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Sample records for 3-5 micron spectrum

  1. Identification of the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre main sequence star HD 97048

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.

  2. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  3. 0. 35-3. 5 micron photometry of blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Sitko, M.L.; Sitko, A.K. Cincinnati Observatory, OH )

    1991-02-01

    Thirty-one blazars were observed photometrically in the near-infrared, with additional observations in the optical for many of them. A few of them exhibit spectral behavior indicative of multiple emission components or emission processes. Six objects were also analyzed for any possible correlation between spectral steepness and luminosity. In one object, 0735 + 178, the spectral index alpha is correlated with the flux level with 99.9 pct confidence. Two other objects, 0846 + 513 and 0851 + 202, showed similar correlations at the 98 and 90 pct confidence levels, respectively. In all three cases the spectrum became flatter at higher flux levels. the data are consistent with expectations of models of inhomogeneous synchrotron models. In some cases, the self-Compton component may contribute significantly to the optical flux. 27 refs.

  4. Exploratory 5-micron spectrum of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, G.S.; Kaminski, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    The intensity peak at 4.8 microns characterizing the spectrum observed for the disk of Uranus near 5 microns, in June 1987, exhibits steep declines at shorter and longer wavelength. An exploratory discussion is presented of various models in view of these data; it is noted that some component of the radiation must originate near the 140 K atmospheric irrespective of the radiation's origin in sunlight or thermal emission; physical considerations dictate that it be at least partly thermal in origin. One model consistent with the data requires the presence of a cloud top at the 8-bar level. 30 references.

  5. Uncooled Split-off Quantum Infrared Sensors for 3-5 Micron Imaging Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-20

    Quantum Dots) and GaInNAs ( Quantum Well ) detectors. A schematic of the representative structure is shown in Figure 20 (a). Absorption spectra for...REPORT "Uncooled split-off quantum infrared sensors for 3-5 micron imaging applications" 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: A detector... quantum infrared sensors for 3-5 micron imaging applications" Report Title ABSTRACT A detector concept utilizing hole transitions from the light-hole

  6. Infrared spectrum of Io, 2.8-5.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    The reflectance spectrum of Io is presented from 2.8 to 5.2 microns demonstrating the full extent of the broad and deep spectral absorption between 3.5 and 4.8 microns. Laboratory spectra of nitrates and carbonates diluted with sulfur do not satisfactorily reproduce the Io spectrum, but new information based on recently discovered volcanic activity on the satellite lead to consideration of other classes of compounds reported by Fanale et al. (1979). It is concluded that the variability of the supply of condensible SO2 gas to the surface of Io, its removal by sublimination, and the temporal variations in the strength of the SO2 band may provide an index of volcanic activity on Io that can be monitored from the earth.

  7. High-performance interband cascade lasers emitting between 3.3 and 3.5 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, J. D.; Leavitt, R. P.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Lascola, K. M.; Pham, J. T.; Towner, F. J.

    2012-06-01

    Semiconductor laser performance in the 3 to 4 micron wavelength region has lagged behind lasers at longer and shorter wavelengths. However, recent advances by the group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have markedly changed this situation, and in a recent collaboration with the NRL group, we demonstrated high performance interband cascade lasers at 3.8 microns. In this work, we present results extending this earlier work to shorter wavelengths. In particular, we designed four new interband cascade lasers at target wavelengths between 3.3 and 3.5 microns. Initial testing of broad area devices show threshold current densities of ~230 A/cm2 at 300K, almost a factor of two lower than the ~425 A/cm2 results obtained on the broad area devices at 3.8 microns. In this paper, we present performance data on these broad area lasers and also data on narrow ridge devices fabricated from the same material.

  8. A 3.5 to 12 Micron "Dualband" Spectrometer for Generic UAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    response, and transmission of the Fresnel lens used for this test in place of the F/2.3 fore-optics. A 3.5 to 12 Micron “Dualband” Spectrometer for... Fresnel lens had been used. As described previously, the camera lens images onto the (cooled) spectrometer slit. The long focal length (400 mm) of the...Measured ** ** Based on DRS Modeling Results ** 28 Initial data collect with Prototype Sensor– Test FPA & Fresnel Lens • Used Fresnel lens (awaiting

  9. Current and Emerging Materials for 3-5 Micron IR Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilman, Richard L.

    1986-12-01

    New, more durable windows and domes will be required for future 3-5 micron IR systems. Various oxide and oxynitride crystalline materials are candidates for these new requirements, including sapphire, spinel, ALON, yttria, and MgO. These materials are compared with respect to optical properties, durability, and fabrication costs. Two extrinsic properties, thermal conductivity and fracture strength, have strong effects on thermal shock resistance. Birefringent polycrystalline materials will not have adequate optical resolution for future systems.

  10. Comet Brorsen-Metcalf in the 3.5 micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrs, A. D.; Mumma, M. J.; Hoban, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Comet Brorsen-Metcalf was observed on UT 21 to 24 Aug. 1989 using the CRSP spectrometer and the 1.3 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The cometary continuum was detected on all nights. The data are very noisy, due to the short observation window and the untried nature of the instrument. Low resolution (0.0227 micron) spectra show the 3.4 micron C-H stretch feature having a contrast of at most a factor of two to the neighboring continuum. High resolution (0.0031 micron) spectra between 3.4 and 3.6 microns show 1 sigma features that might be attributed to the nu 5 band of formaldehyde (H2CO). Similar spectra of the region between 3.2 and 3.4 microns show one 3 sigma line at 3.34 microns, which is as yet unidentified. Although the cometary spectra were more spatially extended than the spectra of standard stars, no extension of the line emission beyond the continuum was observed.

  11. High-resolution IRCCD images of the Galactic center at 2.2 and 3.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollestrup, Eric V.; Becklin, E. E.; Capps, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    An IRCCD camera was used to obtain high-resolution images at 2.2 and 3.5 microns of the Galactic center at subarcsecond resolution. These images show that the compact nonthermal radio source Sgr A-asterisk is not coincident with any part of IRS 16; Sgr A-asterisk is found to be 1.1 + or - 0.3 arcsec west of IRS 16C. At 3.5 microns, IRS 16 is a complex object. IRS 16SW is resolved into two sources, and IRS 16C may be double or extended. From the colors and sizes of the various components, it is difficult to explain these objects as stellar clusters; the required stellar density would be too high. Finally, there is evidence that there is a blue and a red source, separated by about 1 arcsec, for each of the northern arm sources, IRS 1W, IRS 5, and IRS 10.

  12. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  13. The NH3 spectrum in Saturn's 5 micron window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of Saturn's 5-micron window were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The spectra have a resolution of 1.2/cm, and some exhibit extremely low amounts of approximately 300-micron ppt telluric H2O. The Saturn spectra show absorptions by the 2nu2 band of NH3. Long-path laboratory comparison spectra of NH3 were acquired and show considerable deviations in intensity from theoretical predictions. The calibration of Saturn's observed NH3 features with the laboratory data gives 2.0 + or - 0.5 m-amagat of NH3 using the 2nu2 Q-branch at 5.32 microns. The R(1) and R(2) lines yield an abundance about 3 times greater. Absorptions outside the range of the Q-branch can be accounted for by solid NH3 of 10-20 microns equivalent path length. The origin of Saturn's 5-micron flux is mostly thermal with some admixture of solar reflected radiation. A depletion of Saturn's NH3 abundance below the solar value is indicated, but confirmation of this conclusion will require a better understanding of the atmospheric penetration depth at 5 microns and more rigorous modeling of the spectral line formation.

  14. Variations in the 3 micron spectrum across the Orion Bar: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Geballe, T. R.; Allamandola, L. J.; Woodward, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    Long-slit spectra across the Orion Bar reveal significant differences in the spatial behavior of the components of the 3 microns polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) spectrum. The strong PAH band at 3.29 microns generally decreases exponentially with distance from the ionization front into the molecular cloud (scale height approximately 12"), although excesses appear approximately 10" and 20" behind the ionization front, close to layers of H2 and CO emission, respectively. The 3.40 microns PAH feature separates into two components with very different spatial distributions. The main component (at 3.395 microns), along with the 3.51 microns band and the PAH plateau (3.3-3.6 microns), shows excess emission approximately 10" and approximately 20" behind the ionization front, stronger than the excesses in the 3.29 microns band. The extra component of the 3.40 microns band, which peaks at approximately 3.405 microns, has a spatial distribution very similar to the H2 emission. Aromatic C-H stretches in PAHs most likely produce the 3.29 microns feature. Aliphatic C-H stretches in either attached methyl side-groups or superhydrogenated PAHs, or perhaps both, could produce the complicated spectral and spatial structure at 3.40 microns.

  15. Bidirectional reflectance measurement of zinc oxide in 0.25 to 2.5 microns spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and used to measure the bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide in the spectrum 0.25 to 2.5 microns. The nonspecular reflectance is essentially Lambert for wavelengths above 0.40 microns with the most deviation occuring for large source zenith angles. Below 0.400 microns the nonspecular reflectance is greater than Lambert in all directions and is greatest in the forward and backscatter directions. The ratio of the specular component to the nonspecular component at a zenith of 0 degrees was found to increase with source zenith and wavelength for wavelengths above 0.400 microns. Below 0.400 microns this ratio increases as wavelengths decrease. The variation of bidirectional reflectance with wavelength was found to have the characteristics absorption for Zn0 for wavelength below 0.400 microns.

  16. The 8-13 micron spectrum of the young stellar object WL 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Geballe, T. R.

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopy of WL 16 in the 8-13-micron region reveals a spectrum dominated by the hydrocarbon emission features at 7.7, 8.6, 11.25, and 12.7 microns. The emission plateau between the latter two features is detected, the first such detection in a young stellar object. The expected silicate feature is badly masked by the strong emission bands. Combining our spectra with the infrared spectral energy distribution indicates that silicate absorption is probably present.

  17. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation.

  18. Martian atmosphere modeling between 0.4 and 3.5 microns - Comparison of theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Fischbein, W. L.; Hilgeman, T.; Smith, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    A model of the lower atmosphere of Mars has been constructed that combines aerosol absorption and scattering with a line-by-line analysis of CO2 and H2O in a multilayer radiative transfer program. Aerosol composition previously inferred from the NASA Lear Jet Observatory data was used to measure the optical complex indices of refraction of appropriate Martian analogs from 0.4 to 2.5 microns. The aerosol vertical particle density scale was deduced using the Viking camera observations of the soil and sky intensities between 0.4 and 1.0 microns in comparison with those modeled using a multilayer Mie scattering program. A comparison of observed Mars atmospheric absorptions was made with those obtained using Lorentz, Voigt, and Doppler line profiles in a multilayer model of the CO2 and H2O. The Voigt line profile of CO2 absorption at approximately 4976 kaysers was then combined in a multilayer aerosol model of the Martian atmosphere. An evaluation of the effect on the line shape was made using several aerosol loadings.

  19. The 4-8 micron spectrum of the infrared source W33 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Puetter, R. C.; Russell, R. W.; Willner, S. P.; Harvey, P. M.; Gillett, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of the highly obscured infrared source W33 A from 4.5 to 8 microns is measured in order to investigate the intervening cold, dense interstellar material. Spectrophotometry at a relative spectral resolution of about 0.015 by an airborne filter-wheel infrared spectrometer reveals strong absorption features at 4.61, 5.99 and 6.78 microns. The absorption at 4.61 microns is attributed primarily to the fundamental vibration-rotation band of CO at a column density (at least 10 to the 19th/sq cm) which is 10% of the carbon inferred from silicate abundances. The strengths and line widths of the absorption agt 5.99 and 6.78 microns are interpreted as evidence of absorption in the resonance bands of carbonyl, carbon-carbon double, methyl and methylene bonds of hydrocarbons associated with interstellar dust.

  20. The 4-8 micron spectrum of the infrared source W33 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Puetter, R. C.; Russell, R. W.; Willner, S. P.; Harvey, P. M.; Gillett, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    The spectrum of the highly obscured infrared source W33 A from 4.5 to 8 microns is measured in order to investigate the intervening cold, dense interstellar material. Spectrophotometry at a relative spectral resolution of about 0.015 by an airborne filter-wheel infrared spectrometer reveals strong absorption features at 4.61, 5.99 and 6.78 microns. The absorption at 4.61 microns is attributed primarily to the fundamental vibration-rotation band of CO at a column density (at least 10 to the 19th/sq cm) which is 10% of the carbon inferred from silicate abundances. The strengths and line widths of the absorption agt 5.99 and 6.78 microns are interpreted as evidence of absorption in the resonance bands of carbonyl, carbon-carbon double, methyl and methylene bonds of hydrocarbons associated with interstellar dust.

  1. Interpretation of the 3- to 4-Micron Infrared Spectrum of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsky, T.; Calvin, M.; Rea, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Infrared reflection spectra have been recorded for a large number of inorganic and organic samples, including minerals and biological specimens, for the purpose of interpreting the 3- to 4-micron spectrum of Mars. A previous suggestion that the Martian bands indicated the presence of carbohydrates is shown not to be a required conclusion. However, no satisfactory explanation is advanced and the problem remains unresolved.

  2. Emission features in the spectrum of NGC 7027 near 3. 3 microns at very high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, R.P.; Moorhead, J.M.; Wehlau, W.H.; Maillard, J.P. CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris )

    1991-02-01

    A very high resolution spectrum is presented of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 over a 200/cm interval centered at 2950/cm, and the features found are described: (1) nebular continuum, (2) atomic recombination lines of H and He II, and (3) three broader emission features of uncertain origin. For the latter the first evidence is presented that the 3.46 micron feature and possibly the 3.40 micron feature are resolvable into a sequence of narrower features. The interpretation of the broader features is discussed in terms of the hypothesis of identification with emission by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. 18 refs.

  3. The 5-micron spectrum of Uranus: A search for CO and PH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Lellouch, E.; Drossart, P.; Orton, G.; Atreya, S.

    2003-04-01

    As in the case of Jupiter and Saturn, the flux of Uranus at 5 microns is expected to come from deep atmospheric layers, at pressures above 1 bar. This spectral range thus looks appropriate for searching minor tropospheric species such as CO and PH3 which, in addition to CH3D, have spectral signatures at these wavelengths. Due to the relatively low tropospheric temperatures of Uranus, the flux at these wavelengths is probably due to reflected sunlight, rather than thermal emission. The 5-mu spectrum of Uranus was first detected at low spectral resolution (R=50) by Orton and Kaminski (Icarus 77, 109, 1989). The spectrum was again measured between 4.6 and 5.1 microns using the SpeX instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), in September 2000 and September 2001. The slit width was 0.8 arcsec, corresponding to a resolving power of 1000. H3+ emission lines were also detected in this spectral range, but the signal-to-noise ratio was low in the continuum. In October and November 2002, the spectrum of Uranus was again recorded in the 4.6-5.0 microns range, using the ISAAC imaging spectrometer at the UT1 (ANTU) of the Very Large Telescope (European Southern Observatory, Chile). The slit width was 2 arcsec, corresponding to a resolving power of 1500. The data will be compared with synthetic models in an attempt to derive constraints on the tropospheric abundances of CO and PH3.

  4. The 2.4 micron spectrum of Comet Halley - A search for H2 emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. Hayden; Wolstencroft, Ramon D.; Lutz, Barry L.

    1989-01-01

    A 2.4-micron spectrum of Comet Halley was obtained on April 1, 1986 with the UKIRT scanning Fabry-Perot-CVF equipped with an InSb detector. From the ratio of the measured flux from comet Halley to Zeta Her in the 8.8 x 10 to the -4th micron bandwidth, Comet Halley produced a detected flux of about 1.3 x 10 to the 5th photons/sec with a 1-sigma variance of 385 photons. The flux detected in the same spectral region by Maillard et al. (1986) agrees with the measurements reported here to within a factor of two. The data obtained are examined from the standpoint of the possible mechanisms of H2 production.

  5. The 2.4 micron spectrum of Comet Halley - A search for H2 emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. H.; Wolstencroft, R. D.; Lutz, B. L.

    1989-02-01

    A 2.4-micron spectrum of Comet Halley was obtained on April 1, 1986 with the UKIRT scanning Fabry-Perot-CVF equipped with an InSb detector. From the ratio of the measured flux from comet Halley to Zeta Her in the 8.8 x 10 to the -4th micron bandwidth, Comet Halley produced a detected flux of about 1.3 x 10 to the 5th photons/sec with a 1-sigma variance of 385 photons. The flux detected in the same spectral region by Maillard et al. (1986) agrees with the measurements reported here to within a factor of two. The data obtained are examined from the standpoint of the possible mechanisms of H2 production.

  6. Infrared Atlas of the Arcturus Spectrum, 0.9-5.3 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Kenneth; Wallace, Lloyd; Livingston, William

    1995-11-01

    A spectral atlas of the infrared spectrum of the bright K 2 giant Arcturus has been completed using the 4 meter Mayall telescope and FTS. The 0.9-5.3 micron spectrum of Arcturus was observed at high signal-to-noise with a resolution of 100,000. Telluric lines were removed by using telluric transmission spectra generated from McMath-Pierce solar spectra or 4 meter lunar spectra. The spectrum of Arcturus was observed on two different dates selected to give large opposite heliocentric shifts. The spectra observed on the different dates have been independently corrected for telluric absorption with the result that the telluric spectrum has been effectively removed from all but the most obscure wavelengths of the Arcturus spectrum. We attempted to identify lines with central depths stronger than a few percent. Identifications seem well in hand with the unidentified lines apparantly atmoic in origin. The atlas is available either on an AAS CD-ROM or as an ASP monograph. (c) Astronomical Society of the Pacific Bergeron, et al., PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF HYDROGEN- AND HELIUM-RICH WHITE DWARF MODELS Bolometric corrections and color indices on various photometric systems are provided for an extensive grid of hydrogen- and helium-rich white dwarf model atmospheres. Absolute visual magnitudes, masses, and ages are also obtained for each model from detailed evolutionary cooling sequences appropriate for these stars. The results of our calculations are briefly compared with published observational material. These calculations can easily be extended to any given photometric system. (SECTION: Stars)

  7. Investigations on the 1.7 micron residual absorption feature in the vegetation reflection spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdebout, J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.; Sieber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and interpretation of the weak absorption features associated with the biochemical components of vegetation is of great potential interest to a variety of applications ranging from classification to global change studies. This recent subject is also challenging because the spectral signature of the biochemicals is only detectable as a small distortion of the infrared spectrum which is mainly governed by water. Furthermore, the interpretation is complicated by complexity of the molecules (lignin, cellulose, starch, proteins) which contain a large number of different and common chemical bonds. In this paper, we present investigations on the absorption feature centered at 1.7 micron; these were conducted both on AVIRIS data and laboratory reflectance spectra of leaves.

  8. Detection of the 2165 Inverse Centimeter (4.619 Micron) XCN Band in the Spectrum of L1551 IRS 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Campins, Humberto

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption band at 2165 cm (4.619 microns) in the spectrum of L1551 IRS 5. New laboratory results over the 2200-2100 /cm wavenumber interval (4.55-4.76 microns), performed with realistic interstellar ice analogs, suggest that this feature is due to a CN-containing compound. We will refer to this compound as XCN. We also confirm the presence of frozen CO (both in nonpolar and polar matrices) through absorption bands at 2140 /cm (4.67 microns) and 2135 /cm (4.68 microns). The relative abundance of solid-state CO to frozen H2O is approx. 0.13 while the abundance of XCN seems comparable to that of frozen CO.

  9. The Infrared Spectrum of H2S From 1 to 5 Microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Alexander D.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Smirnov, Maxim A.; Sinitsa, Leonid N.; Brown, Linda R.; Crisp, Joy; Crisp, David

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectra of H2S from 2000 to 11,147 cm(exp -1) have been obtained with spectral resolutions of 0.006, 0.012, and 0.021 cm(exp -1) using the Fourier transform spectrometer at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The transitions of 21 bands have been assigned for the first time and 9 others reanalyzed so that accurate energy levels, band origins, and rotational parameters could be determined. The analysis of these data revealed some remarkable features in the energy spectrum, e.g., fourfold clustering of rotational levels belonging to the symmetric and asymmetric components of local mode manifolds at a high degree of stretching excitation. This paper reports fitted vibrational parameters and predicted band origins of H2S-32 up to 12,735 cm(exp -1). It also presents the degenerate rotational constants and upper state energies of (301)-(202) and (311)-(212) at 1 micron as illustrations of clustering in the local mode limit.

  10. The temporal evolution of the 4-14 micron spectrum of V1974 Cygni (Nova Cygni 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, Charles E.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Starrfield, S.; Wooden, D. H.; Witteborn, F. C.; Sanford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bregman, J. D.; Klapisch, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present 4-14 micron spectra of the ONeMg nova V1974 Cygni (Nova Cygni 1992) obtained during 1992 May on the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and from the NASA 1.52 m infrared telescope at Mount Lemmon, Arizona in 1992 October/November with the HIFOGS mid-infrared spectrometer. The spectra at both epochs showed continuum emission from thermal bremstrahlung (free-free radiation) with emission lines from hydrogen and (Ne II), (Ar III), and Ne VI). During May, approximately = 80 days after outburst, the dominant emission lines in the mid-infrared spectra were a blend of three lines (Pf-alpha, Hu-beta, H11-7) near 7.5 microns and (Ne II) at 12.8 microns. By October (approximately 160 days later), the hydrogen emission had virtually disappeared, the (Ne II) 12.8 micron line had weakened considerably, and a pronounced (Ne VI) emission line had appeared at 7.6 microns. This behavior confirms that V1974 Cyg is similar to the prototypical slow ONeMg 'neon nova', Nova QU Vulpeculae (1984 No. 2). The remarkable evolution of the spectrum suggests that the ionization conditions changed drastically between 1992 May and 1992 October. We find that the ejecta of V1974 Cyg were overabundant in neon with respect to silicon by a factor of approximately 10 relative to the solar photosphere. We present new model calculations of infrared sodium forbidden line emission from (Na III) 7.319 microns (Na IV) 9.039 microns, and (Na IV) 21.29 microns that can be compared with recent model predictions of sodium synthesis in ONeMg nova outbursts. We conclude that sodium abundances in ONeMg novae can be determined by observations of infrared coronal lines of sodium that are accssible to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and instruments at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF).

  11. Temperature sounding from the absorption spectrum of CO2 at 4.3 microns. [in stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A new method is described for obtaining the temperature profile in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere from observations of the absorption spectrum of the high J lines of carbon dioxide at 4.3 microns. This concept is based upon the measurement of the integrated absorption of individual CO2 lines whose strengths depend strongly on temperature and that the absorption of these lines are obtained from measurements of the solar or stellar spectrum through an atmospheric path. The technique involves a rapidly converging iterative process in which the equivalent widths of the individual vibration-rotation lines of CO2 are used. Theoretical calculations are presented for balloon and satellite observations using a model atmosphere. Experimental results are given from spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier interferometer spectrometer in which the sun was observed at low zenith angles. The experimental results are compared to rocketsonde data.

  12. Microwave spectrum and structure of the 3,5-difluoropyridine⋯CO2 van der Waals complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewberry, Christopher T.; Cornelius, Ryan D.; Mackenzie, Rebecca B.; Smith, C. J.; Dvorak, Michael A.; Leopold, Kenneth R.

    2016-10-01

    The rotational spectrum of the weakly bound complex 3,5-difluoropyridine⋯CO2 has been observed using pulsed-nozzle Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Spectroscopic constants are reported for the parent and 13CO2 isotopologues. The data indicate a planar structure in which the nitrogen approaches the carbon of the CO2 with either a C2v or effectively C2v geometry in the ground vibrational state. The N⋯C van der Waals bond distance is 2.8245(16) Å and the oxygen⋯ortho-hydrogen distance is 3.091(2) Å. The N⋯C van der Waals bond length is 0.027(8) Å longer than that previously determined for pyridine-CO2, but is still considerably shorter than the 2.998 Å distance in HCN⋯CO2. M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) calculations place the binding energy of the complex at 4.3 kcal/mol (4.1 kcal/mol with counterpoise correction). The calculations further indicate that a secondary interaction between the ortho-hydrogens of the ring and the CO2 oxygens account for ∼50% of the total binding energy.

  13. 5f3 --> 5f 26d1 absorption spectrum analysis of U3+-SrCl2.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Mirosław

    2005-04-28

    The 5f3--> 5f26d1 absorption spectra of the U3+ ions incorporated in SrCl2 single crystals were recorded at 4.2 K in the 15,000-50,000 cm(-1) spectral range. From an analysis of the vibronic structure, 32 zero-phonon lines corresponding to transitions from the 4I9/2 ground multiplet of the 5f3 configuration to the 5f26d(eg)1 excited levels were assigned. A theoretical model proposed by Reid et al. (Reid, H. F.; van Pieterson, L.; Wegh, R. T.; Meijerink, A. Phys. Rev. B 2000, 62, 14744) that extends the established model for energy-level calculations of nf N states has been applied for analysis of the spectrum. The Fk(ff) (k = 2, 4), zeta(5f)(ff), B0(4)(ff), B0(6)(ff), Fk(fd) (k = 2, 4), and Gj(fd) (j = 1, 3) Hamiltonian parameters were determined by a least-squares fitting of the calculated energies to the experimental data. A good overall agreement between the calculated and experimentally observed energy levels has been achieved, with the root-mean-square (rms) deviation equal to 95 cm(-1) for 32 fitted levels and 9 varied parameters. Adjusted values of Fk(ff) and zeta(5f)(ff) parameters for the 5f2 core electrons are closer to the values characteristic of the 5f2 (U4+) configuration than to those of the 5f3 (U3+) configuration. For the U3+ ion, the f-d Coulomb interaction parameters are significantly more reduced from the values calculated using Cowan's computer code than they are for lanthanide ions. Moreover, because of weaker f-d Coulomb interactions for the U3+ ion than for the isoelectronic Nd3+ lanthanide ion, the very simple model assuming the coupling of crystal-field levels of the 6d1 electron with the lattice and the multiplet structure of the 5f2 configuration may be employed for the qualitative description of the general structure of the U3+ ion f-d spectrum.

  14. Silicon monoxide in the 4 micron infrared spectrum of long-period variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, K. H.; Barnes, T. G.; Lambert, D. L.; Beer, R.

    1976-01-01

    The first-overtone sequence of vibration-rotation transitions of the free radical silicon monoxide are shown to have extreme phase-dependent variations in the spectra of two M-type long-period variables, Omicron Ceti and R Leonis, and the mild S-type long-period variable, Chi Cygni. At maximum light, the SiO band heads are not detectable. Near minimum light, the band heads of (Si-25)O are detected in the 4-micron spectra of all three stars. The band heads of the terrestrially less abundant isotopic species, (Si-29)O and (Si-30)O, are detected in Chi Cygni. Possible explanations of the phase-dependent behavior are discussed, and the role of the stellar chromosphere is considered.

  15. The spectrum of comet P/Halley from 3.0 to 4.0 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danks, A. C.; Encrenaz, T.; Bouchet, P.; Le Bertre, T.; Chalabaev, A.

    1987-10-01

    Infrared observations of comet Halley have been obtained in the spectral range 3.0 - 4.0 μm, using a CVF spectrophotometer with a resolving power of 80. Observations carried out on 1986 March 28 show a number of emission features superimposed on a 300K blackbody continuum. The main feature is asymmetric and centered at 3.375 μm; another strong feature is seen at 3.5 μm. Observations made on 1985 Dec. 30 show no significant emission at 3.375 μm. The broad feature observed on March 28 is most likely due to the vibrational mode of the H-C bond in a large molecule. If the emission is due to gaseous hydrocarbon molecules, then their production rate is of the order of 1028s-1. The 3.5 μm feature, and possibly the weaker 3.58 μm feature could be due to H2CO, with a mixing ratio of a few percent with respect to H2O.

  16. The ISO-SWS 2.4-45.2 Micron Spectrum Toward Orion IR c2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wright, Christopher M.; Cernicharo, José; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; de Graauw, Thijs; Helmich, Frank P.; Vandenbussche, Bart

    1998-08-01

    The complete infrared spectrum from 2.4 to 45.2 μm toward the prototypical massive star-forming region Orion IRc2 is presented, obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) at a resolving power λ/Δλ~1300-2500. A wealth of emission and absorption features is found, including H2 vibration-rotation lines, the full set of H2 pure rotational lines (0,0) S(1)-S(17), H recombination lines, ionic fine-structure lines, PAH emission features, and absorption and emission bands by interstellar ices and gas-phase molecules, including CO2, CH4, and SO2. Particularly interesting is the detection of strong emission and absorption lines in the H2O ν2 bending mode at 6.2 μm and the observation of highly excited pure rotational lines of H2O in absorption at 25-45 μm. The origin of these lines in each of the physical components included in the ISO-SWS beam (H II region, PDR, quiescent ridge, shocked low-velocity plateau) is briefly discussed. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with participation of ISAS and NASA.

  17. Variations in the 3 Micron Spectrum across the Orion Bar: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Related Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Geballe, T. R.; Allamandola, L. J.; Woodward, E.

    1997-01-01

    Long-slit spectra across the Orion Bar reveal significant differences in the spatial behavior of the components of the 3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) spectrum. The strong PAH band at 3.29 μm generally decreases exponentially with distance from the ionization front into the molecular cloud (scale height ~12"), although excesses appear ~10" and ~20" behind the ionization front, close to layers of H2 and CO emission, respectively. The 3.40 μm PAH feature separates into two components with very different spatial distributions. The main component (at 3.395 μm), along with the 3.51 μm band and the PAH plateau (3.3-3.6 μm), shows excess emission ~10" and ~20" behind the ionization front, stronger than the excesses in the 3.29 μm band. The extra component of the 3.40 μm band, which peaks at ~3.405 μm, has a spatial distribution very similar to the H2 emission. Aromatic C--H stretches in PAHs most likely produce the 3.29 μm feature. Aliphatic C--H stretches in either attached methyl sidegroups or superhydrogenated PAHs, or perhaps both, could produce the complicated spectral and spatial structure at 3.40 μm.

  18. Variations in the 3 Micron Spectrum Across the Orion Bar: PAHS and Related Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Geballe, T. R.; Allamandola, L. J.; Woodward, C. E.; Wittborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Long-slit spectra across the Orion Bar reveal significant differences in the spatial behavior of the components of the 3 micrometer PAH spectrum. The strong PAH band at 3.29 micrometers generally decreases exponentially with distance from the ionization front into the molecular cloud (scale height approximately 12"), although excesses appear approximately 10" and approximately 20" behind the ionization front, close to layers of H2 and CO emission respectively. The 3.40 micrometer PAH feature separates into two components with very different spatial distributions. The main component (at 3.395 micrometers), along with the 3.51 micrometer band and the PAH plateau (3.3-3.6 micrometers), shows excess emission approximately 10" and approximately 20" behind the ionization front, stronger than the excesses in the 3.29 micrometer band. The extra component of the 3.40 micrometer band, which peaks at approximately 3.405 micrometers, has a spatial distribution very similar to the H2 emission. Aromatic C-H stretches in PAHs most likely produce the 3.29 micrometer feature. Aliphatic C-H stretches in either attached methyl sidegroups or super-hydrogenated PAHs (H-PAHs), or perhaps both, could produce the complicated spectral and spatial structure at 3.40 micrometers. The distribution of these fragile PAH-based species traces the physical and chemical conditions in the interface between the ionized region and molecular cloud.

  19. Searching for a 3.5-keV line in the spectrum of the deepest Chandra blank fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Bulbul, Esra

    2017-01-01

    We report results of our spectral analysis of ~10 Ms of data in the deep Chandra COSMOS Legacy and CDFS surveys. We discuss a possible emission feature at 3.5 keV, which has been reported in other XMM-Newton, Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray data. If due to dark matter decay, the 3.5-keV feature, together with the result from the DAMA dark matter detection experiment, is to date the only positive dark matter signature surviving experimental tests. We discuss possible instrumental contaminations, proper statistical treatment and interpretation in terms of dark matter decay or S XVII charge exchange.

  20. The 2.9-4.2 micron spectrum of Saturn: Clouds and CH 4, PH 3, and NH 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang J.; Geballe, T. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have used synthetic spectra to analyze a medium resolution 2.9-4.2 μm spectrum of Saturn's temperate region observed at UKIRT using CGS4. The synthetic spectra include CH 4, PH 3, and NH 3 lines, for which mixing ratios were adopted from recent Cassini results. The observed absorption features in the spectrum are well accounted for by lines of these molecular species formed 22 +/- 8 km above the 1 bar pressure level at ˜610 mbar. The influence of optically thin haze particles at higher altitudes on the spectrum is not pronounced, with higher spectral resolution probably required to constrain the effects of haze in this wavelength region. Fluorescent line emission by CH 4 in its ν and ν+ν-ν bands, detected in the 3.2-3.5 μm region, originates between 400 km (˜0.06 mbar) and 800 km (˜0.01 μbar) above the 1 bar level, with peak contributions from the two major contributing bands at 550 km (˜3 μbar) and 700 km (˜0.1 μbar), respectively.

  1. Rotational Spectrum and Large Amplitude Motions of 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-DIMETHYL-BENZALDEHYDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, I.; Tudorie, M.; Jahn, M.; Grabow, J.-U.; Goubet, M.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of the 3,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-Dimethyl-Benzaldehyde (DMBA) molecules have been recorded for the first time in the 2-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the COBRA-FTMW spectrometer in Hannover, with an instrumental uncertainty of 0.5 kHz for unblended lines. The experimental assignments and fits are supplemented by ab initio quantum chemical calculations,conformational energy landscape, and dipole moment components. The analysis of the spectra for the three isomers are in progress. The latest results, including spectroscopic constants and large amplitude motion parameters, will be presented. This investigation follows the study of the spectra of the 4-Methyl-Benzaldehyde molecule. The DMBA isomers belong to a similar series of molecules formally obtained by adding a second methyl group at the aromatic ring. These molecules serve as prototype systems for the development of the theoretical model of asymmetric top molecules having Cs symmetry while containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), exhibiting different barrier heights and coupling terms to methyl internal rotation. Thus, the DMBA isomers represent benchmark species for testing the two-top internal rotors BELGI program written recently. Supported by the ANR-08-BLAN-0054 contract (France), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Land Niedersachsen (Germany). H. Saal, W. Caminati, I. Kleiner, A. R. Hight-Walker, J. T. Hougen, J.-U. Grabow, to be published. M. Tudorie, I. Kleiner, J. T. Hougen, S. Melandri, L. W. Sutikdja, W. Stahl, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 269 (2011), 211-225

  2. Theoretical investigation of the structure and electronic absorption spectrum of a complex zinc bis-[8-(3,5-difluorophenylsulfanylamino)quinolinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, B. F.; Baryshnikov, G. V.; Korop, A. A.; Minaeva, V. A.; Kaplunov, M. G.

    2012-09-01

    Using the quantum-chemical methods of the density functional theory DFT/B3LYP/DGDZVP, of the electron density topological analysis QTAIM, and of the time-dependent density functional theory TDDFT/BMK/DGDZVP, we have studied the structure and spectral properties of the electroluminescent complex zinc bis-[8-(3,5-difluorophenylsulfanylamino)quinolinate]. Good agreement of calculation results with experimental data on the electron density topological characteristics and on the absorption spectrum in the visible and UV ranges has been obtained. Based on the analysis of orbitals and wave functions of the TDDFT/BMK/DGDZVP method, we have elucidated the nature of absorption bands of the complex under study.

  3. The gas-phase bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO2)2(NO3)5]-: infrared spectrum and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G. S.; van Stipdonk, Michael J.; Oomens, Jos; De Jong, Wibe A.; McIIwain, Michael E.

    2011-12-01

    The infrared spectrum of the bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO2)2(NO3)5]- was measured in the gas phase using multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). Intense absorptions corresponding to the nitrate symmetric and asymmetric vibrations, and the uranyl asymmetric vibration were observed. The nitrate v3 vibrations indicate the presence of nitrate in a bridging configuration bound to both uranyl cations, and probably two distinct pendant nitrates in the complex. The coordination environment of the nitrate ligands and the uranyl cations were compared to those in the mono-uranyl complex. Overall, the uranyl cation is more loosely coordinated in the bis-uranyl complex [(UO2)2(NO3)5]- compared to the mono-complex [UO2(NO3)3]-, as indicated by a higher O-U-O asymmetric stretching (v3) frequency. However, the pendant nitrate ligands are more strongly bound in the bis-complex than they are in the mono-uranyl complex, as indicated by the v3 frequencies of the pendant nitrate, which are split into nitrosyl and O-N-O vibrations as a result of bidentate coordination. These phenomena are consistent with lower electron density donation per uranyl by the nitrate bridging two uranyl centers compared to that of a pendant nitrate in the mono-uranyl complex. The lowest energy structure predicted by density functional theory (B3LYP functional) calculations was one in which the two uranyl molecules bridged by a single nitrate coordinated in a bis-bidentate fashion. Each uranyl molecule was coordinated by two pendant nitrate ligands. The corresponding vibrational spectrum was in excellent agreement with the IRMPD measurement, confirming the structural assignment.

  4. High Excitation Rydberg Levels of Fe I from the ATMOS Solar Spectrum at 2.5 and 7 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, W. G.; Chang, E. S.; Geller, M.; Johansson, S.; Nave, G.; Sauval, A. J.; Grevesse, N.

    1995-01-01

    The quadrupole-polarization theory has been applied to the 3d(sup 6)4S(D-6)4f and 5g subconfigurations of Fe I by a parametric fit, and the fitted parameters are used to predict levels in the 6g and 6h subconfigurations. Using the predicted values, we have computed the 4f-6g and 5g-6h transition arrays and made identifications in the ATMOS infrared solar spectrum. The newly identified 6g and 6h levels, based on ATMOS wavenumbers, are combined with the 5g levels and found to agree with the theoretical values with a root mean-squared-deviation of 0.042/ cm. Our approach yields a polarizability of 28.07 a(sub o, sup 2) and a quadrupole moment of 0.4360 +/- 0.0010 ea(sup 2, sub o) for Fe II, as well as an improved ionization potential of 63737.700 +/- 0.010/ cm for Fe I.

  5. High Excitation Rydberg Levels of Fe I from the ATMOS Solar Spectrum at 2.5 and 7 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, W. G.; Chang, E. S.; Geller, M.; Johansson, S.; Nave, G.; Sauval, A. J.; Grevesse, N.

    1995-01-01

    The quadrupole-polarization theory has been applied to the 3d(sup 6)4S(D-6)4f and 5g subconfigurations of Fe I by a parametric fit, and the fitted parameters are used to predict levels in the 6g and 6h subconfigurations. Using the predicted values, we have computed the 4f-6g and 5g-6h transition arrays and made identifications in the ATMOS infrared solar spectrum. The newly identified 6g and 6h levels, based on ATMOS wavenumbers, are combined with the 5g levels and found to agree with the theoretical values with a root mean-squared-deviation of 0.042/ cm. Our approach yields a polarizability of 28.07 a(sub o, sup 2) and a quadrupole moment of 0.4360 +/- 0.0010 ea(sup 2, sub o) for Fe II, as well as an improved ionization potential of 63737.700 +/- 0.010/ cm for Fe I.

  6. The gas-phase bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO2)(2)(NO3)(5)](-): infrared spectrum and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; Michael J. van Stipdonk; Jos Oomens; Wibe de Jong; Michael E. McIlwain

    2011-12-01

    The infrared spectrum of the bis-uranyl nitrate complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup -} was measured in the gas phase using multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). Intense absorptions corresponding to the nitrate symmetric and asymmetric vibrations, and the uranyl asymmetric vibration were observed. The nitrate nu3 vibrations indicate the presence of nitrate in a bridging configuration bound to both uranyl cations, and probably two distinct pendant nitrates in the complex. The coordination environment of the nitrate ligands and the uranyl cations were compared to those in the mono-uranyl complex. Overall, the uranyl cation is more loosely coordinated in the bis-uranyl complex [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup -} compared to the mono-complex [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sup -}, as indicated by a higher O-U-O asymmetric stretching (nu3) frequency. However, the pendant nitrate ligands are more strongly bound in the bis-complex than they are in the mono-uranyl complex, as indicated by the {nu}{sub 3} frequencies of the pendant nitrate, which are split into nitrosyl and O-N-O vibrations as a result of bidentate coordination. These phenomena are consistent with lower electron density donation per uranyl by the nitrate bridging two uranyl centers compared to that of a pendant nitrate in the mono-uranyl complex. The structure was calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP functional), which produced a structure in which the two uranyl molecules bridged by a single nitrate coordinated in a bis-bidentate fashion. Each uranyl molecule was coordinated by two pendant nitrate ligands. The corresponding vibrational spectrum was in excellent agreement with the IRMPD measurement, confirming the structural assignment.

  7. 1 to 2.4 microns spectrum and orbital properties of the Giant Planet Beta Pictoris b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Barman, Travis; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James; Kalas, Paul G.; dawson, Rebekah; Wang, Jason; Perrin, Marshall; Moon, Dae-Sik; Macintosh, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    We present a low-resolution multi-band spectrum of the planetary companion to the nearby young star beta Pictoris using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). GPI is designed to image and provide low-resolution spectra of Jupiter sized, self-luminous planetary companions around young nearby stars. While H-bandis the primary workhorse for the GPI Exoplanet Survey, the instrument is capable of observing in the near infrared covering Y, J, H, and K bands. These observations of Beta Pic Pictoris b were taken covering multiple bands as part of GPI’s verification and commissioning phase in 2013 and 2014. Using atmospheric models along with the H-band data we recently reported an effective temperature of 1600-1700 K and a surface gravity of log (g) = 3.5-4.5 (cgs units). A similar exercise was also carried out by an independent team using the J band data, and did yield similar conclusions. These values agree well with ”hot-start” predictions from planetary evolution models for a gas giant with mass between 10 and 12 M Jup and age between 10 and 20 Myr. Here we revisit these conclusions in light of a joint analysis of these two datasets along with the longer wavelength GPI spectrum in K band, and present refined constraints on the atmospheric properties of this giant planet. In addition, we present an updated orbit for Beta Pictoris b based on astrometric measurements taken using commissioning and subsequent monitoring observations, spanning 14 months. The planet has a semi-major axis of 9.2 (+1.5 -0.4) AU, with an eccentricity e≤ 0.26. The position angle of the ascending node is Ω=31.75 deg±0.15, offset from both the outer main disk and the inner disk seen in the GPI image. We finally discuss these properties in the context of planet-disk dynamical interactions.

  8. Airborne spectrophotometry of Eta Carinae from 4.5 to 7.5 microns and a model for source morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K.; Hackwell, John A.; Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of Eta Car between 4.5 and 7.5 microns show a featureless thermal-like spectrum with no fine-structure lines or broad emission or absorption features. The color temperature of the spectrum is approximately 375 K. High spatial resolution maps at 3.5, 4.8, and 10 microns obtained from the ground are used to discuss the dust distribution and temperature structure, and to present a model for general source morphology. The upper limit to the brightness of the forbidden Ar II fine-structure emission line at 6.98 microns is less than 7 x 10 to the -16th W/sq cm, which still allows for a significant overabundance of argon and is consistent with the evolved nature of the source.

  9. 30-micron heterodyne receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Spears, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Advantages and constraints of remote measurements using heterodyne spectroscopy near 30 microns are discussed. The state of the art of wideband HgCdTe photomixers and PbSnSe diode-laser local oscillators being developed for FIR heterodyne receivers is described. The first compact 30-micron heterodyne radiometer was built, and initial results at 28-microns show about 2-percent mixer efficiency for a 500-MHz-bandwidth receiver. Factors limiting receiver performance are discussed, along with the projected sensitivity of new interdigitated-electrode HgCdTe photoconductor mixers being developed for operation up to 200 microns.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Africa: Current Challenges in Identification, Assessment, and Treatment: A Report on the International Child Neurology Association Meeting on ASD in Africa, Ghana, April 3-5, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Kavita; Abubakar, Amina; Badoe, Eben; Bakare, Muideen; Visser, Karren; Chugani, Diane C; Chugani, Harry T; Donald, Kirsten A; Wilmshurst, Jo M; Shih, Andy; Skuse, David; Newton, Charles R

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has increased over recent years, however, little is known about the identification and management of autism spectrum disorder in Africa. This report summarizes a workshop on autism spectrum disorder in Africa under the auspices of the International Child Neurology Association and the African Child Neurology Association through guided presentations and working group reports, focusing on identification, diagnosis, management, and community support. A total of 47 delegates participated from 14 African countries. Although there was a huge variability in services across the countries represented, numbers of specialists assessing and managing autism spectrum disorder was small relative to populations served. Strategies were proposed to improve identification, diagnosis, management and support delivery for individuals with autism spectrum disorder across Africa in these culturally diverse, low-resource settings. Emphasis on raising public awareness through community engagement and improving access to information and training in autism spectrum disorder. Special considerations for the cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic factors within Africa are discussed.

  11. 3 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley - Evidence for water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Rank, David M.; Wooden, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Structure has been observed in the 3-3.6 micron preperihelion spectrum of Comet Halley consistent with either an absorption band near 3.1 microns or emission near 3.3 microns. The results suggest that a large fraction of the water molecules lost by the comet are initially ejected in the form of small ice particles rather than in the gas phase.

  12. WFIRST Needs 3 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Edward L.

    2012-05-01

    The Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) should work out to 4 microns instead of the current 2 or 2.5 micron cutoff for maximum science return. The signal-to-noise ratio on distant faint galaxies and quasars is maximized in the zodiacal light minimum at 3-4 microns. The SNR for measuring shapes for weak lensing also depends on PSF size relative to the galaxy size, but for an exponential scale length of 0.1" at z=2 (850 pc), the optimum wavelength is in the 2-3 micron range. While the PSF of a 1.3 m telescope at 3 microns has a FWHM of 0.5", this is still smaller than the seeing-limited PSF of LSST which plans to do weak lensing. The scatter in supernova Hubble diagrams is much lower for data taken in the rest frame near-infrared (0.11 mag) compared to rest-frame optical (0.18 mag), so at redshift z=2 one desires photometry at 3.75 microns. So each supernova observed in the rest-frame near-IR is worth 2-3 supernova observed in the rest frame optical. Microlensing is looking at zero redshift stars, and would use a filter to isolate an optimal bandpass, so it would be no worse with a longer detector cutoff wavelength. Slitless spectroscopy to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations will concentrate on redshifted H-alpha, and use a filter to select the desired redshift range, so a longer cutoff wavelength just gives more flexibility in targeting the redshift range. Thus the performance of WFIRST with a long cutoff wavelength is either substantially improved (for SNe and the high latitude survey), slightly improved (for weak lensing) or not hurt (for microlensing and BAO), and the overlap with the capabilities of Euclid is much reduced. NASA support for my participation on the WFIRST SDT is acknowledged.

  13. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  14. Airborne Astronomy with a 150 microns - 400 microns Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-753 awarded to the University of Colorado. The project goal was to build a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer for NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and to use this instrument to observe atomic and molecular spectral lines from the interstellar medium. This goal was successfully achieved. Detections of particular note have been the 370 micron line of neutral atomic carbon, the 158 micron transition of ionized carbon, many of the high-J rotational lines of CO-12 and CO-13 between J=9-8 and J=22-21, the 119 micron and 163 micron rotational lines of OH, the 219 micron ground-state rotational line of H2D(+), and the 63 micron fine structure line of neutral atomic oxygen. All of these lines were observed at spectral resolutions exceeding 1 part in 10(exp 6) thereby allowing accurate line shapes and Doppler velocities to be measured.

  15. Airborne Astronomy with a 150 micron - 400 micron Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-753 awarded to the University of Colorado. The project goal was to build a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer for NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and to use this instrument to observe atomic and molecular spectral lines from the interstellar medium. This goal was successfully achieved. Detections of particular note have been the 370 micron line of neutral atomic carbon, the 158 micron transition of ionized carbon, many of the high-J rotational lines of CO-12 and CO-13 between J=9-8 and J=22-21, the 119 micron and 163 micron rotational lines of OH, the 219 micron ground-state rotational line of H2D(+), and the 63 microns fine structure line of neutral atomic oxygen. All of these lines were observed at spectral resolutions exceeding 1 part in 10(exp 6), thereby allowing accurate line shapes and Doppler velocities to be measured.

  16. Micronized grinding apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-06-11

    Apparatus for grinding coal to micron fineness having a grinding chamber with a grinding surface supported by a circumferential wall in the grinding chamber, a plurality of grinding rolls orbiting in the grinding chamber for grinding the coal, air supply bustle surrounding the grinding chamber, air flow restrictor means opening from the air supply bustle to the grinding chamber to create a back pressure in the air supply bustle for substantially evenly distributing the air supplied to the grinding chamber around the circumference of the grinding chamber, and wherein the restrictor means directs the air flow tangentially relative to the circumferential wall of the grinding chamber so that the coal particles are caught up in a cyclonic movement having a large initial horizontally directed force to maintain a body of coal particles in the orbit of the grinding rolls, which horizontal force gradually diminishes as the vertical force component of the air flow lifts the ground coal particles out of the grinding chamber.

  17. Sub-micron filter

    DOEpatents

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  18. Active Laser and Raman Materials for 1.3-5 Micron Spectral Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    transitions of rare- earth ions in fluorite type crystals”, in the Proceedings volume of the Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2004, author: Gregory Quarles...comparable with those for low phonon fluoride crystals like LaF3 and fluorite - type crystals like SrF2, CdF2, BaF2, and PbF2. Interestingly, the measured...impurities present in the samples. Oxygen - free CaF2: LaF3(0.25%): NdF3(0.25%) and SrF2: LaF3(1%): NdF3(0.2%) crystals with fluorite structure were

  19. Towards High-Efficiency Mid-Infrared Diode Lasers Operating from 3-5 Microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-02

    issue of optimal plasma operating parameters, which involves optimizing three main variables, namely, plasma power, flow-rate, and deflector plate...ions and neutral species, we prevent the ions from reaching the substrate by using dc- biased deflector plates. The voltage applied to the deflector

  20. The 1.2 to 3.5 microns observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, D. T.; Howell, E. S.; Bell, J. F.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    The close Earth approach of the Apollo asteroid 4179 Toutatis during the winter of 1992-1993 provided a unique opportunity for detailed ground-based observations of a near earth asteroid (NEA). Because of their relatively small size NEA's are usually far too faint to be observable by most ground-based instruments. This opposition by Toutatis was, however, exceptionally favorable. Toutatis approached within 0.03 AU of Earth and was as bright as 11th visual magnitude. This made the object observable in a wide variety of wavelengths including radar, thermal IR, near IR, and visual.

  1. Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Strohm, Eric M; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C

    2014-10-07

    The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a

  2. Modeling photoacoustic spectral features of micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-10-01

    The photoacoustic signal generated from particles when irradiated by light is determined by attributes of the particle such as the size, speed of sound, morphology and the optical absorption coefficient. Unique features such as periodically varying minima and maxima are observed throughout the photoacoustic signal power spectrum, where the periodicity depends on these physical attributes. The frequency content of the photoacoustic signals can be used to obtain the physical attributes of unknown particles by comparison to analytical solutions of homogeneous symmetric geometric structures, such as spheres. However, analytical solutions do not exist for irregularly shaped particles, inhomogeneous particles or particles near structures. A finite element model (FEM) was used to simulate photoacoustic wave propagation from four different particle configurations: a homogeneous particle suspended in water, a homogeneous particle on a reflecting boundary, an inhomogeneous particle with an absorbing shell and non-absorbing core, and an irregularly shaped particle such as a red blood cell. Biocompatible perfluorocarbon droplets, 3-5 μm in diameter containing optically absorbing nanoparticles were used as the representative ideal particles, as they are spherical, homogeneous, optically translucent, and have known physical properties. The photoacoustic spectrum of micron-sized single droplets in suspension and on a reflecting boundary were measured over the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and compared directly to analytical models and the FEM. Good agreement between the analytical model, FEM and measured values were observed for a droplet in suspension, where the spectral minima agreed to within a 3.3 MHz standard deviation. For a droplet on a reflecting boundary, spectral features were correctly reproduced using the FEM but not the analytical model. The photoacoustic spectra from other common particle configurations such as particle with an absorbing shell and a

  3. Palmitoylethanolamide: problems regarding micronization, ultra-micronization and additives.

    PubMed

    Kriek, Rutger

    2014-06-01

    It can be established that at least two of the writers of the article published in 'Inflammopharmacology', title: 'Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a naturally occurring disease-modifying agent in neuropathic pain' have a direct connection to the companies Epitech and Innovet. These companies produce micronized and ultra-micronized PEA. Therefore it is of eminent importance to determine whether the statements in this paper have also taken into consideration the European guidelines for Good Clinical Practice and the codes of good scientific practices. This is very questionable. A minimum condition in clinical studies for proving the claim that PEA in its micronized and ultra-micronized formulations works better than in its pure form or in other formulations is that a comparison be made between: PEA in pure form or in other formulations, on the one hand; PEA in the micronized and ultra-micronized formulations, on the other hand. This minimum condition is not complied with. Based on additional studies discussed in this commentary and in view of the effects of ultra-micronization on the parameters discussed, as well as the potential side-effects of additives such as excipients and herbal extracts added to the products cited in the article, the preference should be for the time being to treat patients with pure PEA without any of these additives.

  4. Airborne spectrophotometry of Comet Halley from 5 to 9 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, H.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Wooden, D. H.; Rank, D. M.; Cohen, M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectrophotometry from 5 to 9 microns (resolution = 0.02) of comet Halley was obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on 1985 Dec. 12.1 and 1986 April 8.6 and 10.5 UT. Two spectral features are apparent in all the observations, one from 5.24 to 5.6 microns, and the silicate emission feature which has an onset between 7 and 8 microns. There is no evidence for the 7.5 microns feature observed by the Vega 1 spacecraft; the large difference between the areal coverage viewed from the spacecraft and the airplane may explain the discrepancy. Color temperatures significantly higher than a blackbody indicate that small particles are abundant in the coma. Significant spatial and temporal variations in the spectrum show trends similar to those observed from the ground.

  5. Micron-gap thermophotovoltaic systems enhanced by nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmoosa, Mohammad Sajjad; Simovski, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce new micron-gap thermophotovoltaic systems enhanced by tungsten nanowires. We theoretically show that these systems allow the frequency-selective super-Planckian spectrum of radiative heat transfer that promises a very efficient generation of electricity. Our system analysis covers practical aspects such as output power per unit area and efficiency of the tap water cooling.

  6. The impact of micronized progesterone on the endometrium: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stute, P; Neulen, J; Wildt, L

    2016-08-01

    Postmenopausal women with an intact uterus using estrogen therapy should receive a progestogen for endometrial protection. International guidelines on menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) do not specify on progestogen type, dosage, route of application and duration of safe use. At the same time, the debate on bioidentical hormones including micronized progesterone increases. Based on a systematic literature review on micronized progesterone for endometrial protection, an international expert panel's recommendations on MHT containing micronized progesterone are as follows: (1) oral micronized progesterone provides endometrial protection if applied sequentially for 12-14 days/month at 200 mg/day for up to 5 years; (2) vaginal micronized progesterone may provide endometrial protection if applied sequentially for at least 10 days/month at 4% (45 mg/day) or every other day at 100 mg/day for up to 3-5 years (off-label use); (3) transdermal micronized progesterone does not provide endometrial protection.

  7. Ions in grain mantles - A new explanation for the 6.86 micron absorption in W33A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grim, Ruud J. A.; Greenberg, J. Mayo; Schutte, Willem A.; Schmitt, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    The 6.86-micron absorption in W33A has been investigated using the results of laboratory experiments simulating the photochemistry of interstellar grain mantles. The 5-8-micron IR spectrum, and particularly the 6.86-micron absorption, of W33A can be reproduced with ultraviolet irradiated water-rich ices. The 5-8-micron spectrum of W33A exhibits effects which are interpreted as due to dust material heated to different temperatures along the line of sight. Photolyzed dust mantles with a temperature less than 100 K provide the 6.0-micron absorption, while dust mantles heated to more than 100 K are the main contributors to the 6.86-micron absorption feature. Different photolysis and heating scenarios, as well as line of sight effects, are required to account for the 5-8-micron spectra of other protostellar objects.

  8. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  9. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  10. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must be...

  11. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... hijo: 3-5 días Though only a few days old, your baby already is able to interact ...

  12. Titan - 1.5 micron photometry and spectrophotometry and a search for variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Knacke, Roger F.

    1993-01-01

    The first photometric measurements of Titan in the mid-IR free of possible contamination from long-wavelength filter leaks are reported. A low-resolution spectrum covering the last unobserved gap in Titan's near-IR spectrum from 3.1 to 5.1 micron is shown. A series of photometric measurements is reported that may lay the foundation for long-term searches for variations in the albedos. Low-resolution spectra of Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa are also reported along with marginal detections of Neptune at 4.8 micron and two 4.8 micron observations of Uranus.

  13. Titan - 1.5 micron photometry and spectrophotometry and a search for variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Knacke, Roger F.

    1993-01-01

    The first photometric measurements of Titan in the mid-IR free of possible contamination from long-wavelength filter leaks are reported. A low-resolution spectrum covering the last unobserved gap in Titan's near-IR spectrum from 3.1 to 5.1 micron is shown. A series of photometric measurements is reported that may lay the foundation for long-term searches for variations in the albedos. Low-resolution spectra of Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa are also reported along with marginal detections of Neptune at 4.8 micron and two 4.8 micron observations of Uranus.

  14. Titan - 1.5 micron photometry and spectrophotometry and a search for variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, K. S.; Knacke, R. F.

    1993-02-01

    The first photometric measurements of Titan in the mid-IR free of possible contamination from long-wavelength filter leaks are reported. A low-resolution spectrum covering the last unobserved gap in Titan's near-IR spectrum from 3.1 to 5.1 micron is shown. A series of photometric measurements is reported that may lay the foundation for long-term searches for variations in the albedos. Low-resolution spectra of Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa are also reported along with marginal detections of Neptune at 4.8 micron and two 4.8 micron observations of Uranus.

  15. Micronized-Coal Burner Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

  16. High Energy 2-micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows the development of 2-micron solid state lasers. The topics covered include: 1) Overview 2-micron solid state lasers; 2) Modeling and population inversion measurement; 3) Side pump oscillator; and 4) One Joule 2-m Laser.

  17. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  18. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  19. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days A A A Though only ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  20. 2--14 microns Spectroscopy of Vega-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo-Acosta, S. B.; Knacke, R. F.; Hackwell, J. A.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Hanner, M. S.

    1994-12-01

    We present intermediate-resolution (lambda /Delta lambda ~ 50) infrared (2--14 microns) spectroscopy of four early-type main-sequence stars, conducted with the Aerospace Corp. Infrared Spectrograph. We observed beta UMa (A1 V), alpha Aql (A7 V), and beta Leo (A3 V) at the 1.3-m KPNO telescope in May 1993, and zeta Lep (A2 V) at the 3.0-m IRTF telescope in Nov. 1993. The Vega-type stars beta UMa and zeta Lep showed weak but definite excess flux at ~ 10 microns in previous groundbased photometric surveys (Fajardo-Acosta, Telesco & Knacke 1994, in preparation; Aumann & Probst 1991, ApJ, 368, 264). We observed alpha Aql and beta Leo to confirm that their ~ 10 microns spectra do not show any excess. The weak ~ 10 microns excess features in our spectra of beta UMa and zeta Lep are probably indicative of large grains and/or a small quantity of dust around these stars. Their weak features contrast with the prominent silicate emission feature previously seen in beta Pic and 51 Oph. The grains are hotter in zeta Lep than in beta UMa, as indicated by an excess already present at short wavelengths ( ~ 8.5 microns) in the spectrum of the former, as opposed to the 10--11 microns excess of the latter. Dust around these two stars could be an assemblage of amorphous minerals, probably of a variety of sizes, as suggested by their broad features. We compared the excess spectra of zeta Lep and beta UMa with those of comets (reviewed by Hanner, Lynch, & Russell 1994, ApJ, 425, 274) and found they resemble those of dust-poor comets such as Austin 1990 V and Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko 1989 XIX.

  1. Saturn's Deep Cloud Structure Derived From 5-Micron Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Chanover, N. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Hewagama, T.

    2007-12-01

    The CSHELL and SpeX spectrometers on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility were used to observe Saturn between 4.5 and 5.4 microns on several occasions from 2004-2007 at the same time as Cassini/VIMS and CIRS were mapping the planet. At these wavelengths thermal radiation originates from the deep atmosphere (5 bars) and it is attenuated by two cloud layers considered in equilibrium models to be composed of NH4SH and condensed NH3. In addition, there is a component of sunlight reflected from the upper (NH3) cloud that varies spatially on Saturn. CSHELL can spectrally resolve profiles of absorption lines of ammonia (NH3) and phosphine (PH3) on Saturn at selected wavelengths. These lines are very broad due to collisions with 3 to 5 bars of hydrogen. The Saturn spectrum exhibits numerous strong NH3 and PH3 lines, as well as Fraunhofer lines due to CO in the Sun. SpeX observations cover the entire 5-micron window sampling both thermal emission and reflected sunlight. Image cubes were obtained by stepping the slit across the planet. The best contrast in reconstructed images occurs at 5.05 microns, which coincides with the wavelength where VIMS sees spectacular structure on Saturn. The spatial variation of Saturn's 5-micron spectrum is dominated by the variable opacity of its deep cloud structure. Superimposed on this are smaller variations in the mixing ratios of NH3 and PH3. The abundances of these gases can be retrieved reliably in relatively cloud-free regions between 50 South and 65 South, which are analogous to Jupiter's belts and 5-micron hot spots. Elsewhere, it is more difficult to separate changes in cloud opacity from gas abundances. We use near-simultaneous CIRS observations which sound the ~500-mbar level to provide an upper boundary condition to PH3. The 5-micron spectrum of Saturn's Equatorial Zone (10 South) is significantly different from a region near 60 South. The NH3 and PH3 lines are weaker and narrower in the EQZ, while the Fraunhofer lines are stronger

  2. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, John R.; Buie, Marc W.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost.

  3. Effect of micronization on the solubility, viscosity and structural properties of tapioca starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wen; Li, Ji-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Wang, Fei; Lin, Yan-Yun

    2017-09-01

    Tapioca starch (TS) was treated by vibrating superfine mill with different micronization time (15, 30, 45, and 60 mins) and the solubility, viscosity and structural were also studied. The solubilities of treated samples were dramatically increased after micronization treatment. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of samples did not display any new peaks compared to native TS but had different intensity in some peaks. Rapid visco analyzer (RVA) determination suggested that micronization process altered pasting features, resulting in a decrease in viscosity and pasting temperature.

  4. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  5. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'5')arabinonucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.H.; Ainsworth, C.F.; Bell, C.L.; Danyluk, S.S.; MacCoss, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two different synthetic routes using phosphotriester methodology have been utilized to prepare deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'-5)arabinonucleosides containing 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A vidarabine) and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C, cytarabine) at the 3'-terminus in amounts and purity (greater than 95%) suitable for NMR analysis.

  6. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  7. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  8. High-spectral-resolution observations of the 7.7-micron feature in HD 44179

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. W.; Gull, G.; Beckwith, S.; Evans, N. J., II

    1982-01-01

    Observations of the moon and HD 44179 were obtained in the wavelength range of 7.5-8.5 microns at a resolving power of approximately 800. The spectrum of the moon shows absorptions caused by telluric methane. Use of the moon as a calibrator is effective in removing these atmospheric lines. The spectrum of HD 44179 shows that the 7.7-micron emission feature does not break up into discrete, resolved emission features. Instead, it must be a broad, apparently continuous, emission feature.

  9. One Micron Laser Technology Advancements at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the advancements made in one micron laser technology at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes information about risk factors that are being addressed by GSFC, and overviews of the various programs that GSFC is currently managing that are using 1 micron laser technology.

  10. High Energy 2-Micron Laser Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A master oscillator power amplifier, high energy Q-switched 2-micron laser system has been recently demonstrated. The laser and amplifiers are all designed in side-pumped rod configuration, pumped by back-cooled conductive packaged GaAlAs diode laser arrays. This 2-micron laser system provides nearly transform limited beam quality.

  11. Adiabatic pressure dependence of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathai, C. V.; Walls, W. L.; Broersma, S.

    1977-01-01

    An acoustic excitation technique is used to determine the adiabatic pressure derivative of the spectral absorptance of the 2.7 and 1.9 micron water vapor bands, and the 3.5 micron HCl band. The dependence of this derivative on thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, concentration, and pressure is evaluated. A cross-flow water vapor system is used to measure spectral absorptance. Taking F as the ratio of nonrigid to rotor line strengths, it is found that an F factor correction is needed for the 2.7 micron band. The F factor for the 1.9 micron band is also determined. In the wings of each band a wavelength can be found where the concentration dependence is predominant. Farther out in the wings a local maximum occurs for the temperature derivative. It is suggested that the pressure derivative is significant in the core of the band.

  12. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  13. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  14. Dermal Sensitization of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    tetrazocine (SEX) in guinea pigs MATERIALS Test Substance Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-I,3,5,7- Tetrazocine (SEX) Chemical Abstract Service...exist as a contaminant in P.DX/HMX manufacturing process. The characteristics of SEX are as follows: Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2

  15. Method for sampling sub-micron particles

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.; McMillan, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal to 0.3 microns; however the present invention is used to trap particles of less than 0.3 micron in diameter. A blower draws air to said collection chamber through a filter which filters particles with diameters greater than or equal to 0.3 micron. The air is then cryogenically cooled so that moisture and sub-micron sized particles in the air condense into ice on the coil. The coil is then heated so that the ice melts, and the liquid is then drawn off and passed through a Buchner funnel where the liquid is passed through a Nuclepore membrane. A vacuum draws the liquid through the Nuclepore membrane, with the Nuclepore membrane trapping sub-micron sized particles therein. The Nuclepore membrane is then covered on its top and bottom surfaces with sheets of Mylar.RTM. and the assembly is then crushed into a pellet. This effectively traps the sub-micron sized particles for later analysis.

  16. Sub-micron particle sampler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.; McMillan, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal to 0.3 microns; however the present invention is used to trap particles of less than 0.3 micron in diameter. A blower draws air to said collection chamber through a filter which filters particles with diameters greater than or equal to 0.3 micron. The air is then cryogenically cooled so that moisture and sub-micron sized particles in the air condense into ice on the coil. The coil is then heated so that the ice melts, and the liquid is then drawn off and passed through a Buchner funnel where the liquid is passed through a Nuclepore membrane. A vacuum draws the liquid through the Nuclepore membrane, with the Nuclepore membrane trapping sub-micron sized particles therein. The Nuclepore membrane is then covered on its top and bottom surfaces with sheets of Mylar.RTM. and the assembly is then crushed into a pellet. This effectively traps the sub-micron sized particles for later analysis.

  17. Biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, N.G.; Cornell, J.H.; Kaplan, A.M.

    1981-11-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is poposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed.

  18. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  19. Nanoliter volume, high-resolution NMR microspectroscopy using a 60-micron planar microcoil.

    PubMed

    Stocker, J E; Peck, T L; Webb, A G; Feng, M; Magin, R L

    1997-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of using 100-microns inner diameter planar spiral inductors (microcoils) as detectors in 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microspectroscopy. However, high-resolution NMR applications were not possible due to poor spectral resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These limitations in performance have now been largely overcome by using a nonconductive liquid fluorocarbon (FC-43) to minimize the effects of susceptibility mismatch between materials, and by carefully optimizing the microcoil geometry for maximum SNR. In this study, liquid samples were loaded into a fused silica capillary (75-microns inner diameter, 147-microns outer diameter). The capillary was positioned 50 microns above a 3.5-turn microcoil so that approximately 1 nL of the sample was present in the sensitive region of the microcoil. The microcoil was fabricated on a gallium arsenide substrate with an inner diameter of 60 microns, an outer diameter of 200 microns, trace width of 10 microns, trace spacing of 10 microns, and trace height of 3 microns. At 5.9 T (250 MHz) in 1H-NMR microspectroscopy experiments using a spectral width of 1 kHz, 4096 sampled data points, and a recovery delay of 1 s, a SNR of 25 (per acquisition) and a spectral linewidth of less than 2 Hz were obtained from a sample of water. These results demonstrate that planar microcoils can be used for high-resolution NMR microspectroscopy. Such coils may also be suitable for localized NMR studies at the cellular level and as detectors in capillary electrophoresis or microbore liquid chromatography.

  20. The moon - Mid-infrared (7.5- to 11.4-microns) spectroscopy of selected regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Witteborn, F. C.; Kozlowski, R. W.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Graps, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    Scaled spectral emissivity spectra have been obtained from five locations on the illuminated lunar surface and are interpreted in terms of differences in their mineralogic composition. The emission maximum, which typically falls near 8.0 microns for lunar rocks and fines, is observed to be shifted from 7.9 microns for noritic Copernicus crater walls to 8.1 microns for the olivine-rich central peak. Two mare locations show the emission maximum centered at 8.0 microns, consistent with laboratory emission measurements of basalts. An emissivity minimum at 10.5 microns in the spectrum from central peak 2 is attributed to the presence of olivine. Minima centered at 8.75 microns in the crater wall spectra resemble minima in laboratory spectra from pyroxene. A broad minimum centered at 8.5 microns in the Kepler ejecta spectrum and a sharp drop in emissivity at wavelengths longer than 11 microns in spectra from both mare locations suggest plagioclase.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  2. Spatial variations of the 3 micron emission features within UV-excited nebulae - Photochemical evolution of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geballe, T. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra at 3 microns have been obtained at several positions in the Orion Bar region and in the nebula surrounding HD 44179. Weak emission features at 3.40, 3.46, 3.51, and 3.57 microns are prominent in the Orion Bar region. The 3.40- and 3.51-micron features increase in intensity relative to the dominant 3.29-micron feature. The spectrum obtained in the Red Rectangle region 5 arcsecs north of HD 44179 are similar to those in the Orion Bar, with a weak, broad 3.40-micron feature at the position of HD 44179. The spatial behavior of the weak emission features is explained in terms of hot bands of the CH stretch and overtones, and combination bands of other fundamental vibrations in simple PAHs. Based on the susceptibility of PAHs to destruction by the far UV fields in both regions, PAH sizes are estimated at 20-50 carbon atoms.

  3. Spatial variations of the 3 micron emission features within UV-excited nebulae - Photochemical evolution of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geballe, T. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra at 3 microns have been obtained at several positions in the Orion Bar region and in the nebula surrounding HD 44179. Weak emission features at 3.40, 3.46, 3.51, and 3.57 microns are prominent in the Orion Bar region. The 3.40- and 3.51-micron features increase in intensity relative to the dominant 3.29-micron feature. The spectrum obtained in the Red Rectangle region 5 arcsecs north of HD 44179 are similar to those in the Orion Bar, with a weak, broad 3.40-micron feature at the position of HD 44179. The spatial behavior of the weak emission features is explained in terms of hot bands of the CH stretch and overtones, and combination bands of other fundamental vibrations in simple PAHs. Based on the susceptibility of PAHs to destruction by the far UV fields in both regions, PAH sizes are estimated at 20-50 carbon atoms.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  7. The spectra of Uranus and Neptune at 8-14 and 17-23 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Aitken, D. K.; Smith, C.; Roche, P. F.; Caldwell, J.; Snyder, R.

    1987-04-01

    The 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility was used to observe the disks of Uranus and Neptune between May 30 and June 1, 1985 in the 7-14 and 17-23 micron spectral regions. Maximum stratospheric mixing ratios of 9 x 10 to the -9th for C2H2, and of 2 x 10 to the -8th for C2H6, are found for Uranus, and the spectrum is otherwise smooth, consistent with the opacity provided by H2 collision-induced absorption and spectrally continuous stratospheric emission. Strong emission features of CH4 and C2H6 are found in the short-wavelength spectrum of Neptune, and the spectrum near 13.5 microns is consistent with C2H2 emission in local saturation equilibrium with a maximum mixing ratio of 9 x 10 to the -7th.

  8. Solid methane on Triton and Pluto - 3- to 4-micron spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.R.; Buie, M.W.; Bjoraker, G.L. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD )

    1990-12-01

    Methane has been identified in the Pluto/Charon system on the basis of absorption features in the reflectance spectrum at 1.5 and 2.3 microns; attention is presently given to observations of a 3.25 micron-centered deep absorption feature in Triton and Pluto/Charon system reflectance spectra. This absorption may indicate the presence of solid methane, constituting either the dominant surface species or a mixture with a highly transparent substance, such as N2 frost. 35 refs.

  9. Phototransistor (PT) in the 2 Micron Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Dennis; Sulima, Oleg V.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the project the University of Delaware has developed InGaAsSb-based heterojunction phototransistors (HPT) structure with a large (1000 micron diameter) photosensitive/photoactive area. Two different compositions of quaternary alloys were used to provide the cutoff wavelength (50% of maximum quantum efficiency) of 2.4 micron (Type 1) and 2.15 micron (Type 2). The Type 1 HPT was composed of Al0.25Ga0.75As0.02Sb0.98 and In0.18Ga0.82As0.17Sb0.83 layers with room-temperature bandgaps of Eg approximates 1.0 eV and Eg approximates 0.54 eV, respectively. The layers are lattice-matched to a GaSb substrate. The growth started with a 0.15micron-thick n+-GaSb buffer layer and was completed with a 0.1 m-thick n+- GaSb contact layer doped with Te. The HPT structure includes a 0.5 m-thick n-type AlGaAsSb emitter, 0.8 micron-thick p-type composite base consisting of AlGaAsSb (0.3 m) and InGaAsSb (0.5 m) layers, and a 1.5micron - thick n type InGaAsSb collector. The Type 2 HPT differed by a higher bandgap In0.16Ga0.84As 0.14Sb0.86 layers with a room-temperature bandgap of Eg approximates 0.555 eV.

  10. 1-20 micron infrared photometry of 3CR radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Willner, S. P.; Fabbiano, G.; Carleton, N. P.; Lawrence, A.; Ward, M.

    1984-05-01

    Seven emission-line radio galaxies in the wavelength range from 1 to 20 microns were observed in February 1983. Three broad emission-line galaxies (BLRGs 3C 109, 3C 234, and 3C 445), and four narrow emission-line radio galaxies (NLRGs 3C 98, 3C 198, 3C 223, and 3C 293) were found. The BLRGs showed strong infrared fluxes beyond 3.5 microns, with steep infrared slopes similar to optical slopes. In a comparison with earlier observational data it was found that two of the BLRGs are variable in the JHK filter range without a change of slope. The NLRGs showed strong excess at 10 microns and normal elliptical galaxy colors at JHK and L. Simple predictions based on type-2 Seyfert galaxies show that strong infrared excesses are absent.

  11. 1-20 micron infrared photometry of 3CR radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, M.; Willner, S. P.; Fabbiano, G.; Carleton, N. P.; Lawrence, A.; Ward, M.

    1984-01-01

    Seven emission-line radio galaxies in the wavelength range from 1 to 20 microns were observed in February 1983. Three broad emission-line galaxies (BLRGs 3C 109, 3C 234, and 3C 445), and four narrow emission-line radio galaxies (NLRGs 3C 98, 3C 198, 3C 223, and 3C 293) were found. The BLRGs showed strong infrared fluxes beyond 3.5 microns, with steep infrared slopes similar to optical slopes. In a comparison with earlier observational data it was found that two of the BLRGs are variable in the JHK filter range without a change of slope. The NLRGs showed strong excess at 10 microns and normal elliptical galaxy colors at JHK and L. Simple predictions based on type-2 Seyfert galaxies show that strong infrared excesses are absent.

  12. Biodegradation of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yih; Brodman, Bruce W

    2004-01-01

    Two bacteria were isolated from 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These organisms were subsequently identified as Rhiziobium rhizogenes BL and Burkholderia sp.BL by the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures). In addition a fungus, identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides by DSMZ, was found to be growing on water wet RDX. All of these organisms were found to degrade RDX. The two bacteria were found to represent new species that have not been reported before. It was found that these organisms along with an added carbon source could degrade RDX to simple gaseous products. Data are presented that elucidate the mechanisms of RDX biodegradation for these organisms.

  13. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowey, Janet E.

    1998-11-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the embedded young stellar objects HL Tau, Taurus-Elias 7 (Haro6-10) and Elias 18 also include emission from heated dust. To obtain the foreground silicate absorption profiles, featureless continua are estimated using smoothed astronomical and laboratory silicate emissivities. TMC field stars and Cyg OB2 no. 12 are modelled as photospheres reddened by foreground continuum and silicate extinction. Dust emission in the non-photospheric continua of HL Tau and Elias 7 (Haro6-10) is distinguished from foreground silicate absorption using a 10micron disk model, based on the IR-submm model of T Tauri stars by Adams, Lada & Shu (1988), with terms added to represent the foreground continuum and silicate extinction. The absorption profiles of HL Tau and Elias 7 are similar to that of the field star Elias 16. Fitted temperature indices of 0.43 (HL Tau) and 0.33 (Elias 7) agree with Boss' (1996) theoretical models of the 200-300K region, but are lower than those of IR-submm disks (0.5-0.61; Mannings & Emerson 1994); the modelled 10micron emission of HL Tau is optically thin, that of Elias 7 is optically thick. A preliminary arcsecond-resolution determination of the 10micron emissivity near θ1 Ori D in the Trapezium region of Orion and a range of emission temperatures (225-310K) are derived from observations by T. L. Hayward; this Ney-Allen emissivity is 0.6micron narrower than the Trapezium emissivity obtained by Forrest et al. (1975) with a large aperture. Published interstellar grain models, elemental abundances and laboratory studies of Solar System silicates (IDPs, GEMS and meteorites), the 10micron

  14. The intensities of methane in the 3-5 mu m region revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejard, L.; Champion, J.; Jouvard, J.; Brown, L.; Pine, A.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the linestrengths of the infrared spectrum of methane (12 and 13) in the 3-5 mu m region has been revisited onthe basis of new measurements from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak under various optical densities.

  15. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  16. Airborne 20-65 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaccum, William; Moseley, S. H.; Campins, Humberto C.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of Comet Halley with a grating spectrometer on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on four nights in Dec. 1985 to Apr. 1986 are reported. Low resolution 20 to 65 micrometer spectra of the nucleus with a 40 arcsec FWHM beam was obtained on 17 Dec. 1985, and on 15 and 17 Apr. 1986. On 20 Dec. 1985, only a 20 to 35 micrometer spectrum was obtained. Most of the data have been discussed in a paper where the continuum was dealt with. In that paper, models were fit to the continuum that showed that more micron sized particles of grain similar to amorphous carbon were needed to fit the spectrum than were allowed by the Vega SP-2 mass distribution, or that a fraction of the grains had to be made out of a material whose absorption efficiency fell steeper than lambda sup -1 for lambda greater than 20 micrometers. Spectra was also presented taken at several points on the coma on 15 Apr. which showed that the overall shape to the spectrum is the same in the coma. Tabulated values of the data and calibration curves are available. The spectral features are discussed.

  17. Sub-micron particle sampler apparatus and method for sampling sub-micron particles

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.; McMillan, W.G.

    1984-04-12

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal to 0.3 microns; however, the present invention is used to trap particles of less than 0.3 micron in diameter. A blower draws air to said collection chamber through a filter which filters particles with diameters greater than or equal to 0.3 micron. The air is then cryogenically cooled so that moisture and sub-micron sized particles in the air condense into ice on the coil. The coil is then heated so that the ice melts, and the liquid is then drawn off and passed through a Buchner funnel where the liquid is passed through a Nuclepore membrane. A vacuum draws the liquid through the Nuclepore membrane, with the Nuclepore membrane trapping sub-micron sized particles therein. The Nuclepore membrane is then covered on its top and bottom surfaces with sheets of Mylar and the assembly is then crushed into a pellet. This effectively traps the sub-micron sized particles for later analysis. 6 figures.

  18. Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

  19. The 11 Micron Emissions of Carbon Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Cheeseman, P.; Gerbault, F.

    1995-01-01

    A new classification scheme of the IRAS LRS carbon stars is presented. It comprises the separation of 718 probable carbon stars into 12 distinct self-similar spectral groupings. Continuum temperatures are assigned and range from 470 to 5000 K. Three distinct dust species are identifiable: SiC, alpha:C-H, and MgS. In addition to the narrow 11 + micron emission feature that is commonly attributed to SiC, a broad 11 + micron emission feature, that is correlated with the 8.5 and 7.7 micron features, is found and attributed to alpha:C-H. SiC and alpha:C-H band strengths are found to correlate with the temperature progression among the Classes. We find a spectral sequence of Classes that reflects the carbon star evolutionary sequence of spectral types, or alternatively developmental sequences of grain condensation in carbon-rich circumstellar shells. If decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing evolution, then decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing C/O resulting in increasing amounts of carbon rich dust, namely alpha:C-H. If decreasing the temperature corresponds to a grain condensation sequence, then heterogeneous, or induced nucleation scenarios are supported. SiC grains precede alpha:C-H and form the nuclei for the condensation of the latter material. At still lower temperatures, MgS appears to be quite prevalent. No 11.3 micron PAH features are identified in any of the 718 carbon stars. However, one of the coldest objects, IRAS 15048-5702, and a few others, displays an 11.9 micron emission feature characteristic of laboratory samples of coronene. That feature corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformation mode of aromatic hydrocarbon. This band indicates the presence of unsaturated, sp(sup 3), hydrocarbon bonds that may subsequently evolve into saturated bonds, sp(sup 2), if, and when, the star enters the planetary nebulae phase of stellar evolution. The effusion of hydrogen from the hydrocarbon grain results in the evolution in wavelength of this

  20. The 11 Micron Emissions of Cabon Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Cheeseman, P.; Gerbault, F.

    1995-01-01

    A new classification scheme of the IRAS LRS carbon stars is presented. It comprises the separation of 718 probable carbon stars into 12 distinct self-similar spectral groupings. Continuum temperatures are assigned and range from 470 to 5000 K. Three distinct dust species are identifiable: SiC, alpha:C-H, and MgS. In addition to the narrow 11 + micron emission feature that is commonly attributed to SiC, a broad 11 + micron emission feature, that is correlated with the 8.5 and 7.7 micron features, is found and attributed to alpha:C-H. SiC and alpha:C-H band strengths are found to correlate with the temperature progression among the Classes. We find a spectral sequence of Classes that reflects the carbon star evolutionary sequence of spectral types, or alternatively developmental sequences of grain condensation in carbon-rich circumstellar shells. If decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing evolution, then decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing CIO resulting in increasing amounts of carbon rich dust, namely alpha:C-H. If decreasing the temperature corresponds to a grain condensation sequence, then heterogeneous, or induced nucleation scenarios are supported. SiC grains precede alpha:C-H and form the nuclei for the condensation of the latter material. At still lower temperatures, MgS appears to be quite prevalent. No 11.3 micron PAH features are identified in any of the 718 carbon stars. However, one of the coldest objects, IRAS 15048-5702, and a few others, displays an 11.9 micron emission feature characteristic of laboratory samples of coronene. That feature corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformation mode of aromatic hydrocarbon. This band indicates the presence of unsaturated, sp(sup 3), hydrocarbon bonds that may subsequently evolve into saturated bonds, sp(sup 2), if, and when, the star enters the planetary nebulae phase of stellar evolution. The effusion of hydrogen from the hydrocarbon grain results in the evolution in wavelength of this

  1. Evidence For NH4SH As The Primary 3-micron Absorber In Jupiter's Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    A prominent characteristic of Jovian near-IR spectra is the widely distributed presence of a strong absorption at 2.9-3.1 microns, first noticed in a 3-micron spectrum obtained by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 1996. While Brooke et al. (1998, Icarus 136, 1-13) were able to fit the ISO spectrum using ammonia ice as the sole source of particulate absorption, Irwin et al. (2001, Icarus 149, 397-415) noted that their best-fit cloud model implied a strong absorption at 2 microns that was not observed in Galileo NIMS spectra. Subsequent significant revisions in ammonia gas absorption models (Bowles et al. 2008, Icarus 196, 612-614) also raised questions about the Brooke et al. results because ammonia gas absorption overlaps regions of ammonia ice absorption. Our reanalysis, based on improved ammonia absorption models, finds that the ISO spectrum can be fit much better with NH4SH as the sole 3-micron absorber than with NH3. But even better fits result from cloud models that include both NH3 ice and NH4SH, with the latter substance providing most of the absorption. The component due to NH3 is very possibly in the form of a coating on either large (r 15 microns) particles in a deeper layer at 550 mb or on small (r 0.3 micron) photochemical haze particles in a higher layer near 370 mb. Neither option conflicts with the lack of significant NH3 absorption features at thermal wavelengths. VIMS spectral fits (Sromovsky and Fry 2010, Icarus in press, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.06.039) are also compatible with NH4SH as the primary 3-micron absorber, and also benefit from the inclusion of a layer of small (r 0.3 micron) composite particles, with NH3 as a minor fraction, either as coating or core. This work was supported by NASA Outer Planets Research Program, the Cassini Data Analysis program, and the Jupiter Data Analysis Program.

  2. Discovering sub-micron ice particles across Dione' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Schenk, Pual; Tosi, Federico; Clark, Roger; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Combe, Jean-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Water ice is the most abundant component of Saturn’s mid-sized moons. However, these moons show an albedo asymmetry - their leading sides are bright while their trailing side exhibits dark terrains. Such differences arise from two surface alteration processes: (i) the bombardment of charged particles from the interplanetary medium and driven by Saturn’s magnetosphere on the trailing side, and (ii) the impact of E-ring water ice particles on the satellites’ leading side. As a result, the trailing hemisphere appears to be darker than the leading side. This effect is particularly evident on Dione's surface. A consequence of these surface alteration processes is the formation or the implantation of sub-micron sized ice particles.The presence of such particles influences and modifies the surfaces' spectrum because of Rayleigh scattering by the particles. In the near infrared range of the spectrum, the main sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators are: (i) asymmetry and (ii) long ward minimum shift of the absorption band at 2.02 μm (iii) a decrease in the ratio between the band depths at 1.50 and 2.02 μm (iv) a decrease in the height of the spectral peak at 2.6 μm (v) the suppression of the Fresnel reflection peak at 3.1 μm and (vi) the decrease of the reflection peak at 5 μm relative to those at 3.6 μm.We present results from our ongoing work mapping the variation of sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators across Dione' surface using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). To characterize the global variations of spectral indicators across Dione' surface, we divided it into a 1°x1° grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.We will investigate if there exist a correspondence with water ice abundance variations by producing water ice' absorption band depths at 1.25, 1.52 and 2.02 μm, and with surface morphology by comparing the results with ISS color maps in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared

  3. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  4. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  5. Transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by permanganate.

    PubMed

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve D; Harris, Clifford E; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Satapanajaru, Tunlawit

    2011-04-15

    The chemical oxidant permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) has been shown to effectively transform hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) at both the laboratory and field scales. We treated RDX with MnO(4)(-) with the objective of quantifying the effects of pH and temperature on destruction kinetics and determining reaction rates. A nitrogen mass balance and the distribution of reaction products were used to provide insight into reaction mechanisms. Kinetic experiments (at pH ∼ 7, 25 °C) verified that RDX-MnO(4)(-) reaction was first-order with respect to MnO(4)(-) and initial RDX concentration (second-order rate: 4.2 × 10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)). Batch experiments showed that choice of quenching agents (MnSO(4), MnCO(3), and H(2)O(2)) influenced sample pH and product distribution. When MnCO(3) was used as a quenching agent, the pH of the RDX-MnO(4)(-) solution was relatively unchanged and N(2)O and NO(3)(-) constituted 94% of the N-containing products after 80% of the RDX was transformed. On the basis of the preponderance of N(2)O produced under neutral pH (molar ratio N(2)O/NO(3) ∼ 5:1), no strong pH effect on RDX-MnO(4)(-) reaction rates, a lower activation energy than the hydrolysis pathway, and previous literature on MnO(4)(-) oxidation of amines, we propose that RDX-MnO(4)(-) reaction involves direct oxidation of the methylene group (hydride abstraction), followed by hydrolysis of the resulting imides, and decarboxylation of the resulting carboxylic acids to form N(2)O, CO(2), and H(2)O.

  6. Micron Accurate Absolute Ranging System: Range Extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.; Smith, Kely L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate Fresnel diffraction as a means of obtaining absolute distance measurements with micron or greater accuracy. It is believed that such a system would prove useful to the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) as a non-intrusive, non-contact measuring system for use with secondary concentrator station-keeping systems. The present research attempts to validate past experiments and develop ways to apply the phenomena of Fresnel diffraction to micron accurate measurement. This report discusses past research on the phenomena, and the basis of the use Fresnel diffraction distance metrology. The apparatus used in the recent investigations, experimental procedures used, preliminary results are discussed in detail. Continued research and equipment requirements on the extension of the effective range of the Fresnel diffraction systems is also described.

  7. 3- to 13-micron spectra of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Hammel, H. B.; Young, Leslie; Joiner, Joanna; Hackwell, J.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Broadband Array Spectrograph System with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility was used to obtain 3- to 13-micron spectra of Io on June 14-16, 1991. The extinction correction and its error for each standard star (Alpha Boo, Alpha Lyr, and Mu UMa) were found individually by performing an unweighted linear fit of instrumental magnitude as a function of airmass. The model results indicate two significant trends: (1) modest differences between the two hemispheres at lower background temperatures and (2) a tendency to higher temperatures, smaller areas, and less power from the warm component at higher background temperatures with an increased contrast between the two hemispheres. The increased flux from 8 to 13 microns is due primarily to a greater area on the Loki (trailing) hemisphere for the warm component, although temperature also plays a role.

  8. 3- to 13-micron spectra of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Hammel, H. B.; Young, Leslie; Joiner, Joanna; Hackwell, J.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Broadband Array Spectrograph System with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility was used to obtain 3- to 13-micron spectra of Io on June 14-16, 1991. The extinction correction and its error for each standard star (Alpha Boo, Alpha Lyr, and Mu UMa) were found individually by performing an unweighted linear fit of instrumental magnitude as a function of airmass. The model results indicate two significant trends: (1) modest differences between the two hemispheres at lower background temperatures and (2) a tendency to higher temperatures, smaller areas, and less power from the warm component at higher background temperatures with an increased contrast between the two hemispheres. The increased flux from 8 to 13 microns is due primarily to a greater area on the Loki (trailing) hemisphere for the warm component, although temperature also plays a role.

  9. Supersonic Flows in Micron-Sized Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayt, Robert; Breuer, Kenneth

    1998-11-01

    The results of experiments and numerical simulations of flows in micromachined converging-diverging nozzles are presented. The nozzles are fabricated using deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) and are typically 20-30 microns at the throat with expansion ratios ranging from 5 to 20. The flow channels are 300 microns deep, resulting in a 10:1 or better aspect ratio at the throat. Experimental measurements of mass flow and thrust vs. pressure ratio are presented demonstrating the presence of choked and supersonic flow in the micron-scale gemoetries. Mass flow and thrust efficiencies are also presented and compared with results from two-dimensional Navier-Stokes simulations. It is found that, while the efficiencies are reasonably large (much better than one might expect, considering the small dimension of the nozzles), the boundary layers have a considerable effect, particularly on the thrust efficiency of the device, due to the relatively large displacement thickness which reduces the effective expansion ratio. The boundary layers at the top and bottom of the nozzles also affect the performance, particularly at low Reynolds numbers. Additional experimental and numerical results are also discussed.

  10. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about the exposure of humans as well as the environment to the particles. Two common pathways of exposure, leaching during contact with water and transfer during physical contact, were investigated to gage potential human and environmental risk during intended use of the product. Characterization, leaching tests, and wipe tests were conducted on two representative formulations of micronized copper PTL (micronized copper azole or MCA) to quantify the levels of copper present in the treated material and the amount of copper released during use as well as to determine the form (particle or ion) of the copper after it was released. Additionally, an ionized copper pressure treated wood (alkaline copper azole or ACA) was tested for comparison. The characterization showed that copper carbonate is the primary particle form in the MCA treated wood, but other forms are also present, particularly in the MCA-1 formulation, which contained a large amount of organically complexed copper. Microscopy showed that MCA-1 contained particles roughly half the size of MCA-2. The leaching results indicate that mostly (> ~95%) ionic copper is released from the MCA wood and that the particulate copper that was released is attached to cellulose and not free in solution. A sma

  11. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about the exposure of humans as well as the environment to the particles. Two common pathways of exposure, leaching during contact with water and transfer during physical contact, were investigated to gage potential human and environmental risk during intended use of the product. Characterization, leaching tests, and wipe tests were conducted on two representative formulations of micronized copper PTL (micronized copper azole or MCA) to quantify the levels of copper present in the treated material and the amount of copper released during use as well as to determine the form (particle or ion) of the copper after it was released. Additionally, an ionized copper pressure treated wood (alkaline copper azole or ACA) was tested for comparison. The characterization showed that copper carbonate is the primary particle form in the MCA treated wood, but other forms are also present, particularly in the MCA-1 formulation, which contained a large amount of organically complexed copper. Microscopy showed that MCA-1 contained particles roughly half the size of MCA-2. The leaching results indicate that mostly (> ~95%) ionic copper is released from the MCA wood and that the particulate copper that was released is attached to cellulose and not free in solution. A sma

  12. Separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazacyclohexane by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Meng, Zi-Hui; Xue, Min; Qiu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chen-Fan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by the Bachmann process leads to a mixture of both. The separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane from their mixture is difficult because the sizes and physical properties of these homologous compounds are similar. For this purpose, seven molecularly imprinted polymers have been synthesized for each explosive, and a selective solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed. A molecularly imprinted polymer, synthesized with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane as the template, methacrylic acid as the monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent in a molar ratio of 1:8:8 showed the best separation capability. A packed cartridge containing this polymer can be reused for 23 solid-phase extraction cycles without repacking, and the total separation capability toward 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane reached 6.81 mg per gram of polymer. 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane was not detected in the separated 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane by high-performance liquid chromatography and vice versa. This newly developed method had the advantages of high recovery (100%) and purity, environmental friendliness, and room temperature operability. This study showed that some molecularly imprinted polymers that cannot absorb target analytes well in the solvent in which the polymers were polymerized might have high-binding capacity for the analytes and show imprinting effects in other solvents.

  13. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  14. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  15. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  16. An unusual meteor spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, A. F.; Hemenway, C. L.; Millman, P. M.; Swider, A.

    1973-01-01

    An extraordinary spectrum of a meteor at a velocity of about 18.5 + or - 1.0 km/s was observed with an image orthicon camera. The radiant of the meteor was at an altitude of about 49 deg. It was first seen showing a yellow red continuous spectrum alone at a height of 137 + or - 8 km which is ascribed to the first positive group of nitrogen bands. After the meteor had descended to 116 + or - 6 km above sea level it brightened rapidly from its previous threshold brightness into a uniform continuum, the D-line of neutral sodium appeared, and at height 105 + or - 5 km all the other lines of the spectrum also appeared. The continuum remained dominant to the end. Water of hydration and entrained carbon flakes of characteristic dimension about 0.2 micron or less are proposed as constituents of the meteoroid to explain these phenomena.

  17. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  18. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  19. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  20. Calibration of the 7- to 14-micron brightness spectra of Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, G. S.; Baines, K. H.; Caldwell, J.; Romani, P.; Tokunaga, A. T.; West, R. A.

    1990-05-01

    An independent measure of the absolute brightness of the disk-averaged spectrum measured by Orton et al. (1987) is attempted via observations of Uranus and Neptune at discrete wavelengths between 8.17 and 13.0 microns. These observations are found to be consistent with the suggested upward recalibrations of the Uranus and Neptune spectra by factors of 1.6 and 1.12, respectively. Both graphic and tabular results are presented.

  1. 0.4-3.5-micrometer Observations of 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. S.; Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Binzel, R. P.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtained nearly simultaneous observations of 4179 Toutatis over a 0.3-3.5 micrometer wavelength range on 4 January 1993 UT. Howell obtained a 1.2-2.5 micrometer spectrophotometry using the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Britt and Bell obtained narrowband photometry in the 3-micrometer region as well as broadband JHK photometry from the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. Binzel measured the visible spectrum using a CCD spectrograph at the McGraw-Hill Observatory in Arizona. Using V photometry reported by Pravec in the Czech Republic on adjacent nights [1], we were able to combine all these spectral regions. The rotation period of this object is approximately 10 days, so the time differences between the measurements of different spectral regions are negligible. Tholen has classified 4179 Toutatis as an S-type asteroid based on visible photometry. We measure a pyroxene absorption band near 2 micrometers, present in most S-type asteroid spectra. Unfortunately, a gap in spectral coverage prevents us from determining the characteristics of the 1-micrometer absorption band accurately. The spectral slope as measured from 1.25 to 2.2 micrometers is 6-10%, which is modest compared to other S-type asteroids. The spectrum of this asteroid is similar to other near-Earth S-type asteroids that have been observed in the near-infrared wavelength region. On 4 January 1993, 4179 Toutatis was 0.182 AU from the Earth, and 1.158 AU from the Sun. At this solar distance, the thermal emission contributes substantially to the flux at 3 micrometers. The determination of thermal emission is complicated by the slow rotation rate and the irregular shape of this object that was revealed by radar observations [2]. Preliminary results suggest that no 3-micrometer absorption feature is present, indicating that this object is anhydrous. Using these spectral data, we will compare 4179 Toutatis to other S-type asteroids, both in the main belt and the near-Earth environment. References

  2. The 11 micron Silicon Carbide Feature in Carbon Star Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speck, A. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Skinner, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is known to form in circumstellar shells around carbon stars. SiC can come in two basic types - hexagonal alpha-SiC or cubic beta-SiC. Laboratory studies have shown that both types of SiC exhibit an emission feature in the 11-11.5 micron region, the size and shape of the feature varying with type, size and shape of the SiC grains. Such a feature can be seen in the spectra of carbon stars. Silicon carbide grains have also been found in meteorites. The aim of the current work is to identity the type(s) of SiC found in circumstellar shells and how they might relate to meteoritic SiC samples. We have used the CGS3 spectrometer at the 3.8 m UKIRT to obtain 7.5-13.5 micron spectra of 31 definite or proposed carbon stars. After flux-calibration, each spectrum was fitted using a chi(exp 2)-minimisation routine equipped with the published laboratory optical constants of six different samples of small SiC particles, together with the ability to fit the underlying continuum using a range of grain emissivity laws. It was found that the majority of observed SiC emission features could only be fitted by alpha-SiC grains. The lack of beta-SiC is surprising, as this is the form most commonly found in meteorites. Included in the sample were four sources, all of which have been proposed to be carbon stars, that appear to show the SiC feature in absorption.

  3. The 11 micron Silicon Carbide Feature in Carbon Star Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speck, A. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Skinner, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is known to form in circumstellar shells around carbon stars. SiC can come in two basic types - hexagonal alpha-SiC or cubic beta-SiC. Laboratory studies have shown that both types of SiC exhibit an emission feature in the 11-11.5 micron region, the size and shape of the feature varying with type, size and shape of the SiC grains. Such a feature can be seen in the spectra of carbon stars. Silicon carbide grains have also been found in meteorites. The aim of the current work is to identity the type(s) of SiC found in circumstellar shells and how they might relate to meteoritic SiC samples. We have used the CGS3 spectrometer at the 3.8 m UKIRT to obtain 7.5-13.5 micron spectra of 31 definite or proposed carbon stars. After flux-calibration, each spectrum was fitted using a chi(exp 2)-minimisation routine equipped with the published laboratory optical constants of six different samples of small SiC particles, together with the ability to fit the underlying continuum using a range of grain emissivity laws. It was found that the majority of observed SiC emission features could only be fitted by alpha-SiC grains. The lack of beta-SiC is surprising, as this is the form most commonly found in meteorites. Included in the sample were four sources, all of which have been proposed to be carbon stars, that appear to show the SiC feature in absorption.

  4. Novel Tests of Gravity Below Fifty Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Gabriela; Johnson, Jeremy; Guerrero, Ian; Hoyle, C. D.

    2016-03-01

    Due to inconsistencies between General Relativity and the Standard Model, tests of gravity remain at the forefront of experimental physics. At Humboldt State University, undergraduates and faculty are designing an experiment sensitive enough to detect gravitational interactions below the 50 micron scale. The experiment measures the twist of a torsion pendulum as an attractor mass is oscillated nearby in a parallel plate configuration, providing time varying gravitational torque on the pendulum. The size and distance dependence of the torque variation will provide a means to determine any deviation from current models of gravity on untested scales. Supported by NSF Grants 1065697 and 1306783.

  5. The submillimeter spectrum of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Matsuo, H.; Murakami, H.; Sato, S.

    1988-01-01

    The diffuse brightness of the sky has been measured in six submillimeter passbands, using a rocket-borne, liquid helium-cooled, absolute radiometer. The flux measured at 1160 microns is in good agreement with the average of longer wavelength measurements of the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. The fluxes measured at 709 microns and 481 microns show a rapid decrease toward shorter wavelength, but correspond to significantly higher temperatures. No local source of this excess flux has been identified. The spectrum of the excess significantly constrains cosmological models. Data at 262, 137, and 102 microns are consistent with emission from interstellar dust.

  6. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong; Tian, Kang; Jones, Lindsey E; Liu, Jun; Anderson, Todd A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Cobb, George P

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of the explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In negative ionization mode, HMX forms an acetate adduct ion [M + CH(3)COO](-), m/z 355, in the presence of a small amount of acetic acid in the mobile phase. The ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of m/z 355 was acquired and the transitions m/z 355 --> 147 and m/z 355 --> 174 were chosen for the determination of HMX in samples. Using this quantification technique, the method detection limit was 1.57 microg/L and good linearity was achieved in the range 5-500 microg/L. This method will help to unambiguously analyze environmentally relevant concentrations of HMX. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  8. The Two Micron All Sky Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinmann, S. G.; Lysaght, M. G.; Pughe, W. L.; Schneider, S. E.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Weinberg, M. D.; Price, S. D.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Huchra, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) will provide a uniform survey of the entire sky at three near-infrared wavebands: J(lambda(sub eff) = 1.25 micrometers), H(lambda(sub eff) = 1.65 micrometers), and K(sub s)(lambda(sub eff) = 2.16 micrometers). A major goal of the survey is to probe large scale structures in the Milky Way and in the Local Universe, exploiting the relatively high transparency of the interstellar medium in the near-infrared, and the high near-infrared luminosities of evolved low- and intermediate-mass stars. A sensitive overview of the near-infrared sky is also an essential next step to maximize the gains achievable with infrared array technology. Our assessment of the astrophysical questions that might be addressed with these new arrays is currently limited by the very bright flux limit of the only preceding large scale near-infrared sky survey, the Two Micron Sky Survey carried out at Caltech in the late 1960's. Near-infrared instruments based on the new array technology have already obtained spectra of objects 1 million times fainter than the limit of the TMSS! This paper summarizes the essential parameters of the 2MASS project and the rationale behind those choices, and gives an overview of results obtained with a prototype camera that has been in operation since May 1992. We conclude with a list of expected data products and a statement of the data release policy.

  9. Spitzer IRS (8-30 micron) Spectra of Basaltic Asteroids 1459 Magnya and 956 Elisa: Mineralogy and Thermal Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report preliminary results from Spitzer IRS (Infrared Spectrograph) spectroscopy of 956 Elisa, 1459 Magnya, and other small basaltic asteroids with the Spitzer IRS. Program targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vestoids"), several outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid 4055 Magellan. The preliminary thermal model (STM) fit to the 5--35 micron spectrum of 956 Elisa gives a radius of 5.4 +/- 0.3 km and a subsolar- point temperature of 282.2 +/- 0.5 K. This temperature corresponds to eta approximately equals 1.06 +/- 0.02, which is substantially higher than the eta approximately equals 0.756 characteristic of large main-belt asteroids. Unlike 4 Vesta and other large asteroids, therefore, 956 Elisa has significant thermal inertia in its surface layer. The wavelength of the Christiansen feature (emissivity maximum near 9 micron), the positions and shapes of the narrow maxima (10 micron, 11 micron) within the broad 9--14 micron silicate band, and the 19--20 micron minimum are consistent with features found in the laboratory spectra of diogenites and of low-Ca pyroxenes of similar composition (Wo<5, En50-En75).

  10. Spitzer IRS (8-30 micron) Spectra of Basaltic Asteroids 1459 Magnya and 956 Elisa: Mineralogy and Thermal Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report preliminary results from Spitzer IRS (Infrared Spectrograph) spectroscopy of 956 Elisa, 1459 Magnya, and other small basaltic asteroids with the Spitzer IRS. Program targets include members of the dynamical family of the unique large differentiated asteroid 4 Vesta ("Vestoids"), several outer-main-belt basaltic asteroids whose orbits exclude them from originating on 4 Vesta, and the basaltic near-Earth asteroid 4055 Magellan. The preliminary thermal model (STM) fit to the 5--35 micron spectrum of 956 Elisa gives a radius of 5.4 +/- 0.3 km and a subsolar- point temperature of 282.2 +/- 0.5 K. This temperature corresponds to eta approximately equals 1.06 +/- 0.02, which is substantially higher than the eta approximately equals 0.756 characteristic of large main-belt asteroids. Unlike 4 Vesta and other large asteroids, therefore, 956 Elisa has significant thermal inertia in its surface layer. The wavelength of the Christiansen feature (emissivity maximum near 9 micron), the positions and shapes of the narrow maxima (10 micron, 11 micron) within the broad 9--14 micron silicate band, and the 19--20 micron minimum are consistent with features found in the laboratory spectra of diogenites and of low-Ca pyroxenes of similar composition (Wo<5, En50-En75).

  11. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. © 2014 The authors.

  12. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  13. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  14. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals; general—(1...

  16. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not approve... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5...

  17. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not approve... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5...

  18. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not approve... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5...

  19. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  20. New MBE buffer for micron- and quarter-micron-gateGaAs MESFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A new buffer layer has been developed that eliminates backgating in GaAs MESFETs and substantially reduces short-channel effects in GaAs MESFETs with 0.27-micron-long gates. The new buffer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at a substrate temperature of 200 C using Ga and As sub 4 beam fluxes. The buffer is crystalline, highly resistive, optically inactive, and can be overgrown with high quality GaAs. GaAs MESFETs with a gate length of 0.27 microns that incorporate the new buffer show improved dc and RF properties in comparison with a similar MESFET with a thin undoped GaAs buffer. To demonstrate the backgating performance improvement afforded by the new buffer, MESFETs were fabricated using a number of different buffer layers and structures. A schematic cross section of the MESFET structure used in this study is shown. The measured gate length, gate width, and source-drain spacing of this device are 2,98, and 5.5 microns, respectively. An ohmic contact, isolated from the MESFET by mesa etching, served as the sidegate. The MESFETs were fabricated in MBE n-GaAs layers grown on the new buffer and also in MBE n-GaAs layers grown on buffer layers of undoped GaAs, AlGaAs, and GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices. All the buffer layers were grown by MBE and are 2 microns thick. The active layer is doped to approximately 2 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm with silicon and is 0.3 microns thick.

  1. New MBE buffer for micron- and quarter-micron-gateGaAs MESFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A new buffer layer has been developed that eliminates backgating in GaAs MESFETs and substantially reduces short-channel effects in GaAs MESFETs with 0.27-micron-long gates. The new buffer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at a substrate temperature of 200 C using Ga and As sub 4 beam fluxes. The buffer is crystalline, highly resistive, optically inactive, and can be overgrown with high quality GaAs. GaAs MESFETs with a gate length of 0.27 microns that incorporate the new buffer show improved dc and RF properties in comparison with a similar MESFET with a thin undoped GaAs buffer. To demonstrate the backgating performance improvement afforded by the new buffer, MESFETs were fabricated using a number of different buffer layers and structures. A schematic cross section of the MESFET structure used in this study is shown. The measured gate length, gate width, and source-drain spacing of this device are 2,98, and 5.5 microns, respectively. An ohmic contact, isolated from the MESFET by mesa etching, served as the sidegate. The MESFETs were fabricated in MBE n-GaAs layers grown on the new buffer and also in MBE n-GaAs layers grown on buffer layers of undoped GaAs, AlGaAs, and GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices. All the buffer layers were grown by MBE and are 2 microns thick. The active layer is doped to approximately 2 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm with silicon and is 0.3 microns thick.

  2. 12 and 20 micron imaging of the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, R. K.; Jones, B.; Puetter, R. C.; Stein, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    The study presents 12- and 20-micron imaging of the starburst galaxy NGC 253 with a spatial resolution of 0.8 arcsec. A positional uncertainty of 1.6 arcsec in these images is estimated on the basis of previous ground-based mid-IR studies to determine the absolute position of the images. It is concluded that the proposed 'nucleus' of NGC 253, i.e., the dominant, bright, flat-spectrum radio source identified by Turner & Ho (1985) (TH 2), is not associated with the mid-IR peak, but rather is located 2.2 arcsec to the northeast. The mid-IR peak, IRS 1, is placed midway between TH 6 and TH 7. Several coincidences with the present 12-micron image are found: IRS 1 falls within 1 arcsec of the 2-micron peak; a second significantly weaker IR source, IRS 2, coincides with TH 2; and the brightest steep-spectrum 6-cm radio source, TH 9, coincides with a 'tongue' of emission extending to the southwest of IRS 1.

  3. The Spacing of the Interstellar 6.2 Microns and 7.7 Microns Emission Features as an Indicator of PAH Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A database of astrophysically relevant, infrared spectral measurements on a wide variety of neutral as well as positively and negatively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ranging in size from C10H8 through C48H20 is now available to extend the interstellar PAH model. Beyond simply indicating general characteristics of the carriers, this collection of data now makes it possible to conduct a more thorough interpretation of the details of the interstellar spectra and thereby derive deeper insights into the nature of the emitting material and conditions in the emission zones. This paper is the first such implementation of this spectral database. The infrared spectra of PAH cations, the main PAH form in the most energetic emission zones, are usually dominated by a few strong features in the 1650 - 1100 per centimeter (6.1 - 9.1 microns) region which tend to cluster in the vicinity of the interstellar emission bands at 1610 per centimeter and 1320 per centimeter (6.2 and 7.6 microns) but with spacings typically somewhat less than that observed in the canonical interstellar spectrum. However, the spectra in the database show that this spacing increases steadily with molecular size. Extrapolation of this trend indicates that PAHS in the 50 to 80 carbon atom size range are entirely consistent with the observed interstellar spacing. Furthermore, the profile of the 1610 per centimeter (6.2 microns) interstellar band indicates that PAHS containing as few as 20 carbon atoms contribute to this feature.

  4. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  5. Radiation tolerant 1 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevel, P.; Rodde, K.

    1991-03-01

    Starting from a standard one micron Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) for high density, low power memory applications, the degree of radiation tolerance of the baseline process is evaluated. Implemented process modifications to improve latchup sensitivity under heavy ion irradiation as well as total dose effects without changing layout rules are described. By changing doping profiles in Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductors (MNOS) and P-channel MOS (PMOS) device regions, it is possible to guarantee data sheet specification of a 64 K low power static RAM for total gamma dose up to 35 krad (Si) (and even higher values for the gate array family) without latch up for Linear Energy Transfer LET up to 115 MeV/(mg/cm squared).

  6. Novel Tests of Gravity Below Fifty Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeremy; Martinez, Gabriela; Guerrero, Ian; Dunkley, Noah; Sanchez, Anthony; Isachsen, Hilde; Shaw, Duncan; Hoyle, C. D.

    2017-01-01

    Theories which attempt to unify the Standard Model and General Relativity often include features which violate the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) and gravitational Inverse-Square Law (ISL). A violation of either the WEP or ISL at any length scale would bring into question our fundamental understanding of gravity. Motivated by these considerations, undergraduates and faculty at Humboldt State University are building an experiment to probe gravitational interactions below the 50-micron length scale. The experiment employs a torsion pendulum with equal masses of different material arranged as a ``composition dipole.'' We measure the twist of the torsion pendulum as an attractor mass is oscillated nearby in a parallel-plate configuration, providing a time varying torque on the pendulum. The size and distance dependence of the torque variation will provide a means to determine any deviation from the WEP or ISL at untested scales. PHY-1065697, PHY-1306783, and PHY-1606988.

  7. 20-micron observations of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greidanus, H.; Strom, R. G.

    1991-09-01

    Ground-based observations of a small region on the northern rim of Cas A showing structures down to the resolution limit of 5 sec are discussed. It is shown that the brightness distribution in the area has no correlation with the optical, radio, or X-ray emission. The radiating mass derived is found to be comparable to earlier infrared-based estimates, but substantially smaller than X-ray-derived values; this indicates a very low dust-to-gas ratio or coupling, or a very low filling factor for the hot gas. A detailed comparison between 20-micron and X-ray brightness distributions indicate that the dust is associated with the hottest gas found in the blast wave. This is found to be in contrast with its relative inward location near the cooler gas, that can be interpreted as reverse shocked ejecta.

  8. Micronized progesterone reduces vasoconstriction in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathaniel R; Dolinsky, Brad M; Napolitano, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    To investigate if micronized progesterone (P4) has the ability to attenuate thromboxane mimetic U46619-mediated fetoplacental artery vasoconstriction. Paired cotyledons obtained from the same placenta of five-term subjects were analyzed. The fetal artery and maternal intervillous space of one cotyledon was infused with P4 while another cotyledon was infused with control perfusate. After 30 min, a bolus dose of U44619 was administered to both cotyledons. The change in the measured fetoplacental vascular pressure caused by bolus administration of U46619 was less in the cotyledons infused with P4 (p = 0.009). Continuous treatment with P4 significantly attenuates the U46619-mediated fetoplacental vasoconstriction.

  9. A tentative identification of methanol as the progenitor of the 3.52-micron emission feature in several comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Susan; Mumma, Michael; Reuter, Dennis C.; Disanti, Michael; Joyce, R. R.; Storrs, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Continuum emission has been detected during 3.44-3.64 micron spectral region observations of Comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf, Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, and Levy. The spatial brightness profile of the 3.52-micron emission feature was measured and found to be consistent with uniform outflow from a central, unresolved source; the molecule generating the emission is either directly sublimated from the cometary surface or is a short-lived parent specie's dissociation product. The modeled IR spectrum of CH3OH implies the consistency of the observed spectra with a methanol origin for the 3.52 emission.

  10. A tentative identification of methanol as the progenitor of the 3.52-micron emission feature in several comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Susan; Mumma, Michael; Reuter, Dennis C.; Disanti, Michael; Joyce, R. R.; Storrs, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Continuum emission has been detected during 3.44-3.64 micron spectral region observations of Comets P/Brorsen-Metcalf, Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, and Levy. The spatial brightness profile of the 3.52-micron emission feature was measured and found to be consistent with uniform outflow from a central, unresolved source; the molecule generating the emission is either directly sublimated from the cometary surface or is a short-lived parent specie's dissociation product. The modeled IR spectrum of CH3OH implies the consistency of the observed spectra with a methanol origin for the 3.52 emission.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  16. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  18. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-thione. 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothi-adiazine-2-thione may safely be used as a preservative in the... as a preservative for substances added to the pulp suspension prior to the sheet-forming operation provided that the preservative is volatilized by heat in the drying and finishing of the paper and...

  19. Lunar multispectral imaging at 2.26 microns - First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, D. W.; Johnson, T. V.; Matson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The first results of line-scan imaging of the moon at 2.26 microns and 0.56 micron are presented. Among the many features observed in the 2.26 micron/0.56 micron ratio image, fresh rock and immature soils stand out as dark (i.e., low ratio) due to their infrared absorption bands. Also notable in this image are several strikingly bright (high 2.26 micron/0.56 micron ratio) areas which are likely to contain pyroclastic, glass-related materials. Some of these bright areas correspond to dark mantling material. Others (e.g., Sulpicius Gallus, Aristarchus Plateau) are distinctly different in their overall spectral reflectance and it is suggested that these localities contain varieties of pyroclastic glass-related materials which were not sampled by Apollo 17 but which are relatively abundant elsewhere on the moon.

  20. Evaluation of selected micronized poloxamers as tablet lubricants.

    PubMed

    Desai, D; Zia, H; Quadir, A

    2007-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the lubrication properties of micronized poloxamer 188 (Lmicrotrol micro 68) and micronized poloxamer 407 (Lmicrotrol micro 127) with certain conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate and stearic acid. The secondary objective was to use these micronized poloxamers as water-soluble tablet lubricants in preparation of effervecsent tablets. The results showed that these micronized poloxamers have superior lubrication properties compared with stearic acid, with no negative effect on tablet hardness, friability, disintegration, or dissolution. Moreover, lubricant mixing time had no significant effect on tablet properties when poloxamers were used as lubricants. Effervescent tablets also were produced successfully using micronized poloxamers as lubricants. The micronized poloxamers had a better lubrication effect in comparison with that of water-soluble lubricant l-leucine.

  1. Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrometer for remote observations near 8 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Jennings, D. E.; Buhl, D.; Mumma, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy is a passive technique employing coherent optical detection for the study of spectral features in remote sources. It employs optical components such as mirrors and lenses normally associated with incoherent optics, but because of it's coherent nature, it offers the advantages of ultrahigh spectral resolving power, high frequency precision, and diffraction limited field-of-view. Attention is given to the development of an ultrahigh resolution diode laser heterodyne spectrometer for observational and laboratory use. The instrument is designed for operation in the spectral range from 7.5 to 8.5 microns. A PbSe tuneable diode laser (TDL) is employed as local oscillator. A closed-cycle cooler is employed to keep the oscillator at operating temperatures in the range from 12 to 60 K. Attention is given to factors determining the TDL heterodyne sensitivity, the spectrometer design, and a survey of 8 micron observations, SiO could be detected in the sunspot spectrum.

  2. Analysis of 12-700 micron reflectance spectra of three optical black samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Normal incidence, specular reflectance spectra of three samples of optical black coatings have been measured in 10 filter passbands at effective wavelengths between 12 and 700 microns. Strong absorption, due to amorphous silicate material in the coatings, is found in the 15-50 micron region of each spectrum. Reflecting-layer model calculations are fitted by a nonlinear least-squares routine to the spectra at wavelengths beyond the absorption band to determine far-infrared optical parameters. It is found that, with a similar wavelength dependence, the absorption coefficient of a new black coating (ECP 2200) made by the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M) is less than 1/10 that of the discontinued coating, 3M Black Velvet Nextel. It is also shown that the extinction effect of a very rough substrate is negligible compared with the effects of increased upper surface roughness and coating thickness attendant upon fully covering a very rough substrate.

  3. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  4. Near 16 micron CO.sub.2 laser system

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for inducing laser action in CO.sub.2 at a wavelength of 16 microns involving the transition between the 02.sup.0 0 and 01.sup.1 0 states. The population inversion between these two states is achieved by pumping to the 00.sup.0 1 level, suppressing the usual 10.6 micron transition to the 10.sup.0 0 level and encouraging the 9.6 micron transition, thereby populating the 02.sup.0 0 level, as the principal prerequisite for 16 micron laser action between the 02.sup.0 0 and 01.sup.1 0 levels.

  5. Roles of the 2 microns gene products in stable maintenance of the 2 microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, A E; Murray, A W; Szostak, J W

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the replication and segregation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 microns circle. The amplification of the plasmid at low copy numbers requires site-specific recombination between the 2 microns inverted repeat sequences catalyzed by the plasmid-encoded FLP gene. No other 2 microns gene products are required. The overexpression of FLP in a strain carrying endogenous 2 microns leads to uncontrolled plasmid replication, longer cell cycles, and cell death. Two different assays show that the level of Flp activity decreases with increasing 2 microns copy number. This regulation requires the products of the REP1 and REP2 genes. These gene products also act together to ensure that 2 microns molecules are randomly segregated between mother and daughter cells at cell division. Images PMID:3316982

  6. A study of ethane on Saturn in the 3 micron region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.

    1981-09-01

    C2H6 has been detected in absorption on Saturn from 3-micron airborne spectra. Based on comparisons with laboratory spectra of C2H6, the ethane abundance has been estimated at 7.5 plus or minus 3.5 cm-amagat, equivalent to a column abundance of 3.0 plus or minus 1.4 cm-amagat. The results support expectations that CH4 photolysis is a major disequilibrating mechanism in the upper atmosphere of the outer planets and Titan.

  7. Note: Aligned deposition and modal characterization of micron and submicron poly(methyl methacyrlate) fiber cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nain, Amrinder S; Filiz, Sinan; Ozdoganlar, O Burak; Sitti, Metin; Amon, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric micro-/nanofibers are finding increasing use as sensors for novel applications. Here, we demonstrate the ability to deposit an array of poly(methyl methacyrlate) fibers with micron and submicron diameters in aligned configurations on customized piezoelectric shakers. Using lateral motion of an atomic force microscope tip, fibers are broken to obtain fiber cantilevers of high aspect ratio (length/diameter > 20). The resonant frequencies of fabricated microfiber cantilevers are experimentally measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. An average Young's modulus of 3.5 GPa and quality factor of 20 were estimated from the experimentally obtained frequency responses.

  8. Sub-micron geochronology by EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.; Berman, R.

    2013-12-01

    Actinide-bearing, geochronologically applicable accessory phases can exhibit remarkably complex internal compositional structures, commonly revealing polygenesis and allowing timing constraints to be placed on the structural and metamorphic evolution of multiply tectonized terrains. These fine-scale mineral domains have been revealed by high resolution compositional mapping by EPMA of natural monazite (LREE PO4), and can exist at nearly all spatial scales, including domains substantially below 1 micron in width. Accurate compositional characterization of such domains by any technique is difficult, but hardware and software developments in EPMA offer some opportunities to approach these challenging but important targets accurately. In this regard, we have analyzed Paloeproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) monazite domains which penetrate along cleavage planes in larger, older monazite grains (ca. 2.55 and 2.37 Ga) from the Boothia peninsula, Nanavut Canada. As such, this represents a successful nanogeochronologic analysis. The direct analytical volume, as defined by the convolution of the error functions resulting from primary (beam) electron scattering and characteristic X-ray generation volume dimensions, can be restricted to considerably less than 1 micron with the use of high brightness sources (LaB6, CeB6, or Schottky) and modest beam energy (15kV or less) in monazite (Z ca. 39). However, the analysis is rendered far more complex by the effects of boundary fluorescence and beam damage. For this analysis, we use a high thermal/electrical conductivity double coating of aluminum and carbon to mitigate sample damage at high current density. Although imperfect (there remains a net loss of P relative to REEs and actinides), this analysis results in relatively minor counting errors relative to the concentrations, and accuracy can be further improved by use of time-dependent count acquisition methods. Reduction of the beam energy substantially below 10kV results in extreme damage

  9. Degree of interdependence among atmospheric optical thicknesses in spectral bands between 0.36-2.4 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of dependence among the atmospheric optical thicknesses that are measured in nonselective absorption bands is studied. The observations were made previously in many spectral bands within the range 0.36-2.4 micron from near sea level in two continents where urban and industrial pollutions were weak. The sample covariance matrices and corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed. The two highest eigenvalues account for 90% of the total variance in 10 spectral bands within the range 0.4-1.6 micron. The linear regression of the optical thickness on the total precipitable water vapor is computed to determine the attenuation coefficient that is associated with water vapor. This coefficient shows a rapid power-law decrease with wavelength in the visible spectrum and indicates that numerous water particles of radius 0.03-0.06 micron cause the attenuation.

  10. Degree of interdependence among atmospheric optical thicknesses in spectral bands between 0.36-2.4 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The degree of dependence among the atmospheric optical thicknesses that are measured in nonselective absorption bands is studied. The observations were made previously in many spectral bands within the range 0.36-2.4 micron from near sea level in two continents where urban and industrial pollutions were weak. The sample covariance matrices and corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed. The two highest eigenvalues account for 90% of the total variance in 10 spectral bands within the range 0.4-1.6 micron. The linear regression of the optical thickness on the total precipitable water vapor is computed to determine the attenuation coefficient that is associated with water vapor. This coefficient shows a rapid power-law decrease with wavelength in the visible spectrum and indicates that numerous water particles of radius 0.03-0.06 micron cause the attenuation.

  11. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and

  12. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  13. Spectra of Uranus and Neptune at 8-14 and 17-23 microns

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, G.S.; Aitken, D.K.; Smith, C.; Roche, P.F.; Caldwell, J.

    1987-04-01

    The 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility was used to observe the disks of Uranus and Neptune between May 30 and June 1, 1985 in the 7-14 and 17-23 micron spectral regions. Maximum stratospheric mixing ratios of 9 x 10 to the -9th for C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, and of 2 x 10 to the -8th for C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, are found for Uranus, and the spectrum is otherwise smooth, consistent with the opacity provided by H/sub 2/ collision-induced absorption and spectrally continuous stratospheric emission. Strong emission features of CH/sub 4/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ are found in the short-wavelength spectrum of Neptune, and the spectrum near 13.5 microns is consistent with C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ emission in local saturation equilibrium with a maximum mixing ratio of 9 x 10 to the -7th. 27 references.

  14. Microbial Interactions with Several Munitions Compounds: 1,3-Dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene, and 3,5-Dinitroaniline.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    of both 1,3-DNB and 1,3,5-TNB have been noted following their treatment in a two-stage aerated reactor composed of Azotobacter agilis in the first...3,5-DiNA Biosorption studies were conducted with 3-day Standard Methods broth cultures of Azotobacter beijerinckii (ATCC19366), Bacillus cereus...Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens, and Azotobacter beijerinckil. Bacterial cells were washed by repeated centrifuga- tion and resuspension

  15. Primary Dermal Irritation of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Tetrazine Chemical Abstract 3ervice F ;istry V" 139800-00-2 Lewis--2 Structural formula: C-CH3 H C N-NO2 02 N-N H2 H4X-N Empirical formula: C6H11N7...CHEMICAL DATA Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 139800-00-2 Structural formula

  16. Millisecond, micron precision multi-whisker detector.

    PubMed

    Grady, Stephen K; Hoang, Thanh T; Gautam, Shree Hari; Shew, Woodrow L

    2013-01-01

    The neural mechanisms of somatosensory information processing in the rodent vibrissae system are a topic of intense debate and research. Certain hypotheses emphasize the importance of stick-slip whisker motion, high-frequency resonant vibrations, and/or the ability to decode complex textures. Other hypotheses focus on the importance of integrating information from multiple whiskers. Tests of the former require measurements of whisker motion that achieve high spatiotemporal accuracy without altering the mechanical properties of whiskers. Tests of the latter require the ability to monitor the motion of multiple whiskers simultaneously. Here we present a device that achieves both these requirements for two-dimensional whisker motion in the plane perpendicular to the whiskers. Moreover, the system we present is significantly less expensive (<$2.5 k) and simpler to build than alternative devices which achieve similar detection capabilities. Our system is based on two laser diodes and two linear cameras. It attains millisecond temporal precision and micron spatial resolution. We developed automated algorithms for processing the data collected by our device and benchmarked their performance against manual detection by human visual inspection. By this measure, our detection was successful with less than 10 µm deviation between the automated and manual detection, on average. Here, we demonstrate its utility in anesthetized rats by measuring the motion of multiple whiskers in response to an air puff.

  17. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  18. Multicomponent, one-pot sequential synthesis of 1,3,5- and 1,3,5,5-substituted barbiturates.

    PubMed

    Volonterio, Alessandro; Zanda, Matteo

    2008-10-03

    Carbodiimides and malonic acid monoethylesters readily react to afford N-acylurea derivatives that could be cyclized in situ by addition of a suitable base. This process represents a general and straightforward one-pot sequential synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates in very mild conditions (organic solvent/2 N NaOH aqueous solution, 20 degrees C). Performing the reaction in the presence of an electrophile resulted in the formation of fully substituted (namely, 1,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted) barbiturates through a three-component one-pot sequential process. The latter, however, occurred only with highly reactive electrophiles, such as benzyl and, in some instances, allyl halides. In order to expand the scope of the process, we sought to develop a general method for the C-alkylation of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates. We found that C-alkylation occurred upon treatment of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates with an alkyl halide in CH3CN at 120 degrees C in the presence of anhydrous K2CO3 affording the target 1,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted barbiturates in good yields. The multicomponent process was accomplished by combining the three steps in a one-pot sequential fashion, i.e., the condensation of carbodiimides with malonic acid monoethylesters, the cyclization of the resulting N-acylureas, and the C-alkylation of the resulting 1,3,5-substituted barbiturates. A detailed study of the influence of the structure of the reactants on the reaction outcome and mechanism is presented. By selective N'-deprotection of 1,3,5,5-tetrasubstituted barbiturates, the corresponding 1,5,5-trisubstituted barbiturates were also prepared.

  19. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  20. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space: A compilation of ATMOS spectra of the region from 650 to 4800 cm (2.3 to 16 micron). Volume 1: The Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Crofton B.; Norton, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 payload of the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a modified Michelson Interferometer covering the frequency range from 600 to 5000/cm, at a spectral resolution of 0.01/cm, recorded infrared spectra of the Sun and of the Earth's atmosphere at times close to entry into and exit from occultation by the Earth's limb as seen from the shuttle orbit of 360 km. Spectra were obtained that are free from absorptions due to constituents of the atmosphere (i.e., solar pure spectra), as well as spectra of the atmosphere itself, covering line-of-sight tangent altitudes that span the range from the lower thermosphere to the bottom of the troposphere. This atlas, believed to be the first record of observations of the continuous high resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space, provides a compilation of these spectra arranged in a hardcopy format suitable for quick-look reference purposes; the data are also available in digital form.

  1. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  2. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  3. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  4. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  5. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature or...

  6. Examining Core Curricula in Writing for Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Jill; McCurdy, Merilee; Roehling, Julia V.

    2015-01-01

    Within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, Tier 1 instruction requires the selection of research-based core curricula. However, many educators and administrators are not aware of high-quality core writing curricula. The authors assembled a rubric to assist schools in evaluating core writing curricula for Grades 3-5. Rubric components…

  7. Non-Enzymatic Oligomerization of 3', 5' Cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Timperio, Anna Maria; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Nováková, Olga; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate that short oligonucleotide sequences can be easily produced from nucleotide precursors in a template-free non-enzymatic way under dehydrating conditions, i.e. using essentially dry materials. Here we report that 3',5' cyclic AMP may also serve as a substrate of the reaction, which proceeds under moderate conditions yet with a lower efficiency than the previously reported oligomerization of 3',5' cyclic GMP. Optimally the oligomerization requires (i) a temperature of 80°C, (ii) a neutral to alkaline environment and (iii) a time on the order of weeks. Differences in the yield and required reaction conditions of the oligomerizations utilizing 3',5' cGMP and cAMP are discussed in terms of the crystal structures of the compounds. Polymerization of 3',5' cyclic nucleotides, whose paramount relevance in a prebiotic chemistry context has been widely accepted for decades, supports the possibility that the origin of extant genetic materials might have followed a direct uninterrupted path since its very beginning, starting from non-elaborately pre-activated monomer compounds and simple reactions.

  8. [3,5-dimethoxyfenol--marker intoxication with Taxus baccata].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Dogosi, M; Snupárek, Z; Toupalík, P; Baláz, P; Bartos, P

    2010-07-01

    Autopsy findings of fatal intoxication with yew (Taxus baccata) are nonspecific. A presence of plant residues in the digestive tract can signalize yew intoxication. If yew decoction is consumed, plant residues are not found. In such a case the intoxication can be signalized by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material. Authors of this article describe the proof and quantification of the 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in two cases of fatal intoxication with yew. In both cases the liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction was used. Extracts obtained from the acidic and basic environment were analysed. Extracts from the acidic environment were methylated and the extracts from the basic environment were acetylated. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the blood of both intoxicated persons the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was proved and its concentration 82 ng/ml and 417 ng/ml was quantificated. In both cases the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was also proved in the gastric contents and urine.

  9. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  10. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  11. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  12. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  13. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene analogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In our continuing effort to discover natural product-based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Of these, compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 14.7 and 16.2 ppm, respectively). In fur...

  15. Fenton oxidation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Zoh, Kyung-Duk; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2002-03-01

    Oxidation of the high explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1.3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) using Fenton's reagent proceeds rapidly between 20 degrees C and 50 degrees C at pH 3. At an H2O2: Fe2+: RDX molar ratio of 5,178: 48: 1, RDX and HMX were completely removed in 1 to 2 h. All the experimental data could be fit to a pseudo first-order rate equation. The reaction rate was also strongly dependent on Fenton's reagent concentrations. NO3- and N2 were identified as nitrogen byproducts from RDX and HMX oxidation. The experiment with radiolabeled RDX showed that approximately 37% of organic carbon in RDX was mineralized to CO2. We observed formaldehyde and formic acid as a short-lived intermediate. No other volatile or nonvolatile byproducts were found from GC/MS analysis. The results show that RDX and HMX can be effectively mineralized with Fenton's reagents.

  16. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  17. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  18. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  19. IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michal; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary A.

    2011-11-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared K{sub s} band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h{sup -1}). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the {Lambda}CDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1{sigma} confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h{sup -1}. By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h{sup -1} is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h{sup -1} (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the {Lambda}CDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only {approx}80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate

  20. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total C), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (60% of total N) through intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (O2NNHCH2NHNO2). Likewise, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was degraded to HCHO, CH3OH, and N2O (16.5%) with a removal rate (0.39 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) similar to that of RDX (0.41 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) (biomass, 0.91 g [dry weight] of cells · liter−1). These findings suggested the possible involvement of a common initial reaction, possibly denitration, followed by ring cleavage and decomposition in water. The trace amounts of MNX detected during RDX degradation and the trace amounts of hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine detected during MNX degradation suggested that another minor degradation pathway was also present that reduced —NO2 groups to the corresponding —NO groups. PMID:12406722

  1. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  2. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Conference News Contact Us Donate The Zellweger Spectrum Zellweger Syndrome, Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and Infantile Refsum’s ... of severity of disease. What causes the Zellweger spectrum of diseases? As we mentioned, disorders of the ...

  3. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  4. Three-micron spectroscopy of highly reddened field stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapia, Mauricio; Persi, P.; Roth, M.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    Broad absorption features centered at 3.45 microns and at 3.0-3.0 microns towards a number of late-type supergiants in the vicinity of the galactic center were repeatedly reported. Here, 2.0 to 2.5 and 3.0 to 4.0 micron spectra are presented for field late-type highly reddened (A sub V is approximately 17-27) stars located in different regions of the galactic plane more than 20 deg away from the galactic center direction. The observations, made with the 3.6, 2.2, and 1.0 m ESO telescopes at La Silla, Chile, consists of CVF spectra with resolution lambda/delta lambda is approximately or equal to 100 and IRSPEC spectra with resolution lambda/delta lambda is approximately or equal to 700. In the direction of the most highly reddened stars, definitive detections of the 3.45 and the 3.0 to 3.1 micron absorption features are reported. The 3.45 micron feature was attributed to absorption arising in a vibrational transition resulting from the C-H stretching in organic compounds, while the 3.0 to 3.1 micron broader feature are tentatively attributed to O-H bonds. The observations strongly support that the agent producing the 3.45 micron feature, presumably organic molecules, is an important component of the diffuse interstellar medium and is not characteristic only of the galactic center environment.

  5. An absolute photometric system at 10 and 20 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Low, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new direct calibrations at 10 and 20 microns are presented in which terrestrial flux standards are referred to infrared standard stars. These measurements give both good agreement and higher accuracy when compared with previous direct calibrations. As a result, the absolute calibrations at 10 and 20 microns have now been determined with accuracies of 3 and 8 percent, respectively. A variety of absolute calibrations based on extrapolation of stellar spectra from the visible to 10 microns are reviewed. Current atmospheric models of A-type stars underestimate their fluxes by about 10 percent at 10 microns, whereas models of solar-type stars agree well with the direct calibrations. The calibration at 20 microns can probably be determined to about 5 percent by extrapolation from the more accurate result at 10 microns. The photometric system at 10 and 20 microns is updated to reflect the new absolute calibration, to base its zero point directly on the colors of A0 stars, and to improve the accuracy in the comparison of the standard stars.

  6. Studying Titan's surface photometry in the 5 microns atmospheric window with the Cassini/VIMS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, T.; Altobelli, N.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Philippe, S.; Brown, R. H.; Barnes, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the influence of methane gas and a thick aerosols haze in the atmosphere, Titan's surface is only visible in 7 spectral atmospheric windows centered at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.7-2.8 and 5 microns with the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). The 5 microns atmospheric window constitutes the only one being almost insensitive to the haze scattering and which presents only a reduced atmospheric absorption contribution to the signal recorded by the instrument. Despite these advantages leading to the almost direct view of the surface, the 5 microns window is also the noisiest spectral window of the entire VIMS spectrum (an effect highly dependent on the time exposure used for the observations), and it is not totally free from atmospheric contributions, enough to keep "artefacts" in mosaics of several thousands of cubes due to atmospheric and surface photometric effects amplified by the very heterogeneous viewing conditions between each Titan flyby. At first order, a lambertian surface photometry at 5 microns has been used as an initial parameter in order to estimate atmospheric opacity and surface photometry in all VIMS atmospheric windows and to determine the albedo of the surface, yet unknown, both using radiative transfer codes on single cubes or empirical techniques on global hyperspectral mosaics. Other studies suggested that Titan's surface photometry would not be uniquely lambertian but would also contain anisotropic lunar-like contributions. In the present work, we aim at constraining accurately the surface photometry of Titan and residual atmospheric absorption effects in this 5 microns window using a comprehensive study of relevant sites located at various latitudes. Those include bright and dark (dunes) terrains, 5-microns bright terrains (Hotei Regio and Tui Regio), the Huygens Landing Site and high latitudes polar lakes and seas. The VIMS 2004 to 2014 database, composed of more than 40,000 hyperspectral cubes acquired on

  7. A high resolution atlas of the galactic plane at 12 microns and 25 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Stephan D.; Korte, Rose M.; Sample, Rebecca S.; Kennealy, John P.; Gonsalves, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution images of the 12 micron and 25 micron IRAS survey data from each HCON crossing the Galactic Plane are being created for those regions that the original IRAS processing labeled as confused. This encompasses the area within 100 deg longitude of the Galactic Center and within 3 deg to 10 deg of the Plane. The procedures used to create the images preserve the spatial resolution inherent in the IRAS instrument. The images are separated into diffuse and point source components and candidate sources are extracted from the point source image after non-linear spatial sharpening. Fluxes are estimated by convolving the candidate sources with the point response function and cross-correlating with the original point source image. A source is considered real if it is seen on at least two HCON's with a rather generous flux match but a stringent position criterion. A number of fields spanning a range of source densities from low to high have been examined. Initial analysis indicates that the imaging and extraction works quite well up to a source density of about 100 sources per square degree or down to roughly 0.8 Janskys.

  8. Direct femtosecond laser writing system for sub-micron and micron scale patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanagas, Egidijus; Tuzhilin, Dmitry; Zinkou, Michail; Sedunov, Alexander; Vasiliev, Nikolai; Kudryashov, Igor; Kononov, Vladimir; Suruga, Shozi

    2003-11-01

    Commercial femtosecond micromachining system (FMS) has been developed that capable to process the material in sub-micron (< 200 nm) and micron scale. Core of the system are: optical unit, controller unit and software. The other parts: fs-laser system; focusing unit; stage unit can be varied (exchangeable). Two different fs-laser systems already are compatible with core of FMS: Mira/RegA (Coherent) and Hurricane (Spectra-Physics). FMS controller unit allows to control every single fs-pulse delivery on the target. Three possible types of focusing unit are available: microscope type unit, long focal distance lens unit, and axicon lens based unit. Standard stage unit options are: three-axis piezostage, and two-axis air bearing stage combined with Z-axis piezostage. Repeatability for all dimensions is within +/-5 nm. Also, step motor stages are available. The system allows 3D scan with confocal laser-microscope (resolution δr=200nm, δz=540nm) build in optical unit. Software controls all basic functions of the system performance and writing any pattern (including 3D) on or into specimen. The results obtained by direct fs-laser writing method are presented and discussed: bits in the range of 100 - 200 nm sizes, 6 TB/cm3 density optical storage matrix, waveguides fabrication inside transparent materials, high aspect ratio (1:125) patterning of dielectric materials with Gauss-Bessel beam.

  9. Cloud properties inferred from 8-12 micron data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strabala, Kathleen I.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul

    1994-01-01

    A trispectral combination of observations at 8-, 11-, and 12-micron bands is suggested for detecting cloud and cloud properties in the infrared. Atmospheric ice and water vapor absorption peak in opposite halves of the window region so that positive 8-minus-11-micron brightness temperature differences indicate cloud, while near-zero or negative differences indicate clear regions. The absorption coefficient for water increases more between 11 and 12 microns than between 8 and 11 microns, while for ice, the reverse is true. Cloud phases is determined by a scatter diagram of 8-minus-11-micron versus 11-minus-12-micron brightness temperature differences; ice cloud shows a slope greater than 1 and water cloud less than 1. The trispectral brightness temperature method was tested upon high-resolution interferometer data resulting in clear-cloud and cloud-phase delineation. Simulations using differing 8-micron bandwidths revealed no significant degradation of cloud property detection. Thus, the 8-micron bandwidth for future satellites can be selected based on the requirements of other applications, such as surface characterization studies. Application of the technique to current polar-orbiting High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) datasets is constrained by the nonuniformity of the cloud scenes sensed within the large HIRS field of view. Analysis of MAS (MODIS Airborne Simulator) high-spatial resolution (500 m) data with all three 8-, 11-, and 12-micron bands revealed sharp delineation of differing cloud and background scenes, from which a simple automated threshold technique was developed. Cloud phase, clear-sky, and qualitative differences in cloud emissivity and cloud height were identified on a case study segment from 24 November 1991, consistent with the scene. More rigorous techniques would allow further cloud parameter clarification. The opportunities for global cloud delineation with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging

  10. Cloud properties inferred from 8-12 micron data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strabala, Kathleen I.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul

    1994-01-01

    A trispectral combination of observations at 8-, 11-, and 12-micron bands is suggested for detecting cloud and cloud properties in the infrared. Atmospheric ice and water vapor absorption peak in opposite halves of the window region so that positive 8-minus-11-micron brightness temperature differences indicate cloud, while near-zero or negative differences indicate clear regions. The absorption coefficient for water increases more between 11 and 12 microns than between 8 and 11 microns, while for ice, the reverse is true. Cloud phases is determined by a scatter diagram of 8-minus-11-micron versus 11-minus-12-micron brightness temperature differences; ice cloud shows a slope greater than 1 and water cloud less than 1. The trispectral brightness temperature method was tested upon high-resolution interferometer data resulting in clear-cloud and cloud-phase delineation. Simulations using differing 8-micron bandwidths revealed no significant degradation of cloud property detection. Thus, the 8-micron bandwidth for future satellites can be selected based on the requirements of other applications, such as surface characterization studies. Application of the technique to current polar-orbiting High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) datasets is constrained by the nonuniformity of the cloud scenes sensed within the large HIRS field of view. Analysis of MAS (MODIS Airborne Simulator) high-spatial resolution (500 m) data with all three 8-, 11-, and 12-micron bands revealed sharp delineation of differing cloud and background scenes, from which a simple automated threshold technique was developed. Cloud phase, clear-sky, and qualitative differences in cloud emissivity and cloud height were identified on a case study segment from 24 November 1991, consistent with the scene. More rigorous techniques would allow further cloud parameter clarification. The opportunities for global cloud delineation with the Moderate-Resolution Imaging

  11. On the possible bipolar nature of 21 micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, S.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of another IRAS source (22574 + 6609) showing the unidentified 21-micron emission feature is reported. Its overall energy distribution is similar to the well-known edge-on bipolar nebulae AFGL 2688 and AFGL 618. Ground-based optical and infrared observations of this object and two other 21-micron sources show that while all three have very similar infrared properties, they differ greatly in the visual region. All three of these 21-micron sources are intrinsically similar bipolar nebulae, viewed at different orientations.

  12. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in cold marine sediment under anaerobic and oligotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Greer, Charles W; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    The in situ degradation of the two nitramine explosives, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), was evaluated using a mixture of RDX and HMX, incubated anaerobically at 10 degrees C with marine sediment from a previous military dumping site of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada. The RDX concentration (14.7 mg.L-1) in the aqueous phase was reduced by half in 4 days, while reduction of HMX concentration (1.2 mg.L-1) by half required 50 days. Supplementation with the carbon sources glucose, acetate, or citrate did not affect the removal rate of RDX but improved removal of HMX. Optimal mineralization of RDX and HMX was obtained in the presence of glucose. Using universally labeled (UL)-[14C]RDX, we obtained a carbon mass balance distributed as follows: CO2, 48%-58%; water soluble products, 27%-31%; acetonitrile extractable products, 2.0%-3.4%; and products covalently bound to the sediments and biomass, 8.9% (in the presence of glucose). The disappearance of RDX was accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and formaldehyde (HCHO) that subsequently disappeared. In the case of HMX, mineralization reached only 13%-27% after 115 days of incubation in the presence or absence of the carbon sources. The disappearance of HMX was also accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative. The total population of psychrotrophic anaerobes that grew at 10 degrees C was 2.6 x 10(3) colony-forming units.(g sediment dry mass)-1, and some psychrotrophic sediment isolates were capable of degrading RDX under conditions similar to those used for sediments. Based on the distribution of products, we suggest that the sediment microorganisms degrade RDX and HMX via an initial reduction to the corresponding mononitroso derivative, followed by denitration and ring cleavage.

  13. Sulfuric acid cloud interpretation of the infrared spectrum of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martonchik, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfuric acid single-cloud models are compared with the Venus spectrum in the 8-14 micron region. The results indicate that a cloud composed of a 75 percent H2SO4 solution and with a particle density of 100 per cu cm is in good agreement with observations. In addition to explaining the 11.2 micron absorption, this model also predicts an absorption feature at 16.7 microns which should be detectable if the observation is made from an aircraft.

  14. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10-15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann-Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  15. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  16. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Perkins, Edward J; Meyer, Sharon A

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ~50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs=47 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs=24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1(+)) or erythroid (CD71(+)) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  18. Seeing experiments with the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Sawyer, David G.

    2000-08-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope uses active thermal control of the primary mirror and both active and passive ventilation of the observatory enclosure. These features have proven effective for delivering consistently excellent images, and make the WIYN facility an ideal test bed for quantitative measurements of the effects of temperature and ventilation on mirror and dome seeing. We describe the results of seeing experiments conducted over the first four years of operations at the WIYN Observatory.

  19. Improved Fabrication of Lithium Films Having Micron Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay

    2006-01-01

    An improved method has been devised for fabricating micron-dimension Li features. This approach is intended for application in the fabrication of lithium-based microelectrochemical devices -- particularly solid-state thin-film lithium microbatteries.

  20. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure Treated Wood Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about possible human or environmental exposure. Two common pathways ...

  1. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure Treated Wood Products.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about possible human or environmental exposure. Two common pathways ...

  2. Injection Seeded/Phase-Conjugated 2-micron Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros,M.; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.; Leyva, V.; Shkunov, V.; Rockwell, D.; hide

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, beam quality improvement of 2 micron laser using a fiber based phase conjugation mirror has been demonstrated. Single frequency operation is necessary to lower threshold. The reflectivity of PCM is approx. 50%.

  3. Apparatus for handling micron size range particulate material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    An apparatus for handling, transporting, or size classifying comminuted material was described in detail. Electrostatic acceleration techniques for classifying particles as to size in the particle range from 0.1 to about 100 microns diameter were employed.

  4. Characterization of Micron-Scale Nanotublar Super Dielectric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    MICRON-SCALE NANOTUBULAR SUPER DIELECTRIC MATERIALS by Jonathan Wayne Gandy September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Jonathan Phillips Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRON-SCALE NANOTUBULAR SUPER DIELECTRIC MATERIALS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...study focused on dielectric materials based on a novel hypothesis: that porous electrically insulating solids in which the pores are filled with liquids

  5. High-resolution maps of Jupiter at five microns.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keay, C. S. L.; Low, F. J.; Rieke, G. H.; Minton, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The distribution of 5-micron radiation, emitted from a large number of discrete sources from Jupiter, was observed during the 1972 apparition. These sources are less bright than those observed by Westphal (1969). At least 50 discrete sources having brightness temperatures exceeding 227 K were revealed which were mainly located within three narrow-latitude bands. Strong correlation exists between the 5-micron brightness temperatures of Jovian features and their colors as recorded photographically.

  6. Micron Accuracy Deployment Experiment (MADE), phase A. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Lee D.; Lake, Mark S.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents a Phase A In-STEP flight experiment development effort. The objective of the experiment is to deploy a portion of a segmented reflector on the Shuttle and study its micron-level mechanics. Ground test data are presented which projects that the on-orbit precision of the test article should be approximately 5 microns. Extensive hardware configuration development information is also provided.

  7. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Imagery Using Modtran 3.5 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Fabian O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    When performing satellite remote sensing of the earth in the solar spectrum, atmospheric scattering and absorption effects provide the sensors corrupted information about the target's radiance characteristics. We are faced with the problem of reconstructing the signal that was reflected from the target, from the data sensed by the remote sensing instrument. This article presents a method for simulating radiance characteristic curves of satellite images using a MODTRAN 3.5 band model (BM) code to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), and proposes a method for the implementation of an adaptive system for automated atmospheric corrections. The simulation procedure is carried out as follows: (1) for each satellite digital image a radiance characteristic curve is obtained by performing a digital number (DN) to radiance conversion, (2) using MODTRAN 3.5 a simulation of the images characteristic curves is generated, (3) the output of the code is processed to generate radiance characteristic curves for the simulated cases. The simulation algorithm was used to simulate Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for two types of locations: the ocean surface, and a forest surface. The simulation procedure was validated by computing the error between the empirical and simulated radiance curves. While results in the visible region of the spectrum where not very accurate, those for the infrared region of the spectrum were encouraging. This information can be used for correction of the atmospheric effects. For the simulation over ocean, the lowest error produced in this region was of the order of 105 and up to 14 times smaller than errors in the visible region. For the same spectral region on the forest case, the lowest error produced was of the order of 10-4, and up to 41 times smaller than errors in the visible region,

  8. Laser materials for the 0.67-microns to 2.5-microns range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toda, Minoru; Zamerowski, Thomas J.; Ladany, Ivan; Martinelli, Ramon U.

    1987-01-01

    Basic requirements for obtaining injection laser action in III-V semiconductors are discussed briefly. A detailed review is presented of materials suitable for lasers emitting at 0.67, 1.44, 1.93, and 2.5 microns. A general approach to the problem is presented, based on curves of materials properties published by Sasaki et al. It is also shown that these curves, although useful, may need correction in certain ranges. It is deduced that certain materials combinations, either proposed in the literature or actually tried, are not appropriate for double heterostructure lasers, because the refractive index of the cladding material is higher than the index of the active material, thus resulting in no waveguiding, and high threshold currents. Recommendations are made about the most promising approach to the achievement of laser action in the four wavelengths mentioned above.

  9. Micronized Organic Magnesium Salts Enhance Opioid Analgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Kulik, Kamila; Ordak, Michał; Sasinowska-Motyl, Małgorzata; Gąsińska, Emilia; de Corde, Anna; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As previously reported, magnesium sulphate administered parenterally significantly increased an opioid antinociception in different kinds of pain. Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether their micronized form could increase opioids induced antinociception. Methods In behavioural studies on rats morphine, tramadol and oxycodone together with magnesium (lactate dihydrate, hydroaspartate, chloride) in micronized (particles of size D90 < 50 μm) and conventional forms were used. Changes in pain thresholds were determined using mechanical stimuli. The intestinal absorption of two forms of magnesium lactate dihydrate (at the doses of 7.5 or 15 mg ions) in the porcine gut sac model were also compared. Results Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1) enhanced the analgesic activity of orally administered opioids, significantly faster and more effective in comparison to the conventional form of magnesium salts (about 40% for oxycodone administered together with a micronized form of magnesium hydroaspartate). Moreover, in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in micronized form were absorbed from the intestines to a greater extent than the normal form of magnesium salts. Conclusions The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic effect. This may suggest an innovative approach to the treatment of pain in clinical practice. PMID:27792736

  10. Phosphine absorption in the 5-micron window of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.; Taylor, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Since the original suggestion by Gillett et al. (1969) it has generally been assumed that the region of partial transparency near 5 micron in Jupiter's atmosphere (the 5-micron window) is bounded by the nu sub 4 NH3 at 6.1 micron and the nu sub 3 CH4 band at 3.3 micron. New measurements of Jupiter and of laboratory phosphine (PH3) samples show that PH3 is a significant contributor to the continuum opacity in the window and in fact defines its short-wavelength limit. This has important implications for the use of 5-micron observations as a means to probe the deep atmospheric structure of Jupiter. The abundance of PH3 which results from a comparison of Jovian and laboratory spectra is about 3 to 5 cm-am. This is five to eight times less than that found by Larson et al. (1977) in the same spectral region, but is in good agreement with the result of Tokunaga et al. (1979) from 10-micron observations.

  11. Phosphine absorption in the 5-micron window of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.; Taylor, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Since the original suggestion by Gillett et al. (1969) it has generally been assumed that the region of partial transparency near 5 micron in Jupiter's atmosphere (the 5-micron window) is bounded by the nu sub 4 NH3 at 6.1 micron and the nu sub 3 CH4 band at 3.3 micron. New measurements of Jupiter and of laboratory phosphine (PH3) samples show that PH3 is a significant contributor to the continuum opacity in the window and in fact defines its short-wavelength limit. This has important implications for the use of 5-micron observations as a means to probe the deep atmospheric structure of Jupiter. The abundance of PH3 which results from a comparison of Jovian and laboratory spectra is about 3 to 5 cm-am. This is five to eight times less than that found by Larson et al. (1977) in the same spectral region, but is in good agreement with the result of Tokunaga et al. (1979) from 10-micron observations.

  12. The longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites – pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal – have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology. This work reviews the previous and current techniques used to crystallize RDX at a submicrometer scale or smaller. Several key points are highlighted then discussed, such as the smallest particle size and its morphology, and the scale-up capacity and the versatility of the process. PMID:28326236

  13. Lateral Transfer of Genes for Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Degradation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Andeer, Peter F.; Stahl, David A.; Bruce, Neil C.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  14. The Subarcsecond 10 Micron Size of LkH alpha 101: Constraints on Circumstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danen, R. M.; Gwinn, C. R.; Bloemhof, E. E.

    1995-07-01

    Operating slightly beyond the formal diffraction limit of a 3 m telescope, we have obtained λ = 10 microns images with subarcsecond spatial resolution of the pre-main-sequence emission-line star LkHα 101. Our measurements show that mid-infrared radiation emanates from within 135 AU of the star, on the same spatial scale as a strong ionized wind deduced from radio observations. The point-spread function of our infrared instrument, at the 3 m Shane Telescope, has FWHM 0".740±0".022, as measured for the unresolved star α Tau. Raw images of the core component of LkHα 101 have FWHM 0".768±0".021 after deconvolution, we set a 95% confidence upper limit of 0".34 (270 AU) for the FWHM diameter of the core. Our measured flux density of 325±27 Jy for the unresolved core accounts for most of the 10 microns emission from the central arcminute of LkHα 101. Our observation implies that ≍12% of the total luminosity of LkHα 101 is radiated by this unresolved core; thus, the unresolved core emission must be either optically thin, or anisotropically distributed about the star. For optically thin emission from dust, graphite or glassy carbon grains with radii less than α ≍ 0.15 microns can be excluded as contributing significantly to the unresolved 10 microns emission based on our upper limit of the source size and our measurement of the flux density, along with the observed spectrum. Similarly, silicate grains with radii less than α ≍ 0.3 microns can be excluded; although, based on the spectrum, silicate grains of any size are unlikely a dominant source of the mid-infrared core emission, if optically thin. The observation of an ionized stellar wind suggests as a model for the unresolved core a spherically symmetric, optically thin envelope of dust with an r-2 density distribution (characteristic of a uniform outflow). This model is consistent with our observations and with the spectral energy distribution, if the dust grains are graphite or glassy carbon and have

  15. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  16. trans-Dichloridotetrakis(3,5-dimethylpyridine)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Martone, Daniel P; Maverick, Andrew W; Fronczek, Frank R

    2007-06-01

    The title compound, [CuCl(2)(C(7)H(9)N)(4)], lies on a site of crystallographic 42 (D(4)) symmetry in the space group P4/nnc, and is isomorphous with the Ni and Co analogues. The Cu and Cl atoms thus lie on a fourfold axis, and the 3,5-lutidine ligands lie on twofold axes. The Cu-Cl distance is 2.7649 (7) A and the Cu-N distance is 2.0510 (12) A. The space group of the Co analogue is revised from Pnnn to P4/nnc.

  17. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  18. Prescribed 3-D Direct Writing of Suspended Micron/Sub-micron Scale Fiber Structures via a Robotic Dispensing System.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hanwen; Cambron, Scott D; Keynton, Robert S

    2015-06-12

    A 3-axis dispensing system is utilized to control the initiating and terminating fiber positions and trajectory via the dispensing software. The polymer fiber length and orientation is defined by the spatial positioning of the dispensing system 3-axis stages. The fiber diameter is defined by the prescribed dispense time of the dispensing system valve, the feed rate (the speed at which the stage traverses from an initiating to a terminating position), the gauge diameter of the dispensing tip, the viscosity and surface tension of the polymer solution, and the programmed drawing length. The stage feed rate affects the polymer solution's evaporation rate and capillary breakup of the filaments. The dispensing system consists of a pneumatic valve controller, a droplet-dispensing valve and a dispensing tip. Characterization of the direct write process to determine the optimum combination of factors leads to repeatedly acquiring the desired range of fiber diameters. The advantage of this robotic dispensing system is the ease of obtaining a precise range of micron/sub-micron fibers onto a desired, programmed location via automated process control. Here, the discussed self-assembled micron/sub-micron scale 3D structures have been employed to fabricate suspended structures to create micron/sub-micron fluidic devices and bioengineered scaffolds.

  19. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  20. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  1. The NEWFIRM HETDEX Survey - Studying Galaxy Growth with 400,000 Galaxies at 2 < z < 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Jogee, S.; Papovich, C. J.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Acquaviva, V.; Weinzirl, T.; HETDEX

    2014-01-01

    We present the NEWFIRM HETDEX survey - a K-band survey with NEWFIRM on the KPNO 4m Mayall telescope of a 28 deg^2 region of the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) equatorial field. Here we provide the survey plan, as well as results from the first year (out of four) of our survey. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, deep 3.6 and 4.5 micron images from Spitzer/IRAC, deep far-IR imaging at 250, 350, and 500 microns from HERSCHEL-SPIRE, and R ~ 800 integral-field spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's VIRUS spectrographs (filling factor 1:1), our observations will allow extinction-corrected star-formation rates (SFRs) to be obtained for ~400,000 galaxies at 2 < z < 3.5. Our survey covers a co-moving volume of 0.5 Gpc^3 and is sensitive to SFRs down to 10 Msol/yr, covering a 10-100 times larger volume and going three times deeper than previous surveys. Our very large volume will allow us to explore galaxy growth as a function of stellar mass, halo mass, and local environment, in addition to providing K-band legacy data for the field.

  2. ANIMO 3.5: User`s guide for the ANIMO version 3.5 nutrient leaching model

    SciTech Connect

    Kroes, J.; Roelsma, J.

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a description of the use of the nutrient leaching model ANIMO (Agricultural Nutrient Model) version 3.5 with special emphasis for input instructions. Each input parameter is characterized by its unit, range, data type, variable name in computer code and symbol in theoretical description, Program outputs and program execution are briefly given. An example is presented with values of input parameters and model results. A technical program description is given as a brief description of program structure, nomenclature, and source code.

  3. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  4. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  5. Visibility related to backscatter at 1.54 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T. L.; Larson, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lidar process was shown to have the necessary potential to fulfill the need for a remote measurement of visibility. Visibility can be inferred from a lidar return optical extinction. The wavelength 1.54 micron was chosen, being near the visible wavelength region and having a high eye safety threshol, 200,000 times higher than 1.06 micron; 1.54 is the erbium laser wavelength. This research utilized 105 measured height profiles of natural droplet size distributions data, taken in clouds, fog, and haze. These profiles were examined to determine the completeness of the droplet counting data. It was found that the particle spectrometer data were incomplete in the very light ford and haze so this portion of the data was eliminated. Utilizing the Mie theory, these droplet size distribution profiles were converted to backscatter at 1.54 micron and extinction in the visible region, 0.55 micron. Using Koschmeider's relationship, the extinction profiles were converted to visibility. The visibility and backscatter profiles were compared to develop a relationship between visibility and backscatter at 1.54 micron.

  6. 3'-5' tRNAHis Guanylyltransferase in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Ilka; Randau, Lennart; Tomko, Robert J.; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the histidine specific transfer RNA (tRNAHis) is largely determined by a unique guanosine residue at position −1. In eukaryotes and archaea, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3'-5' addition of G to the 5'-terminus of tRNAHis. Here, we show that Thg1 also occurs in bacteria. We demonstrate in vitro Thg1 activity for recombinant enzymes from the two bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Myxococcus xanthus and provide a closer investigation of several archaeal Thg1. The reaction mechanism of prokaryotic Thg1 differs from eukaryotic enzymes, as it does not require ATP. Complementation of a yeast thg1 knockout strain with bacterial Thg1 verified in vivo activity and suggests a relaxed recognition of the discriminator base in bacteria. PMID:20650272

  7. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  8. Microaerophilic degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by three Rhodococcus strains.

    PubMed

    Fuller, M E; Perreault, N; Hawari, J

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by three Rhodococcus strains under anaerobic, microaerophilic (<0.04 mg l(-1) dissolved oxygen) and aerobic (dissolved oxygen (DO) maintained at 8 mg l(-1)) conditions. Three Rhodococcus strains were incubated with no, low and ambient concentrations of oxygen in minimal media with succinate as the carbon source and RDX as the sole nitrogen source. RDX and RDX metabolite concentrations were measured over time. Under microaerophilic conditions, the bacteria degraded RDX, albeit about 60-fold slower than under fully aerobic conditions. Only the breakdown product, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) accumulated to measurable concentrations under microaerophilic conditions. RDX degraded quickly under both aerated and static aerobic conditions (DO allowed to drop below 1 mg l(-1)) with the accumulation of both NDAB and methylenedinitramine (MEDINA). No RDX degradation was observed under strict anaerobic conditions. The Rhodococcus strains did not degrade RDX under strict anaerobic conditions, while slow degradation was observed under microaerophilic conditions. The RDX metabolite NDAB was detected under both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions, while MEDINA was detected only under aerobic conditions. IMPACT AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This work confirmed the production of MEDINA under aerobic conditions, which has not been previously associated with aerobic RDX degradation by these organisms. More importantly, it demonstrated that aerobic rhodococci are able to degrade RDX under a broader range of oxygen concentrations than previously reported.

  9. Dissociative electron attachment to the nitroamine HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine).

    PubMed

    Postler, Johannes; Goulart, Marcelo M; Matias, Carolina; Mauracher, Andreas; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Scheier, Paul; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Denifl, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with gas phase HMX, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C4H8N8O8, have been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment. The most intense signals are observed at 46 and 176 u and assigned to NO2(-) and C3H6N5O4(-), respectively. Anion efficiency curves for 15 negatively charged fragments have been measured in the electron energy region from about 0-20 eV with an energy resolution of ~0.7 eV. Product anions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV, arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of HMX towards electron attachment with virtually zero kinetic energy reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. Substantially different intensity ratios of resonances for common fragment anions allow distinguishing the nitroamines HMX and royal demolition explosive molecule (RDX) in negative ion mass spectrometry based on free electron capture.

  10. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions.

  11. Crystal growth of potassium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (KDNB) for third order nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Karuppasamy, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-05-01

    The semi-organic nonlinear optical single crystals of potassium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (KDNB) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST). The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The optical transmittance, cut-off wavelength and band gap of the KDNB crystal were obtained by UV-Vis NIR spectrum analysis. Vickers microhardness analysis was carried out to identify mechanical stability and work hardening co-efficient of the grown crystal. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was identified by chemical etching study using water as etchant. The third-order nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption co-efficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) of KDNB crystal were evaluated using Z-scan technique at the wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  12. DFT STUDY OF CO AND NO ADSORPTION ON BORON NITRIDE (BN)n = 3 - 5 NANOCLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Pangh, Abdolhakim; Ghorbanpour, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of CO and NO molecules by different orientations on (BN)n=3-5 clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Total electronic energies have been corrected for geometrical counterpoise (gCP) and dispersion (D3) energies at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Formation of a new sigma bond between the gas and (BN)3 cluster, atom in molecules (AIM) results, density of states spectrums (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, and visualization of wave function of molecular orbitals in the nearest bonding regions to the Fermi level have confirmed that adsorption of CO by carbon end atom, and NO by nitrogen end atom is covalent in nature, so that the charge transfer is occurred from gas molecule to the cluster.

  13. Condition for the formation of micron-sized dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the condition for the formation of micron-sized grains in dense cores of molecular clouds. This is motivated by the detection of mid-infrared emission from deep inside a number of dense cores, the so-called `coreshine,' which is thought to come from scattering by micron (μm)-sized grains. Based on numerical calculations of coagulation starting from the typical grain-size distribution in the diffuse interstellar medium, we obtain a conservative lower limit to the time t to form μm-sized grains: t/tff > 3(5/S)(nH/105 cm-3)-1/4 (where tff is the free-fall time at hydrogen number density nH in the core and S the enhancement factor of the grain-grain collision cross-section to account for non-compact aggregates). At the typical core density nH = 105 cm-3, it takes at least a few free-fall times to form the μm-sized grains responsible for coreshine. The implication is that those dense cores observed in coreshine are relatively long-lived entities in molecular clouds, rather than dynamically transient objects that last for one free-fall time or less.

  14. The Beauty and Limitations of 10 Micron Heterodyne Interferometry (ISI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, heterodyne interferometry at 10 microns has been the only successful technique for stellar interferometry in the very difficult atmospheric window from 9-12 microns. For most of its operational lifetime the U.C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer was a single-baseline two telescope (1.65 m aperture) system using CO2 lasers as local oscillators. This instrument was designed and constructed from 1983-1988, and first fringes were obtained at Mt. Wilson in June 1988. During the past few years, a third telescope was constructed and just recently the first closure phases were obtained at 11.15 microns. We discuss the history, physics and technology of heterodyne interferometry in the mid-infrared, and some key astronomical results that have come from this unique instrument.

  15. Influence of the Efavirenz Micronization on Tableting and Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Eduardo Costa; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; da Silva Honório, Thiago; da Silva Ascenção Barros, Rita de Cássia; Castro, Helena Carla Rangel; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Esteves, Valéria Sant'Anna Dantas; Rocha, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose an analytical procedure that provides the effects of particle size and surface area on dissolution of efavirenz. Five different batches obtained by different micronization processes and with different particle size distribution and surface area were studied. The preformulation studies and dissolution curves were used to confirm the particle size distribution effect on drug solubility. No polymorphic variety or amorphization was observed in the tested batches and the particle size distribution was determined as directly responsible for the improvement of drug dissolution. The influence of the preparation process on the tablets derived from efavirenz was observed in the final dissolution result in which agglomeration, usually seen in non-lipophilic micronized material, was avoided through the use of an appropriate wet granulation method. For these reasons, micronization may represent one viable alternative for the formulation of brick dust drugs. PMID:24300301

  16. MSX Observations of the Eclipsed Moon at 4 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. W.; Little, S. J.; Murdock, T. L.

    1997-07-01

    The lunar eclipse of September 27, 1996 presented the opportunity to observe the 4 micron emission from the moon during totality. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite made observations three times during the totality phase of the eclipse. These observations in Bands B1 (4.22 - 4.36 microns) and B2 (4.24 - 4.45 microns) were used to construct images of the eclipsed moon. The images have been analyzed for temperature and location of thermal anomalies on the moon as well as for temperatures of extended maria and highland areas. Maps of the moon to illustrate the location and brightness of thermal anomalies first seen by Saari and Shorthill (1965) and temperature comparisons with microwave measurements of selected regions on the moon (Sandor and Clancy, 1995) will be made. References: Saari, J. M., and R. W. Shorthill, 1965, Nature, 205, p. 964. Sandor, Brad J., and R. Todd Clancy, 1995, Icarus, 115, p. 387.

  17. Structure in the nucleus of NGC 1068 at 10 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tresch-Fienberg, R.; Fazio, G. G.; Gezari, D. Y.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Lamb, G. M.; Shu, P. K.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    New 8 to 13 micron array camera images of the central kiloparsec of Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 resolve structure that is similar to that observed at visible and radio wavelengths. The images reveal an infrared source which is extended and asymmetric, with its long axis oriented at P.A. 33 deg. Maps of the spatial distribution of 8 to 13 micron color temperature and warm dust opacity are derived from the multiwavelength infrared images. The results suggest that there exist two pointlike luminosity sources in the central regions of NGC 1068, with the brighter source at the nucleus and the fainter one some 100 pc to the northeast. This geometry strengthens the possibility that the 10 micron emission observed from grains in the nucleus is powered by a nonthermal source. In the context of earlier visible and radio studies, these results considerably strengthen the case for jet induced star formation in NGC 1068.

  18. Cooled grating array spectrometer for 0.6-5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordholt, J. E.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A grating spectrometer, designed to illuminate an array of 122 InSb photodiodes with minimum aberrations and maximum speed, has been constructed. The instrument will be used on the 5 meter Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory, and is easily adaptable to telescopes of various focal ratios. A resolving power of 100-1000 can be obtained at wavelengths between 0.6 microns and 5 microns with remotely interchangeable gratings. The spectrometer is sufficiently compact to fit on the 8-inch work surface of a commercially available dewar, and uses simple on-axis spherical and paraboloidal optical elements. The camera mirror produces an f/2.5 beam which, with the 0.2 mm detectors, allows a 3-in. focal-plane aperture on the 5 meter telescope. All rays fall within a 100 microns blur circle at all points along the array. Distortions have been corrected with a tilted field flattening lens in front of the detector.

  19. Metallization technology for tenth-micron range integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.A.; Harper, M.E.

    1996-11-27

    A critical step in the fabrication of integrated circuits is the deposition of metal layers which interconnect the various circuit elements that have been formed in earlier process steps. In particular, columns of copper several times higher than the characteristic dimension of the circuit elements was needed. Features with a diameter of a few tenths of a micron and a height of about one micron need to be filled at rates in the half to one micron per minute range. With the successful development of a copper deposition technology meeting these requirements, integrated circuits with simpler designs and higher performance could be economically manufactured. Several technologies for depositing copper were under development. No single approach had an optimum combination of performance (feature characteristics), cost (deposition rates), and manufacturability (integration with other processes and tool reliability). Chemical vapor deposition, plating, sputtering and ionized-physical vapor deposition (I-PVD) were all candidate technologies. Within this project, the focus was on I-PVD.

  20. Novel, High-power, Mid-infrared Optical Source for the 5-12 Micron Spectrum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    mid‐IR nonlinear crystals of MgO:PPLN, MgO:sPPLT, and CdSiP2 together with fiber and solid‐ state  laser  technology at 1064 nm as the  pump  source...based on parametric generation and oscillation in the latest class of mid-IR nonlinear materials in combination with the most advanced lasers pump ...Distribution A: Approved for pubic release: distribution is unlimited. 2 1. Fiber- laser - pumped , multiwatt, near- to mid-infrared, continuous-wave optical

  1. Optically controlled grippers for manipulating micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Barron, Louise; Beck, Fiona; Whyte, Graeme; Padgett, Miles

    2007-01-01

    We report the development of a joystick controlled gripper for the real-time manipulation of micron-sized objects, driven using holographic optical tweezers (HOTs). The gripper consists of an arrangement of four silica beads, located in optical traps, which can be positioned and scaled in order to trap an object indirectly. The joystick can be used to grasp, move (lateral or axial), and change the orientation of the target object. The ability to trap objects indirectly allows us to demonstrate the manipulation of a strongly scattering micron-sized metallic particle.

  2. [Interaction of adenosin-3',5'-cyclosulfate with adenosine-3'5'-cyclophosphate dependent protein kinase and phosphodiesterase].

    PubMed

    Severin, E S; Tkachuk, V A; Guliaev, N N

    1976-02-01

    Interaction of adenosine-3',5'-cyclosulphate (cAMS) cAMP analogue, having sulphur atom instead of phosphorus in a six-term cyclic system with pig brain proteinkinase and rabbit skeletal muscle phosphodiesterase is studied. The affinity of proteinkinase to cAMS was found to be in 25000 times lower than the affinity of cAMP, the affinity of cAMS to the active site of phosphodiesterase being high enough. It is suggested that in the regulatory subunit of proteinkinase positive kationic group participates in nucleotide binding by interacting with negative oxygen atom of six-term cyclophosphate system. There is no such a group in the active site of phospodiesterase, because the absence of negative charge in case of cAMS only slightly affects the constant of cAMS binding by phosphodiesterase.

  3. Efficient CW diode-pumped Tm, Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, B. T.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    A conversion efficiency of 42 percent and slope efficiency of approximately 60 percent relative to absorbed pump power are reported from a continuous wave diode-pumped Tm, Ho:YLF laser at 2 microns with output power of 84 mW at sub-ambient temperatures. The emission spectrum is etalon tunable over a range of 16/cm centered on 2.067 microns, with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at a measured rate of about -0.03/cm-K. The effective emission cross section is measured to be 5 x 10 exp -21 sq cm. These and other aspects of the laser performance are discussed in the context of calculated atmospheric absorption characteristics in this spectral region and potential use in remote sensing applications.

  4. Efficient CW diode-pumped Tm, Ho:YLF laser with tunability near 2.067 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, B. T.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    A conversion efficiency of 42 percent and slope efficiency of approximately 60 percent relative to absorbed pump power are reported from a continuous wave diode-pumped Tm, Ho:YLF laser at 2 microns with output power of 84 mW at sub-ambient temperatures. The emission spectrum is etalon tunable over a range of 16/cm centered on 2.067 microns, with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at a measured rate of about -0.03/cm-K. The effective emission cross section is measured to be 5 x 10 exp -21 sq cm. These and other aspects of the laser performance are discussed in the context of calculated atmospheric absorption characteristics in this spectral region and potential use in remote sensing applications.

  5. Electron attachment to hydrated oligonucleotide dimers: guanylyl-3',5'-cytidine and cytidylyl-3',5'-guanosine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-05-03

    The dinucleoside phosphate deoxycytidylyl-3',5'-deoxyguanosine (dCpdG) and deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine (dGpdC) systems are among the largest to be studied by reliable theoretical methods. Exploring electron attachment to these subunits of DNA single strands provides significant progress toward definitive predictions of the electron affinities of DNA single strands. The adiabatic electron affinities of the oligonucleotides are found to be sequence dependent. Deoxycytidine (dC) on the 5' end, dCpdG, has larger adiabatic electron affinity (AEA, 0.90 eV) than dC on the 3' end of the oligomer (dGpdC, 0.66 eV). The geometric features, molecular orbital analyses, and charge distribution studies for the radical anions of the cytidine-containing oligonucleotides demonstrate that the excess electron in these anionic systems is dominantly located on the cytosine nucleobase moiety. The pi-stacking interaction between nucleobases G and C seems unlikely to improve the electron-capturing ability of the oligonucleotide dimers. The influence of the neighboring base on the electron-capturing ability of cytosine should be attributed to the intensified proton accepting-donating interaction between the bases. The present investigation demonstrates that the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the radical anions of the oligonucleotides dGpdC and dCpdG are significantly larger than those of the corresponding nucleotides. Consequently, reactions with low activation barriers, such as those for O-C sigma bond and N-glycosidic bond breakage, might be expected for the radical anions of the guanosine-cytosine mixed oligonucleotides.

  6. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots.

  7. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil < or = 1970 mg HMX/kg soil for 10 days did not show adverse effects. Rabbits, however, showed neurologic effects manifested as hyperkinetic events with convulsions at > 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  9. Evidence for Early Life in ˜3.5 Billion-Year-Old Pillow Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recently discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of ˜3.5 billion-year-old pillow lavas from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa suggest they were colonized by microbes early in Earth's history. These subaqueous volcanic rocks represent a new geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. This is not entirely surprising since microbial alteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from recent oceanic crust and well-preserved ophiolites. The BGB magmatic sequence contains exceptionally well-preserved mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3.48 to 3.22 billion-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. We observed micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite in the formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas. Based on their similarity to textures observed in recent glassy pillow basalts we interpret these structures to represent ancient traces of microbial activity formed during biogenic etching of the originally glassy pillow rims as microbes colonized the glass surface. Petrographic observations coupled with overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates indicate this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas. Subsequent greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration caused the structures to be mineralized by titanite; a process also observed in ophiolitic pillow lavas of much younger age. X-ray mapping reveals the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures interpreted as residual organic material. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially-altered BGB pillow rims have low carbon isotope values consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. In contrast, disseminated carbonate in the crystalline pillow interiors have carbon isotope values bracketed between Archean marine carbonate and mantle carbon dioxide. It remains to be seen how deep into the Archean oceanic

  10. Staphylococcus epidermidis Csm1 is a 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Tang, Li; Cocozaki, Alexis I; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) offer an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from nucleic acid invaders through an RNA-mediated nucleic acid cleavage mechanism. Our knowledge of nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms is limited to three examples of widely different ribonucleoprotein particles that target either DNA or RNA. Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the Type III-A CRISPR system and has been shown to interfere with invading DNA in vivo. The Type III-A CRISPR system is characterized by the presence of Csm1, a member of Cas10 family of proteins, that has a permuted histidine-aspartate domain and a nucleotidyl cyclase-like domain, both of which contain sequence features characteristic of nucleases. In this work, we show in vitro that a recombinant S. epidermidis Csm1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and RNA exonucleolytically in the 3'-5' direction. We further showed that both cleavage activities are divalent-metal-dependent and reside in the GGDD motif of the cyclase-like domain. Our data suggest that Csm1 may work in the context of an effector complex to degrade invading DNA and participate in CRISPR RNA maturation.

  11. Generating technique for U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2008-09-15

    We develop a generating technique for solutions of U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity via dimensional reduction to three dimensions. This theory, which recently attracted attention in connection with black rings, can be viewed as a consistent truncation of the T{sup 6} compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Its further reduction to three dimensions accompanied by dualization of the vector fields leads to a 3D gravity coupled sigma model on the homogeneous space SO(4,4)/SO(4)xSO(4) or SO(4,4)/SO(2,2)xSO(2,2) depending on the signature of the three-space. We construct a 8x8 matrix representation of these cosets in terms of lower-dimensional blocks. Using it we express a solution generating transformations in terms of potentials and identify those preserving asymptotic conditions relevant to black holes and black rings. As an application we derive the doubly rotating black hole solution with three independent charges. A suitable contraction of the above cosets is used to construct a new representation of the coset G{sub 2(2)}/(SL(2,R)xSL(2,R)) relevant for minimal five-dimensional supergravity.

  12. Biological effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)).

    PubMed

    Goglia, F

    2005-02-01

    This article is principally intended to describe the facts concerning the actions of 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)). Until recent years, T(2), because of its very low affinity for thyroid hormone receptors (THR), was considered an inactive metabolite of thyroid hormones (TH) (thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3))). Several observations, however, led to a reconsideration of this idea. Early studies dealing with the biological activities of this iodothyronine revealed its ability to stimulate cellular/mitochondrial respiration by a nuclear-independent pathway. Mitochondria and bioenergetic mechanisms seem to be major targets of T(2), although outside the mitochondria T(2) also has effects on carriers, ion-exchangers, and enzymes. Recent studies suggest that T(2) may also affect the transcription of some genes, but again the underlying mechanisms seem to be different from those actuated by T(3). The accumulated evidence permits the conclusion that the actions of T(2) do not simply mimic those of T(3) but instead are specific actions exerted through mechanisms that are independent of those actuated by T(3) and do not involve THR.

  13. Molecular structure and spectral investigations of 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Aydin, B.; Dogan, O.; Dereli, O.

    2017-01-01

    Conformational analysis of 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone molecule was performed and two stable conformers were determined by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). Using the most stable one, molecular structural parameters, vibrational frequencies were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G(d) and BLYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of theory. The FT-IR spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 4000-550 cm-1. The Raman spectrum was also recorded in the region 3500-100 cm-1. Calculated results were compared with experimental counterparts. The best results were obtained from B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. Experimental 13C and 1H NMR data of tittle compound were taken from literature and the calculated results compared with these data. Vibrational and NMR band assignments were performed. HOMO-LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potentials and thermodynamic properties were also given for further investigations of our structure.

  14. Titan's 3-micron spectral region from ISO high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, Athena; Negrão, Alberto; Salama, Alberto; Schulz, Bernhard; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Rannou, Pascal; Drossart, Pierre; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Schmitt, Bernard; Boudon, Vincent; Nikitin, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    The near-infrared spectrum of Titan, Saturn's largest moon and one of the Cassini/Huygens' space mission primary targets, covers the 0.8 to 5 micron region in which it shows several weak CH 4 absorption regions, and in particular one centered near 2.75 micron. Due to the interference of telluric absorption, only part of this window region (2.9-3.1 μm) has previously been observed from the ground [Noll, K.S., Geballe, T.R., Knacke, R., Pendleton, F., Yvonne, J., 1996. Icarus 124, 625-631; Griffith, C.A., Owen, T., Miller, G.A., Geballe, T., 1998. Nature 395, 575-578; Griffith, C.A., Owen, T., Geballe, T.R., Rayner, J., Rannou, P., 2003. Science 300, 628-630; Geballe, T.R., Kim, S.J., Noll, K.S., Griffith, C.A., 2003. Astrophys. J. 583, L39-L42]. We report here on the first spectroscopic observations of Titan covering the whole 2.4-4.9 μm region by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 1997. These observations show the 2.75-μm window in its complete extent for the first time. In this study we have also used a high-resolution Titan spectrum in the 2.9-3.6 μm region taken with the Keck [Geballe, T.R., Kim, S.J., Noll, K.S., Griffith, C.A., 2003. Astrophys. J. 583, L39-L42; Kim, S.J., Geballe, T.R., Noll, K.S., Courtin, R., 2005. Icarus 173, 522-532] to infer information on the atmospheric parameters (haze extinction, single scattering albedo, methane abundance, etc.) by fitting the methane bands with a detailed microphysical model of Titan's atmosphere (updated from Rannou, P., McKay, C.P., Lorenz, R.D., 2003. Planet. Space Sci. 51, 963-976). We have included in this study an updated version of a database for the CH 4 absorption coefficients [STDS, Wenger, Ch., Champion, J.-P., 1998. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 471-480. See also http://www.u-bourgogne.fr/LPUB/TSM/sTDS.html for latest updates; Boudon, V., Champion, J.-P., Gabard, T., Loëte, M., Michelot, F., Pierre, G., Rotger, M., Wenger, Ch., Rey, M., 2004. J. Mol

  15. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  16. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  17. Vibrational spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and deuterated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Orza, J M; García, M V; Alkorta, I; Elguero, J

    2000-07-01

    The infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole have been recorded in the vapor, liquid (melt and solution) and solid states. Two deuterated derivatives, C5H7N-ND and C5D7N-NH, were also studied in solid state and in solutions. Instrumental resolution was relatively low, 2.0 cm(-1) in the IR and approximately 2.7 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. The solids are made of cyclic hydrogen-bonded trimers. These trimers, present also in chloroform and acetone solutions, give rise to characteristic high absorption IR spectra in the 3200-2500 cm(-1) region, related to Fermi resonance involving nu(NH) vibrations. Bands from trimers are not present in water solutions but these solutions show spectral features similar in several ways to those of the trimer, attributable to solvent-bonded complexes. Evidence of H-bonding interactions with the other solvents is also visible in the high-frequency region. The two very intense bands in the Raman spectra of the solids appearing at 115 and 82 cm(-1) in the parent compound are also connected with a trimer formation. To interpret the experimental data, ab initio computations of the harmonic vibrational frequencies and IR and Raman intensities were carried out using the Gaussian 94 program package after full optimization at the RHF/6-31G* level for the three monomeric compounds as well as for three models of the trimer, with C3h, C3 and C1 symmetry. The combined use of experiments and computations allow a firm assignment of most of the observed bands for all the systems. In general, the agreement between theory and experiment is very good, with the exception of the IR and Raman intensities of some transitions. Particularly noticeable is the failure of the theoretical calculation in accounting for the high intensity of the Raman bands of the solid about 115 and 82 cm(-1).

  18. The 3.5 Meter at Apache Point Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Donald G.

    1995-05-01

    As of November 1, 1994, the 3.5 meter telescope at Apache Point is in regular science operation. About 15% of the time is still used for engineering. The performance is still being improved. At present, we achieve 4 arc second rms absolute pointing from 20 to 89 degrees above the horizon. Image sizes are one arc second on a regular basis. The best open loop tracking achieved is 0.1 arc sec. errors over 10 minutes, though it can be worse. Closed loop tracking is better than 0.1 arc seconds. No aberrations from the mirror supports have been detected. The honeycomb primary mirror is kept at ambient temperature during the night time. Temperature non-uniformities in the back and front plates are controlled to be the same to 0.1 degrees centigrade. The telescope is regularly used with an infrared imager, a medium resolution spectrograph, and a large format, drift scan CCD camera. An echelle spectrograph, a high angular resolution camera, and an adaptive optics system are being integrated into the system. Instrument changes can be made in less than 20 minutes, at night. All instruments are operational and can be mounted by one person at any time. The observatory is operated by a full time staff of 6.6 individuals. Remote operations are possible from all ARC campuses. Over 70% of the observing is carried out this way, with site visits by astronomers only for mounting visitor instruments or for training purposes. Observing functions, including complete telescope control, instrument control, and data retrieval are carried out by the remote observer. The telescope is scheduled on an hourly basis, two months in advance of the actual runs. The individual university members of the project control their own time allocations and intra-institutional trades of time. The project partners are the University of Chicago, New Mexico State University, Princeton University, the University of Washington, and Washington State University.

  19. Validar: a testbed for advanced 2-micron Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-09-01

    High-energy 2-micron lasers have been incorporated in a breadboard coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Sample data is presented on wind profiling and CO2 concentration measurements.

  20. Improved whisker pointing technique for micron-size diode contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Green, G.

    1982-01-01

    Pointed phosphor-bronze whiskers are commonly used to contact micron-size Schottky barrier diodes. A process is presented which allows pointing such wire and achieving the desired cone angle and tip diameter without the use of highly undesirable chemical reagents.

  1. An Advanced Wafer Stepper For Sub-Micron Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Herbert E.; Loebach, Ernst W.

    1987-09-01

    An advanced wafer stepper is presented addressing the specific problems involved by sub-micron lithography such as alignment and focusing to multilayer resist films. New sub-systems were developed while maintaining principles well proven in a previous design. The system is described emphasizing the new sub-systems, and performance data are presented.

  2. Erratum: [O I] 63 Micron Absorption in NGC 6334

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Jackson, James M.; Lane, Adair P.

    1998-12-01

    In the paper ``[O I] 63 Micron Absorption in NGC 6334'' by Kathleen E. Kraemer, James M. Jackson, and Adair P. Lane (ApJ, 503, 785 [1998]), Figure 2 was printed as the negative of the original figure as the result of an error in the printing process. The correct version of Figure 2 appears below. The Press sincerely regrets this error.

  3. Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Vacuum probe sampler removes micron-sized particles from sensitive surfaces, without damage to the surface. The probe has a critical orifice to ensure an optimum airflow rate that disturbs the boundary layer of air and raises bacteria from the surface into the probe with the moving air stream.

  4. The NASA - Arc 10/20 micron camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Cooper, R.; Deutsch, L. K.; Mccreight, C.; Mckelvey, M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Yuen, L.; Mcmahon, T.; Werner, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new infrared camera (AIR Camera) has been developed at NASA - Ames Research Center for observations from ground-based telescopes. The heart of the camera is a Hughes 58 x 62 pixel Arsenic-doped Silicon detector array that has the spectral sensitivity range to allow observations in both the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows.

  5. Biogeography of a human oral microbiome at the micron scale

    PubMed Central

    Mark Welch, Jessica L.; Rossetti, Blair J.; Rieken, Christopher W.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Borisy, Gary G.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial organization of complex natural microbiomes is critical to understanding the interactions of the individual taxa that comprise a community. Although the revolution in DNA sequencing has provided an abundance of genomic-level information, the biogeography of microbiomes is almost entirely uncharted at the micron scale. Using spectral imaging fluorescence in situ hybridization as guided by metagenomic sequence analysis, we have discovered a distinctive, multigenus consortium in the microbiome of supragingival dental plaque. The consortium consists of a radially arranged, nine-taxon structure organized around cells of filamentous corynebacteria. The consortium ranges in size from a few tens to a few hundreds of microns in radius and is spatially differentiated. Within the structure, individual taxa are localized at the micron scale in ways suggestive of their functional niche in the consortium. For example, anaerobic taxa tend to be in the interior, whereas facultative or obligate aerobes tend to be at the periphery of the consortium. Consumers and producers of certain metabolites, such as lactate, tend to be near each other. Based on our observations and the literature, we propose a model for plaque microbiome development and maintenance consistent with known metabolic, adherence, and environmental considerations. The consortium illustrates how complex structural organization can emerge from the micron-scale interactions of its constituent organisms. The understanding that plaque community organization is an emergent phenomenon offers a perspective that is general in nature and applicable to other microbiomes. PMID:26811460

  6. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure Treated Wood Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about the exposure of humans as well as the environment to the parti...

  7. Improved whisker pointing technique for micron-size diode contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Green, G.

    1982-01-01

    Pointed phosphor-bronze whiskers are commonly used to contact micron-size Schottky barrier diodes. A process is presented which allows pointing such wire and achieving the desired cone angle and tip diameter without the use of highly undesirable chemical reagents.

  8. The NASA - Arc 10/20 micron camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Cooper, R.; Deutsch, L. K.; Mccreight, C.; Mckelvey, M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Witteborn, F. C.; Yuen, L.; Mcmahon, T.; Werner, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new infrared camera (AIR Camera) has been developed at NASA - Ames Research Center for observations from ground-based telescopes. The heart of the camera is a Hughes 58 x 62 pixel Arsenic-doped Silicon detector array that has the spectral sensitivity range to allow observations in both the 10 and 20 micron atmospheric windows.

  9. The 100 micron detector development program. [gallium doped germanium photoconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to optimize gallium-doped germanium photoconductors (Ge:Ga) for use in space for sensitive detection of far infrared radiation in the 100 micron region is described as well as the development of cryogenic apparatus capable of calibrating detectors under low background conditions.

  10. Advancement in 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Skidmore, George; Howard, Christopher; Clarke, Elwood; Han, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS. Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch 640x480 focal plane arrays (FPAs) in 2006, significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs. NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), vehicle driver vision enhancers (DVE), digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles (DENVG) and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.

  11. Release of Micronized Copper Particles from Pressure Treated Wood Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micronized copper pressure treated lumber (PTL) has recently been introduced to the consumer market as a replacement for ionized copper PTL. The presence of particulate rather than aqueous copper raises concerns about the exposure of humans as well as the environment to the parti...

  12. Validar: A Testbed for Advanced 2-Micron Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Petros, Mulugeta; Barnes, Bruce W.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy 2-microns lasers have been incorporated in a breadboard coherent Doppler lidar to test component technologies and explore applications for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Design of the lidar is presented including aspects in the laser transmitter, receiver, photodetector, and signal processing. Sample data is presented on wind profiling and CO2 concentration measurements.

  13. Deimos: A featureless asteroid-like spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    High quality CCD spectra were obtained of Deimos from 0.5 to 1.0 micron at a spectral resolution of 15A at the time of the 1988 Mars opposition. The data acquisition and reduction methods allowed the quantitative prevention of scattered light from Mars contaminating the spectra. Solar analog stars BS560, BS2007, and BS8931 were observed the same night to allow removal of telluric absorptions. The ratio spectrum of Deimos has a red slope, increasing in reflectance by a factor of approx. 50 pct. over the one octave wavelength interval observed. Other than this slope, the spectrum is remarkably featureless. The absence of absorption bands in the spectrum of Deimos is in marked contrast with the spectra of Martian surface materials. No trace of the Fe(2+) charge transfer absorption band around 1 micron is observed, which rules out the presence of significant quantities of minerals such as the pyroxenes or olivine at the surface of Deimos. The featureless red spectrum of Deimos appears to be consistent with a surface composition of fine grained carbonaceous chondrite type material. An analysis is presented of the spectrum of Deimos which makes use of the Hapke scattering surface model.

  14. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  15. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  16. Combustion properties of micronized coal for high intensity combustion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.; Knight, B.; Vranos, A.; Hollick, H.; Wicks, K.

    1989-04-19

    Results are presented of an investigation of combustion related properties of micronized coal feeds (all particles less than 40 microns), mixing characteristics of centrifugally driven burner devices, and aerodynamic characteristics of micronized coal particles related to centrifugal mixing for high intensity combustion applications. Combustion related properties investigated are the evolution of fuel bound nitrogen and coal associated mineral matter during the initial stages of combustion. Parent and beneficiated micronized coal samples, as well as narrow size cut samples from a wide range of coal ranks, were investigated using a multireactor approach. The multireactor approach allowed the experimental separation of different aspects of the fuel nitrogen evolution process, enabling a comprehensive understanding of FBN to be formulated and empirical rate constants to be developed. A specially designed on-line gas analysis system allowed nitrogen balance to be achieved. A combined nitrogen and ash tracer technique allowed the quantitative determination of tar yields during rapid devolatilization. Empirical kinetic rates are developed for the evolution of FBN with tar at low temperatures and the appearance of HCN from tar and char species at high temperatures. A specially designed phase separation system, coupled to separate aerosol and char segregation trains, allowed the possible formation of ash aerosol by rapid devolatilization to be monitored. Compensated thermocouple, hot wire anemometry, and digital imaging techniques are employed to characterize the mixing properties of a centrifugally driven combustor. Analytical and experimental investigations of the fidelity of micronized coal particles to gas stream trajectories in the strong centrifugal fields are performed. Both spherical and nonspherical particle morphologies are considered analytically. 14 refs., 141 figs., 34 tabs.

  17. Effects of nozzle design parameters on the extent of quiet test flow at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Bushnell, D. M.; Malik, M. R.; Chen, F.-J.

    1984-01-01

    Tests results at the NASA Langley Research Center, involving a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet tunnel, have shown that laminar-layered nozzle walls improve boundary layer stability and reduce stream disturbance levels caused by eddy Mach wave radiation. This type of wall design is required to obtain transition Reynolds numbers on tests models as high as those previously observed in supersonic flight vehicles. The Mach 3.5 pilot nozzle wall boundary layers were tested for Tollmein-Schlichting and Goertler linear amplification, and, in an analysis of Goertler vortices in two axisymmetric Mach 5 nozzles, transition values were found to vary. These values were applied to several nozzles with similar throat heights but different expansion rates. Among the nozzles included in the study, a flat-wall radial flow nozzle and a proposed rod-wall nozzle were tested. For the highest test unit Reynolds number, it was determined that the nozzle wall surface finish should not exceed 0.3 micron. Oil flow studies have indicated that Goertler vortex disturbances were the dominant mechanism causing transition on the walls of the pilot nozzle.

  18. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. Part 6; 3-35 microns Spectra of Three Southern Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.; Salama, Alberto; Metcalfe, Leo

    1996-01-01

    We present three new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 3 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars- alpha(sup 1) Cen, alpha TrA, and epsilon Car-augment our previous archive of complete absolutely calibrated spectra for northern K and M giants. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors. KAO and IRAS data in the 15-30 micron range suggest that the spectra of cool giants are close to Rayleigh-Jeans slopes. Our observations of alpha(sup 1) Cen, absolutely calibrated via our adopted Sirius model, indicate an angular diameter in very good agreement with values in the literature, demonstrating 'closure' of the set of spectra within our absolute framework. We compare our observed alpha(sup 1) Cen spectrum with a published grid of theoretical models from Kurucz, and adopt a plausible theoretical shape, that fits our spectrum, as a secondary reference spectrum in the southern sky.

  19. Momentum and heat flux estimation in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) with a 10.6-micron Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Chen, Tzvi; Xu, Mei; Eberhard, Wynn

    1991-01-01

    The mean wind, its standard deviation, and the momentum fluxes in the PBL are estimated with a 10.6-micron Doppler lidar. Spectral analysis of the radial velocities was performed, from which, by examining the amplitude of the power spectrum at the inertial range, the kinetic energy dissipation was deduced. The statistical form of the Navier-Stokes equations was used to derive the surface heat flux as the residual balance between the vertical gradient of the third moment of the vertical velocity and the kinetic energy dissipation.

  20. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. Part 4; 1.2 - 35 microns Spectra of Six Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Walker, Russell G.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    We present five new absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectra from 1.2 to 35 microns, constructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragments taken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), and the IRAS Low Resolution Spectrometer (LRS). These stars- beta Peg, alpha Boo, beta And, beta Gem, and alpha Hya-augment our already created complete absolutely calibrated spectrum for alpha Tau. All these spectra have a common calibration pedigree. The wavelength coverage is ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based, airborne, and satellite sensors.

  1. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  2. Spectrum Certification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    components on a platform, especially for an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) • Note-To-Holders (NTH) is easier to go through the spectrum certification process... Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) • Application for Equipment Frequency Allocation is required for each RF component i e command and control (C2) link video

  3. Spectrum Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tapasi

    2002-12-01

    Present day life without the use of radio frequencies is totally unimaginable. The mode of usage of the different frequency bands is diverse and ever-changing with constant development of newer technology. In the midst of all this, there is a minority group of spectrum users who are labeled ``passive''. Radio astronomy and remote sensing groups come under this title, having no control over the signal they try to receive, they are often most vulnerable to interference from man-made radio waves. However, through constant need to develop new techniques to detect very week signal, the research done by these passive users of spectrum often benefits the commercial users. It is therefore of utmost importance that both the active and the passive users of radio spectrum may survive and grow together in a manner of peaceful coexistence. This is the goal of spectrum management. As radio waves ``do not know'' of any national boundaries, such management issues have to be agreed upon globally. The mechanisms that have been set up for such purposes with global and national counterparts is explained. How, as a minority, the interests of radio astronomy may be best served now and in future is also discussed.

  4. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.M.; Rieke, G.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range. 38 refs.

  5. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Douglas M.; Rieke, George H.

    1990-01-01

    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range.

  6. Radiation Hard 0.13 Micron CMOS Library at IHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagdhold, U.

    2013-08-01

    To support space applications we have developed an 0.13 micron CMOS library which should be radiation hard up to 200 krad. The article describes the concept to come to a radiation hard digital circuit and was introduces in 2010 [1]. By introducing new radiation hard design rules we will minimize IC-level leakage and single event latch-up (SEL). To reduce single event upset (SEU) we add two p-MOS transistors to all flip flops. For reliability reasons we use double contacts in all library elements. The additional rules and the library elements are integrated in our Cadence mixed signal design kit, “Virtuoso” IC6.1 [2]. A test chip is produced with our in house 0.13 micron BiCMOS technology, see Ref. [3]. As next step we will doing radiation tests according the european space agency (ESA) specifications, see Ref. [4], [5].

  7. Tunable diode lasers for 3-30 micron infrared operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    The tunable diode laser is now widely used in high resolution infrared spectroscopy studies, taking into account laboratory and industrial applications. The present investigation is concerned with advances related to laser performance and reliability. The advances are the result of improvements in materials and device technologies. Reliability data for broad-area Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se lasers are considered along with performance improvements in stripe-geometry lasers, laser performance at wavelengths above 25 microns, and laser performance at wavelengths below 4 microns. Attention is given to tunable Pb-salt infrared diode lasers, mesa-stripe geometry lasers of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se and PbS(1-x)Se(x), and long wavelength diode laser emission observed in both Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te and Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Se.

  8. Correlation of infrared reflectance ratios at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal systems in the Idaho batholith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance ratios from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the ratio of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal systems and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.

  9. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron-Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of approximately 175- 400 microns at ambient pressures particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  10. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron-Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of approximately 175- 400 microns at ambient pressures particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  11. Photometric variability of Charon at 2.2 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosh, A. S.; Young, L. A.; Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Baron, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Pluto-Charon images obtained on each of four nights at 2.2, 1.2, and 1.7 microns are presently fitted by a two-source image model in which the position of Charon and the ratio of its signal to that of Pluto are free parameters. At 2.2 microns, Charon is fainter than Pluto by magnitudes which, when combined with Pluto-Charon system photometry, yield apparent magnitudes of 15.01 + or - 0.08 for Charon at 0.06 lightcurve phase and 15.46 + or - 0.05 at lightcurve phase 0.42. In view of these results, Charon is variable in this filter bypass due to geometric albedo changes as a function of longitude.

  12. Luminous infrared galaxies - Sizes at 10-32 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynn-Williams, C. G.; Becklin, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have made estimates of the sizes of 19 infrared galaxies drawn from the highest luminosity galaxies detected by the IRAS survey. The techniques we used were to make multiaperture photometric measurements on the ground-based IR Telescope Facility and to compare these flux densities with the much broader beam measurements obtained by the IRAS survey. Our primary result is that most, but not all, of the galaxies in our sample are extended at 10-25 microns, with characteristic radii of a few hundred parsecs. This result directly supports the widely held assumption that the bulk of the infrared luminosity in these galaxies comes from a central starburst region rather than from the whole disk of the galaxy or from a compact nucleus. The compact nature of Arp 220 is confirmed by direct scans with a 2.9 arcsec aperture at 32 microns.

  13. Correlation of infrared reflectance ratios at 2.3 microns/1.6 micron and 1.1 micron/1.6 micron with delta O-18 values delineating fossil hydrothermal systems in the Idaho batholith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.; Criss, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance ratios from laboratory spectra and airborne multispectral images are found to be strongly correlated with delta O-18 values of granite rocks in the Idaho batholith. The correlation is largely a result of interactions between hot water and rock, which lowered the delta O-18 values of the rocks and produced secondary hydrous material. Maps of the ratio of reflectivities at 2.3 and 1.6 microns should delineate fossil hydrothermal systems and provide estimates of alteration intensity. However, hydrous minerals produced during deuteric alteration or weathering cannot be unambiguously distinguished in remotely sensed images from the products of propylitic alteration without the use of narrow-band scanners. The reflectivity at 1.6 micron is strongly correlated with rock density and may be useful in distinguishing rock types in granitic terranes.

  14. LED pumped micron-scale all-silicon Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Tanmoy; Sen, Mrinal

    2017-10-01

    A micron-scale all-silicon Raman amplifier has been proposed in this paper, exploiting the giant Raman gain of silicon nanocrystal material along with the extreme optical confinement of slotted photonic crystal waveguide. Light Emitting Diode (LED) has been considered here for low-cost optical pumping and the possibility of on-chip integration. At the same time, LED pumping eradicates the temporal impairment of output pulses which is otherwise unavoidable in case of continuous wave laser pumping. An overall gain of 3.22 dB has been achieved for a 400 Gbps input pulse train with a waveguide length of the amplifier which is as small as 4 μm. Moreover, the strong electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystal opens up the possibility of integrating the pump source on the same platform and, hence, expedites the future scope of realizing micron-scale silicon Raman laser without external pump source.

  15. A 3.5 mm POLARIMETRIC SURVEY OF RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, I.; Thum, C.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Krichbaum, T. P. E-mail: thum@iram.f E-mail: tkrichbaum@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d

    2010-07-15

    We present the results from the first large (>100 sources) 3.5 mm polarimetric survey of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This wavelength is favorable within the radio-millimeter range for measuring the intrinsic linearly polarized emission from AGNs, since in general it is only marginally affected by Faraday rotation of the electric vector position angle and depolarization. The I, Q, U, and V Stokes parameter observations were performed with the XPOL polarimeter at the IRAM 30 m Telescope on different observing epochs from 2005 July (when most of the measurements were made) to 2009 October. Our sample consists of 145 flat-radio-spectrum AGNs with declination >-30{sup 0} (J2000.0) and flux density {approx}>1 Jy at {approx}86 GHz, as measured at the IRAM 30 m Telescope from 1978 to 1994. This constraint on the radio spectrum causes our sample to be dominated by blazars, which allows us to conduct new statistical studies on this class of high-luminosity, relativistically beamed emitters. We detect linear and circular polarization (above minimum 3{sigma} levels of {approx}1.5% and {approx}0.3%) for 76% and 6% of the sample, respectively. We find a clear excess in degree of linear polarization detected at 86 GHz with regard to that at 15 GHz by a factor of {approx}2. Over our entire source sample, the luminosity of the jets is anticorrelated with the degree of linear polarization. Consistent with previous findings claiming larger Doppler factors for brighter {gamma}-ray blazars, quasars listed in our sample, and in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Source Catalog (LBAS), show larger luminosities than non-LBAS ones, but our data do not allow us to confirm the same for BL Lac objects. We do not find a clear relation between the linear polarization angle and the jet structural position angle for any source class in our sample. We interpret this as the consequence of a markedly non-axisymmetric character of the 3 mm emitting region in the jets. We find that

  16. Novel dinuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato and tetranuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato-polyoxo zirconium(IV) complexes. Synthesis and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martial; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2009-04-14

    The dinuclear dimethylamido-tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)-zirconium(IV) complex [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 1 is prepared by treatment of [Zr(NMe2)4] with 3 equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me2PzH) with elimination of dimethylamine. When [Zr(NMe2)4] reacted with 2 equivalents of 3,5-Me2PzH, the bis(dimethylamido)-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)zirconium(IV) compound [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)2(NMe2)2]2 2 is obtained. Hydrolysis of [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 in wet toluene affords the tetranuclear oxo compound [Zr4(eta2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(NMe2)2(mu3-O)2(mu2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(mu2-NMe2)2] . All synthesised compounds are characterised by NMR spectroscopic and analytical methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has established the molecular structures of 1 and 4.

  17. AN ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF THE MICRON + MAGNETIC MOMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    magnetic resonance magnetometer . The ratio of the muon precession frequency to that of the proton in the same magnetic field is determined to be...measurements of the beat note. The magnetic field at which the precession and reference frequencies coincide is measured with reference to a proton nuclear...Using a precession technique, the magnetic moment of the positive micron meson is determined to an accuracy of 0.007%. Muons are brought to rest in

  18. Micro Navigator (MICRON) Phase 2A. Volume 1. Technical Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    AD-A021 526 MICRO NAVIGATOR (MICRON) PHASE 2A. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL REPORT Joseph M. Miller Rockwell International Corporation Prepared for:, Air...DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. WAFA-TR-7-t MICRO ...Calibration Optilization Mass Unbalance Modulaticn N57A Flights Tests Cost of Ownosh , Micro Electrostatic Gyrc Small Gap Gyco Dift Model Improvement Micro

  19. Development program for 1.93-micron lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longeway, P.; Zamerowski, T.; Martinelli, R.; Stolzenberger, R.; Digiuseppe, N.

    1988-01-01

    For the first time lasers operating at 1.93 microns were demonstrated. The lasers were fabricated by Vapor Phase Epitaxial (VPE) growth techniques currently used for the fabrication of high power lasers at 1.3 microns. The structure of these laser diodes consisted of compositionally graded, sulfur-doped InAsP, grown on an InP substrate; a constant-composition n+InAs(0.27)P(0.73) layer, which is the first cladding layer; an In(0.66)Ga(0.34)As layer, which is the active region, and a second InAs(0.27)P(0.73) layer. The devices were oxide-stripe DH lasers (gain-guided only). The best devices had 80 K lasing thresholds in the range of from 80 to 150 mA, and T sub o (below 220 K) in the range of 60 to 90 K. The highest observed temperature of oscillation was 15.5 C. The highest observed power output at 80 K was in the range of 3 to 5 mW. The calculated delta I/delta T was 4.4 A/K. As a part of the materials development, PIN homojunction detectors having the band edge near 1.93 were also fabricated. The best devices (100 micron diameter, mesa structure) exhibited room temperature dark currents in the range of from 20 to 50 nA and had QE at 1.93 microns in the range of 35 to 40 percent. In addition to the device results, the InGaAs-InAsP materials system was extensively investigated and low defect density layers can now be grown allowing for significant device performance improvement.

  20. Optics outreach from 8-12 microns: Wolfe-inspired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofziger, Michael J.

    2012-10-01

    Using a room-temperature FLIR infrared camera, we have developed an entire outreach program that allows students of all ages the chance to "see" their world from 8-12 microns. It is a world seldom seen by the same person that, ironically, has 12 megapixels of visual "high-def" in his or her shirt pocket. It is Bill Wolfe's world, and in his recognition we are honored to share some of it with you.

  1. Two micron pore size MCP-based image intensifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, John; Estrera, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Image intensifiers (I2) have many advantages as detectors. They offer single photon sensitivity in an imaging format, they're light in weight and analog I2 systems can operate for hours on a single AA battery. Their light output is such as to exploit the peak in color sensitivity of the human eye. Until recent developments in CMOS sensors, they also were one of the highest resolution sensors available. The closest all solid state solution, the Texas Instruments Impactron chip, comes in a 1 megapixel format. Depending on the level of integration, an Impactron based system can consume 20 to 40 watts in a system configuration. In further investing in I2 technology, L-3 EOS determined that increasing I2 resolution merited a high priority. Increased I2 resolution offers the system user two desirable options: 1) increased detection and identification ranges while maintaining field-of-view (FOV) or 2) increasing FOV while maintaining the original system resolution. One of the areas where an investment in resolution is being made is in the microchannel plate (MCP). Incorporation of a 2 micron MCP into an image tube has the potential of increasing the system resolution of currently fielded systems. Both inverting and non-inverting configurations are being evaluated. Inverting tubes are being characterized in night vision goggle (NVG) and sights. The non-inverting 2 micron tube is being characterized for high resolution I2CMOS camera applications. Preliminary measurements show an increase in the MTF over a standard 5 micron pore size, 6 micron pitch plate. Current results will be presented.

  2. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-07-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  3. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-01-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595

  4. Dissolution and pharmacokinetics of a novel micronized aspirin formulation.

    PubMed

    Voelker, M; Hammer, M

    2012-08-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiinflammatory drug for many years. A new 500 mg aspirin tablet formulation containing micronized active ingredient and an effervescent component has been developed for potential improvement in the onset of action for acute pain treatment. This paper describes the dissolution and the pharmacokinetics of the new formulation in comparison with regular aspirin tablets, aspirin granules and aspirin effervescent tablets. Micronized aspirin tablets dissolve significantly faster over a pH range from 1.2 to 6.8 compared to regular 500 mg aspirin tablets. Plasma concentration time curve comparison to regular 500 mg aspirin tablets showed a substantial improvement in the time to maximum plasma concentrations (T(max)) (ASA 17.5 min vs. 45 min) and an increase in maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (ASA 13.8 μg/ml vs. 4.4 μg/ml) while the overall extent of exposure (AUC) remains almost unchanged. The data suggest a potential improvement for onset of action in treating acute pain with the new micronized aspirin formulation.

  5. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtley, John R. Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Moler, Kathryn A.; Paulius, Lisa; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.K.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.

    2016-09-15

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ{sub 0}/Hz{sup 1/2}. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  6. Soft tissue engineering with micronized-gingival connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi

    2017-02-24

    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm(3) ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P.D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; Witherow, W. K.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2 micron to 6.82 micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam-widths of approx. 175-400 micron, at ambient pressures approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of silica and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  8. Effect of humidity on aerosolization of micronized drugs.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Price, Robert; Tobyn, Michael J; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2003-10-01

    The variation of aerosolization with humidity for three micronized drugs used in the treatment of asthma was evaluated by using in vitro methods. Micronized samples of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), salbutamol sulphate, and triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) were stored for 12hr at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% relative humidity (RH). A suitable "reservoir" dry powder inhaler was loaded and tested by using a twin-stage impinger at each specific humidity. The aerosolization efficiency of all three micronized drugs was affected by variations in humidity. The percentage of the delivered dose and the fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD) for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate decreased with increasing humidity; with the largest decrease in FPFLD occurring between 45% and 60% RH for DSCG and 60% to 75% RH for salbutamol sulphate. These observations suggest that the adhesion properties for both DSCG and salbutamol sulphate, which govern the aerosolization efficiency, are predominately influenced by capillary interactions. In contrast, the FPFLD for TAA significantly increased as the humidity increased over the range 15% to 75% RH, suggesting that triboelectric forces predominate particle-particle interactions. These variations in drug particulate behavior highlight the importance of an individual formulation approach when developing dry powder inhalation systems.

  9. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P.D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; Witherow, W. K.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2 micron to 6.82 micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam-widths of approx. 175-400 micron, at ambient pressures approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of silica and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  10. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Paulius, Lisa; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ0/Hz1/2. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  11. An optical trapped nanohand for manipulating micron-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Graham; Barron, Louise; Beck, Fiona; Whyte, Graeme; Padgett, Miles

    2006-08-01

    Optical tweezers use the electric-field gradient-force associated with tightly focused laser beams to trap micron-sized objects at the beam focus. Over the last few years optical tweezers have been revolutionized by the addition of spatial light modulators to split the laser beam into many traps that can be individually controlled; a technique called holographic optical tweezers. However, the reliance of optical tweezers on the gradient-force largely restricts their application to transparent objects that are not unduly sensitive to the effects of the laser light. Consequently, the manipulation of metallic particles or sensitive biomaterials can be problematic. In this work we use a holographic tweezers to position multiple silica beads acting as an optical gripper to lift, rotate and move micron-sized objects that otherwise do not lend themselves to tweezers control. We illustrate the use of the optical gripper under real-time joystick control to manipulate micron-sized metallic particles with nano-scale precision.

  12. Anisotropic Energy Transport Properties of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroonblawd, Matthew P.

    Anisotropic energy transport properties were determined theoretically for crystals of the insensitive explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using molecular dynamics simulations. Determination of these properties is necessary for the analysis and interpretation of molecular dynamics predictions of transient processes such as shock response and hot spot formation/relaxation and is similarly important for the accurate parameterization of meso- and continuum-scale engineering models aimed at understanding complex processes such as ignition and growth leading to detonation. TATB crystal exhibits a graphitic-like layered packing structure with a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network that forms within, but not between, the molecule-thick layers that comprise the crystal. This structure is thought to be the primary factor behind the significant anisotropy in many physical properties of TATB crystals. Anisotropic thermal conductivity coefficients were determined for initially defect-free and defective TATB crystals and isotropic values were determined for the liquid at temperatures and pressures up to (1800 K, 2.0 GPa). The room temperature, atmospheric pressure thermal conductivity for TATB is predicted to be generally greater and more anisotropic than the thermal conductivities of other molecular explosives; conduction within the layers is approximately 70% greater than conduction between the layers. The conductivity is predicted to decrease with temperature approximately as λ ∝ 1/T over the interval 200 K ≤ T ≤ 700 K and to linearly increase with pressure up to 2.5 GPa. Direction-dependent relaxation of idealized one-dimensional hot spots was studied. Results from hot spot relaxation simulations were compared with and fit to solutions for the one-dimensional diffusive heat equation by treating the thermal di.usivity as a parameter to assess the validity of using continuum models to describe heat transport in TATB on length scales below 10 nm. A

  13. Thermal infrared observations of Mars (7.5-12.8 microns) during the 1990 opposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Witteborn, F.; Lucy, P. G.; Graps, A.; Pollack, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen spectra of Mars, in the 7.5 to 12.8 micron wavelength were obtained on 7 Dec. 1990 from the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). For these observations, a grating with an ultimate resolving power of 120 to 250 was used and wavelengths were calibrated for each grating setting by comparison with the absorption spectrum of polystyrene measured prior to each set of observations. By sampling the Nyquist limit at the shortest wavelengths, an effective resolving power of about 120 over the entire wavelength range was achieved. A total of four grating settings were required to cover the entire wavelength region. A typical observing sequence consisted of: (1) positioning the grating in one of the intervals; (2) calibrating the wavelength of positions; and (3) obtaining spectra for a number of spots on Mars. Several observations of the nearby stellar standard star, alpha Tauri, were also acquired throughout the night. Each Mars spectrum represents an average of 4 to 6 measurements of the individual Mars spots. As a result of this observing sequence, the viewing geometry for a given location or spot on Mars does not change, but the actual location of the spot on Mars's surface varies somewhat between the different grating settings. Other aspects of the study are presented.

  14. Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process

    SciTech Connect

    Edward R. Torak; Peter J. Suardini

    1997-11-01

    A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a particle bottom

  15. Model Calculations of Solar Spectral Irradiance in the 3.7 Micron Band for Earth Remote Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Fontenla, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the launch of the first Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument aboard TIROS-N, measurements in the 3.7 micron atmospheric window have been exploited for use in cloud detection and screening, cloud thermodynamic phase and surface snow/ice discrimination, and quantitative cloud particle size retrievals. The utility of the band has led to the incorporation of similar channels on a number of existing satellite imagers and future operational imagers. Daytime observations in the band include both reflected solar and thermal emission energy. Since 3.7 micron channels are calibrated to a radiance scale (via onboard blackbodies), knowledge of the top-of-atmosphere solar irradiance in the spectral region is required to infer reflectance. Despite the ubiquity of 3.7 micron channels, absolute solar spectral irradiance data comes from either a single measurement campaign (Thekaekara et al. 1969) or synthetic spectra. In this study, we compare historical 3.7 micron band spectral irradiance data sets with the recent semi-empirical solar model of the quiet-Sun by Fontenla et al. (2006). The model has expected uncertainties of about 2 % in the 3.7 pm spectral region. We find that channel-averaged spectral irradiances using the observations reported by Thekaekara et al. are 3.2-4.1% greater than those derived from the Fontenla et al. model for MODIS and AVHRR instrument bandpasses; the Kurucz spectrum (1995) as included in the MODTRAN4 distribution, gives channel-averaged irradiances 1.2-1.5 % smaller than the Fontenla model. For the MODIS instrument, these solar irradiance uncertainties result in cloud microphysical retrievals uncertainties comparable with other fundamental reflectance error sources.

  16. Saturn's Regional and Global Cloud Properties from Cassini/VIMS 4.5-5.1 Micron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Baines, K. H.; Momary, T. W.; Orton, G. S.; Roos-Serote, M.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2009-09-01

    Exploiting a region of Saturn's thermal-IR spectrum between 4.5-5.1 microns where there is a dearth of opacity sources, Cassini/VIMS has revealed a wealth of dynamical phenomena in the 1-4 bar region that are transforming our understanding of the gas giant. Narrow dark lanes and discrete cloud features are observed in silhouette against the 5-micron background thermal glow of Saturn's deep atmosphere. The NEMESIS optimal-estimation retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., JSQRT, 2008) is used to model the 4.5-5.1 micron region using the correlated-k approximation. We determine (a) the sensitivity and correlations associated with determinations of cloud properties and gaseous composition from the Cassini/VIMS dataset; (b) the meridional variation in opacity sources (a multi-layer cloud model, the abundances of phosphine and arsine); (c) the contribution of the thermal and reflected components to VIMS spectra and (d) the spatial variability of opacity sources associated with Saturn's string of pearls and ribbon wave features in the northern hemisphere. The meridional gradients in composition are compared to the Cassini/CIRS derivations of phosphine at higher altitudes (pressures less than 1 bar; Fletcher et al., Icarus, 2009). The seasonal origin of the north-south asymmetry in 5-micron opacity (Baines et al., BAAS, 2006) and the dynamical motions associated with Saturn's complex zonal wave activity will be discussed. The vertical distribution of cloud opacity demonstrates the necessity for aerosols at the 2-3 bar level to successfully replicate the VIMS data. Finally, we search Cassini/CIRS mapping observations at 15.0 cm-1 resolution for mid-IR counterparts (0.1-0.5 bar) to the zonal wave activity in the deeper troposphere (1-4 bars) to investigate the vertical coupling in Saturn's troposphere.

  17. Rotationally-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of the νb{16} Band of 1,3,5-TRIOXANE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Bradley M.; Koeppen, Nicole; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-06-01

    1,3,5-trioxane is the simplest cyclic form of polyoxymethylene (POM), a class of formaldehyde polymers that has been proposed as the origin of distributed formaldehyde formation in comet comae and a potential source of formaldehyde in prebiotic chemistry. Although claimed POM detections have since been proven to be inconclusive, laboratory simulations of cometary conditions have yielded trioxane and other POMs While the microwave spectrum of 1,3,5-trioxane has been studied extensively, 4-7.}, to date only one rotationally-resolved ro-vibrational spectrum has been published. Here, we present our studies of the νb{16} band of gas-phase trioxane centered at 1177 wn. Trioxane was entrained in a supersonic expansion of argon and characterized by continuous-wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy using an etalon-stabilized external-cavity quantum cascade laser. Rotationally resolved spectra were obtained with less than 15 MHz resolution. Cottin, H., Bénilan, Y., Gazeau, M-C., and Raulin, F. Origin of Cometary Extended Sources from Degradation of Refractory Organics on Grains: Polyoxymethylene as Formaldehyde Parent Molecule. Icarus 167 (2004), 397-416. Oka, T., Tsuchiya, K., Iwata, S., and Morino, Y. Microwave Spectrum of s-Trioxane. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 37 (1964), 4-7. Henninot, J-F., Bolvin, H., Demaison, J., and Lemoine, B. The Infrared Spectrum of Trioxane in a Supersonic Slit Jet. J. Mol. Spect. 152 (1992), 62-68. Gibson, B.M. and McCall, B.J., contribution TJ08, presented at the 69th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Urbana, IL, USA, 2014.

  18. 2-45 Micron Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon-Rich Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) 2-45 micron observations of seven proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) and two other carbon-rich objects are presented. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 microns are detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature is now resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 microns (the '30 micron' feature) and a narrower feature at 25.5 microns (the '26 micron' feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229 + 6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified infrared (UIR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 microns which are commonly observed in planetary nebulae and H II regions, are also seen in these PPNs. However, their strengths relative to the continuum plateaus at 8 and 12 microns are weaker than in planetary nebulae. The 6.9 micron feature, seen almost exclusively in PPNs, is strong. New millimeter CO and HCN observations were made; they support the carbon-rich nature of the objects and yield the expansion velocities of the gaseous envelopes. The spectral energy distributions of these PPNs were fitted with a radiative-transfer model, taking into account the emission features at 21, 26, and 30 microns. A significant fraction of the total energy output is emitted in these features: as high as 20% in the 30 micron feature and 8% in the 21 micron feature. The fact that so much energy is carried in these features suggests that the material responsible for these features must be made of abundant elements and most likely involves carbon. SiS, appears to be ruled out as the emitter of the 21 micron feature due to the absence of a predicted companion feature.

  19. 2-45 Micron Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon-Rich Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Volk, Kevin; Kwok, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) 2-45 micron observations of seven proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) and two other carbon-rich objects are presented. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 microns are detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature is now resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 microns (the '30 micron' feature) and a narrower feature at 25.5 microns (the '26 micron' feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229 + 6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified infrared (UIR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 microns which are commonly observed in planetary nebulae and H II regions, are also seen in these PPNs. However, their strengths relative to the continuum plateaus at 8 and 12 microns are weaker than in planetary nebulae. The 6.9 micron feature, seen almost exclusively in PPNs, is strong. New millimeter CO and HCN observations were made; they support the carbon-rich nature of the objects and yield the expansion velocities of the gaseous envelopes. The spectral energy distributions of these PPNs were fitted with a radiative-transfer model, taking into account the emission features at 21, 26, and 30 microns. A significant fraction of the total energy output is emitted in these features: as high as 20% in the 30 micron feature and 8% in the 21 micron feature. The fact that so much energy is carried in these features suggests that the material responsible for these features must be made of abundant elements and most likely involves carbon. SiS, appears to be ruled out as the emitter of the 21 micron feature due to the absence of a predicted companion feature.

  20. Photon Counting Detectors for the 1.0 - 2.0 Micron Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    We describe results on the development of greater than 200 micron diameter, single-element photon-counting detectors for the 1-2 micron wavelength range. The technical goals include quantum efficiency in the range 10-70%; detector diameter greater than 200 microns; dark count rate below 100 kilo counts-per-second (cps), and maximum count rate above 10 Mcps.

  1. Very Early 3-13 micron Spectral Development of V1187 Sco (Nova Scorpii 2004 #2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Kim, D. L.; Perry, R. B.; Geballe, T. R.; Fisher, R. S.

    2004-12-01

    Moderate spectral resolution (30-200) data were obtained with the Aerospace Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) on the NASA IRTF 3 m and with Michelle on Gemini North of V1187 Scorpii during the week following maximum light ( Aug. 3UT, 2004). We present a time-series of 3-13 micron spectra from Aug. 5 to Aug. 11 UT, 2004. The spectra initially exhibited the expected gray body continuum at about 1500 K, which cooled from night to night, followed by the appearance of numerous hydrogen lines, of which Humphreys alpha was one of the most prominent. The hydrogen lines increased in intensity until about Aug 8 UT, and then began a gradual decline. The higher spectral resolution Michelle data on Aug. 11 UT showed that essentially all of the features seen were hydrogen lines. The dependence with time of the line intensities will be shown and discussed. These data complement the spectroscopy presented in poster sessions by Lynch et al. (.8-5 microns with a variety of instruments and telescopes) and Woodward et al. (Spitzer data from Sept 28 UT, 2004) at this meeting. Thus, the observations show classical nova development typical of a very fast nova (t2 about 8 or 9 days) in the infrared with unprecedented thermal spectral coverage this close to maximum light. The unique time series began serendipitously using BASS at the IRTF, and included collaborative observations by the IRTF, UKIRT, Gemini and Keck. The series was crowned by the Spitzer spectrum cited above, accompanied by near-simultaneous observations from the IRTF and Gemini. We are grateful to Alan Tokunaga of the IRTF for granting us telescope time on short notice to extend our BASS coverage and to Jean Rene Roy for granting us time on Gemini. This work was supported at The Aerospace Corporation by the Independent Research and Development program.

  2. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  3. Trinuclear rare earth metal complexes based on 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis inositol as catalysts for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Calatayud Sala, José Miguel; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2011-02-14

    Trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [M₃(taciH₋₃)₂](3+) (M = La(3+), Y(3+)), based on a rigid polyamino-polyalcohol ligand 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci), are proven to be efficient catalysts for the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phophate (HPNP), a commonly used RNA model system.

  4. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  5. Acute Oral Toxicity of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (Sex) in Male and Female Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    flame proof cabinet at room temperature. %.. White--2 Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Chemical Abstract Service...Trinitrocyclotetramethylenetetramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2 Structural formula: 0 11 C-CH 0 2 N-N CH2 HC-N NO 2 , Empirical formula: C6H1

  6. Ammonia, Phosphine, And Cloud Structure On Saturn Derived From 5-micron Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; Chanover, N.; Glenar, D.; Hewagama, T.

    2006-09-01

    The CSHELL spectrometer on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility was used to observe Saturn at several settings between 5.07 and 5.27μm beginning in 2004 February through 2006 January at about the same time as Cassini/VIMS and CIRS were mapping the planet. At these wavelengths thermal radiation originates from the deep atmosphere (5 bars) and it is attenuated by two cloud layers considered to be composed of NH4SH and condensed NH3. In addition, there is a component of sunlight reflected from the upper (NH3) cloud that varies spatially on Saturn. CSHELL can spectrally resolve profiles of absorption lines of ammonia (NH3) and phosphine (PH3) on Saturn. These lines are very broad due to collisions with 3 to 5 bars of hydrogen. The Saturn spectrum exhibits several strong NH3 and PH3 lines, as well as Fraunhofer lines due to CO in the Sun. The spatial variation of this spectrum is dominated by the variable opacity of Saturn's cloud structure. Superimposed on this are smaller variations in the mixing ratios of NH3 and PH3. The abundances of these gases can be retrieved reliably in relatively cloud-free regions between 50 South and 65 South, which are analogous to Jupiter's belts and 5-micron hot spots. Elsewhere, it is more difficult to separate changes in cloud opacity from gas abundances. We use near-simultaneous CIRS observations which sound the 500-mbar level to provide an upper boundary condition to PH3. The 5-μm spectrum of Saturn's Equatorial Zone (10 South) is significantly different from a region near 60 South. The NH3 and PH3 lines are weaker and narrower in the EQZ, while the Fraunhofer lines are stronger. We will present synthetic spectra calculated from models which fit both regions and which explore the tradeoffs between gas mixing ratios and cloud opacity. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Astronomy program.

  7. 1H NMR for quantifying sulfide trapping efficiency by using 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane.

    PubMed

    Canuto, André V S; Echevarria, Aurea

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an extremely toxic colourless gas; it is corrosive and denser than air. It usually happens in oil and natural gas fields, refineries, coal mines, and in some industrial effluent treatment systems. This work presents an alternative method of monitoring and quantifying H2S trapping efficiency by using 1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-triazinane as a sequestering agent, and sodium sulfide as a source of sulfide ion, through (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results proved that the reaction occurs very quickly at 20 °C at pH 7 and 10. 3,5-di(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-thiodiazinane and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,3,5-dithiozinane were observed and quantified; it was evidenced that (1)H NMR spectroscopy can be applied as a fast and effective method to quantify H2S trapping efficiency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The micron stroke hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

    PubMed

    Orehek, Allen J

    2012-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease as currently described in the medical literature is often more a description of dementia rather than a specific disease. In over a century of scientific work there has been no proven theory as to the precise pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. As there is no efficient treatment for patients with Alzheimer's disease, prevention or attenuation of the disease is of substantial value. An intricate collection of hypotheses, studies, research, and experience has made it complicated for one to completely understand this disease. The purpose of this hypothesis is to illustrate new concepts and work to link those concepts to the present understanding of an obscure disease. The search for a single unifying hypothesis on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease has been elusive. Many hypotheses associated to Alzheimer's disease have not survived their testing to become theory. Suggested here is that the elusive nature of etiology of dementia is not from one cause, but rather the causes are numerous. Medical terminology used freely for decades is rarely evaluated in the light of a new hypothesis. At the foundation of this work is the suggestion of a new medical term: Micron Strokes. The Micron Stroke Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia include primary and secondary factors. The primary factors can be briefly described as baseline brain tissue, atrial fibrillation, hypercoaguable state, LDL, carotid artery stenosis, tobacco exposure, hypertension diabetes mellitus, and the presence of systemic inflammation. Dozens of secondary factors contribute to the development of dementia. Most dementia is caused by nine primary categories of factors as they interact to cause micron strokes to the brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A High Energy 2-microns Laser for Multiple Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state 2-microns laser has been receiving considerable interest because of its eye-safe property and efficient diode pump operation, It has potential for multiple lidar applications to detect water vapor. carbon dioxide and winds. In this paper, we describe a 2-microns double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser and end-pumped amplifier system. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed to aid the design and optimization of the laser performance. In a single Q-switched pulse operation the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will be wasted. However, in a double pulses operation mode, the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will repopulate the Ho atoms that were depleted by the extraction of the first Q-switched pulse. Thus. the Tin sensitized Ho:YLF laser provides a unique advantage in applications that require double pulse operation, such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A total output energy of 146 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with as high as 4.8% optical to optical efficiency. Compared to a single pulse laser, 70% higher laser efficiency is realized. To obtain high energy while maintaining the high beam quality, a master-oscillator-power-amplifier 2-microns system is designed. We developed an end-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier. This amplifier uses two diode arrays as pump source. A non-imaging lens duct is used to couple the radiation from the laser diode arrays to the laser disk. Preliminary result shows that the efficiency of this laser can be as high as 3%, a factor of three increases over side-pump configuration. This high energy, highly efficient and high beam quality laser is a promising candidate for use in an efficient, multiple lidar applications.

  10. A High Energy 2-microns Laser for Multiple Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2000-01-01

    Solid-state 2-microns laser has been receiving considerable interest because of its eye-safe property and efficient diode pump operation, It has potential for multiple lidar applications to detect water vapor. carbon dioxide and winds. In this paper, we describe a 2-microns double pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser and end-pumped amplifier system. A comprehensive theoretical model has been developed to aid the design and optimization of the laser performance. In a single Q-switched pulse operation the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will be wasted. However, in a double pulses operation mode, the residual energy stored in the Tm atoms will repopulate the Ho atoms that were depleted by the extraction of the first Q-switched pulse. Thus. the Tin sensitized Ho:YLF laser provides a unique advantage in applications that require double pulse operation, such as Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A total output energy of 146 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with as high as 4.8% optical to optical efficiency. Compared to a single pulse laser, 70% higher laser efficiency is realized. To obtain high energy while maintaining the high beam quality, a master-oscillator-power-amplifier 2-microns system is designed. We developed an end-pumped Ho:Tm:YLF disk amplifier. This amplifier uses two diode arrays as pump source. A non-imaging lens duct is used to couple the radiation from the laser diode arrays to the laser disk. Preliminary result shows that the efficiency of this laser can be as high as 3%, a factor of three increases over side-pump configuration. This high energy, highly efficient and high beam quality laser is a promising candidate for use in an efficient, multiple lidar applications.

  11. Three-micron survey of Jupiter Trojan asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Jupiter Trojans, orbiting at the transition between the inner and outer solar system and co-orbiting with the dominant solar system planet, are critical to understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of this critical region of the solar system. One important clue to their formation location should be their composition, but little about this composition is known: the Trojans are spectrally featureless up to 2.5 microns, with either slightly-red or red visible spectral slopes and less steep near-infrared slopes. This bifurcation into two separate spectral classes could be an important clue into the formation location (or locations) of these objects, but, again, with little other spectral information known it is difficult to use this constraint appropriately. Longer wavelength reflectance spectroscopy has the potential to solve this dilemma. Many ices and organic rich materials have their much stronger fundamental absorptions in the 2.8--4 microns region, making this spectral region sensitive to much smaller amounts of these materials. Hydrated silicates, too, have clearly distinguishing features at these wavelengths. We have thus begun a Keck Observatory/NIRSPEC 2.8--4 micron survey of Jupiter Trojans designed to detect these fundamental absorption features. Our goal is to collect a sample of approximately a dozen asteroids in each of the slightly red and red spectral classes. We will compare the inferred compositions both to the outer main-belt asteroids, which have been extensively surveyed in this region, as well as to our knowledge of compositions of small Kuiper-belt objects which, intriguingly, also come in two color classes. We will present the first results from our survey and discuss the implications for the compositions of these objects and the chemical and dynamical evolution of this middle region of the solar system.

  12. Crystal growth, vibrational, optical, thermal and theoretical studies of a nonlinear optical material: 2-Methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, K.; Guru Prasad, L.; Mathammal, R.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystals of 2-methyl 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid with reasonable size have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth method using ethanol as solvent. Quantum chemical calculation of 2-methyl 3,5-Dinitro benzoic acid was carried out by using DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded and indexed. Both the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectrum validates the presence of functional groups. Polarizability, first order hyperpolarizability and the electric dipole moment values have been computed theoretically. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift of the molecule was calculated and compared with experimental results. TG/DSC analysis has been employed to understand the thermal and physio-chemical stability of the title compound. Frequency conversion property of the crystal was tested by Kurtz and Perry method. Optical absorption behavior of the grown crystal was examined by recording the optical spectrum and band gap energy was also estimated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy shows the charge transfer nature of the molecule.

  13. Advanced composite applications for sub-micron biologically derived microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnur, J. M.; Price, R. R.; Schoen, P. E.; Bonanventura, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    A major thrust of advanced material development is in the area of self-assembled ultra-fine particulate based composites (micro-composites). The application of biologically derived, self-assembled microstructures to form advanced composite materials is discussed. Hollow 0.5 micron diameter cylindrical shaped microcylinders self-assemble from diacetylenic lipids. These microstructures have a multiplicity of potential applications in the material sciences. Exploratory development is proceeding in application areas such as controlled release for drug delivery, wound repair, and biofouling as well as composites for electronic and magnetic applications, and high power microwave cathodes.

  14. Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2013-10-29

    A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

  15. The (C II) 158 micron line mapping of spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, Gordon J.; Geis, N.; Genzel, Reinhard; Jackson, J. M.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Townes, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Large scale maps of the face of spiral galaxies M51, M83, and NGC 6946 in the 158 micron (C II) fine structure line. The maps are obtained from the Far-infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) during its first series of flights on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The (C II) line emission is ubiquitous and easily traced over the mapped regions of each of the galaxies. The (C II) maps are compared with those obtained with similar sized beams in the CO line. The data available from these maps is interpreted.

  16. Spectrophotometry at 10 microns of T Tauri stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.; Witteborn, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    New 8-13 micron spectra of 32 T Tau, or related young, stars are presented. Silicate emission features are commonly seen. Absorptions occur less frequently but also match the properties of silicate materials. The shape of the emission feature suggests that a more crystalline grain is responsible in the T Tau stars than those of the Trapezium region. The evolution of the silicate component of the circumstellar shell around T Tau stars, and its dependence upon stellar wind activity, visual linear polarization, and extinction are investigated. Several correlations suggest that the shells are likely to be flattened, disklike structures rather than spherical.

  17. Quantitative spectroscopy of micron-thick liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.; Tam, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    We demonstrate a new sensitive spectroscopic technique for highly transparent micron-thick liquid films sandwiched between transparent substrates. A pulsed dye laser irradiates the film, producing (via the optoacoustic effect) a transient ultrasonic wave which is launched into the substrate and detected by a piezoelectric transducer bonded to the substrate. This technique is illustrated by measuring the absorption lines of films of aqueous solutions of rare-earth ion, and absorptions ˜10-5 can be detected presently. This technique should open up new opportunities to study the spectra of chemi- or physi-adsorbed species on surfaces.

  18. Fabrication of Micron Scale Retroreflectors for Novel Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, Tim

    Many bioanalytical and diagnostic methods detect the presence of secondary labels, such as colored particles, fluorescent molecules, nanoparticles, and enzyme reaction product, when they accumulate in the presence of the target biomolecules (i.e., bacteria, viruses, etc.) at predetermined locations. In this dissertation, we describe the development of a new class of labels consisting of micro-fabricated retroreflectors that are easy to image, compatible with machine vision automation, and can be detected in solution or within microfluidic channels. The retroreflecting structures are designed to return incident light directly back to its source over a large range of angles, making them extremely detectable using low cost, low numerical aperture objectives, as is evidenced by their common use as lane markers and in safety signs. This work describes two different biosensing systems using these labels. In the first, retroreflectors are fabricated at fixed locations at the base of microfluidic channels and their brightness is attenuated by the biologically-driven accumulation of magnetic particles, thus forming a readout strategy that well-suited for automation and multiplexing. The work demonstrates that single, micron-scale magnetic beads can be rapidly detected over very large areas (square millimeters). The second approach uses suspended corner cube retroreflectors, five microns on a side, as ultra bright labels that are bound to magnetic sample preparation beads in the presence of an analyte. The magnetic particles can then be moved to an imaging site within the sample where the cubes are readily detected. The fabrication of these micron-scale retroreflectors required the development of new lithography, thin film disposition, and reactive ion etching tools and the integration of chip-based structures with microfluidic systems. The dissertation also describes the experimental validation of a Fourier optics model that accounts for diffraction inherent to the micron

  19. A Two Micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    A pulsed, 2-micron coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument measures atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) from a ground platform. It allows the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop. Keywords: Differential Absorption Lidar, Near Infrared Laser,

  20. The brightest high-latitude 12-micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, P.; Beichman, C.; Chester, T.; Neugebauer, G.; Emerson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Point Source catalog was searched for sources brighter than 28 Jy (0 mag) at 12 microns with absolute galactic latitude greater than 30 deg excluding the Large Magellanic Cloud. The search resulted in 269 sources, two of which are the galaxies NGC 1068 and M82. The remaining 267 sources are identified with, or have infrared color indices consistent with late-type stars some of which show evidence of circumstellar dust shells. Seven sources are previously uncataloged stars. K and M stars without circumstellar dust shells, M stars with circumstellar dust shells, and carbon stars occupy well-defined regions of infrared color-color diagrams.

  1. Does pre-treatment with micronized progesterone affect the ovarian response to a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist flare-up protocol?

    PubMed

    Loutradis, D; Stefanidis, K; Drakakis, P; Kallianidis, K; El Sheikh, A; Milingos, S; Siskos, K; Michalas, S

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ovarian response and the receptivity of the endometrium in women pre-treated with micronized progesterone. Eighty-two normogonodotropic women undergoing in vitro fertilization were studied. Thirty received micronized progesterone 1500 mg/day from day 21 of the cycle for a minimum of 2 weeks, and 52 did not receive micronized progesterone (control group). A gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) was administered to all the patients in the follicular phase (flare-up). Twenty-five cycles were cancelled for fertilization failure due to male factor, 12 (40%) in the progesterone group and 13 (25%) in the control group (p = 0.271). There was no difference in the number of oocytes retrieved (7.3 +/- 5 vs. 8.2 +/- 4), fertilization rate (50.8% vs. 65%), clinical pregnancy rate (16.6% vs. 25%) or implantation rate (8% vs. 14%). In the progesterone group cases without fertilization, we performed two biopsies to evaluate the receptivity of the endometrium. Pinopode expression was noted 7 days after oocyte retrieval. It seems that the administration of micronized progesterone in the previous cycle does not affect the ovarian response to the combination of follicular phase GnRH-a and gonadotropins, nor the receptivity of the endometrium.

  2. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  3. IRAS low-resolution spectral observations of the 10 and 18 micron silicate emission feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    1991-01-01

    The IRAS LRS Atlas contains 8-23 micron spectra of 1816 stars with silicate emission features. In order to study the shapes of the silicate dust features, the 117 stars whose emission features appear to be optically thin and which have the best signal-to-noise ratio at the longest wavelengths were analyzed. Simple spherical dust shell models were calculated in both the optically thin and the slightly optical thick approximations. From the comparison of the predicted spectra of the dust and stellar continuum, the emissivity function Kappa(lambda) was derived. In the different stars, the shape of the 10-micron feature is either narrow or broad and it is peaked either at about 9.7 microns or at 10 microns. Either particle size effects (particles above 0.75 microns in radius) or optical depth effects (central optical depth about 1) could broaden the 10-micron feature. Chemical composition differences no doubt are also important, particularly as regards the position of the peak of the 10-micron feature. The stars with the peak at 10 microns are more closely confined to the Galactic plane than the stars with the peak at 9.7 microns. The shape of the 18-micron feature is essentially the same in all stars, and can be used to extend the interstellar extinction curve past 13 to 22 microns.

  4. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  5. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  6. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  7. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulbul, Esra; Markevitch, Maxim; Foster, Adam; Miller, Eric; Bautz, Mark; Lowenstein, Mike; Randall, Scott W.; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01-0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect a 2sigma-significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), the cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (approx. 2sigma confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool-core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle of sin(sup 2)(2theta) = 6.1 x 10(exp -11) from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic center, at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.

  8. Searching for the 3.5 keV Line in the Stacked Suzaku Observations of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Esra; Markevitch, Maxim; Foster, Adam; Miller, Eric; Bautz, Mark; Loewenstein, Mike; Randall, Scott W.; Smith, Randall K.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a detailed study of the stacked Suzaku observations of 47 galaxy clusters, spanning a redshift range of 0.01-0.45, to search for the unidentified 3.5 keV line. This sample provides an independent test for the previously detected line. We detect a 2σ -significant spectral feature at 3.5 keV in the spectrum of the full sample. When the sample is divided into two subsamples (cool-core and non-cool core clusters), the cool-core subsample shows no statistically significant positive residuals at the line energy. A very weak (˜ 2σ confidence) spectral feature at 3.5 keV is permitted by the data from the non-cool-core clusters sample. The upper limit on a neutrino decay mixing angle of {\\sin }2(2θ )=6.1× {10}-11 from the full Suzaku sample is consistent with the previous detections in the stacked XMM-Newton sample of galaxy clusters (which had a higher statistical sensitivity to faint lines), M31, and Galactic center, at a 90% confidence level. However, the constraint from the present sample, which does not include the Perseus cluster, is in tension with previously reported line flux observed in the core of the Perseus cluster with XMM-Newton and Suzaku.

  9. Comparative investigations of the effects of the neodymium:YAG laser at 1. 06 microns and 1. 32 microns on tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, F.; Beck, O.J.; Hessel, S.; Keiditsch, E.

    1987-01-01

    The beneficial deep homogeneous coagulation of neodymium (Nd):YAG laser radiation at 1.06 microns owing to low absorption and high scattering in tissue has been documented widely. For another Nd:YAG laser wavelength at 1.32 microns the absorption coefficient of water and saline is approximately ten times higher than at 1.06 microns. This results in more efficient energy conversion into heat in tissue at 1.32 microns. The extinction coefficient in blood at 1.32 microns is only one-third of that at 1.06 microns. We would expect this to result in less heat dissipation by blood and deeper penetration in tissue at 1.32 microns. Nevertheless, at this wavelength scattering also contributes to an effective, uniform distribution of the laser light in the tissue. Animal experiments have been done to examine the effect of wavelength, irradiation time, and beam geometry on tissue damage and to assess its possible clinical uses. The results imply that the 1.32 microns wavelength will produce further indications for the use of the Nd:YAG laser in surgery.

  10. Chip-on-flex with 5-micron features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    A new module packaging method is proposed for electronic systems comprising a motherboard and integrated circuit (IC) chips. Pitches of 10 microns for conductive traces, and 100 microns for bonding pads are achievable. The enabling technology is glass panel manufacture, using equipment and techniques similar to those employed for fabricating liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. Flexible circuits are produced on a glass carrier using a release layer, and the carrier is removed after most of the processing is complete. IC chips are stud bumped and flip chip bonded to wells filled with solder, provided on the flexible circuit. The fabrication density achievable with wafer level packaging (WLP) using silicon wafers is substantially more than is needed for module packaging, as described herein. It is possible to provide WLP performance on glass at a much lower cost. The conductor features on glass are fine enough for the most demanding packaging and assembly techniques. The lowered cost of glass applies to the interconnection circuit plus assembly, test and rework. A test method called Tester-On-Board (TOB) is proposed, employing special-purpose test chips that are directly mounted in the system and mimic the capabilities of external testers. Methods for hermetic sealing, electromagnetic screening, and high-density off-board connections are also proposed.

  11. Tunable UV and compact 2- to 12-micron laser development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swim, Cynthia R.; Fox, Jay A.

    1998-07-01

    The Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ERDEC) within the Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) is the Army's principal R&D center for chemical and biological defense technology, engineering, and service. ERDEC has been developing tunable 9 - 11 micron CO2 lidar systems for remote sensing of chemical agents for many years. However, due to the extended range requirements for conventional missions such as fixed site defense and reconnaissance, these systems are relatively large. Smaller, even handheld, standoff detection lidar systems would be useful for the individual warfighter or for decontamination efforts, as well as for numerous environmental monitoring applications. Lidar modeling calculations have been performed for such a system at the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, (NVESD) the Army's lead laboratory for low energy lasers. The modeling indicates that fewer than 5 mJ of solid-state laser pulse energy would achieve the required detection sensitivity criteria for standoff chemical agent detection at ranges of several kilometers. This result coupled with recent advances in solid-state laser and frequency conversion technologies allow for extremely compact, tunable lasers and lidars to be produced which are suitable for a handheld standoff detection device. ERDEC has therefore begun an effort in development of compact 2 - 12 micron lasers and lidars. Three different approaches are being investigated and will be described. A review of completed efforts in tunable UV laser source development for remote sensing of biological agents via laser induced fluorescence (LIF) will also be presented.

  12. Chemically generated convective transport of micron sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklyaev, Oleg; Das, Sambeeta; Altemose, Alicia; Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-11-01

    A variety of chemical and biological applications require manipulation of micron sized objects like cells, viruses, and large molecules. Increasing the size of particles up to a micron reduces performance of techniques based on diffusive transport. Directional transport of cargo toward detecting elements reduces the delivery time and improves performance of sensing devices. We demonstrate how chemical reactions can be used to organize fluid flows carrying particles toward the assigned destinations. Convection is driven by density variations caused by a chemical reaction occurring at a catalyst or enzyme-covered target site. If the reaction causes a reduction in fluid density, as in the case of catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, then fluid and suspended cargo is drawn toward the target along the bottom surface. The intensity of the fluid flow and the time of cargo delivery are controlled by the amount of reagent in the system. After the reagent has been consumed, the fluid pump stops and particles are found aggregated on and around the enzyme-coated patch. The pumps are reusable, being reactivated upon injection of additional reagent. The developed technique can be implemented in lab-on-a-chip devices for transportation of micro-scale object immersed in solution.

  13. Intracellular micro-rheology probed by micron-sized wires.

    PubMed

    Chevry, Loudjy; Colin, Rémy; Abou, Bérengère; Berret, Jean-François

    2013-09-01

    In the last decade, rapid advances have been made in the field of micro-rheology of cells and tissues. Given the complexity of living systems, there is a need for the development of new types of nano- and micron-sized probes, and in particular of probes with controlled interactions with the surrounding medium. In the present paper, we evaluate the use of micron-sized wires as potential probes of the mechanical properties of cells. The wire-based micro-rheology technique is applied to living cells such as murine fibroblasts and canine kidney epithelial cells. The mean-squared angular displacement of wires associated to their rotational dynamics is obtained as a function of the time using optical microscopy and image processing. It reveals a Brownian-like diffusive regime of the form Δψ(2)(t,L) ≈ t/L(3), where L denotes the wire length. This scaling suggests that an effective viscosity of the intracellular medium can be determined, and that in the range 1-10 μm it does not depend on the length scale over which it is measured.

  14. Influence of micronization on improving phytoestrogenic effects of wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Wu, Qinyan; Chen, Hongzhou; Zhuang, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    The influence of micronization on improving the phytoestrogenic effects of wheat bran was studied. Wheat bran samples were prepared by ball milling, and an animal experiment was carried out by feeding 8-month-old female rats wheat bran. The effect of wheat bran samples on serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels of female 8-month-old rats was investigated. The wheat bran with a median diameter of 392.1 μm was micronized to 91.1 and 9.7 μm in median diameter by dry milling and wet milling for 5 hours, respectively. Microscopic observation and X-ray diffraction revealed more potential damage from wet milling than dry milling on the crystal structure of wheat bran granules. Almost all particles were dissolved and there was no obvious crystal peak in the 5-hour wet-milled wheat bran. The serum E2 and P levels of the 8-month-old rats fed wet-milled bran were increased significantly, 2.2 times higher than that of the same aged control group. The experimental results indicated that wet milling could destroy the crystal structure of wheat bran granules and improve the phytoestrogenic effects of wheat bran.

  15. Limestone weathering rates accelerated by micron-scale grain detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, S.; Levenson, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The weathering rates of carbonate rocks is often thought to be controlled by chemical dissolution, although some studies have suggested that mechanical erosion could also play an important role. Quantifying the rates of the different processes has proved challenging due to the high degree of variability encountered in both field and lab settings. To determine the rates and mechanisms controlling long-term limestone weathering, we analyse a lidar scan of the Western Wall, a Roman period edifice located in Jerusalem. Weathering rates in fine-grained micritic limestone blocks are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the average rates estimated for coarse-grained limestone blocks at the same site. In addition, in experiments that use atomic force microscopy to image dissolving micritic limestone, we show that these higher reaction rates could be due to rapid dissolution along micron-scale grain boundaries, followed by mechanical detachment of tiny particles from the surface. Our analysis indicates that micron-scale grain detachment, rather than pure chemical dissolution, could be the dominant erosional mode for fine-grained rocks in many carbonate terrains.

  16. Micron: an Actively Stabilized Handheld Tool for Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, Robert A.; Becker, Brian C.; Tabarés, Jaime Cuevas; Podnar, Gregg W.; Lobes, Louis A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a hand-held actively stabilized tool to increase accuracy in micro-surgery or other precision manipulation. It removes involuntary motion such as tremor by actuating the tip to counteract the effect of the undesired handle motion. The key components are a three-degree-of-freedom piezoelectric manipulator that has 400 μm range of motion, 1 N force capability, and bandwidth over 100 Hz, and an optical position measurement subsystem that acquires the tool pose with 4 μm resolution at 2000 samples/s. A control system using these components attenuates hand motion by at least 15 dB (a fivefold reduction). By considering the effect of the frequency response of Micron on the human visual feedback loop, we have developed a filter that reduces unintentional motion, yet preserves intuitive eye-hand coordination. We evaluated the effectiveness of Micron by measuring the accuracy of the human/machine system in three simple manipulation tasks. Handheld testing by three eye surgeons and three non-surgeons showed a reduction in position error of between 32% and 52%, depending on the error metric. PMID:23028266

  17. VTT's micron-scale silicon rib+strip waveguide platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Silicon rib waveguides enable single-mode (SM) operation even with the combination of multi-micron core dimensions and high refractive index contrast. In such large waveguides the optical mode field is almost completely confined inside the Si core, which leads to small propagation losses and small polarization dependency. The unique SM condition of the rib waveguide also enables the use of an ultra-wide wavelength range, for example from 1.2 to <1.7 μm, without sacrificing either SM operation or low propagation loss. This makes micron-scale Si waveguides particularly well-suited for spectroscopy and extensive wavelength division multiplexing. However, rib waveguides require large bending radii, which lead to large circuit sizes. There are two solutions for this. So-called Euler bends in Si strip waveguides enable low-loss bends down to 1 μm bending radius with less than 0.1 dB/90° loss for both polarizations. Another alternative is a total-internal reflection mirror that can have loss as low as 0.1 dB for both polarizations in either strip or rib waveguides. The excitation of higher order modes in large strip waveguides is avoided by using adiabatic rib-strip converters and low-loss components. With rib and strip waveguides it is possible to reach a unique combination of low loss, extremely small footprint, small polarization dependency, ultra-wide bandwidth and tolerance to high optical powers.

  18. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  19. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy framework...

  20. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy framework...

  1. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  6. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  7. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  8. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  9. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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  10. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

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  11. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

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  12. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. Excited State Processes for Aqueous Rh(NH3)5Cl(2+) and Rh(NH3)5Br(2+).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-10

    white precipitate of Rh(NH3)5(H20)) Br3 was collected and dried overnight at 110-0 C. The resulting yellow product was recrystallized from water/HClO4 to...aquation. In all cases, product concentrations were corrected for the usually small degree of dark or thermal reaction. Pulsed Laser Experiments. The...direct photochemical production . According to Palmer and Harris [16] the reaction Rh(NH 3)5(OH) 2+ + C02(aq) = Rh(NH 3)5(Co3) + + H+ occurs with a rate

  15. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX. PMID:7811097

  16. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA)

    PubMed Central

    Brancher, Luiza R.; Nunes, Maria Fernanda de O.; Grisa, Ana Maria C.; Pagnussat, Daniel T.; Zeni, Mára

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite. PMID:28787851

  17. High-sensitivity 3 to 5 micron PPLN LADAR wavelength converter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, S. A.; Sriram, S.; Powers, P. E.

    2005-05-01

    Remote sensing systems, such as LIDAR, have benefited greatly from nonlinear sources capable of generating tunable mid-infrared wavelengths (3-5 microns). Much work has focused on improving the energy output of these sources so as to improve the system's range. We present a different approach to improving the range by focusing on improving the receiver of a LADAR system employing nonlinear optical techniques. In this paper, we will present results of a receiver system based on frequency converting mid-infrared wavelengths to the 1.5 μm region using Periodically-Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). By doing so, optical amplifiers and avalanche photodetectors (APDs) developed for the fiber optics communications industry can be used, thus providing very high detection sensitivity and high speed without the need for cryogenically cooled optical detectors. We will present results of laboratory experiments with 3 μm, 2.5 ns FWHM LADAR pulses that have been converted to 1.5 μm. Detection sensitivities as low as 1.5 x 10^-13 Joules have been demonstrated. The performance of the Peltier-cooled 1.5 μm InGaAs APD quasi photon-counting receiver will be described.

  18. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA).

    PubMed

    Brancher, Luiza R; Nunes, Maria Fernanda de O; Grisa, Ana Maria C; Pagnussat, Daniel T; Zeni, Mára

    2016-01-15

    This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  19. Synthesis of Cis- and Trans-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetraazadecalin, Two New Energetic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    anr D-4 ,4 ’-(l,3-dinitro-l,3-diazacyclopentane) Q) ........ 17 Separation of and . ...... ................... 17 Meso- erythritol Tetrabenzenesulfonate...synthesis of the unknown 0 and lrwas to start with the corresponding tetrahydroxybutanes (threftol,4l, and erythritol , 1). These would be SCHEME 2. Retro...l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetraazadecalin Q) In this case, the starting material, meso- erythritol , is commer- cially available at reasonable cost

  20. Role of Nitrogen Limitation in Transformation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Gordonia sp. Strain KTR9

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dawn E.; Jung, Carina M.; Eberly, Jed O.; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  1. Synthesis and enzymic activity of various substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines as adenosine cyclic 3',5'-phosphate phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Senga, K; O'Brien, D E; Scholten, M B; Novinson, T; Miller, J P; Robins, R K

    1982-03-01

    A series of various pyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazines have been prepared and studied as inhibitors of cAMP phosphodiesterase isolated from bovine brain, bovine heart, and rabbit lung. A number of compounds were found to be superior to theophylline. 2-Ethyl-7-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (35) was found to be 97 times more potent than theophylline as an inhibitor of bovine brain PDE. 8-Bromo-2,4-dimethyl-7-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (52) showed alpha lung = 40 compared to alpha heart = 3.0. Thus, various substituents could increase or decrease the inhibition relative to the type and source of tissue from which the PDE was isolated. The most active compound was 8-bromo-4-(diethylamino)-7-phenylpyrazolo[1,3-a]-1,3,5-triazine (25), which was 185 times more potent than theophylline as an inhibitor of PDE isolated from rabbit lung. The stepwise synthesis via ring-closure procedures of requisite pyrazole intermediates, followed by electrophilic substitution in the pyrazole ring and/or nucleophilic substitution in the 1,3,5-triazine moiety, resulted in the various pyrazolo[1,5-a]1,3,5-triazines listed in Tables I and II. Structure-activity relationships are reviewed.

  2. Micron and sub-micron feature replication of amorphous polymers at elevated mold temperature without externally applied pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaddegh, Peiman; Angstadt, David C.

    2008-03-01

    The focus of this study is on the ability of amorphous polymers to replicate micron and sub-micron features when molded at an elevated mold temperature without externally applied pressure. Molding was performed using three different types of amorphous polymers: cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC), polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on a silicon mold containing surface features as small as 700 nm in depth and aspect ratios ranging from 5 to 0.02. In this study, processing temperatures were selected in order to match the viscosity for all polymers used. Polymer viscosity was characterized via cone and plate rheometry and wettability was characterized via contact angle analysis to quantify interfacial effects. Feature replication was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to compare the molded feature depth ratio. It was observed that for the features with an aspect ratio (depth/width) bigger than 2 the depth ratio of the molded parts decreases. PS shows the best replication because of high wettability behavior. PMMA shows the intermediate replication because of dipole-dipole interaction and its lower diffusion coefficient than PS. COC has the worse replication especially in low aspect ratio because of sticking to the silicon oxide layer. PS has the best surface roughness among all polymers.

  3. The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.

    1991-01-01

    The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.

  4. The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.

    1991-01-01

    The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.

  5. Deciphering sub-micron ice particles on Enceladus surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipioni, F.; Schenk, P.; Tosi, F.; D'Aversa, E.; Clark, R.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Ore, C. M. Dalle

    2017-07-01

    The surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus is composed primarily by pure water ice. The Cassini spacecraft has observed present-day geologic activity at the moon's South Polar Region, related with the formation and feeding of Saturn's E-ring. Plumes of micron-sized particles, composed of water ice and other non-ice contaminants (e.g., CO2, NH3, CH4), erupt from four terrain's fractures named Tiger Stripes. Some of this material falls back on Enceladus' surface to form deposits that extend to the North at ∼40°W and ∼220°W, with the highest concentration found at the South Pole. In this work we analyzed VIMS-IR data to identify plumes deposits across Enceladus' surface through the variation in band depth of the main water ice spectral features. To characterize the global variation of water ice band depths across Enceladus, the entire surface was sampled with an angular resolution of 1° in both latitude and longitude, and for each angular bin we averaged the value of all spectral indices as retrieved by VIMS. The position of the plumes' deposits predicted by theoretical models display a good match with water ice band depths' maps on the trailing hemisphere, whereas they diverge significantly on the leading side. Space weathering processes acting on Enceladus' surface ionize and break up water ice molecules, resulting in the formation of particles smaller than one micron. We also mapped the spectral indices for sub-micron particles and we compared the results with the plumes deposits models. Again, a satisfactory match is observed on the trailing hemisphere only. Finally, we investigated the variation of the depth of the water ice absorption bands as a function of the phase angle. In the visible range, some terrains surrounding the Tiger Stripes show a decrease in albedo when the phase angle is smaller than 10°. This unusual effect cannot be confirmed by near infrared data, since observations with a phase angle lower than 10° are not available. For phase angle

  6. CN and HCN in the infrared spectrum of IRC + 10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, G. R.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D. E.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Keady, John J.

    1991-11-01

    The abundance of HCN in the inner circumstellar shell of IRC + 10216 has been remeasured using the 12-micron nu2 band. The 12-micron lines are less saturated than HCN 3-micron lines previously detected in the spectrum of IRC + 10216. The observed 12-micron HCN line is formed in the circumstellar shell from about 4 to 12 R* in accord with a photospheric origin for HCN. The derived HCN abundance in the 4 to 12 R sub* region is 4 x 10 exp-5 and the column density is 7 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. The 5-micron CN vibration-rotation fundamental band was detected for the first time in an astronomical source. Using four CN lines, the CN column density was determined to be 2.6 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and the rotational temperature to be 8 +/-2 K. The peal radial abundance is 1 x 10 exp -5. The values for the temperature and abundance are in good agreement with microwave results and with the formation of CN from the photolysis of HCN.

  7. CN and HCN in the infrared spectrum of IRC + 10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemann, G. R.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D. E.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Keady, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The abundance of HCN in the inner circumstellar shell of IRC + 10216 has been remeasured using the 12-micron nu2 band. The 12-micron lines are less saturated than HCN 3-micron lines previously detected in the spectrum of IRC + 10216. The observed 12-micron HCN line is formed in the circumstellar shell from about 4 to 12 R sub * in accord with a photospheric origin for HCN. The derived HCN abundance in the 4 to 12 R sub* region is 4 x 10 exp-5 and the column density is 7 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. The 5-micron CN vibration-rotation fundamental band was detected for the first time in an astronomical source. Using four CN lines, the CN column density was determined to be 2.6 x 10 exp 15/sq cm and the rotational temperature to be 8 +/-2 K. The peal radial abundance is 1 x 10 exp -5. The values for the temperature and abundance are in good agreement with microwave results and with the formation of CN from the photolysis of HCN.

  8. Multiple-Instrument Analyses of Single Micron-Size Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admon, Uri; Donohue, David; Aigner, Helmut; Tamborini, Gabriele; Bildstein, Olivier; Betti, Maria

    2005-08-01

    Physical, chemical, and isotopic analyses of individual radioactive and other particles in the micron-size range, key tools in environmental research and in nuclear forensics, require the ability to precisely relocate particles of interest (POIs) in the secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) or in another instrument, after having been located, identified, and characterized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). This article describes the implementation, testing, and evaluation of the triangulation POIs re-location method, based on microscopic reference marks imprinted on or attached to the sample holder, serving as an inherent coordinate system. In SEM-to-SEM and SEM-to-SIMS experiments re-location precision better than 10 [mu]m and 20 [mu]m, respectively, is readily attainable for instruments using standard specimen stages. The method is fast, easy to apply, and facilitates repeated analyses of individual particles in different instruments and laboratories.

  9. 4-8 micron spectrophotometry of OH 0739-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Willner, S. P.; Rudy, R. J.; Capps, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the dust-embedded late-type star OH 0739-14 shows an absorption feature at 6.0 microns characteristic of H2O ice at temperatures significantly lower than 150 K, confirming the identification of H2O ice in the circumstellar shell in this source. The differences in the infrared spectra of HO 0739-14 and embedded molecular cloud sources are attributed to the different cloud lifetimes and temperature regimes in which the molecules are formed. A lower limit to the mass loss rate of 0.0001 solar mass per year is derived, based on the column density of ice and the size and the expansion velocity of the circumstellar cloud.

  10. Nanoscale patterns on micron-sized bubbles in foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Bell, David; Bee, Rodney; Lips, Alex; Stone, Howard

    2006-11-01

    The rheology and coarsening of foams is closely related to the microstructural characteristics of the small gas bubbles and their surface properties. We present experimental results of a foam formed upon shearing a mixture composed of glucose syrup and sucrose ester. Transmission Electron Microscopy reveals micron-size bubbles whose surfaces are fully covered with regular nanodimension, generally hexagonal, patterns. The influence of the shear rate during foam generation and the setting time on the development of the nanoscale patterns on the gas microcells are described. Plausible routes, driven by disproportionation of the gas from the small bubbles, for the formation of the nanoscale patterns are considered including a nucleation/crystallization pathway (Kim et al. 2003 Langmuir 19, p. 8455) and the buckling of an elastic insoluble surface film.

  11. A doublet microlens array for imaging micron-sized objects

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, A; Chronis, N

    2011-01-01

    We present a high-numerical aperture, doublet microlens array for imaging micron-sized objects. The proposed doublet architecture consists of glass microspheres trapped on a predefined array of silicon microholes and covered with a thin polymer layer. A standard silicon microfabrication process and a novel fluidic assembly technique were combined to obtain an array of 56 μm diameter microlenses with a numerical aperture of ~0.5. Using such an array, we demonstrated brightfield and fluorescent image formation of objects directly on a CCD sensor without the use of intermediate lenses. The proposed technology is a significant advancement toward the unmet need of inexpensive, miniaturized optical modules which can be further integrated with lab-on-chip microfluidic devices and photonic chips for a variety of high-end imaging/detection applications. PMID:22003271

  12. EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, S.B.; Kemp, C.D.; Barty, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Kearney, Patrick; Han, Hakseung

    2008-05-26

    The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. We describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV wavelength) microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. Types of defects: (a) Buried Substrate Defects: particles & pits (causes amplitude and/or phase variations); (b) Surface Contamination (reduces reflectivity and (possibly) contrast); (c) Damage from Inspection and Use (reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating). This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. We describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in four cases: defect repair studies; observations of laser damage; after scanning electron microscopy; and native and programmed defects.

  13. Micron size superconducting quantum interference devices of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sagar; Biswas, Sourav; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2017-02-01

    Micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUID) of lead (Pb), for probing nano-magnetism, were fabricated and characterized. In order to get continuous Pb films with small grain size, Pb was thermally evaporated on a liquid nitrogen cooled Si substrate. Pb was sandwiched between two thin Cr layers for improved adhesion and protection. The SQUID pattern was made by e-beam lithography with Pb lift-off after deposition. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices show a critical current, which exhibits the expected SQUID oscillations with magnetic field, and two re-trapping currents. As a result these devices have hysteresis at low temperatures, which disappears just below the critical temperature.

  14. Absorptivity of water vapor for 10.6 micron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugh, E. R.; Krech, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is called to recent measurements of the absorptivity of water vapor to 10.6-micron laser radiation made using shock-heated H2O/H2 and H2O/Ar mixtures and a probe CO2 laser. It is noted that these measurements give values about a factor of 2 lower than Ludwig's (1971) low resolution values. It is also argued that Fowler's (1981) high values are not likely to be caused by excited water molecules. It is shown that very intense laser radiation would be required to obtain any appreciable vibrational nonequilibrium. Within the narrow spectral range of 944-948/cm, no significant variation in absorption coefficient (suitably normalized) is observed as a function of laser line, water vapor concentration, total pressure, or diluent gas.

  15. Mars Atmospheric Characterization Using Advanced 2-Micron Orbiting Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, U.; Engelund, W.; Refaat, T.; Kavaya, M.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mars atmospheric characterization is critical for exploring the planet. Future Mars missions require landing massive payloads to the surface with high accuracy. The accuracy of entry, descent and landing (EDL) of a payload is a major technical challenge for future Mars missions. Mars EDL depends on atmospheric conditions such as density, wind and dust as well as surface topography. A Mars orbiting 2-micron lidar system is presented in this paper. This advanced lidar is capable of measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles using the most abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on Mars. In addition Martian winds and surface altimetry can be mapped, independent of background radiation or geographical location. This orbiting lidar is a valuable tool for developing EDL models for future Mars missions.

  16. The 1.083 micron tunable CW semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. S.; Chen, Jan-Shin; Lu, Ken-Gen; Ouyang, Keng

    1991-01-01

    A tunable CW laser is desired to produce light equivalent to the helium spectral line at 1.08 microns. This laser will serve as an optical pumping source for He-3 and He-4 atoms used in space magnetometers. This light source can be fabricated either as a semiconductor laser diode or a pumped solid state laser. Continuous output power of greater than 10 mW is desired. Semiconductor lasers can be thermally tuned, but must be capable of locking onto the helium resonance lines. Solid state lasers must have efficient pumping sources suitable for space configuration. Additional requirements are as follows: space magnetometer applications will include low mass (less than 0.5 kg), low power consumption (less than 0.75 W), and high stability/reliability for long missions (5-10 years).

  17. [EXPERIENCE IN TREATING HELMINTHISM WITH MICRONIZED ALBENDAZOLE (GELMODOL)].

    PubMed

    Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Zelya, O P; Tikhonova, D V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the results of treatment with micronized albendazole (Gelmodol-BM, World Medicine, UK) in 87 patients of the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Diagnostic Center, Clinical Center, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Thirty-two patients with echinococcosis 8 with alveococcosis (including 4 inoperable patients), 10 with ascariasis, 10 with toxocariasis, 15 with enterobiasis, and 12 people diagnosed with larva migrans were treated in 2013-2014. The drug's routine doses and dosage regimens were used. Albendazole (Gelmodol, World Medicine, UK) showed a high efficacy with good tolerability, which is highly competitive with that of the drugs manufactured by IPCA Laboratories Ltd., India (such as nemozole). Both medicaments above-mentioned may be successfully used in the treatment of many helminthisms.

  18. 8- to 13-micron spectroscopy of Comet Levy 1990 XX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Hackwell, John A.; Hanner, Martha S.; Hammel, Heidi B.

    1992-01-01

    The results are reported of IR spectroscopy of Comet Levy 1990 XX over a three-day period when the comet was about 1.54 AU from the sun roughly 70 days before perihelion. Comet Levy 1990 XX was bright, and for at least part of its inbound journey toward perihelion, active. At a distance of 1.54 AU from the sun it showed strong structured silicate emission with peaks or shoulders at 9.8 and 11.2 microns. These features resemble those of Comets P/Halley and Bradfield 1987 XXIX. The comet was variable in brightness. Specifically, the contrast of the silicate features changed by a factor of two relative to the continuum level and showed some evidence for a shape change as well.

  19. Two Micron Laser Technology Advancements at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2010-01-01

    An Independent Laser Review Panel set up to examine NASA s space-based lidar missions and the technology readiness of lasers appropriate for space-based lidars indicated a critical need for an integrated research and development strategy to move laser transmitter technology from low technical readiness levels to the higher levels required for space missions. Based on the review, a multiyear Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) was initiated by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that ensure the successful development of the broad range of lidar missions envisioned by NASA. This presentation will provide an overview of the development of pulsed 2-micron solid-state laser technologies at NASA Langley Research Center for enabling space-based measurement of wind and carbon dioxide.

  20. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Siddharth S.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Boyce, Brad Lee; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Foulk, James W., III; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile strength distribution to predict the strength of a complex MEMS structure. To address such issues, two recently developed high throughput MEMS tensile test techniques have been used to measure strength distribution tails. The measured tensile strength distributions enable the definition of a threshold strength as well as an inferred maximum flaw size. The nature of strength-controlling flaws has been identified and sources of the observed variation in strength investigated. A double edge-notched specimen geometry was also tested to study the effect of a severe, micron-scale stress concentration on the measured strength distribution. Strength-based, Weibull-based, and fracture mechanics-based failure analyses were performed and compared with the experimental results.

  1. Numerical study of hydrophobic micron particle's impaction on liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Bingqiang; Song, Qiang; Yao, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a simulation method is established for the impaction of micron particles on liquid surfaces, by which the processes of two impaction modes (submergence and oscillation) are studied. The submergence is found to go through three stages, each of which shows different characteristics of particle velocity and gas-liquid interface variance. The dominant forces of the early and late times of the submergence mode are hydrodynamic force and surface tension, respectively, the accumulated work of which is in the same order. The lost particle kinetic energy is converted to the surface energy of the interfaces, the internal energy and the kinetic energy of fluids. The primary part of the oscillation is the first cycle, and the characteristics of its sinking process are similar to that of the submergence. In the reverting stage, the particle rising velocity increases first and then decreases, and the cavity retracts until the gas-liquid interface flattens. The dominant forces of the early and late times of the reverting stage are surface tension and hydrodynamic force, respectively. The positive accumulated work of surface tension on the particle is considerably limited due to the large contact angle hysteresis at the early times of the reverting stage. The negative accumulated work of the hydrodynamic force on the particle at the late times causes a fast decrease in particle kinetic energy, which leads to particle floating on the gas-liquid interface. The results are helpful in understanding the mechanism of micron particle impaction and developing the prediction method of attachment efficiency.

  2. Mass Spectrometry of Atmospheric Aerosol: 1 nanometer to 1 micron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, D. R.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles remains the largest uncertainty in quantitatively assessing past, current and future climate change. The principal reason for that uncertainty arises from the need to characterize and model composition and size dependent aerosol processes, ranging from nanometer to micron scales. Aerosol mass spectrometry results have shown that about half the sub-micron aerosol composition is composed of highly oxygenated organics that are not well understood in terms of photochemical reaction mechanisms (Jimenez et al, 2009). This work has included application of high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) in order to determine elemental and functional group composition of complex organic components. Recently, we have applied similar ToFMS to determine the composition of ambient ions, molecules and clusters, potentially involved in formation and growth of nano-particles (Junninen et al, 2010). Observed organic anions (molecular weight range 200-500 Th) have similar chemical composition as the least volatile secondary organics observed in fine particles; while organic cations are dominated by amines and pyridines. During nucleation events, anions are dominated by sulphuric acid cluster ions (Ehn et al, 2010). In both nanometer and micrometer size ranges, the goal to elucidate the roles of inorganic and organic species, particularly how particle evolution and physical properties depend on mixed compositions. Recent results will be discussed, including ambient and experimental chamber observations. Ehn et al, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10, 14897-14946, 2010 Jimenez et al, Science, 326, 1525-1529, 2009 Junninen et al, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1039-1053, 2010

  3. Mechanical Micronization of Lipoaspirates: Squeeze and Emulsification Techniques.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Feng, Jingwei; Kanayama, Koji; Kinoshita, Kaori; Sunaga, Ataru; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    Condensation of grafted fat has been considered a key for achieving better outcomes after fat grafting. The authors investigated the therapeutic potential of two mechanical tissue micronizing procedures: squeeze and emulsification. Human aspirated fat was centrifuged (centrifuged fat) and fragmented with an automated slicer (squeezed fat). Alternatively, centrifuged fat was emulsified by repeated transfer between two syringes through a small-hole connecter and then separated by mesh filtration into two portions: residual tissue of emulsified fat and filtrated fluid of emulsified fat. The four products were examined for cellular components. Histologic and electron microscopic analyses revealed that squeezed fat and residual tissue of emulsified fat contained broken adipocytes and fragmented capillaries. Compared with centrifuged fat, the squeezed fat and residual fat products exhibited increased specific gravity and increased numbers of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells and endothelial cells per volume, suggesting successful cell/tissue condensation in both squeezed fat and residual tissue of emulsified fat. Although cell number and viability in the stromal vascular fraction were well maintained in both squeezed fat and residual fat, stromal vascular fraction culture assay showed that adipose-derived stromal cells were relatively damaged in residual tissue of emulsified fat but not in squeezed fat. By contrast, no adipose-derived stromal cells were cultured from filtrated fluid of emulsified fat. The authors' results demonstrated that mechanical micronization is easily conducted as a minimal manipulation procedure, which can condense the tissue by selectively removing adipocytes without damaging key components, such as adipose-derived stromal cells and endothelial cells. Depending on the extent of adipocyte removal, the product may be a useful therapeutic tool for efficient tissue volumization or therapeutic revitalization/fertilization. Therapeutic, V.

  4. Passive athermalization of doublets in 8-13 micron waveband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    Passive athermalization of lenses has become a key-technology for automotive and other outdoor applications using modern uncooled 25, 17 and 12 micron pixel pitch bolometer arrays. Typical pixel counts for thermal imaging are 384x288 (qVGA), 640x480 (VGA), and 1024x768 (XGA). Two lens arrangements (called Doublets) represent a cost effective way to satisfy resolution requirements of these detectors with F-numbers 1.4 or faster. Thermal drift of index of refraction and the geometrical changes (in lenses and housing) versus temperature defocus the initial image plane from the detector plane. The passive athermalization restricts this drop of spatial resolution in a wide temperature range (typically -40°C…+80°C) to an acceptable value without any additional external refocus. In particular, lenses with long focal lengths and high apertures claim athermalization. A careful choice of lens and housing materials and a sophistical dimensioning lead to three different principles of passivation: The Passive Mechanical Athermalization (PMA) shifts the complete lens cell, the Passive Optical and Mechanical Athermalization (POMA) shifts only one lens inside the housing, the Passive Optical Athermalization (POA) works without any mechanism. All three principles will be demonstrated for a typical narrow-field lens (HFOV about 12°) with high aperture (aperture based F-number 1.3) for the actual uncooled reference detector (17micron VGA). Six design examples using different combinations of lens materials show the impact on spatial lens resolution, on overall length, and on weight. First order relations are discussed. They give some hints for optimization solutions. Pros and cons of different passive athermalization principles are evaluated in regards of housing design, availability of materials and costing. Examples with a convergent GASIR®1-lens in front distinguish by best resolution, short overall length, and lowest weight.

  5. Acoustically enhanced combustion of micronized coal water slurry fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, G. M.; Scaroni, A. W.; Yavuzkurt, S.; Reethof, G.; Ramachandran, P.; Ha, M. Y.

    1989-05-01

    A multi-faceted investigation has been carried out to demonstrate analytically and experimentally, that a high intensity acoustic field can be substantially enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during MCWSF (micronized coal water slurry fuel) combustion. The initial stage of the investigation dealt with elucidating the transient as well as time-averaged efforts of high intensity acoustic fields on the heat and mass transfer between a single spherical particle and its environment. A two-dimensional unsteady computer code was developed, which employs the unsteady conservation of mass, momentum, and energy equations for laminar flow in spherical coordinates. One objective of the present project was the modeling of MCWSF combustion in a laboratory scale combustor with and without the application of a sonic field. The influence of various operating parameters (sound frequency and level, etc.) on sonic enhancement could thus be studied. The combustion of pulverized coal (PC) was also modeled for the sake of comparison. The first of the two coal combustion experiments was performed using a flat flame methane-air burner. Micronized coal was injected in the same direction as, and burned together with the methane. The final investigation was carried out in a 300,000 Btu/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to the combustor. Frequency was held at 1400 Hz. Finally, an attempt was made to model the runs performed in the down-fired unit, using the PCGC-2 code. 61 refs., 60 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. The 16-45 micron observations of the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kin-Wing; Moseley, S. Harvey; Casey, Sean; Dwek, E.; Loewenstein, Robert F.; Glaccum, W.

    1995-01-01

    Existing observations of the Galactic Center at infrared and radio wavelengths challenge our understanding of the detailed morphology and energy balance of the inner few parsec, including the Galactic Center and the infrared torus. The distribution and nature of the sources heating this region are still not well understood; existing determinations of dust temperature and ionization do not provide us with consistent pictures of the relative important of the central source and the embedded stars in this dusty region. The composite IR emission of the Galactic Center can be crudely divided into three categories: (1) hot dust heated directly by an incident UV field along the inner region of the Galactic Center torus; (2) warm dust heated by te non-ionizing radiation of the embedded stars and re-radiated NIR dust emission; (3) cooler absorbing dust located along the galactic line of sight. The apparent inconsistencies between the observations and theoretical expectations may stem from the interplay of various physical process and source-cloud geometries. Observations with increased spatial and spectral resolution are clearly needed to provide the information necessary to address the various problems. Therefore, we made 15-45 micron spectrophotometric observations of the inner 80 min (3 pc) regions surrounding the Galactic Center with the 20 min aperture of Goddard Cryogenic Grating Spectrometer No. 2 in May 1994 from the KAO. We measured nine points, including the 50 and 90 micron peaks of Davidson et al. and points between them and SgrA,. The wavelength coverage of our instrument ensures sensitivity to the hot dust component, silicate emission and/or absorption features, and cooler dust at longer wavelengths. Our observations will be used to set limits on the luminosity of any central sources, or give an independent estimate of central luminosity, and to set limits on the range of acceptable dust parameters for this region.

  7. Detection of 12 micron MG I and OH lines in stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Deming, D.; Wiedemann, G. R.; Keady, J. J.

    1986-11-01

    Infrared lines of Mg I and OH have been detected in stellar spectra near 12.3 microns. The Mg I 7i-6h transition was seen in Alpha Ori and Alpha Tau, and the R2e(23.5) and R1f(24.5) transitions of OH were seen in Alpha Ori. All lines appear in absorption, in contrast to the solar spectrum where the Mg I line shows a prominent emission core. The lack of emission in these low surface gravity stars is due to a greatly reduced volume recombination rate for the high-n states of Mg I, which is not fully compensated by the increased chromospheric scale height. The OH equivalent widths are sensitive to the temperature structure of the upper photosphere of Alpha Ori, and they indicate that the photosphere near tau 5000 of about 10 to the -5th is approximately 100 K hotter than is given by flux constant models. The OH measurements agree more closely with the 1981 semiemprical model of Basri, Linsky, and Eriksson (1981), which is based on Ca II and Mg II ultraviolet features.

  8. Wave number spectra from temperature-humidity infrared radiometer 6.7-micron water vapor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Stanford, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Wave number spectra from Nimbus 7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer 6.7-micron water vapor data are analyzed using series 4800 km long, in regions free of high clouds and frontal zones. In these regions, the brightness temperatures approximate temperatures on a water vapor isosteric (constant density) surface, rather than averages over a broad vertical layer. Power above the noise can be extracted down to wavelengths of about 60 km. Fitting the power spectrum versus horizontal wave number k to a k to the -nth power law for wavelengths from 60 to a few hundred kilometers gives slopes of n = 2.7 to 3.0, depending on the exact wave numbers that are fitted. Thunderstorms and convective cloud systems may constitute an energy source for the reverse energy cascade which produces a -5/3 spectral slope. The results suggest that when these features are not present, the enstrophy-cascading process that gives a -3 slope may govern the motion at scales smaller than it has heretofore been observed.

  9. Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Deming, D.; Wiedemann, G. R.; Keady, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared lines of Mg I and OH have been detected in stellar spectra near 12.3 microns. The Mg I 7i-6h transition was seen in Alpha Ori and Alpha Tau, and the R2e(23.5) and R1f(24.5) transitions of OH were seen in Alpha Ori. All lines appear in absorption, in contrast to the solar spectrum where the Mg I line shows a prominent emission core. The lack of emission in these low surface gravity stars is due to a greatly reduced volume recombination rate for the high-n states of Mg I, which is not fully compensated by the increased chromospheric scale height. The OH equivalent widths are sensitive to the temperature structure of the upper photosphere of Alpha Ori, and they indicate that the photosphere near tau 5000 of about 10 to the -5th is approximately 100 K hotter than is given by flux constant models. The OH measurements agree more closely with the 1981 semiemprical model of Basri, Linsky, and Eriksson (1981), which is based on Ca II and Mg II ultraviolet features.

  10. TIMS 1.6 micron Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 and CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rairden, R. L.; Kumer, J. B.; Roche, A. E.; Palmer, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) were originally developed with support from the NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator program (IIP). These were designed to operate in the spectral regions of the CO overtone and fundamental bands at about 2.33 and 4.67 microns, respectively. In the IIP it was shown these could provide measurements of CO vertical structure, with area coverage rate and spatial resolution that would satisfy GEO-CAPE requirements as laid out in the NRC Decadal Survey report. Since completion of the IIP there has been further internally supported development discussed by Kumer et al, Aerospace Conference, 2013 IEEE. In this presentation we describe a demonstration of TIMS capability in a third wavelength region with two orders operating from approximately 1602 to 1616 nm, and from 1646 to 1660 nm. We will discuss and illustrate the reversible conversion of the 2.33 TIMS for operation at 1600 - 1660 nm; the high quality of the spectral mages and excellent agreement with models; and automated calibration algorithms. The figures show a wavelength calibrated spectral image and excellent agreement of the data and model on a spectrum extracted from the image. Fig 1. Wavelength-calibrated image of sunlight through atmosphere, with methane lines. Yellow box outlines the rows averaged for profile. Fig 2. Calibrated spectral profile, data fit to modeled atmosphere H2O, CO2, and CH4.

  11. Figure-of-eight bismuth doped fiber laser operating at 1.3 microns in dissipative soliton regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khegai, A. M.; Melkumov, M. A.; Riumkin, K. E.; Khopin, V. F.; Afanasiev, F. V.; Myasnikov, D. V.; Dianov, E. M.

    2017-02-01

    An all-fiber ultrafast dissipative soliton laser at 1.3 microns based on phoshosilicate fiber doped with bismuth is presented. A nonlinear optical loop mirror containing high-germanium fiber with high nonlinearity and large positive dispersion was used. The scheme yields 11.3 ps pulses with energy of 1.7 nJ at repetition rate of 3.5 MHz. By means of bismuth-doped fiber amplifier and diffraction gratings compressor, the pulses were amplified up to 8.5nJ and compressed down to 530 fs. To achieve best results the optimal bismuth active fiber was chosen according to the investigated dependence of the gain coefficient on bismuth active centers concentration in phosphosilicate fibers.

  12. 13 micron cutoff HgCdTe detector arrays for space and ground-based astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, Craig W.; Cabrera, Mario S.; Dorn, Meghan L.; Pipher, Judith L.; Forrest, William J.

    2016-07-01

    With the recent success of our development of 10 micron HgCdTe infrared (IR) detector arrays,1,2 we have used what we learned and extended the cutoff wavelength to 13 microns. These 13 micron HgCdTe detector arrays can operate at higher temperatures than Si:As, e.g. in a properly designed spacecraft with passive cooling, the 13 micron IR array will work well at temperatures around 30K. We present the initial measurements of dark current, noise and quantum efficiency for the first deliveries of 13 micron HgCdTe detector arrays from Teledyne Imaging Sensors. We also discuss our plans to develop 15 micron cutoff HgCdTe detector arrays which would facilitate the detection of the broad CO2 absorption feature in the atmospheres of exoplanets, particularly those in the habitable zone of their host star.

  13. High-resolution spectra of the 3.29 micron interstellar emission feature - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.; Sellgren, K.; Smith, R. G.; Nagata, T.; Sakata, A.; Nakada, Y.

    1991-01-01

    High spectral resolution observations of the 3.29-micron interstellar emission feature show two types of profiles. Type 1 has a central wavelength of 3.289-micron and is observed in extended objects such as planetary nebulae and H II regions. Type 2 has a central wavelength of 3.296 microns and is observed around a small number of stellar sources. Type 2 has a full width at half-maximum of 0.020 micron; Type 1 has a broader FWHM, perhaps as much as 0.042 micron, but this is uncertain because of contamination by Pf(delta) emission. These profiles are tabulated for comparison to laboratory data. It is found that no proposed identification for the 3.29-micron emission feature definitely matches the observational spectra, although amorphous aromatic materials and heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tend to fit the best.

  14. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  15. Power spectrum analysis of astronomical photographs digitised with small apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stobie, R. S.; Okamura, S.; Davenhall, A. C.; MacGillivray, H. T.

    1984-04-01

    Noise characteristics of images on 8 UK Schmidt Telescope plates, 2 Anglo-Australian Telescope prime focus plates, and 2 Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) copies (comprising 3 different emulsion types) were measured with a scanning aperture of 11 microns and a pixel spacing of 16 microns. Power spectrum analysis shows plate noise (except POSS plates) to correspond to almost white noise over the frequency range 0.1 to 60 cycles/mm. The signal-to-noise power spectrum is shown to be a useful tool for measuring the information content of an astronomical photograph. Macronoise computed over 8 x 8 mm regions on the plates varies as the minus half power of the aperture area. Information content of a survey quality IIIa-J plate and atlas quality copies on very fine-grained emulsion were compared. Analysis shows no significant degradation in emulsion noise or image content of the copy relative to the original.

  16. Development of cellulose derivatives as novel enteric coating agents soluble at pH 3.5-4.5 and higher.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, H; Obara, S; Minemura, K; Tanaka, T

    1997-08-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was selected as a base polymer to develop novel enteric coating agents for acid protection which can dissolve at pH around 4, and was modified with trimellitic acid or maleic acid at various degrees of substitution. These carboxylic acids have higher dissociation constants and higher solubility in water than the carboxylic acids of existing enteric coating polymers. The synthesized polymers were micronized and dispersed in aqueous medium to determine their pKa values by potentiometric titration. The pH of dissolution and the water vapor permeability of the cast films prepared from organic solutions were also evaluated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose trimellitate (HPMCT) showed good acid resistance, and the pH at which it dissolves can be controlled in the range of pH 3.5 to 4.5 by varying the content of trimellityl groups and the methoxyl substitution of the base polymer.

  17. Coherent laser radar at 2 microns using solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Suni, Paul J. M.; Hale, Charley P.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Magee, James R.; Bruns, Dale L.; Yuen, Eric H.

    1993-01-01

    Coherent laser radar systems using 2-micron Tm- and Tm, Ho-doped solid-state lasers are useful for the remote range-resolved measurement of atmospheric winds, aerosol backscatter, and DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor and CO2 concentrations. Recent measurements made with a 2-micron coherent laser radar system, advances in the laser technology, and atmospheric propagation effects on 2-micron coherent lidar performance are described.

  18. GaSe Parametric Oscillator Pumped by Powerful Holmium Laser Near 3 Microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    GaSe Parametric Oscillator Pumped by Powerful Holmium Laser near 3 Microns EOARD OPO Contract F61775-99...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2001 to xx-xx-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GaSe Parametric Oscillator Pumped by Powerful Holmium Laser near 3 Microns Unclassified... holmium laser near 3 microns with a goal of achieving an output energy from the OPO near the degenerate wavelength of 10 to 20mJ per pulse. 15. SUBJECT

  19. Mapping and spectroscopy of the 3.3 microns feature in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Nakada, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The results of spectroscopy of the 3.3 microns feature, H2 emission, and Br alpha, obtained in a spatial cut across the Orion ionization front are presented. The spatial distribution of the 3.3 microns feature peaks between the ionization front and the H2 peak are observed. The shape of the 3.3 microns feature observed at high spectral resolution shows no changes in regions of varying ultraviolet flux and density. The results are discussed in terms of current models for the 3.3 microns emission feature.

  20. Spatial variations of the 3-micron emission features within Orion's Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1988-01-01

    3-micron spectra of the Orion Bar region have been obtained at three positions corresponding to different distances from the exciting source. The recently discovered unidentified features at 3.46, 3.51, and 3.57 microns are clearly visible. The spectra show that the 3.4 and 3.51-micron emission features increase in intensity relative to the strong 3.3-micron feature as the distance from the exciting source increases. The implications for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and recent ideas concerning their ultraviolet excitation and spatial evolution are discussed.

  1. Airborne spectrophotometry of P/Halley from 16 to 30 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Campins, H.

    1986-01-01

    Comet Halley was observed in the 16 to 30 micron region using the Cornell University 7-channel spectrometer (resolution = 0.02) on board the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on 1985 Dec. 14.2. A 30-arcsec aperture (FWHM) was used. Measurements centered on the nuclear condensation micron indicate that if present, the 20 micron silicate feature is very weak, and that a relatively narrow strong feature centered at 28.4 microns possibly exists. However, this feature may be an artifact of incomplete correction for telluric water vapor absorption.

  2. Yeast plasmid 2-micron circle promotes recombination within bacterial transposon Tn5.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, M; Broach, J R

    1983-01-01

    The site-specific recombination system (FLP) encoded by the yeast plasmid 2-micron circle can also act in yeast on the inverted repeats of the bacterial transposon Tn5. The efficiency of this recombination is dependent on the location of Tn5 within the 2-micron circle genome but can be as high as that observed for 2-micron circle itself. Comparison of the DNA sequences between the Tn5 repeat and the 2-micron circle recombination region reveals certain strikingly similar structural features that might be important in the recombination reaction. Images PMID:6316350

  3. 2-4 micron spectrophotometric observations of compact H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Russell, R. W.; Merrill, K. M.

    1976-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations from 2 to 4 microns of the compact H II regions W51-IRS 2, K3-50, and NGC 7538 are reported. Spectral features observed include hydrogen recombination lines and an absorption attributed to interstellar ice. Extinctions to the various sources are derived based on the observed hydrogen lines and radio fluxes. Thermal dust emission is found to dominate free-free and bound-free emission for wavelengths not less than 2 microns. The ice absorption is analyzed and compared with the extinction and 10 microns silicate absorption. A 3.3 micron emission feature (potentially due to the same material as in NGC 7027) was observed.

  4. Evaluation of micron size carbon fibers released from burning graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussholz, B.

    1980-01-01

    Quantitative estimates were developed of micron carbon fibers released during the burning of graphite composites. Evidence was found of fibrillated particles which were the predominant source of the micron fiber data obtained from large pool fire tests. The fibrillation phenomena were attributed to fiber oxidation effects caused by the fire environment. Analysis of propane burn test records indicated that wind sources can cause considerable carbon fiber oxidation. Criteria estimates were determined for the number of micron carbon fibers released during an aircraft accident. An extreme case analysis indicated that the upper limit of the micron carbon fiber concentration level was only about half the permissible asbestos ceiling concentration level.

  5. Biodegradation of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Ring Cleavage Product 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 μmol kg−1), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 μmol kg−1), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 μmol kg−1), and traces of NDAB (3.8 μmol kg−1). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 ± 22 μmol kg−1) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  6. Lunar spectral reflectivity (0.30 to 2.50 microns) and implications for remote mineralogical analysis.

    PubMed

    McCord, T B; Johnson, T V

    1970-08-28

    The spectral reflectivity (0.30 to 2.50 microns) of several lunar areas was measured with ground-based telescopes. A narrow absorption band centered at 0.95 micron was revealed for the first time. No other absorption bands appear in the spectrum. The reflectivity continues to rise at longer wavelengths throughout the spectral region studied. A comparison of the telescope measurements of an area 15 kilometers in diameter that includes Tranquillity Base with laboratory measurements of Apollo 11 soil samples reveals remarkable agreement, an indication that properties determined for fairly large lunar areas are relevant to local conditions. The spectra are interpretable in terms of surface mineralogy. The absorption band varies in both depth and shape and the overall slope of the curve changes with lunar area, an indication of differences in the composition and opacity of surface material. However, the lack of variety in the band position suggests there are no major differences (say, from mostly pyroxenes to mostly olivines) in the mineralogy at those sites studied.

  7. Determination of enantiomeric composition by negative-ion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using deprotonated N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids as chiral selectors.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Bobby N; Zu, Chengli; Koscho, Michael E

    2005-10-01

    The ability to use mixtures of deprotonated N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids as chiral selectors for the determination of enantiomeric composition by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry is demonstrated. For each experiment, two N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids were chosen such that each would have opposite selectivity for the enantiomers of the analyte. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, monitored in the negative ion mode, of solutions containing the two N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids, sodium hydroxide, and the analyte, in a one-to-one mixture of methanol and water, afford peaks in the mass spectrum that correspond to the deprotonated 1:1 analyte-selector complexes. The ratio of the intensities of the complexes in the mass spectrum can be related to the enantiomeric composition of the analyte. Additionally, the sense and extent of chiral recognition is consistent with chromatographic observations, using chiral stationary phases derived from N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids. Each analysis of enantiomeric composition requires less than 10 s to complete, indicating that this method has great potential for the development of fast-/high-throughput chiral analyses.

  8. Ab initio studies of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone cocrystal under high pressure using dispersion corrected density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Bang-Ming; Lin, He; Zhu, Shun-Guan

    2014-04-14

    A detailed study of structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) cocrystal under the hydrostatic pressure of 0–100 GPa was performed by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) method. The calculated crystal structure is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data at the ambient pressure. Based on the analysis of lattice constants, bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles under compression, it is found that HMX molecules in HMX/DMI cocrystal are seriously distorted. In addition, as the pressure increases, the band gap decreases gradually, which suggests that HMX/DMI cocrystal is becoming more metallic. Some important intermolecular interactions between HMX and DMI are also observed in the density of states spectrum. Finally, its thermodynamic properties were characterized, and the results show that HMX/DMI cocrystal is more easily formed in the low pressure.

  9. Growth, structural, optical, thermal and laser damage threshold studies of an organic single crystal: 1,3,5 - triphenylbenzene (TPB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, R. Subramaniyan; Babu, G. Anandha; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    Good quality single crystals of pure hydrocarbon 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene (TPB) have been successfully grown using toluene as a solvent using controlled slow cooling solution growth technique. TPB crystallizes in orthorhombic structure with the space group Pna21. The structural perfection of the grown crystal has been analysed by high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The range and percentage of the optical transmission are ascertained by recording the UV-vis spectrum. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study its thermal properties. Powder second harmonic generation studies were carried out to explore its NLO properties. Laser damage threshold value has been determined using Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm.

  10. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical, thermal, electrical and mechanical properties of hydrogen bonded organic salt crystal: Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, Madhu; Chandramohan, Angannan

    2017-04-01

    Triethylammonium-3, 5-dinitrosalicylate, an organic salt was synthesized and single crystals grown by slow solvent evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The presence of various functional groups and mode of vibrations has been confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The UV-vis-NIR Spectrum was recorded in the range 200-1200 nm to find optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of the title crystal. The formation of the salt and the molecular structure was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic technique. Crystal system, crystalline nature, cell parameters and hydrogen bonding interactions of the grown crystal were determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The thermal characteristics of grown crystal were analyzed by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Dielectric studies were carried out to study the distribution of charges within the crystal. The mechanical properties of the title crystal were studied by Vicker's microhardness technique.

  11. X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and DFT studies of 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3,5-diphenylformazan

    SciTech Connect

    Tezcan, H.; Tokay, N.; Alpaslan, G.; Erdönmez, A.

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3,5-diphenylformazan was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 23.0788(9), b = 7.9606(3), c = 18.6340(12) Å, Z = 8, sp. gr. Pbca, R{sub 1} = 0.074. The structure was also examined using the density-functional theory. Its structure stability, and frontier molecular orbital components were discussed and the results were compared with X-ray and spectral results. The maximum absorbtion peaks of the UV-vis spectrum of the compound have been calculated using the time-dependent density-functional theory. It was found a good agreement between the calculated and experimental maximum absorption wavelength.

  12. Selection of quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, Michael; Pfeifer, Sascha; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Size-segregated quasi monodisperse particles are essential for e.g. fundamental research concerning cloud microphysical processes. Commonly a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer) is used to produce quasi-monodisperse submicron particles. Thereto first, polydisperse aerosol particles are bipolarly charged by a neutralizer, and then selected according to their electrical mobility with the DMA [Knutson et al. 1975]. Selecting a certain electrical mobility with a DMA results in a particle size distribution, which contains singly charged particles as well as undesired multiply charged larger particles. Often these larger particles need to either be removed from the generated aerosol or their signals have to be corrected for in the data inversion and interpretation process. This problem becomes even more serious when considering super-micron particles. Here we will present two different techniques for generating quasi-monodisperse super-micron aerosol particles with no or only an insignificant number of larger sized particles being present. First, we use a combination of a cyclone with adjustable aerodynamic cut-off diameter and our custom-built Maxi-DMA [Raddatz et al. 2013]. The cyclone removes particles larger than the desired ones prior to mobility selection with the DMA. This results in a reduction of the number of multiply charged particles of up to 99.8%. Second, we utilize a new combination of cyclone and PCVI (Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor), which is based on purely inertial separation and avoids particle charging. The PCVI instrument was previously described by Boulter et al. (2006) and Kulkarni et al. (2011). With our two setups we are able to produce quasi-monodisperse aerosol particles in the diameter range from 0.5 to 4.4 µm without a significant number of larger undesired particles being present. Acknowledgements: This work was done within the framework of the DFG funded Ice Nucleation research UnIT (INUIT, FOR 1525) under WE 4722/1-1. References

  13. Observations of 13.5 micron rotation-vibration lines of SiS in IRC +10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Keady, J. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Hirsch, K. L.; Wiedemann, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report the first observations of the 13.5 micron fundamental band of SiS in the spectrum of the heavily obscured carbon star IRC +10216. The lines are formed in the inner region of the circumstellar envelope where the gas is accelerating and where the temperature ranges from 800-500 K. We have carried out a detailed model of the observed line profiles. Our observations are best fit by a gradient in the abundance of SiS. We derive an abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10-6 at a distance of twelve stellar radii from the central star rising to x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10-5 at a few stellar radii from the surface of the star.

  14. Observations of 13.5 micron rotation-vibration lines of SiS in IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Keady, J. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Hirsch, K. L.; Wiedemann, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    We report the first observations of the 13.5 micron fundamental band of SiS in the spectrum of the heavily obscured carbon star IRC +10216. The lines are formed in the inner region of the circumstellar envelope where the gas is accerlerating and where the temperature ranges from 800-500 K. We have carried out a detailed model of the observed line profiles. Our observations are best fit by a gradient in the abundance of SiS. We derive an abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(exp -6) at a distance of twelve stellar radii from the central star rising to x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(exp -5) at a few stellar radii from the surface of the star.

  15. Viewing Seasonality in 8 Megacities at 4 Microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaszewska, M. A.; Kovalskyy, V.; Small, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    The middle infrared (MIR) spectral region, between 3 and 5 microns, offers a different perspective on cities. The MIR is the mixing zone of both emitted terrestrial radiation and reflected solar radiation. The relatively long wavelengths enable views of surfaces often obscured by anthropogenic haze. Green vegetation appears very dark in the MIR due to high absorption by leaf water. In contrast, building, roofing, and paving materials reflect much MIR and exposed soils and dried vegetation reflect even more. Thus, physics dictates a strong expression of seasonality in the MIR. But is there sufficient signal in the MIR to merit it as a complementary approach for characterizing urbanized areas and monitoring their dynamics? We have explored this question in a research effort that links two NASA Interdisciplinary Science projects on the effect of cities on the environment. We focused on 8 global megacities: Beijing, Cairo, Istanbul, Mexico, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, and São Paulo. We used Level 1B calibrated radiance data from band 23 (~4 microns) of the Aqua MODIS during ascending passes in 2010. These 1 km data were processed to reduce cloud cover using monthly maximum value compositing into four sensor view zenith angle (VZA) classes: 030°). SNR was higher in the summer

  16. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  17. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid.

  18. The Determination of Hexahydro-1, 3, 5,-Trinitro-S-Triazine (RDX) and Octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-S-Tetrazocine (HMX) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Spectrophometry ", Anal. Chem., 44, pp. 1676-1678, August 1972. 5J A compounds. Previous experience in the analysis of er’.rgetic materials using high performance...in Octahydro-l, 3, 5, 7-Tetranitro-s-Tetrazocine (HMX) by Infrared Spectrophometry ", Anal. Chem., 44, pp. 1676-1678, August 1972. 7. J. Omar Doali

  19. Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope Imaging Camera (ARCTIC) facility optical imager for the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ketzeback, William; Bradley, Alaina; Dembicky, Jack; Doughty, Caitlin; Hawley, Suzanne; Johnson, Courtney; Klaene, Mark; Leon, Ed; McMillan, Russet; Owen, Russell; Sayres, Conor; Sheen, Tyler; Shugart, Alysha

    2016-08-01

    The Astrophysical Research Consortium Telescope Imaging Camera, ARCTIC, is a new optical imaging camera now in use at the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) 3.5m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO). As a facility instrument, the design criteria broadly encompassed many current and future science opportunities, and the components were built for quick repair or replacement, to minimize down-time. Examples include a quick change shutter, filter drive components accessible from the exterior and redundant amplifiers on the detector. The detector is a Semiconductor Technology Associates (STA) device with several key properties (e.g. high quantum efficiency, low read-noise, quick readout, minimal fringing, operational bandpass 350-950nm). Focal reducing optics (f/10.3 to f/8.0) were built to control aberrations over a 7.8'x7.8' field, with a plate scale of 0.11" per 0.15 micron pixel. The instrument body and dewar were designed to be simple and robust with only two components to the structure forward of the dewar, which in turn has minimal feedthroughs and permeation areas and holds a vacuum <10-8 Torr. A custom shutter was also designed, using pneumatics as the driving force. This device provides exceptional performance and reduces heat near the optical path. Measured performance is repeatable at the 2ms level and offers field uniformity to the same level of precision. The ARCTIC facility imager will provide excellent science capability with robust operation and minimal maintenance for the next decade or more at APO.

  20. An improved synthesis of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines in acetic acid aqueous solution under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Tai; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Lin, Zhi-Ping

    2007-03-21

    Pyrazoline derivatives have been found to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among various pyrazoline derivatives, 2-pyrazolines seem to be the most frequently studied. A variety of methods have been reported for the preparation of this class of compound. However, in spite of their potential utility, some of the reported methods suffer from drawbacks such as long reaction times, cumbersome product isolation procedures and environmental concerns. Organic reactions in aqueous media have attracted increasing interest recently because of environmental issues and the understanding of biochemical processes. Ultrasound has increasingly been used in organic synthesis in the last three decades. A large number of organic reactions can be carried out in higher yields, shorter reaction time or milder conditions under ultrasound irradiation. Preparation of a series of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines through the reaction of chalcones and phenylhydrazine hydrochloride was carried out in 83-96% yield within 1.5-2 h in sodium acetate-acetic acid aqueous solution under ultrasound irradiation. We have described a practical and convenient procedure for the synthesis of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines in sodium acetate-acetic acid aqueous solution at room temperature under ultrasound irradiation.

  1. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  2. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  3. Experimental Evidence for Linear Metal-Azide Coordination: The Binary Group 5 Azides [Nb(N3)5], [Ta(N3)5], [Nb(N3)6], and [Ta(N3)6], and 1:1 Acetonitrile Adducts [Nb(N3)5(CH3CN)] and (Ta(N3)5(CH3CN))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-20

    significantly longer than the equatorial ones, as expected from VSEPR argu- ments.[29] In contrast, the axial M-N-N arrangements in [Nb(N3)5] and [Ta(N3)5...Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 2108. [29] a) R. J. Gillespie, I. Hargittai, The VSEPR Model of Molecular Geometry, Allyn and Bacon, Needham Heights, MA, 1991; b

  4. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  5. New Hofmann-like spin crossover compound with 3,5-lutidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Takafumi; Takahashi, Miwa

    2014-04-01

    A new type III of 3,5-lutidine spin crossover coordination compound with formula Fe(3,5-lutidine)2Ni(CN)4·2[(H2O)(3,5-lutidine)] 2c has been obtained. The ratio of the high spin state (HS) iron (II) changing to the low spin state (LS) iron (II) in 2c is higher than that of type I and type II 3,5-lutidine coordination polymer 2a and 2b previously reported. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 2c show two different doublets which correspond to HS1 (inner doublet lines) and HS2 (outer doublet lines). The intensity of the HS1 doublet decreases on cooling to 80 K while the intensity of another component, the LS singlet, increases. The 90 % of the HS1 doublet change to the LS singlet is probably due to suitable environments of octahedral iron (II) ions coordinated by four nitrogen atoms of cyano groups and two nitrogen atoms of 3,5-lutidine ligands. We also prepared the Hofmann-like 3,5-dichloropyridine coordination compound Fe(3,5-dichloropyridine)2Ni(CN)4 ·2[(3,5-dichloropyridine)(H2O)] 2d to compare it with 2c. 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of 2d show that 2d is not a spin crossover coordination compound.

  6. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  7. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  8. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  9. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity study. All circumstances concerning the study, including the validation strategy used, and changes... validity studies. 60-3.5 Section 60-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... General standards for validity studies. A. Acceptable types of validity studies. For the purposes of...

  10. Evidence for Microbial Activity in ~3.5 Ga Pillow Basalts From the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, K.; Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-05-01

    We have discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of pillow lavas from the Mesoarchean Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa. Over the last decade, bioalteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from in-situ oceanic crust and well-preserved Phanerozoic ophiolites. Much of the debate regarding the biogenicity of purported microfossils of early life centers on the interpretation of the host rocks' protoliths. To date, most protoliths have been interpreted to be of sedimentary origin. Some workers have proposed alternate origins for these substrates, including hydrothermal and even volcanic derivation, to cast doubt on their putative biogenicity. Hence studies documenting evidence for early life have proven to be controversial. Here we document evidence for microbial activity in ~3.5 Ga subaqueous volcanic rocks that represent a new, unambiguous geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. The BGB magmatic sequence is dominated by mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3480- to 3220-million-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. The BGB pillow lavas are exceptionally well-preserved and represent unequivocal evidence that these rocks were erupted in a subaqueous environment. The formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas contain micron-sized, microbially generated, tubular structures consisting of titanite. These structures are interpreted to have formed during microbial etching of the originally glassy pillow rims and were subsequently mineralized by titanite during greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration. Overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates from the pillow lavas suggest this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas on the seafloor. X-ray mapping has revealed the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially altered BGB

  11. Global gene expression in rat brain and liver after oral exposure to the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Bannon, Desmond I; Dillman, James F; Hable, Michael A; Phillips, Christopher S; Perkins, Edward J

    2009-04-01

    RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is a synthetic, high-impact, relatively stable explosive that has been in use since WWII. Exposure to RDX can occur in occupational settings (e.g., during manufacture) or through the inadvertent ingestion of contaminated environmental media such as groundwater. The toxicology of RDX is dominated by acute clonic-tonic seizures at high doses, which remit when exposure is removed and internal RDX levels decrease. Subchronic studies have revealed few other measurable toxic effects. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of RDX on the mammalian brain and liver using global gene expression analysis based on a predetermined maximum internal dose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single, oral, nonseizure-inducing dose of either 3 or 18 mg/kg RDX in a gel capsule. Effects on gene expression in the cerebral cortex and liver were assessed using Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 whole genome arrays at 0, 3.5, 24, and 48 h postexposure. RDX blood and brain tissue concentrations rapidly increased between 0 and 3.5 h, followed by decreases at 24 h to below the detection limit at 48 h. Pairwise comparison of high and low doses at each time point showed dramatic differential changes in gene expression at 3.5 h, the time of peak RDX in brain and blood. Using Gene Ontology, biological processes that affected neurotransmission were shown to be primarily down-regulated in the brain, the target organ of toxicity, while those that affected metabolism were up-regulated in the liver, the site of metabolism. Overall, these results demonstrate that a single oral dose of RDX is quickly absorbed and transported into the brain where processes related to neurotransmission are negatively affected, consistent with a potential excitotoxic response, whereas in the liver there was a positive effect on biological processes potentially associated with RDX metabolism.

  12. A 163 micron laser heterodyne radiometer for OH

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.; Boyd, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 163 micron (1.836 THz) radiometer developed for airplane and/or balloon platforms is described. The laser local oscillator is a CO2 pumped methanol laser operating at a frequency which is approx. 1 GHz from the J = 3/2 - 1/2 transition of OH. The laser is used directly as a local oscillator or is translated in frequency to closer coincidence with the OH emission, depending on achieved detector IF bandwidth. Frequency translation techniques which are described are diode mixing and a method of single sideband generation using an external Stark modulated gas cell. The photoconductive mixer used is a strained Ge crystal, doped with Ga, originally used as an incoherent detector. The uniaxial strain on the Ga doped Ge crystal shifts the threshold for photoconduction from 100/cm to frequencies as low as 50/cm. These detectors are currently being characterized as mixers in the laboratory. Of particular interest are the effect of local oscillator power and strain on IF, bandwidth detector impedance, and conversion loss. Preliminary results of these tests are described and compared with theorectical expectations.

  13. Behavior of hydrophobic micron particles impacting on droplet surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Song, Qiang; Yao, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The impact behavior of airborne particles directly affects their capture by droplets in the atmosphere and industrial pollution control processes. This process was simulated by a dynamic model and analyzed for hydrophobic micron particles. Based on the analysis of energy conversion, the criteria were developed and verified by dynamic simulation to ascertain three impaction modes by the submergence/rebound critical velocity (US /R) and the rebound/oscillation critical velocity (UR /O). The criteria indicated that surface tension coefficient, contact angle, and particle diameter are the key parameters to affect the critical velocities, between which exists the rebound velocity range. As the surface tension coefficient and the advancing angle increased, US /R and UR /O increased, the rebound velocity range widened. As the receding angle increased, US /R remained unchanged, while UR /O decreased, the rebound velocity range widened. As the particle size increased, US /R and UR /O decreased, the rebound velocity range narrowed. The values of the above-mentioned key parameters considered in the simulation covered the usual parameter ranges of the wet deposition or wet scrubbing process. The simulation results showed the non-negligible possibility of particle rebound in such processes. The attachment efficiency of airborne particles can be determined by the proposed criteria combined with the incidence velocity distribution.

  14. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  15. Advancing dental implant surface technology--from micron- to nanotopography.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Gustavo; Mendonça, Daniela B S; Aragão, Francisco J L; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2008-10-01

    Current trends in clinical dental implant therapy include use of endosseous dental implant surfaces embellished with nanoscale topographies. The goal of this review is to consider the role of nanoscale topographic modification of titanium substrates for the purpose of improving osseointegration. Nanotechnology offers engineers and biologists new ways of interacting with relevant biological processes. Moreover, nanotechnology has provided means of understanding and achieving cell specific functions. The various techniques that can impart nanoscale topographic features to titanium endosseous implants are described. Existing data supporting the role of nanotopography suggest that critical steps in osseointegration can be modulated by nanoscale modification of the implant surface. Important distinctions between nanoscale and micron-scale modification of the implant surface are presently considered. The advantages and disadvantages of nanoscale modification of the dental implant surface are discussed. Finally, available data concerning the current dental implant surfaces that utilize nanotopography in clinical dentistry are described. Nanoscale modification of titanium endosseous implant surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses that may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy.

  16. Optical Spectroscopy of GLIMPSE Stars with 8 Micron Infrared Excesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Sarah; Chunev, G.; Kobulnicky, H.; Uzpen, B.

    2007-12-01

    Optical spectra [3910 - 6660 A] for 20 previously unclassified stars having 8 micron excesses in the Spitzer GLIMPSE Point Source Catalog were obtained with the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3 m telescope and longslit spectrograph. The targets were selected to have K-[8.0] and J-K colors consistent with A or B stars having mid-IR excesses. The collected spectra were used to measure Halpha equivalent widths and classify the stars by comparison with stellar atlases. Two of the stars show Halpha in emission, one has mixed profiles, and 17 have Halpha in absorption. Six of the stars are evolved (luminosity class III or I) while 10 appear to be main-sequence stars. The main sequence stars with emission are probable Be stars or Herbig AeBe stars. The evolved stars may be B[e] stars with dusty photospheres. The main-sequence stars lacking Halpha emission (seven objects) may have hot circumstellar dust and are candidates for young systems with massive debris disks.

  17. Images of the 10-micron source in the Cygnus 'Egg'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaye, D.; Fienberg, R. Tresch; Fazio, G. G.; Gezari, D. Y.; Lamb, G. M.; Shu, P. K.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Mid-IR images of AFGL 2688, the Egg nebula, obtained with a 16 x 16 pixel array camera (field of view 12.5 x 12.5 arcsec) resolve the central source. It appears as a centrally peaked ellipsoid with major axis of symmetry parallel to the axis of the visible nebulosity. This is contrary to the expected extension perpendicular to this axis implied by proposed dust-toroid models of the IR source. Maps of the spatial distribution of 8-13 micron color temperature and warm dust opacity derived from the multiwavelength images further characterize the IR emission. The remarkable flatness of the color temperature conflicts with the radial temperature gradient expected across a thick shell of material with a single heat source at its center. The new data suggest instead that the source consists of a central star surrounded by a dust shell that is too thin to provide a detectable temperature gradient and too small to permit the resolution of limb brightening.

  18. Micronized Coal Reburning Demonstration for NOx Control: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-15

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Micronized Coal Reburning (MCR) Demonstration for NO{sub x} Control, as described in a report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1999). The need to meet strict emissions requirements at a minimum cost prompted the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), in conjunction with Fuller Company, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), and Fluor Daniel, to submit the proposal for this project to be sited at TVA's Shawnee Fossil Plant. In July 1992, TVA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct the study. However, because of operational and environmental compliance strategy changes, the Shawnee site became unavailable.

  19. Carotenoids microencapsulation by spray drying method and supercritical micronization.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska-Turak, Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Carotenoids are used as natural food colourants in the food industry. As unstable natural pigments they need protection. This protection can involve the microencapsulation process. There are numerous techniques that can be used for carotenoid protection, but two of them -spray drying and supercritical micronization - are currently the most commonly used. The objective of this paper is to describe these two techniques for carotenoid microencapsulation. In this review information from articles from the last five years was taken into consideration. Pigments described in the review are all carotenoids. Short summary of carotenoids sources was presented. For the spray drying technique, a review of carrier material and process conditions was made. Moreover, a short description of some of the most suitable processes involving supercritical fluids for carotenoids (astaxanthin, β-carotene, lutein and lycopene) encapsulation was given. These include the Supercritical Antisolvent process (SAS), Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions (PGSS), Supercritical Fluid Extraction From an Emulsion (SFEE) and Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical fluids (SEDS). In most cases the studies, independently of the described method, were conducted on the laboratory scale. In some a scale-up was also tested. In the review a critical assessment of the used methods was made. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Images of the 10-micron source in the Cygnus 'Egg'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaye, D.; Fienberg, R. Tresch; Fazio, G. G.; Gezari, D. Y.; Lamb, G. M.; Shu, P. K.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Mid-IR images of AFGL 2688, the Egg nebula, obtained with a 16 x 16 pixel array camera (field of view 12.5 x 12.5 arcsec) resolve the central source. It appears as a centrally peaked ellipsoid with major axis of symmetry parallel to the axis of the visible nebulosity. This is contrary to the expected extension perpendicular to this axis implied by proposed dust-toroid models of the IR source. Maps of the spatial distribution of 8-13 micron color temperature and warm dust opacity derived from the multiwavelength images further characterize the IR emission. The remarkable flatness of the color temperature conflicts with the radial temperature gradient expected across a thick shell of material with a single heat source at its center. The new data suggest instead that the source consists of a central star surrounded by a dust shell that is too thin to provide a detectable temperature gradient and too small to permit the resolution of limb brightening.