DNBA concentration and extension of the running time, the 3,5-DNBA removal in DCMM wastewater complemented with RANs tended to be more efficient and its removal rates increased gradually over the experimental period. Our study demonstrated that supplementing RANs could be a useful strategy for enhancing colonization of degrading bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:25345550

  2. Alternative Splicing-Mediated Targeting of the Arabidopsis GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR3.5 to Mitochondria Affects Organelle Morphology1

    PubMed Central

    Teardo, Enrico; Carraretto, Luca; De Bortoli, Sara; Costa, Alex; Behera, Smrutisanjita; Wagner, Richard; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Szabo, Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of 20 genes encoding for putative ionotropic glutamate receptors in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, there has been considerable interest in uncovering their physiological functions. For many of these receptors, neither their channel formation and/or physiological roles nor their localization within the plant cells is known. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, new information about in vivo protein localization and give insight into the biological roles of the so-far uncharacterized Arabidopsis GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR3.5 (AtGLR3.5), a member of subfamily 3 of plant glutamate receptors. Using the pGREAT vector designed for the expression of fusion proteins in plants, we show that a splicing variant of AtGLR3.5 targets the inner mitochondrial membrane, while the other variant localizes to chloroplasts. Mitochondria of knockout or silenced plants showed a strikingly altered ultrastructure, lack of cristae, and swelling. Furthermore, using a genetically encoded mitochondria-targeted calcium probe, we measured a slightly reduced mitochondrial calcium uptake capacity in the knockout mutant. These observations indicate a functional expression of AtGLR3.5 in this organelle. Furthermore, AtGLR3.5-less mutant plants undergo anticipated senescence. Our data thus represent, to our knowledge, the first evidence of splicing-regulated organellar targeting of a plant ion channel and identify the first cation channel in plant mitochondria from a molecular point of view. PMID:25367859

  3. High-quality draft genome sequence of a new phytase-producing microorganism Pantoea sp. 3.5.1.

    PubMed

    Suleimanova, Aliya D; Toymentseva, Anna A; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Kazakov, Sergey V; Mardanova, Ayslu M; Balaban, Nelly P; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2015-01-01

    Strain 3.5.1 was isolated from soils of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, on the basis of presence of a high phytate-degrading activity. Strains with such activities attract special interest because of its potential use as feed additives and natural manures. Strain 3.5.1 harbors a 99 % 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence similarity to different Pantoea species (P. vagans, P. ananatis, P. agglomerans, P. anthophila and Pantoea sp.) and exhibits unique biochemical properties that do not allow strain identification up to species. Moreover, the strain 3.5.1 shows a low ANI and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry scores. Thus, it is likely that the strain 3.5.1 represents a new Pantoea species. Here, we present the genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain 3.5.1. The 4,964,649 bp draft genome consists of 23 contigs with 4,556 protein-coding and 143 RNA genes. Genome sequencing and annotation revealed two phytase genes and putative regulatory genes controlling its activity. PMID:26566420

  4. Experimental and theoretical characterization of the 3,5-didehydrobenzoate anion: a negatively charged meta-benzyne.

    PubMed

    Price, Jason M; Nizzi, Katrina Emilia; Campbell, J Larry; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I; Seierstad, Mark; Cramer, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    A negatively charged analogue of meta-benzyne, 3,5-didehydrobenzoate, was synthesized in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, and its reactivity was compared to that of the same ion generated previously in a flowing afterglow apparatus and to its positively charged cousin, N-(3,5-didehydrophenyl)-3-fluoropyridinium. 3,5-Didehydrobenzoate was found to react as a nucleophile with electrophilic reagents. In contrast, N-(3,5-didehydrophenyl)-3-fluoropyridinium does not react with the same electrophilic reagents but reacts instead with nucleophilic reagents. Neither ion is able to abstract hydrogen atoms from typical hydrogen atom donors. The absence of any radical reactivity for these meta-benzynes is consistent with predictions that radical reactions of singlet biradicals should be hindered as compared to their monoradical counterparts. High-level calculations predict that the carboxylate moiety does not significantly perturb the singlet-triplet splitting of 3,5-didehydrobenzoate relative to the parent meta-benzyne. PMID:12515514

  5. The 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3 regulates the expression of specific microRNAs in Drosophila wing imaginal discs

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Benjamin P; Jones, Christopher I; Viegas, Sandra C; Apura, Patricia; Waldron, Joseph A; Smalley, Sarah K; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Newbury, Sarah F

    2015-01-01

    Dis3 is a highly conserved exoribonuclease which degrades RNAs in the 3'-5' direction. Mutations in Dis3 are associated with a number of human cancers including multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. In this work, we have assessed the effect of a Dis3 knockdown on Drosophila imaginal disc development and on expression of mature microRNAs. We find that Dis3 knockdown severely disrupts the development of wing imaginal discs in that the flies have a “no wing” phenotype. Use of RNA-seq to quantify the effect of Dis3 knockdown on microRNA expression shows that Dis3 normally regulates a small subset of microRNAs, with only 11 (10.1%) increasing in level ≥2-fold and 6 (5.5%) decreasing in level ≥2-fold. Of these microRNAs, miR-252–5p is increased 2.1-fold in Dis3-depleted cells compared to controls while the level of the miR-252 precursor is unchanged, suggesting that Dis3 can act in the cytoplasm to specifically degrade this mature miRNA. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that Dis3 normally interacts with the exosomal subunit Rrp40 in the cytoplasm to target miR-252–5p for degradation during normal wing development. Another microRNA, miR-982–5p, is expressed at lower levels in Dis3 knockdown cells, while the miR-982 precursor remains unchanged, indicating that Dis3 is involved in its processing. Our study therefore reveals an unexpected specificity for this ribonuclease toward microRNA regulation, which is likely to be conserved in other eukaryotes and may be relevant to understanding its role in human disease. PMID:25892215

  6. The 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3 regulates the expression of specific microRNAs in Drosophila wing imaginal discs.

    PubMed

    Towler, Benjamin P; Jones, Christopher I; Viegas, Sandra C; Apura, Patricia; Waldron, Joseph A; Smalley, Sarah K; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Newbury, Sarah F

    2015-01-01

    Dis3 is a highly conserved exoribonuclease which degrades RNAs in the 3'-5' direction. Mutations in Dis3 are associated with a number of human cancers including multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. In this work, we have assessed the effect of a Dis3 knockdown on Drosophila imaginal disc development and on expression of mature microRNAs. We find that Dis3 knockdown severely disrupts the development of wing imaginal discs in that the flies have a "no wing" phenotype. Use of RNA-seq to quantify the effect of Dis3 knockdown on microRNA expression shows that Dis3 normally regulates a small subset of microRNAs, with only 11 (10.1%) increasing in level ≥ 2-fold and 6 (5.5%) decreasing in level ≥ 2-fold. Of these microRNAs, miR-252-5p is increased 2.1-fold in Dis3-depleted cells compared to controls while the level of the miR-252 precursor is unchanged, suggesting that Dis3 can act in the cytoplasm to specifically degrade this mature miRNA. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that Dis3 normally interacts with the exosomal subunit Rrp40 in the cytoplasm to target miR-252-5p for degradation during normal wing development. Another microRNA, miR-982-5p, is expressed at lower levels in Dis3 knockdown cells, while the miR-982 precursor remains unchanged, indicating that Dis3 is involved in its processing. Our study therefore reveals an unexpected specificity for this ribonuclease toward microRNA regulation, which is likely to be conserved in other eukaryotes and may be relevant to understanding its role in human disease. PMID:25892215

  7. Rotational Spectrum and Large Amplitude Motions of 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-DIMETHYL-BENZALDEHYDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, I.; Tudorie, M.; Jahn, M.; Grabow, J.-U.; Goubet, M.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of the 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-Dimethyl-Benzaldehyde (DMBA) molecules have been recorded for the first time in the 2-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the COBRA-FTMW spectrometer in Hannover, with an instrumental uncertainty of 0.5 kHz for unblended lines. The experimental assignments and fits are supplemented by ab initio quantum chemical calculations,conformational energy landscape, and dipole moment components. The analysis of the spectra for the three isomers are in progress. The latest results, including spectroscopic constants and large amplitude motion parameters, will be presented. This investigation follows the study of the spectra of the 4-Methyl-Benzaldehyde molecule. The DMBA isomers belong to a similar series of molecules formally obtained by adding a second methyl group at the aromatic ring. These molecules serve as prototype systems for the development of the theoretical model of asymmetric top molecules having Cs symmetry while containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), exhibiting different barrier heights and coupling terms to methyl internal rotation. Thus, the DMBA isomers represent benchmark species for testing the two-top internal rotors BELGI program written recently. Supported by the ANR-08-BLAN-0054 contract (France), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Land Niedersachsen (Germany). H. Saal, W. Caminati, I. Kleiner, A. R. Hight-Walker, J. T. Hougen, J.-U. Grabow, to be published. M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 269 (2011), 211-225

  8. 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine inhibits ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma proliferation improving the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Michienzi, Simona; Bucci, Barbara; Verga Falzacappa, Cecilia; Patriarca, Valentina; Stigliano, Antonio; Panacchia, Laura; Brunetti, Ercole; Toscano, Vincenzo; Misiti, Silvia

    2007-05-01

    The pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive and devastating disease, which is characterized by invasiveness, rapid progression, and profound resistance to actual treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At the moment, surgical resection provides the best possibility for long-term survival, but is feasible only in the minority of patients, when advanced disease chemotherapy is considered, although the effects are modest. Several studies have shown that thyroid hormone, 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) is able to promote or inhibit cell proliferation in a cell type-dependent manner. The aim of the present study is to investigate the ability of T(3) to reduce the cell growth of the human pancreatic duct cell lines chosen, and to increase the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs at conventional concentrations. Three human cell lines hPANC-1, Capan1, and HPAC have been used as experimental models to investigate the T(3) effects on pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. The hPANC-1 and Capan1 cell proliferation was significantly reduced, while the hormone treatment was ineffective for HPAC cells. The T(3)-dependent cell growth inhibition was also confirmed by fluorescent activated cell sorting analysis and by cell cycle-related molecule analysis. A synergic effect of T(3) and chemotherapy was demonstrated by cell kinetic experiments performed at different times and by the traditional isobologram method. We have showed that thyroid hormone T(3) and its combination with low doses of gemcitabine (dFdCyd) and cisplatin (DDP) is able to potentiate the cytotoxic action of these chemotherapic drugs. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil was, instead, largely ineffective. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that T(3) and its combination with dFdCyd and DDP may act in a synergic way on adenopancreatic ductal cells. PMID:17470512

  9. Using Formative Assessment to Drive Mathematics Instruction in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberdorf, Christine; Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This book provides targeted mathematics instruction for every child. This book combines formative assessment with practical activities to differentiate the elementary classroom. The formative assessments include student work samples at varying levels. The authors: (1) Illustrate the distinction between a "traditional" assessment and an "enhanced"…

  10. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Drainage, 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This individualized, self-paced course for independent study in water drainage was adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational education. The course provides basic information for the design of simple drainage structures for roads and airfields. Some job skills included are designing and constructing ditches and culverts;…

  11. Stress. A Stress Control Children's Work Book for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Jennie C.

    This workbook for students in grades 3 through 5 is designed to help them understand how stress affects the body and to show them various positive ways of coping with stress in daily life. Fifteen lessons include definitions of stress, relaxation exercises, visualization techniques, problem-solving approaches, dealing with conflicts, the necessity…

  12. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  13. High efficiency thermally activated delayed fluorescence based on 1,3,5-tris(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2,4,6-tricyanobenzene.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Masatsugu; Shizu, Katsuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-03-25

    A trigonal donor-acceptor molecule of 1,3,5-tris(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2,4,6-tricyanobenzene (3DPA3CN) was synthesized to exhibit efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence. By doping 3DPA3CN into a wide energy gap host, the film had a photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 100% with the reverse intersystem crossing efficiency of 100%. An OLED including the emitter exhibited a very high external quantum efficiency (η(EQE)) of 21.4%. PMID:25705974

  14. Synthesis of biologically active O-substituted derivatives of 1-[(3, 5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]piperidine.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Hira; Rehman, Azizur; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Khan, Khalid Mohammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Irshad; Ejaz, Syeda Abida

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, a series of 2-O-substituted derivatives of 1-[(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy phenyl) sulfonyl]piperidine (5a-j) were synthesized. These derivatives were geared up by the coupling of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy benzenesulfonyl chloride (1) with piperidine (2) under dynamic pH control in aqueous media to form parent compound 1-[(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]piperidine (3), followed by the substitution at oxygen atom with different electrophiles (4a-j) in the presence of sodium hydride (NaH) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) to give a series of O-substituted derivatives of sulfonamides bearing piperidine nucleus 5a-j. The synthesized O-substituted sulfonamides were spectrally characterized. The bioactivity of all the synthesized compounds were evaluated against lipoxygenase (LOX), acetylcholinesterae (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes and found to be having talented activity against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme. PMID:23625420

  15. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Müller, Patrick; Schiedat, Fabian; Schlömicher, Markus; Strauch, Justus; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Mügge, Andreas; Köhrle, Josef; Rijntjes, Eddy; Lehmphul, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hyperthyroidism predisposes to atrial fibrillation, previous trials have suggested decreased triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations to be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Therapy with thyroid hormones (TH), however, did not reduce the risk of POAF. This study reevaluates the relation between thyroid hormone status, atrial electromechanical function and POAF. Methods Thirty-nine patients with sinus rhythm and no history of atrial fibrillation or thyroid disease undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (T4) and T3, reverse (r)T3, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) were measured preoperatively, complemented by evaluation of echocardiographic and electrophysiological parameters of cardiac function. Holter-ECG and telemetry were used to screen for POAF for 10 days following cardiac surgery. Results Seven of 17 patients who developed POAF demonstrated nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS; defined as low T3 and/or low T4 syndrome), compared to 2 of 22 (p < 0.05) patients who maintained sinus rhythm. In patients with POAF, serum FT3 concentrations were significantly decreased, but still within their reference ranges. 3,5-T2 concentrations directly correlated with rT3 concentrations and inversely correlated with FT3 concentrations. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with NTIS and in subjects who eventually developed POAF. In multivariable logistic regression FT3, 3,5-T2, total atrial conduction time, left atrial volume index and Fas ligand were independent predictors of POAF. Conclusion This study confirms reduced FT3 concentrations in patients with POAF and is the first to report on elevated 3,5-T2 concentrations in cardiac NTIS. The pathogenesis of NTIS therefore seems to involve more differentiated allostatic mechanisms. PMID:26279999

  16. (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibits growth of colon tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Choi, Min Gi; Choi, Jeong Soon; Nam, Kyung Tak; Kim, Hae Deun; Rodriguez, Kevin; Gann, Benjamin; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal showed anti-cancer effect, but it showed lack of stability and drug likeness. We have prepared several (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal analogues by Heck reaction. We selected two compounds which showed significant inhibitory effect of colon cancer cell growth. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of one compound (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner (0-15 μg/ml) through activation of Fas and death receptor (DR) 3 in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, the combination treatment with (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, Stattic (50 μM) increased the expression of Fas and DR3 more significantly. In addition, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol suppressed the DNA binding activity of both STAT3 and NF-κB. Knock down of STAT3 or NF-κB p50 subunit by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or p50 siRNA magnified (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol-induced inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. Besides, the expression of Fas and DR3 was increased in STAT3 siRNA or p50 siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, docking model and pull-down assay showed that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol directly bound to STAT3 and NF-κB p50 subunit. Furthermore, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibited colon tumor growth in a dose dependent manner (2.5 mg/kg-5 mg/kg) in mice. Therefore, these findings indicated that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol may be a promising anti-cancer agent for colon cancer with more advanced research. PMID

  17. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  18. Stepwise Polychlorination of 8-Chloro-BODIPY and Regioselective Functionalization of 2,3,5,6,8-Pentachloro-BODIPY

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Xuan, Sunting; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2016-01-01

    An effective, stepwise methodology for polychlorination of BODIPY using trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in acetic acid was developed. In this way, selectively substituted di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentachloro-BODIPYs 2–5 were prepared. The pentachloro-BODIPY is shown to undergo regioselective Pd(0)-catalyzed Stille and Suzuki coupling reactions, first at the 8-position followed by the 3,5- and then the 2,6-positions; nucleophilic substitution reactions occur first at the 8-followed by the 3,5-positions, while the 2,6 are unreactive. PMID:26186141

  19. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1980-11-25

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high molecular weight, water-insoluble amines followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4triazole, is quite suitable--and indeed is preferred--for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.

  20. Production of the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.; Ott, D.G.

    1979-11-07

    The ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole has utility as a chemical explosive. In accordance with the present invention, it may readily be produced by solvent extraction using high-molecular weight, water-insoluble amines, followed by amination with anhydrous ammonia gas. The aqueous reaction mixture produced in the synthesis of the parent compound, 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole, is quite suitable - and indeed is preferred - for use as the feed material in the process of the invention.