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Sample records for 3-5 times greater

  1. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  2. Time allocation by Greater White-fronted Geese: Influence of diet, energy reserves and predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1992-01-01

    I determined the amount of time Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) allocated to various activities from September to May, 1980-1982 at their primary wintering areas in the Pacific Flyway of North America. The length of time spent on roosts during the day was positively correlated to day length. Geese at roost sites spent the majority of their time sleeping (24-46%), alert (17-40%), walking or swimming (6-24%), and in comfort behaviors (3-25%). The amount of time geese fed each day varied little from early autumn to late spring (4.5-4.9 hr), except during mid-winter when minimum temperatures were below freezing (3.9 hr), and immediately before migration in spring (6.3 hr). The proportion of time devoted to feeding and alert behavior, the two most dominant activities at field sites, varied significantly among seasons and locations. The amount of time geese were actively engaged in foraging each season was more dependent on feeding intensity than the amount of time spent at foraging sites (fields), and varied almost three-fold, from 1.8 hr during late winter to 5.1 hr during late spring. Geese fed in closer proximity to conspecifics, were more frequently disturbed, and spent less time feeding during the hunting season. Exploitation of high energy foods and catabolism of substantial energy reserves probably enabled geese to minimize foraging time during periods of harsh weather and high predation pressure. Seasonal variation in the proportion of time spent feeding corresponded closely to changes in body mass. Greater White-fronted Geese wintering in the Pacific Flyway spent substantially less time feeding than they do in Europe, as geese in California fed primarily on high energy cereal grains, while in Europe they subsist on green vegetation which has relatively less digestible energy than cereal grains.

  3. Semiexperimental equilibrium structure for the C6 backbone of cis-1,3,5-hexatriene; structural evidence for greater pi-electron delocalization with increasing chain length in polyenes.

    PubMed

    Suenram, Richard D; Pate, Brooks H; Lesarri, Alberto; Neill, Justin L; Shipman, Steven; Holmes, Robin A; Leyden, Matthew C; Craig, Norman C

    2009-03-05

    Twenty-five microwave lines were observed for cis-1,3,5-hexatriene (0.05 D dipole moment) and a smaller number for its three (13)C isotopomers in natural abundance. Ground-state rotational constants were fitted for all four species to a Watson-type rotational Hamiltonian for an asymmetric top (kappa = -0.9768). Vibration-rotation (alpha) constants were predicted with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model and used to adjust the ground-state rotational constants to equilibrium rotational constants. The small inertial defect for cis-hexatriene shows that the molecule is planar, despite significant H-H repulsion. The substitution method was applied to the equilibrium rotational constants to give a semiexperimental equilibrium structure for the C(6) backbone. This structure and one predicted with the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model show structural evidence for increased pi-electron delocalization in comparison with butadiene, the first member of the polyene series.

  4. Resistance Patterns among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Greater Metropolitan Mumbai: Trends over Time

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Alpa; Pawaskar, Akshay; Das, Mrinalini; Desai, Ranjan; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Chhajed, Prashant; Rajan, Sujeet; Reddy, Deepesh; Babu, Sajit; Jayalakshmi, T. K.; Saranchuk, Peter; Rodrigues, Camilla; Isaakidis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Background While the high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) itself is a matter of great concern, the emergence and rise of advanced forms of drug-resistance such as extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and extremely drug-resistant TB (XXDR-TB) is more troubling. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends over time of patterns of drug resistance in a sample of MDR-TB patients in greater metropolitan Mumbai, India. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study of drug susceptibility testing (DST) results among MDR-TB patients from eight health care facilities in greater Mumbai between 2005 and 2013. We classified resistance patterns into four categories: MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, XDR-TB and XXDR-TB. Results A total of 340 MDR-TB patients were included in the study. Pre-XDR-TB was the most common form of drug-resistant TB observed overall in this Mumbai population at 56.8% compared to 29.4% for MDR-TB. The proportion of patients with MDR-TB was 39.4% in the period 2005–2007 and 27.8% in 2011–2013, while the proportion of those with XDR-TB and XXDR-TB was changed from 6.1% and 0% respectively to 10.6% and 5.6% during the same time period. During the same periods, the proportions of patients with ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and ethionamide resistance significantly increased from 57.6% to 75.3%, from 60.0% to 69.5% and from 24.2% to 52.5% respectively (p<0.05). Discussion The observed trends in TB drug-resistance patterns in Mumbai highlight the need for individualized drug regimens, designed on the basis of DST results involving first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and treatment history of the patient. A drug-resistant TB case-finding strategy based on molecular techniques that identify only rifampicin resistance will lead to initiation of suboptimal treatment regimens for a significant number of patients, which may in turn contribute to amplification of resistance and transmission of strains with increasingly advanced resistance within

  5. Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

    2010-08-01

    As the majority of the world’s population is living in urban environments, there is growing interest in studying local urban climates. In this paper, for the first time, the long-term trends (31-162 years) of temperature change have been analyzed for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Annual and seasonal time series for a number of urban, suburban, and rural weather stations are considered. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for the assessing of the significance and detection of trends, and the sequential Mann test is used to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significant trends for annual mean and minimum temperatures are detected for almost all stations in the GTA. Winter is found to be the most coherent season contributing substantially to the increase in annual minimum temperature. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature suggest that the beginning of the increasing trend in Toronto started after the 1920s and then continued to increase to the 1960s. For all stations, there is a significant increase of annual and seasonal (particularly winter) temperatures after the 1980s. In terms of the linkage between urbanization and spatiotemporal thermal patterns, significant linear trends in annual mean and minimum temperature are detected for the period of 1878-1978 for the urban station, Toronto, while for the rural counterparts, the trends are not significant. Also, for all stations in the GTA that are situated in all directions except south of Toronto, substantial temperature change is detected for the periods of 1970-2000 and 1989-2000. It is concluded that the urbanization in the GTA has significantly contributed to the increase of the annual mean temperatures during the past three decades. In addition to urbanization, the influence of local climate, topography, and larger scale warming are incorporated in the analysis of the trends.

  6. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses.

  7. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  8. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  9. Web-Based Time Entry Systems: Providing Greater Automation and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Time and resources are becoming increasingly scarce in most higher education institutions today. As a result, colleges and universities are looking to streamline and simplify many costly, labor-intensive administrative processes. In this article, Tracy Williams examines how Web-based time-entry systems can help institutions save valuable time and…

  10. Increasing Time and Enriching Learning for Greater Equity in Schools: Perspective from Two Community Funders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…

  11. Greater bed- and wake-time variability is associated with less healthy lifestyle behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Mitch J; Kline, Christopher E; Rebar, Amanda L; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Short, Camille E

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study examines associations between the variability in bed/rise times, usual bed/rise time and dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, sitting time, sleep insufficiency and a composite index of behaviors. Subject and methods A random sample of Australian adults drawn from an online Panel cohort in 2013 completed a cross-sectional online survey. A total of 1,317 participants, median age 57 (IQR=20) completed the survey. Bed- and wake times, variability in bed- and wake-times, dietary quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption, sitting time, sleep insufficiency and socio-demographics were assessed using a questionnaire. Associations were examined with generalized linear models. Results Having bed - times that varied by >30 min were associated with lower dietary quality, higher alcohol consumption, higher sitting time, more frequent insufficient sleep and poorer overall pattern of lifestyle behaviors. Greater variability in wake times, usual bed times and usual wake times were inconsistently associated with lifestyle behaviours. Conclusions Greater bed-time variability is associated with a less healthy pattern of lifestyle behaviors. Greater consistency in sleep timing may contribute to, or be reflective of, a healthier lifestyle. PMID:27110481

  12. Does Social Connectedness Promote a Greater Sense of Well-Being in Adolescence over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Ryan, Nicholas; Pryor, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether or not social connectedness predicts psychological well-being over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the temporal relations between these constructs assessed yearly for 3 years for a sample of 1,774 10- to 15-year-olds (at Time 1). Results indicated that global…

  13. An Earlier Time of Scan is Associated with Greater Threat-related Amygdala Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Baranger, David A A; Margolis, Seth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-04-04

    Time-dependent variability in mood and anxiety suggest that related neural phenotypes, such as threat-related amygdala reactivity, may also follow a diurnal pattern. Here, using data from 1,043 young adult volunteers, we found that threat-related amygdala reactivity was negatively coupled with time of day, an effect which was stronger in the left hemisphere (β=-0.1083, p-fdr=0.0012). This effect was moderated by subjective sleep quality (β=-0.0715, p-fdr=0.0387); participants who reported average and poor sleep quality had relatively increased left amygdala reactivity in the morning. Bootstrapped simulations suggest that similar cross-sectional samples with at least 300 participants would be able to detect associations between amygdala reactivity and time of scan. In control analyses, we found no associations between time and V1 activation. Our results provide initial evidence that threat-related amygdala reactivity may vary diurnally, and that this effect is potentiated among individuals with average to low sleep quality. More broadly, our results suggest that considering time of scan in study design or modeling time of scan in analyses, as well as collecting additional measures of circadian variation, may be useful for understanding threat-related neural phenotypes and their associations with behavior, such as fear conditioning, mood and anxiety symptoms, and related phenotypes.

  14. Effect of gender, dose, and time on 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT)-induced hepatotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, N N; Crincoli, C M; Kennedy, E L; Frederick, D M; Tchao, R; Harvison, P J

    2008-04-01

    1. The thiazolidinedione ring present in drugs available for type II diabetes can contribute to hepatic injury. Another thiazolidinedione ring-containing compound, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazoli-dinedione (DCPT), produces liver damage in rats. Accordingly, the effects of gender, dose, and time on DCPT hepatotoxicity were therefore evaluated. 2. Male rats were more sensitive to DCPT (0.4-1.0 mmol kg(-1) by intraperitoneal administration) as shown by increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels and altered hepatic morphology 24 h post-dosing. Effects in both genders were dose dependent. In males, DCPT (0.6 mmol kg(-1)) produced elevations in alanine aminotransferases and changes in liver sections 3 h after dosing that progressively worsened up to 12 h. DCPT-induced renal effects were mild. 3. It is concluded that male rats are more susceptible to DCPT hepatotoxicity and that damage occurs rapidly. DCPT primarily affects the liver and can be a useful compound to investigate the role of the thiazolidinedione ring in hepatic injury. However, the gender dependency and rapid onset of DCPT hepatotoxicity require further investigation.

  15. Effect of gender, dose and time on 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT)-induced hepatotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Niti N.; Crincoli, Christine M.; Kennedy, Erica L.; Frederick, Douglas M.; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring present in drugs available for type II diabetes may contribute to hepatic injury. Another TZD ring-containing compound, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT), produces liver damage in rats. Accordingly, the effects of gender, dose and time on DCPT hepatotoxicity were therefore evaluated.Male rats were more sensitive to DCPT (0.4–1.0 mmol/kg by i.p. administration) as shown by increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and altered hepatic morphology 24 h post-dosing. Effects in both genders were dose-dependent. In males, DCPT (0.6 mmol/kg) produced elevations in ALTs and changes in liver sections 3 h after dosing that progressively worsened up to 12 h. DCPT-induced renal effects were mild.We conclude that male rats are more susceptible to DCPT hepatotoxicity and that damage occurs rapidly. DCPT primarily affects the liver and may be a useful compound to investigate the role of the TZD ring in hepatic injury. However, the gender dependency and rapid onset of DCPT hepatotoxicity require further investigation. PMID:18340566

  16. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  17. Solvatochromic effect in absorption and emission spectra of star-shaped bipolar derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine and carbazole. A time-dependent density functional study.

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V; Bondarchuk, Sergey V; Minaeva, Valentina A; Ågren, Hans; Minaev, Boris F

    2017-02-01

    A series of three star-shaped compounds containing both donor (carbazole) and acceptor (2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine) moieties linked through various linking bridges was studied theoretically at the linear response TD-DFT level of theory to describe their absorption and fluorescence spectra. The concept of a localized charge-transfer excited state has been applied successfully to explain the observed strong solvatochromic effect in the emission spectra of the studied molecules, which can be utilized for the fabrication of color tunable solution-processable OLEDs. The concept is in particularly applicable to donor-acceptor species with a C 3 symmetry point group where the static dipole moment changes dramatically upon electronic excitation. An important peculiarity of the studied molecules is that they are characterized by non-zero values of the HOMO and LUMO orbitals in the same common part of molecular space that provides a large electric dipole transition moment for both light absorption and emission. Graphical abstract Star-shaped C 3 symmetry point group derivatives for color tunable OLEDs.

  18. Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'5')arabinonucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.H.; Ainsworth, C.F.; Bell, C.L.; Danyluk, S.S.; MacCoss, M.

    1983-01-01

    Two different synthetic routes using phosphotriester methodology have been utilized to prepare deoxyribonucleotidyl(3'-5)arabinonucleosides containing 9-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A vidarabine) and 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C, cytarabine) at the 3'-terminus in amounts and purity (greater than 95%) suitable for NMR analysis.

  19. A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of {sigma}=18 ps and energy resolution {delta}E/E=3.5%

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenborg, Arno; Roeterdink, Wim G.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2008-06-15

    We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was made to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 {mu}m) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to {sigma}=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than {sigma}=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about {delta}m{sub FWHM}/m=1/4150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to {sigma}=115 {mu}m.

  20. Polarization orientation dependence of the far infrared spectra of oriented single crystals of 1,3,5,-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) using terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Von H; Hooks, Dan E; Ramos, Kyle J; O' Hara, John F; Azad, A K; Taylor, A J; Barber, J; Averitt, R D

    2008-01-01

    The far infrared spectra of (100), (010), and (001)-oriented RDX single crystals were measured as the crystal was rotated about the axis perpendicular to the polarization plane of the incident radiation. Absorption measurements were taken at temperatures of both 20 K and 295 K for all rotations using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A number of discrete absorptions were found ranging from 10-100 cm(-1) (0.3-3 THz). The absorptions are highly dependent on the orientation of the terahertz polarization with respect to crystallographic axes.

  1. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; Zhao, Maosheng; Zhao, Feng A.; Gong, Peng; Yu, Le; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24 years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.

  2. Long-Term Post-Disturbance Forest Recovery in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Analyzed Using Landsat Time Series Stack

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Feng R.; Meng, Ran; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2016-10-29

    Forest recovery from past disturbance is an integral process of ecosystem carbon cycles, and remote sensing provides an effective tool for tracking forest disturbance and recovery over large areas. Although the disturbance products (tracking the conversion from forest to non-forest type) derived using the Landsat Time Series Stack-Vegetation Change Tracker (LTSS-VCT) algorithm have been validated extensively for mapping forest disturbances across the United States, the ability of this approach to characterize long-term post-disturbance recovery (the conversion from non-forest to forest) has yet to be assessed. Here in this study, the LTSS-VCT approach was applied to examine long-term (up to 24more » years) post-disturbance forest spectral recovery following stand-clearing disturbances (fire and harvests) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Using high spatial resolution images from Google Earth, we validated the detectable forest recovery status mapped by VCT by year 2011. Validation results show that the VCT was able to map long-term post-disturbance forest recovery with overall accuracy of ~80% for different disturbance types and forest types in the GYE. Harvested areas in the GYE have higher percentages of forest recovery than burned areas by year 2011, and National Forests land generally has higher recovery rates compared with National Parks. The results also indicate that forest recovery is highly related with forest type, elevation and environmental variables such as soil type. Findings from this study can provide valuable insights for ecosystem modeling that aim to predict future carbon dynamics by integrating fine scale forest recovery conditions in GYE, in the face of climate change. Lastly, with the availability of the VCT product nationwide, this approach can also be applied to examine long-term post-disturbance forest recovery in other study regions across the U.S.« less

  3. Coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and pine: does more time allow for greater phenotypic escalation at lower latitude?

    PubMed

    Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2007-09-01

    Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and

  4. Quiet time observations of equatorially trapped megaelectronvolt radiation belt ions with nuclear charge Z greater than or equal to 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data from the equatorial satellite Explorer 45 were used to study ion fluxes during the geomagnetically quiescent period June 1-15, 1972. A heavy-ion solid-state ion detector system obtained count rates close to the equatorial plane in the energy passband 1.82-4.8 MeV per ion during a single satellite pass through the radiation belts. Fluxes of these ions are interpreted as oxygen ions and are found to maximize in the L shell range 3-3.5 with peak equatorially mirroring flux of 0.38 ions/(sq cm s sr keV). This peak is not as sharply confined in L shell as is the helium ion peak.

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

  6. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8 3.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Kay, K; Cook, J; Osborne, J; Ingham, B; Arritt, F

    2013-07-01

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phase acidity (acetic acid of 1.5 to 2.5% or higher) can contribute to lethality, but there is a lack of data showing how the use of common ingredients such as acetic acid and preservatives, alone or in combination, can result in a 5-log reduction for strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in the absence of a postpackaging pasteurization step. In this study, we determined the times needed at 10° C to achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica, and L. monocytogenes in pickling brines with a variety of acetic and benzoic acid combinations at pH 3.5 and 3.8. Evaluation of 15 different acid-pH combinations confirmed that strains of E. coli O157:H7 were significantly more acid resistant than strains of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Among the acid conditions tested, holding times of 4 days or less could achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative pathogens at pH 3.5 with 2.5% acetic acid or at pH 3.8 with 2.5% acetic acid containing 0.1% benzoic acid. These data indicate the efficacy of benzoic acid for reducing the time necessary to achieve a 5-log reduction in target pathogens and may be useful for supporting process filings and the determination of critical controls for the manufacture of acidified foods.

  8. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  9. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-01-01

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners’ tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing. PMID:28276461

  10. Role-Playing and Real-Time Strategy Games Associated with Greater Probability of Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Adam; Kattner, Florian; Bradford, Daniel; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates that a small subset of those who routinely play video games show signs of pathological habits, with side effects ranging from mild (e.g., being late) to quite severe (e.g., losing a job). However, it is still not clear whether individual types, or genres, of games are most strongly associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A sample of 4,744 University of Wisconsin-Madison undergraduates (Mage=18.9 years; SD=1.9 years; 60.5% female) completed questionnaires on general video game playing habits and on symptoms of IGD. Consistent with previous reports: 5.9-10.8% (depending on classification criteria) of individuals who played video games show signs of pathological play. Furthermore, real-time strategy and role-playing video games were more strongly associated with pathological play, compared with action and other games (e.g., phone games). The current investigation adds support to the idea that not all video games are equal. Instead, certain genres of video games, specifically real-time strategy and role-playing/fantasy games, are disproportionately associated with IGD symptoms.

  11. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5): interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, E.G.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C/sub 3/-(5) and diS-C/sub 3/-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C/sub 3/-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C/sub 3/-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending in the degree of polarization. The results show that a mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biologicl membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C/sub 3/-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C/sub 3/-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  12. DiO-C3-(5) and DiS-C3-(5): Interactions with RBC, ghosts and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Guillet, E G; Kimmich, G A

    1981-03-15

    The experiments presented below compare the interaction of diO-C3-(5) and diS-C3-(5) with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts and phospholipid vesicles derived from erythrocyte membranes. The results confirm earlier reports of diS-C3-(5) dimerization in the presence of hemoglobin and of dye aggregate formation in erythrocyte suspensions. DiO-C3-(5), on the other hand, binds to vesicles and ghosts freed of hemoglobin in a potential-dependent manner but without forming dye aggregates. The two dyes bind to the different preparations in similar proportions, but diS-C3-(5) is bound in amounts 3-40 times greater depending on the degree of polarization. The results show that mechanism other than binding to hemoglobin must occur in order to explain the potential-dependent binding of both dyes to ghosts and vesicles. A primary interaction must exist between the dye molecule and the lipid bilayer in a biological membrane, and this would be expected to occur in the presence of hemoglobin or other cytosolic components. DiO-C3-(5) is a better dye to use than diS-C3-(5) for mechanistic studies, in order to avoid problems associated with formation of complex aggregates of the latter dye, especially in hyperpolarized membrane suspensions.

  13. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  14. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  15. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  16. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5... Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for appeal. (a) Entitlement to Representation. A Volunteer may be... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A...

  17. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  18. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phas...

  19. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fedy, Bradley C; Doherty, Kevin E

    2011-04-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0.77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes.

  20. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: Greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.C.; Doherty, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0. 77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes. ?? 2010 US Government.

  1. Effects of oil pollution at Kuwait's Greater Al-Burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard Acanthodactylus scutellatus.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashem, M Abdulla; Brain, P F; Omar, S Ahmad

    2008-02-15

    An attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the Greater Al-Burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second Gulf War) in Kuwait on the behaviour of the Sand lizard A. scutellatus. Polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. Between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a time of the year when they were highly active. Air, substrate and burrow temperatures were recorded and lizards were monitored for their morning emergence times, as well as their basking and foraging activities. The present study confirmed that the morning emergence times and the basking behavior varied in sand lizards among the different pollution site categories. Physical changes in the tar mat sites caused the substrate temperatures in these locations to rise more quickly in the morning in response to solar gain than was the case in the other sites. This gives lizards in these locations the opportunity to emerge earlier and to start eating more quickly, giving them an energetic advantage (perhaps, in turn, influencing their rates of growth and fecundity). The clear sites had the next earliest emergence and were the next hottest but it is difficult to account for this in terms of the physical characteristics of this site. The basking times were clearly shorter on the dark soot and tar mat sites that appeared to have higher solar gain than control or clear sites. There did not appear to be any obvious differences in foraging activity of lizards in the different locations. It appears that some aspects of simple behaviour in these lizards provides a reliable, noninvasive indices for assessing oil pollution in desert locations. The precise impact of these changes in these reptiles on their long-term viability needs to be evaluated.

  2. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  3. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  4. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... written agreement or a temporary or final order pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 1818 (b) or (c), or as a condition... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 3.5 Section 3.5 Banks and... Office determines, pursuant to the procedures set forth in subpart C, that different minimum...

  5. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days A A A Though only ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  6. Your Child's Development: 3-5 Days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days Print A A A en ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  7. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  8. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  9. 12 CFR 3.5 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Minimum Capital Ratios § 3.5 Applicability. This subpart is applicable to all banks unless the... ratios are appropriate for an individual bank based upon its particular circumstances, or...

  10. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  11. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  12. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  13. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  14. Dermal Sensitization of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-08

    tetrazocine (SEX) in guinea pigs MATERIALS Test Substance Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-I,3,5,7- Tetrazocine (SEX) Chemical Abstract Service...exist as a contaminant in P.DX/HMX manufacturing process. The characteristics of SEX are as follows: Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2

  15. The 2-Year Checkup on 10 SNe IIn Discovered by Spitzer to Exhibit Late-Time (is greater than 100 Day) IR Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori Dosovitz; Chevalier, R. A.; Skrutskie, A. V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Ganeshalingam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, a warm Spitzer survey of sixty-eight SNe IIn identified between the years 1998-2008 discovered 10 events with unreported late-time infrared (IR) excesses, in some cases more than 5 years post-explosion. These data nearly double the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn and offer important clues regarding the SN circumstellar.

  16. Biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, N.G.; Cornell, J.H.; Kaplan, A.M.

    1981-11-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is poposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed.

  17. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  18. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  19. Non-Enzymatic Oligomerization of 3', 5' Cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Timperio, Anna Maria; Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Nováková, Olga; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate that short oligonucleotide sequences can be easily produced from nucleotide precursors in a template-free non-enzymatic way under dehydrating conditions, i.e. using essentially dry materials. Here we report that 3',5' cyclic AMP may also serve as a substrate of the reaction, which proceeds under moderate conditions yet with a lower efficiency than the previously reported oligomerization of 3',5' cyclic GMP. Optimally the oligomerization requires (i) a temperature of 80°C, (ii) a neutral to alkaline environment and (iii) a time on the order of weeks. Differences in the yield and required reaction conditions of the oligomerizations utilizing 3',5' cGMP and cAMP are discussed in terms of the crystal structures of the compounds. Polymerization of 3',5' cyclic nucleotides, whose paramount relevance in a prebiotic chemistry context has been widely accepted for decades, supports the possibility that the origin of extant genetic materials might have followed a direct uninterrupted path since its very beginning, starting from non-elaborately pre-activated monomer compounds and simple reactions.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the RDX assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for RDX. The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for RDX that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  1. Biodegradation of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yih; Brodman, Bruce W

    2004-01-01

    Two bacteria were isolated from 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) contaminated soil at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These organisms were subsequently identified as Rhiziobium rhizogenes BL and Burkholderia sp.BL by the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures). In addition a fungus, identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides by DSMZ, was found to be growing on water wet RDX. All of these organisms were found to degrade RDX. The two bacteria were found to represent new species that have not been reported before. It was found that these organisms along with an added carbon source could degrade RDX to simple gaseous products. Data are presented that elucidate the mechanisms of RDX biodegradation for these organisms.

  2. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  3. PETSc Users Manual Revision 3.5

    SciTech Connect

    Balay, S.; Abhyankar, S.; Adams, M.; Brown, J.; Brune, P.; Buschelman, K.; Eijkhout, V.; Gropp, W.; Kaushik, D.; Knepley, M.; McInnes, L. Curfman; Rupp, K.; Smith, B.; Zhang, H.

    2014-09-08

    This manual describes the use of PETSc for the numerical solution of partial differential equations and related problems on high-performance computers. The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is a suite of data structures and routines that provide the building blocks for the implementation of large-scale application codes on parallel (and serial) computers. PETSc uses the MPI standard for all message-passing communication. PETSc includes an expanding suite of parallel linear, nonlinear equation solvers and time integrators that may be used in application codes written in Fortran, C, C++, Python, and MATLAB (sequential). PETSc provides many of the mechanisms needed within parallel application codes, such as parallel matrix and vector assembly routines. The library is organized hierarchically, enabling users to employ the level of abstraction that is most appropriate for a particular problem. By using techniques of object-oriented programming, PETSc provides enormous flexibility for users. PETSc is a sophisticated set of software tools; as such, for some users it initially has a much steeper learning curve than a simple subroutine library. In particular, for individuals without some computer science background, experience programming in C, C++ or Fortran and experience using a debugger such as gdb or dbx, it may require a significant amount of time to take full advantage of the features that enable efficient software use. However, the power of the PETSc design and the algorithms it incorporates may make the efficient implementation of many application codes simpler than “rolling them” yourself. ;For many tasks a package such as MATLAB is often the best tool; PETSc is not intended for the classes of problems for which effective MATLAB code can be written. PETSc also has a MATLAB interface, so portions of your code can be written in MATLAB to “try out” the PETSc solvers. The resulting code will not be scalable however because

  4. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  5. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  6. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  7. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloranisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  8. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Donald G.; Benziger, Theodore M.

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB.

  9. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  10. Separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazacyclohexane by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Meng, Zi-Hui; Xue, Min; Qiu, Li-Li; Zhang, Chen-Fan

    2017-03-01

    Synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by the Bachmann process leads to a mixture of both. The separation of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane from their mixture is difficult because the sizes and physical properties of these homologous compounds are similar. For this purpose, seven molecularly imprinted polymers have been synthesized for each explosive, and a selective solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed. A molecularly imprinted polymer, synthesized with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane as the template, methacrylic acid as the monomer and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent in a molar ratio of 1:8:8 showed the best separation capability. A packed cartridge containing this polymer can be reused for 23 solid-phase extraction cycles without repacking, and the total separation capability toward 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane reached 6.81 mg per gram of polymer. 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane was not detected in the separated 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane by high-performance liquid chromatography and vice versa. This newly developed method had the advantages of high recovery (100%) and purity, environmental friendliness, and room temperature operability. This study showed that some molecularly imprinted polymers that cannot absorb target analytes well in the solvent in which the polymers were polymerized might have high-binding capacity for the analytes and show imprinting effects in other solvents.

  11. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  12. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  13. Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus encodes a functional 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan-Hui; de Jong, Jondavid G; Makhmoudova, Amina; Arif, Basil M; Krell, Peter J

    2004-12-01

    The Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) encodes an ORF homologous to type III 3'-5' exonucleases. The CfMNPV v-trex ORF was cloned into the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression-vector system, expressed in insect Sf21 cells with an N-terminal His tag and purified to homogeneity by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Biochemical characterization of the purified V-TREX confirmed that this viral protein is a functional 3'-5' exonuclease that cleaves oligonucleotides from the 3' end in a stepwise, distributive manner, suggesting a role in proofreading during viral DNA replication and DNA repair. Enhanced degradation of a 5'-digoxigenin- or 5'-(32)P-labelled oligo(dT)(30) substrate was observed at increasing incubation times or increased amounts of V-TREX. The 3'-excision activity of V-TREX was maximal at alkaline pH (9.5) in the presence of 5 mM MgCl(2), 2 mM dithiothreitol and 0.1 mg BSA ml(-1).

  14. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  15. [Interaction of adenosin-3',5'-cyclosulfate with adenosine-3'5'-cyclophosphate dependent protein kinase and phosphodiesterase].

    PubMed

    Severin, E S; Tkachuk, V A; Guliaev, N N

    1976-02-01

    Interaction of adenosine-3',5'-cyclosulphate (cAMS) cAMP analogue, having sulphur atom instead of phosphorus in a six-term cyclic system with pig brain proteinkinase and rabbit skeletal muscle phosphodiesterase is studied. The affinity of proteinkinase to cAMS was found to be in 25000 times lower than the affinity of cAMP, the affinity of cAMS to the active site of phosphodiesterase being high enough. It is suggested that in the regulatory subunit of proteinkinase positive kationic group participates in nucleotide binding by interacting with negative oxygen atom of six-term cyclophosphate system. There is no such a group in the active site of phospodiesterase, because the absence of negative charge in case of cAMS only slightly affects the constant of cAMS binding by phosphodiesterase.

  16. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration.

  17. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  18. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  19. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  20. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  1. 43 CFR 4120.3-5 - Assignment of range improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment of range improvements. 4120.3-5... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-5 Assignment of range improvements. The authorized officer shall not...

  2. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  3. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  4. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  5. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  6. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  7. Metabolism of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and induction of tryptophanase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) metabolism and the induction of tryptophanase and beta-galactosidase was studied in several strains of Escherichia coli grown with succinate, acetate, glycerol, or glucose as the carbon source. No consistent relationship between the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP in the several strains cultured and the various carbon sources was discerned. In E. coli K-12-1 the induction of tryptophanase was found to vary in the order: succinate greater than acetate greater than glycerol greater than glucose, and that of beta-galactosidase was found in the order: glycerol greater than acetate greater than succinate greater than glucose. Rate of accumulation of cyclic AMP in the culture filtrate was in the order: succinate greater than acetate greater than glycerol greater than glucose. The addition of glycerol to E. coli K-12-1 grown in acetate caused inhibition of tryptophanase and slight inhibition of accumulation of extracellular cyclic AMP. These same conditions caused beta-galactosidase induction to be stimulated. The addition of exogenous cyclic AMP to cultures grown with four different carbon sources had an effect characteristic for each of the two enzymes studied as well as each individual carbon source. The results suggest that there are control elements distinct from cyclic AMP and its receptor protein which respond to the catabolic situation of the cell. PMID:170248

  8. Metabolism of 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and 2,3,5- (triglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone in the in situ perfused rat kidney: relationship to nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B A; Davison, K L; Dulik, D M; Monks, T J; Lau, S S

    1994-11-01

    2,3,5-(Triglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ] (20 mumol/kg) and 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [2-(GSyl)-HQ] (250 mumol/kg) both cause nephrotoxicity when administered to male rats, although the former is considerably more potent than the latter. To address the issue of the differential potency of these conjugates we investigated the metabolism and toxicity of 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ and 2-(GSyl)HQ in the in situ perfused rat kidney. Infusion of 5 and 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ into the right renal artery caused a time-dependent elevation in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) excretion into urine produced by both the perfused and the contralateral kidneys. At the lower concentration, gamma-GT excretion was greater from the perfused kidney, whereas gamma-GT excretion from the perfused and contralateral kidneys was the same at the higher concentration. Using HPLC-EC to analyze urine and bile, metabolites of 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ (10 mumol) were observed only within the first 30 min of perfusion. At the lower dose (5 mumol) neither parent compound nor metabolites were found in urine or bile. Infusion of 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)HQ into the right renal artery also caused a time-dependent excretion of gamma-GT into urine: excretion being greater from the perfused kidney. HPLC-EC analysis of urine and bile from 2-(GSyl)HQ perfused kidneys demonstrated the formation of three known metabolites; 2-(N-acetyl-cystein-S-yl)HQ (9.2 +/- 0.5 mumol). 2-(cystein-S-ylglycine)HQ (0.8 +/- 0.3 mumol), and 2-(cystein-S-yl)HQ (1.3 +/- 0.3 mumol). Unchanged 2-(GSyl)HQ was detected in the urine and bile (0.8 +/- 0.1 mumol). A greater fraction of the dose (74%) was recovered in urine following infusion of 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)[14C]HQ than of 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)[14C]HQ (29%). In contrast, a greater fraction of the dose was retained by the kidney following treatment with 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)[14C]HQ than following treatment with 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)[14C]HQ (36 and 11%, respectively). This

  9. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  12. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  14. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  15. Primary Dermal Irritation of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Tetrazine Chemical Abstract 3ervice F ;istry V" 139800-00-2 Lewis--2 Structural formula: C-CH3 H C N-NO2 02 N-N H2 H4X-N Empirical formula: C6H11N7...CHEMICAL DATA Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 139800-00-2 Structural formula

  16. Structural, vibrational spectroscopic and nonlinear optical activity studies on 2-hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-06-01

    The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.

  17. Structural, vibrational spectroscopic and nonlinear optical activity studies on 2-hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine: A DFT approach

    SciTech Connect

    Asath, R. Mohamed; Premkumar, S.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.

    2015-06-24

    The conformational analysis was carried out for 2-Hydroxy- 3, 5-dinitropyridine molecule using potential energy surface scan and the most stable optimized conformer was predicted. The vibrational frequencies and Mulliken atomic charge distribution were calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecule using DFT/B3LYP cc-pVQZ basis set by Gaussian 09 Program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using VEDA 4.0 program. In the Frontier molecular orbitals analysis, the molecular reactivity, kinetic stability, intramolecular charge transfer studies and the calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, global hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index and softness values of the title molecule were carried out. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was studied by means of first order hyperpolarizability, which was computed as 7.64 times greater than urea. The natural bond orbital analysis was performed to confirm the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule.

  18. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  19. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  20. Computational, spectral and structural studies of a new non linear optical crystal: 2-hydroxy pyridinium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya, K.; Dhamodharan, P.; Dhandapani, M.

    2017-02-01

    An organic proton transfer compound, 2-hydroxy pyridinium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (HPDA) was synthesized from 3,5-dinitro benzoic acid and 2 -hydroxy pyridine using methanol:acetone solvent mixture at room temperature and crystallized by solvent evaporation. UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C and DEPT-135 NMR spectroscopic techniques, CHN analysis and TG-DTA were used for characterization. Single crystal XRD analysis was carried out to ascertain the molecular structure. Computational studies that include optimization of molecular geometry, natural bond analysis (NBO), Mulliken population analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis were performed using Gaussian 09 software by B3LYP method at 6-31g basis set level. Hirshfeld analysis indicate O⋯H/H⋯O interactions are the prominent interactions confirming the presence of Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding.The second-order NLO property was assessed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique. Theoretical calculations indicate that hyperpolarizability of the crystal is 38 times greater than urea. The results show that the HPDA may be used for opto-electronic applications.

  1. G3.5 PAMAM Dendrimers Enhance Transepithelial Transport of SN38 while minimizing Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Deborah S.; Vijayalakshmi, Nirmalkumar; Swaan, Peter W.; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown promise in oral drug delivery. Conjugation of SN38 to PAMAM dendrimers has the potential to improve its oral absorption while minimizing gastrointestinal toxicity. In this work we evaluated G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer-SN38 conjugates with ester-linked glycine and β-alanine spacers for their suitability in oral therapy of hepatic colorectal cancer metastases. G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was mostly stable while G3.5-Glycine-SN38 showed 10%, 20%, and 56% SN38 release in simulated gastric, intestinal and liver environments for up to 6, 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Short-term treatment of Caco-2 cells with G3.5-SN38 conjugates did not reduce cell viability, while comparable concentrations of SN38 caused significant cytotoxicity. G3.5-Glycine-SN38 and G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 showed IC50 values of 0.60 and 3.59 μM, respectively, in HT-29 cells treated for 48 hours, indicating the efficacy of the drug delivery system in colorectal cancer cells with longer incubation time. Both conjugates increased SN38 transepithelial transport compared to the free drug. Transport of G3.5-Glycine-SN38 was highly concentration-dependent whereas transport of G3.5-βAlanine-SN38 was concentration-independent, highlighting the influence of drug loading and spacer chemistry on transport mechanism. Together these results show that PAMAM dendrimers have the potential to improve the oral bioavailability of potent anti-cancer drugs. PMID:21115079

  2. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  3. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  4. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  5. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  6. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our continuing effort to discover natural product-based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5-dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Of these, compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 14.7 and 16.2 ppm, respectively). In fur...

  8. [3,5-dimethoxyfenol--marker intoxication with Taxus baccata].

    PubMed

    Stríbrný, J; Dogosi, M; Snupárek, Z; Toupalík, P; Baláz, P; Bartos, P

    2010-07-01

    Autopsy findings of fatal intoxication with yew (Taxus baccata) are nonspecific. A presence of plant residues in the digestive tract can signalize yew intoxication. If yew decoction is consumed, plant residues are not found. In such a case the intoxication can be signalized by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material. Authors of this article describe the proof and quantification of the 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in two cases of fatal intoxication with yew. In both cases the liquid/liquid extraction and solid phase extraction was used. Extracts obtained from the acidic and basic environment were analysed. Extracts from the acidic environment were methylated and the extracts from the basic environment were acetylated. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the blood of both intoxicated persons the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was proved and its concentration 82 ng/ml and 417 ng/ml was quantificated. In both cases the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol was also proved in the gastric contents and urine.

  9. Examining Core Curricula in Writing for Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtz, Jill; McCurdy, Merilee; Roehling, Julia V.

    2015-01-01

    Within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, Tier 1 instruction requires the selection of research-based core curricula. However, many educators and administrators are not aware of high-quality core writing curricula. The authors assembled a rubric to assist schools in evaluating core writing curricula for Grades 3-5. Rubric components…

  10. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  11. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  12. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  13. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  14. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  15. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  16. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  17. 0.4-3.5-micrometer Observations of 4179 Toutatis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, E. S.; Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Binzel, R. P.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtained nearly simultaneous observations of 4179 Toutatis over a 0.3-3.5 micrometer wavelength range on 4 January 1993 UT. Howell obtained a 1.2-2.5 micrometer spectrophotometry using the Multiple Mirror Telescope in Arizona. Britt and Bell obtained narrowband photometry in the 3-micrometer region as well as broadband JHK photometry from the Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. Binzel measured the visible spectrum using a CCD spectrograph at the McGraw-Hill Observatory in Arizona. Using V photometry reported by Pravec in the Czech Republic on adjacent nights [1], we were able to combine all these spectral regions. The rotation period of this object is approximately 10 days, so the time differences between the measurements of different spectral regions are negligible. Tholen has classified 4179 Toutatis as an S-type asteroid based on visible photometry. We measure a pyroxene absorption band near 2 micrometers, present in most S-type asteroid spectra. Unfortunately, a gap in spectral coverage prevents us from determining the characteristics of the 1-micrometer absorption band accurately. The spectral slope as measured from 1.25 to 2.2 micrometers is 6-10%, which is modest compared to other S-type asteroids. The spectrum of this asteroid is similar to other near-Earth S-type asteroids that have been observed in the near-infrared wavelength region. On 4 January 1993, 4179 Toutatis was 0.182 AU from the Earth, and 1.158 AU from the Sun. At this solar distance, the thermal emission contributes substantially to the flux at 3 micrometers. The determination of thermal emission is complicated by the slow rotation rate and the irregular shape of this object that was revealed by radar observations [2]. Preliminary results suggest that no 3-micrometer absorption feature is present, indicating that this object is anhydrous. Using these spectral data, we will compare 4179 Toutatis to other S-type asteroids, both in the main belt and the near-Earth environment. References

  18. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  19. Effect of 0.5 wt % Cu addition in Sn-3.5%Ag solder on the dissolution rate of Cu metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. O.; Chan, Y. C.; Tu, K. N.

    2003-12-01

    The dissolution of thin film under-bump-metallization (UBM) by molten solder has been one of the most serious processing problems in electronic packaging technology. Due to a higher melting temperature and a greater Sn content, a molten lead-free solder such as eutectic SnAg has a faster dissolution rate of thin film UBM than the eutectic SnPb. The work presented in this paper focuses on the role of 0.5 wt % Cu in the base Sn-3.5%Ag solder to reduce the dissolution of the Cu bond pad in ball grid array applications. We found that after 0.5 wt % Cu addition, the rate of dissolution of Cu in the molten Sn-3.5%Ag solder slows down dramatically. Systematic experimental work was carried out to understand the dissolution behavior of Cu by the molten Sn-3.5%Ag and Sn-3.5%Ag-0.5%Cu solders at 230-250 °C, for different time periods ranging from 1 to 10 min. From the curves of consumed Cu thickness, it was concluded that 0.5 wt % Cu addition actually reduces the concentration gradient at the Cu metallization/molten solder interface which reduces the driving force of dissolution. During the dissolution, excess Cu was found to precipitate out due to heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu6Sn5 at the solder melt/oxide interface. In turn, more Cu can be dissolved again. This process continues with time and leads to more dissolution of Cu from the bond pad than the amount expected from the solubility limit, but it occurs at a slower rate for the molten Sn-3.5%Ag-0.5%Cu solder.

  20. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosives hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in cold marine sediment under anaerobic and oligotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Greer, Charles W; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    The in situ degradation of the two nitramine explosives, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), was evaluated using a mixture of RDX and HMX, incubated anaerobically at 10 degrees C with marine sediment from a previous military dumping site of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada. The RDX concentration (14.7 mg.L-1) in the aqueous phase was reduced by half in 4 days, while reduction of HMX concentration (1.2 mg.L-1) by half required 50 days. Supplementation with the carbon sources glucose, acetate, or citrate did not affect the removal rate of RDX but improved removal of HMX. Optimal mineralization of RDX and HMX was obtained in the presence of glucose. Using universally labeled (UL)-[14C]RDX, we obtained a carbon mass balance distributed as follows: CO2, 48%-58%; water soluble products, 27%-31%; acetonitrile extractable products, 2.0%-3.4%; and products covalently bound to the sediments and biomass, 8.9% (in the presence of glucose). The disappearance of RDX was accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and formaldehyde (HCHO) that subsequently disappeared. In the case of HMX, mineralization reached only 13%-27% after 115 days of incubation in the presence or absence of the carbon sources. The disappearance of HMX was also accompanied by the formation of the mononitroso derivative. The total population of psychrotrophic anaerobes that grew at 10 degrees C was 2.6 x 10(3) colony-forming units.(g sediment dry mass)-1, and some psychrotrophic sediment isolates were capable of degrading RDX under conditions similar to those used for sediments. Based on the distribution of products, we suggest that the sediment microorganisms degrade RDX and HMX via an initial reduction to the corresponding mononitroso derivative, followed by denitration and ring cleavage.

  1. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10-15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann-Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  2. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  3. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  4. Seeing experiments with the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Daniel R.; Corson, Charles; Sawyer, David G.

    2000-08-01

    The WIYN 3.5 meter telescope uses active thermal control of the primary mirror and both active and passive ventilation of the observatory enclosure. These features have proven effective for delivering consistently excellent images, and make the WIYN facility an ideal test bed for quantitative measurements of the effects of temperature and ventilation on mirror and dome seeing. We describe the results of seeing experiments conducted over the first four years of operations at the WIYN Observatory.

  5. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  6. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  7. The longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites – pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal – have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology. This work reviews the previous and current techniques used to crystallize RDX at a submicrometer scale or smaller. Several key points are highlighted then discussed, such as the smallest particle size and its morphology, and the scale-up capacity and the versatility of the process. PMID:28326236

  8. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  9. [Interaction of 8-substituted derivatives and adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate esters with protein kinase from pig brain].

    PubMed

    Guliaev, N N; Tunitskaia, V L; Nesterova, M V; Mazurova, L A; Murtuzaev, I M

    1977-11-01

    A synthesis of previously unknown 8-substituted derivatives and alkyl esters of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate, containing reactive groups, was carried out. The interaction of the compounds obtained with a homogeneous preparation of protein kinase from pig brain was studied. It was found that all compounds, with the exception of neutral esters of 3',5'-AMP, activate the enzyme and competitively inhibit 3H-labelled 3',5'-cAMP binding by the regulatory subunit of protein kinase. The activating effect and affinity of 8-(beta-aminoethylamino)-3',5'-cAMP for protein kinase was 10 times lower than that for 3',5'-cAMP and other 8-substituted derivatives of the cyclic nucleotide. It was found that 8-(N-chloroacetylaminoethylamino)-3',5'-cAMP interaction with the enzyme is of irreversible type, which suggest covalent blocking of the nucleophilic group of the 3',5'-cAMP binding site of protein kinase. The data obtained indicate that the 3',5'-cAMP molecule is bound to the regulatory site of protein kinase in the syn-conformation. The previously made assumption on the crucial importance of the negative charge in the 3',5'-cyclophosphate system for the interaction of cyclic AMP with the regulatory subunit of protein kinase has been thus confirmed.

  10. ANIMO 3.5: User`s guide for the ANIMO version 3.5 nutrient leaching model

    SciTech Connect

    Kroes, J.; Roelsma, J.

    1998-12-31

    This document presents a description of the use of the nutrient leaching model ANIMO (Agricultural Nutrient Model) version 3.5 with special emphasis for input instructions. Each input parameter is characterized by its unit, range, data type, variable name in computer code and symbol in theoretical description, Program outputs and program execution are briefly given. An example is presented with values of input parameters and model results. A technical program description is given as a brief description of program structure, nomenclature, and source code.

  11. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of metamorphic complexes in the conjunction of the Greater and Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China: Timing of formation and metamorphism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fuqin; Zhu, Mingshuai; Liu, Dunyi

    2015-12-01

    Metamorphic complexes, including the Luomahu, Xinkailing and Fengshuigouhe groups, are scattered in the conjunction of the Greater and the Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China, and have long been interpreted to represent the Precambrian basement of the so-called "Xing'an" and "Songnen" blocks although reliable evidence is lacking. Thin-section examination and mineral assemblage indicate that the protoliths of these metamorphic rocks are mainly meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks and have experienced greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism and strong deformation. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of the metamorphic complexes and associated pre- or syn-kinematic veins constrained the formation and metamorphic ages of the Luomahuo Group at 175 ± 3 Ma and 159 ± 3 Ma, the Xingkailing Group at 200 ± 2 Ma and 158 ± 3 Ma, and the Fengshuigouhe Group at between 230-310 Ma and 170 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Additionally, all these rocks contain some Late Paleozoic detrital or inherited zircons with ages between 290-390 Ma, but no Precambrian, even if Early Paleozoic, age information was detected from these metamorphic rocks. These new data suggest that the metamorphic complexes were formed during Mesozoic-Late Paleozoic period, rather than in Precambrian as previously inferred, and that all of them underwent metamorphism and deformation during Middle Jurassic between 170-160 Ma. Consequently, these metamorphic complexes are not basement rocks of the so-called Precambrian continental blocks. Instead, there are likely metamorphosed Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic accretionary complexes and/or arc terranes. These results, in combination with published data, illustrate an overall young trend from north to south in the tectonic evolution of the northern Xing'an region. Significantly, the Jurassic (170-160 Ma) metamorphism and deformation event firstly identified by this study from the metamorphic complexes likely recorded the coinstantaneous Mongol-Okhotsk collisional and

  12. 3'-5' tRNAHis Guanylyltransferase in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Ilka; Randau, Lennart; Tomko, Robert J.; Söll, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the histidine specific transfer RNA (tRNAHis) is largely determined by a unique guanosine residue at position −1. In eukaryotes and archaea, the tRNAHis guanylyltransferase (Thg1) catalyzes 3'-5' addition of G to the 5'-terminus of tRNAHis. Here, we show that Thg1 also occurs in bacteria. We demonstrate in vitro Thg1 activity for recombinant enzymes from the two bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Myxococcus xanthus and provide a closer investigation of several archaeal Thg1. The reaction mechanism of prokaryotic Thg1 differs from eukaryotic enzymes, as it does not require ATP. Complementation of a yeast thg1 knockout strain with bacterial Thg1 verified in vivo activity and suggests a relaxed recognition of the discriminator base in bacteria. PMID:20650272

  13. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions.

  14. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron attachment to hydrated oligonucleotide dimers: guanylyl-3',5'-cytidine and cytidylyl-3',5'-guanosine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-05-03

    The dinucleoside phosphate deoxycytidylyl-3',5'-deoxyguanosine (dCpdG) and deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine (dGpdC) systems are among the largest to be studied by reliable theoretical methods. Exploring electron attachment to these subunits of DNA single strands provides significant progress toward definitive predictions of the electron affinities of DNA single strands. The adiabatic electron affinities of the oligonucleotides are found to be sequence dependent. Deoxycytidine (dC) on the 5' end, dCpdG, has larger adiabatic electron affinity (AEA, 0.90 eV) than dC on the 3' end of the oligomer (dGpdC, 0.66 eV). The geometric features, molecular orbital analyses, and charge distribution studies for the radical anions of the cytidine-containing oligonucleotides demonstrate that the excess electron in these anionic systems is dominantly located on the cytosine nucleobase moiety. The pi-stacking interaction between nucleobases G and C seems unlikely to improve the electron-capturing ability of the oligonucleotide dimers. The influence of the neighboring base on the electron-capturing ability of cytosine should be attributed to the intensified proton accepting-donating interaction between the bases. The present investigation demonstrates that the vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of the radical anions of the oligonucleotides dGpdC and dCpdG are significantly larger than those of the corresponding nucleotides. Consequently, reactions with low activation barriers, such as those for O-C sigma bond and N-glycosidic bond breakage, might be expected for the radical anions of the guanosine-cytosine mixed oligonucleotides.

  16. Ambient Temperature Ultrasonic Bonding of Si-Dice Using Sn-3.5wt.%Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Mo; Jung, Jae-Pil; Zhou, Y. Norman; Kim, Jong-Young

    2008-03-01

    Ultrasonic bonding of Si-dice to type FR-4 printed circuit boards (PCB) with Sn-3.5wt.%Ag solder at ambient temperature was investigated. The under-bump metallization (UBM) on the Si-dice comprised Cu/Ni/Al from top to bottom with thicknesses of 0.4 μm, 0.4 μm, and 0.3 μm, respectively. The pads on the PCBs consisted of Au/Ni/Cu with thicknesses of 0.05/5/18 μm, sequentially from top to bottom. Solder was supplied as Sn-3.5wt.%Ag foil rolled to 100 μm thickness, and inserted in the joints. The ultrasonic bonding time was varied from 0.5 s to 3.0 s, and the ultrasonic power was 1400 W. The experimental results showed that reliable joints could be produced between the Si-dice and the PCBs with Sn-3.5wt.%Ag solder. The joint breaking force of “Si-die/solder/FR-4” increased with bonding times up to 2.5 s with a maximum value of 65 N. A bonding time of 3.0 s proved to be excessive, and resulted in cracks along the intermetallic compound between the UBM and solder, which caused a decrease in the bond strength. The intermetallic compound produced by ultrasonic bonding between the UBM and solder was confirmed to be (Cu, Ni)6Sn5.

  17. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services. PMID:19132096

  18. Generating technique for U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.

    2008-09-15

    We develop a generating technique for solutions of U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity via dimensional reduction to three dimensions. This theory, which recently attracted attention in connection with black rings, can be viewed as a consistent truncation of the T{sup 6} compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Its further reduction to three dimensions accompanied by dualization of the vector fields leads to a 3D gravity coupled sigma model on the homogeneous space SO(4,4)/SO(4)xSO(4) or SO(4,4)/SO(2,2)xSO(2,2) depending on the signature of the three-space. We construct a 8x8 matrix representation of these cosets in terms of lower-dimensional blocks. Using it we express a solution generating transformations in terms of potentials and identify those preserving asymptotic conditions relevant to black holes and black rings. As an application we derive the doubly rotating black hole solution with three independent charges. A suitable contraction of the above cosets is used to construct a new representation of the coset G{sub 2(2)}/(SL(2,R)xSL(2,R)) relevant for minimal five-dimensional supergravity.

  19. Staphylococcus epidermidis Csm1 is a 3'-5' exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Nancy F; Tang, Li; Cocozaki, Alexis I; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) offer an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and archaea from nucleic acid invaders through an RNA-mediated nucleic acid cleavage mechanism. Our knowledge of nucleic acid cleavage mechanisms is limited to three examples of widely different ribonucleoprotein particles that target either DNA or RNA. Staphylococcus epidermidis belongs to the Type III-A CRISPR system and has been shown to interfere with invading DNA in vivo. The Type III-A CRISPR system is characterized by the presence of Csm1, a member of Cas10 family of proteins, that has a permuted histidine-aspartate domain and a nucleotidyl cyclase-like domain, both of which contain sequence features characteristic of nucleases. In this work, we show in vitro that a recombinant S. epidermidis Csm1 cleaves single-stranded DNA and RNA exonucleolytically in the 3'-5' direction. We further showed that both cleavage activities are divalent-metal-dependent and reside in the GGDD motif of the cyclase-like domain. Our data suggest that Csm1 may work in the context of an effector complex to degrade invading DNA and participate in CRISPR RNA maturation.

  20. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  1. Vibrational spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and deuterated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Orza, J M; García, M V; Alkorta, I; Elguero, J

    2000-07-01

    The infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole have been recorded in the vapor, liquid (melt and solution) and solid states. Two deuterated derivatives, C5H7N-ND and C5D7N-NH, were also studied in solid state and in solutions. Instrumental resolution was relatively low, 2.0 cm(-1) in the IR and approximately 2.7 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. The solids are made of cyclic hydrogen-bonded trimers. These trimers, present also in chloroform and acetone solutions, give rise to characteristic high absorption IR spectra in the 3200-2500 cm(-1) region, related to Fermi resonance involving nu(NH) vibrations. Bands from trimers are not present in water solutions but these solutions show spectral features similar in several ways to those of the trimer, attributable to solvent-bonded complexes. Evidence of H-bonding interactions with the other solvents is also visible in the high-frequency region. The two very intense bands in the Raman spectra of the solids appearing at 115 and 82 cm(-1) in the parent compound are also connected with a trimer formation. To interpret the experimental data, ab initio computations of the harmonic vibrational frequencies and IR and Raman intensities were carried out using the Gaussian 94 program package after full optimization at the RHF/6-31G* level for the three monomeric compounds as well as for three models of the trimer, with C3h, C3 and C1 symmetry. The combined use of experiments and computations allow a firm assignment of most of the observed bands for all the systems. In general, the agreement between theory and experiment is very good, with the exception of the IR and Raman intensities of some transitions. Particularly noticeable is the failure of the theoretical calculation in accounting for the high intensity of the Raman bands of the solid about 115 and 82 cm(-1).

  2. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  3. In vivo stimulation of sugar uptake in rat thymocytes. An extranuclear action of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, J; Ingbar, S H

    1985-01-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in vitro produces a prompt increase in the uptake of the sugar analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) by freshly isolated rat thymocytes. This effect is prompt, being evident at 20 min after addition of T3, is independent of new protein synthesis, and can be elicited by physiologic concentrations of the hormone. In the present studies, we have sought to determine whether physiologic doses of T3 are capable of inducing an increase in 2-DG uptake in the thymocytes of the living animal. Therefore, 26-28-d-old female rats were injected with increasing doses of i.v. T3, followed 60 min later by 3H-labeled 2-DG. 30 min later, animals were killed, thymocytes were isolated, and their 3H content determined. Uptake of [3H]2-DG was increased by T3 in a dose-dependent manner. The lowest effective dose was 10 ng/100 g of body weight (30% above control) and the maximally effective dose 1 microgram/100 g of body weight (116% above control). The effect of T3 was independent of new protein synthesis in that it was not blocked by a dose of cycloheximide that inhibited the incorporation of [3H]leucine into thymocyte protein by 92-95%. Comparable studies with various thyronine analogues revealed the following rank order of potency: L-T3 greater than L-3,5,3'5'-tetraiodothyronine (L-T4) greater than D-T3 greater than or equal to D-T4 greater than L-3,3'5'-triiodothyronine greater than 3'-isopropyl-3,5-L-diiodothyronine (T2) = 3,5-L-T2. DL-thyronine was without effect. These studies indicate that T3 in physiologic doses acts in vivo to increase the uptake of sugar by rat thymocytes by a mechanism that is extranuclear in origin, in that it is independent of new protein synthesis. The findings support the conclusion that the previously demonstrated effects of T3 on thymocyte sugar uptake in vitro, which seem clearly to be mediated at the level of the plasma membrane, have physiologic relevance. PMID:4056041

  4. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... because of conflict of position. (b) Time for Preparation and Presentation. (1) A Volunteer's representative, if a Volunteer or an employee of ACTION, must be given a reasonable amount of time off from assignment to present the appeal. (2) ACTION will not pay travel expenses or per diem travel allowances...

  5. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-02-14

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p < 0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  6. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes.

  7. Latino Children's Body Mass Index at 2–3.5 Years Predicts Sympathetic Nervous System Activity at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Tambellini, Katelyn; Lustig, Robert H.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand whether the relationship between young children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses predicted their BMI, or vice versa, the association between standardized BMI (zBMI) at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age and ANS reactivity at 3.5–5 years of age, and whether zBMI predicts later ANS reactivity or whether early ANS reactivity predicts later zBMI, was studied. Methods: Low-income, primarily Latino children (n=112) were part of a larger cohort study of mothers recruited during early pregnancy. Study measures included maternal prenatal weight, children's health behaviors (i.e., time watching television, fast food consumption, and time playing outdoors), children's height and weight at 2, 3.5, and 5 years, and children's ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years. ANS measures of sympathetic nervous system (i.e., pre-ejection period) and parasympathetic nervous system (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) activity were monitored during rest and four challenges. Reactivity was calculated as the difference between mean challenge response and rest. Structural equation models analyzed the relationship between children's zBMI at 2, 3.5, and 5 years and ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years, adjusting for mother's BMI, children's behaviors, and changes in height. Results: There was no association between zBMI and ANS cross-sectionally. Children with high zBMI at 2 or 3.5 years or large zBMI increases from 2 to 3.5 years of age had decreased sympathetic activity at 5 years. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic reactivity at 3.5 years predicted later zBMI. Conclusions: Increased zBMI early in childhood may dampen young children's SNS responses later in life. PMID:24745554

  8. PoroTomo Subtask 3.5 GPS Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Corne Kreemer

    2015-09-17

    CSV files with links to RINEX data for stations BRAD and BRDY for all days after those reported previous (i.e., since 21-JAN-2015) Links to websites that show the position time-series of both stations.

  9. [Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the conformation in nucleotides, oligonucleotides, and their analogs. I. Conformation of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphate and its analogs in aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Bobruskin, I D; Guliaev, N N; Kirpichnikov, M P; Severin, E S; Tunitskaia, V A

    1979-01-01

    Conformation in aqueous solution of adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate, 8-(beta-aminoethylamino) adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate, 8-(beta-oxiethylamino) adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate, 8-(carboxymethylamino) adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate and their non-cyclic analogs has been studied by NMR spectroscopy. The conformational situation in the model of dynamic equilibrium of sin- and anti-states has been described on the basis of spinlattice relaxation times and temperature dependences of chemical shifts. Adenosine-3',5'-cyclophosphate has been demonstrated to exist mainly in anti-conformation while 8-substituted analogs -- in sin-conformation. Equilibrium constants have been calculated for the compounds under study.

  10. The Role of Biotransformation and Oxidative Stress in 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) Induced Nephrotoxicity in Isolated Renal Cortical Cells from Male Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Christopher R.; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O.

    2016-01-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-Dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (~4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0 mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0 mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5 mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0 mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  11. Testing the Axion-Conversion Hypothesis of 3.5 keV Emission with Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yan; Chen, Xuelei; Feng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The recently measured 3.5 keV line in a number of galaxy clusters, the Andromeda galaxy (M31), and the Milky Way (MW) center can be well accounted for by a scenario in which dark matter decays to axionlike particles (ALPs) and subsequently convert to 3.5 keV photons in magnetic fields of galaxy clusters or galaxies. We propose to test this hypothesis by performing x-ray polarization measurements. Since ALPs can only couple to photons with a polarization orientation parallel to the magnetic field, we can confirm or reject this model by measuring the polarization of the 3.5 keV line and compare it to the orientation of the magnetic field. We discuss luminosity and polarization measurements for both a galaxy cluster and spiral galaxy, and provide a general relation between the polarization and galaxy inclination angle. This effect is marginally detectable with x-ray polarimetry detectors currently under development, such as the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarization satellite, the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer and the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer. The sensitivity can be further improved in the future with detectors of a larger effective area or better energy resolutions.

  12. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Build a Bird House. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students construct bird nests and birdhouses. Students research a bird of their choice in order to design a house that will meet that bird's specific needs. The activity works well in conjunction with a high school level woodshop class where students would partner up. This activity requires an 80-minute time period for…

  14. Novel dinuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato and tetranuclear dimethylamido-3,5-dimethylpyrazolato-polyoxo zirconium(IV) complexes. Synthesis and structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Martial; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2009-04-14

    The dinuclear dimethylamido-tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)-zirconium(IV) complex [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 1 is prepared by treatment of [Zr(NMe2)4] with 3 equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (3,5-Me2PzH) with elimination of dimethylamine. When [Zr(NMe2)4] reacted with 2 equivalents of 3,5-Me2PzH, the bis(dimethylamido)-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolato)zirconium(IV) compound [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)2(NMe2)2]2 2 is obtained. Hydrolysis of [Zr(3,5-Me2Pz)3(NMe2)]2 in wet toluene affords the tetranuclear oxo compound [Zr4(eta2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(NMe2)2(mu3-O)2(mu2-3,5-Me2Pz)4(mu2-NMe2)2] . All synthesised compounds are characterised by NMR spectroscopic and analytical methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis has established the molecular structures of 1 and 4.

  15. Solid phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatographic determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ashok Kumar; Rai, Parmod Kumar

    2008-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed using preconcentration technique solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analytical technique HPLC-UV for the determination of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from the environmental samples. Aqueous solution of anionic surfactant SDS was used for the extraction of both nitramine high explosives, viz., HMX and RDX from soil samples which were subsequently sorbed on SPME fiber. The static desorption was carried out in the desorption chamber of the SPME-HPLC interface in the presence of mobile phase ACN/methanol/water (30:35:35) and the subsequent chromatographic analysis at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and detection at 230 nm. For this purpose, a C(18), 5 microm RP analytical column was used as a separation medium in this method. Several parameters relating to SPME, e.g., adsorption/desorption time, concentration of salt, stirring rate, etc., were optimized. The method was linear over the range of 20-400 ng/mL for HMX and RDX standards in the presence of surfactant in aqueous phase, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) for HMX and RDX are 0.9998 and 0.9982, respectively. With SPME, the detection limits (S/N = 3) in ng/mL are 0.05 and 0.1 for HMX and RDX, respectively in the presence of the SDS surfactant. The developed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of real environmental samples like bore well water, river water, and ground alluvial soil.

  16. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave.

    PubMed

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M

    1977-07-01

    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  17. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  18. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  19. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors.

  20. 3.5 billion years of reshaped Moho, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    According to some previous studies, Archean continental crust is, on global average, apparently thinner than Proterozoic crust. Subsequently, the validity of this statement has been questioned. To provide an additional perspective on this issue, we present analyses of Moho signatures derived from recent seismic data along swaths 2000 km in length across southern Africa and its flanking ocean. The imaged crust has a near continuous age range between ca. 0.1 and 3.7 billion years, and the seismic data allow direct comparison of Moho depths between adjacent Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crust. We find no simple secular change in depth to Moho over this time period. In contrast, there is significant variation in depth to Moho beneath both Archean and Proterozoic crust; Archean crust of southern Africa displays as much crustal diversity in thickness as the adjacent Proterozoic crust. The Moho beneath all crustal provinces that we have analysed has been severely altered by tectono-metamorphic and igneous processes, in many cases more than once, and cannot provide unequivocal data for geodynamic models dealing with secular changes in continental crust formation. These results and conclusions are similar to those documented along ca. 2000 km swaths across the Canadian Shield recorded by Lithoprobe. Tying the age and character of the Precambrian crust of southern Africa to their depth diversities is clearly related to manifold processes of tectono-thermal ‘surgery’ subsequent to their origin, the details of which are still to be resolved, as they are in most Precambrian terranes. Reconstructing pristine Moho of the early Earth therefore remains a formidable challenge. In South Africa, better knowledge of ‘fossilised’ Archean crustal sections ‘turned-on-edge’, such as at the Vredefort impact crater (for the continental crust), and from the Barberton greenstone belt (for oceanic crust) is needed to characterize potential pristine Archean Moho transitions.

  1. 75 FR 55327 - Tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione (Dazomet); Notice of Receipt of Request to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... withdraws its request. If this request is granted, any sale, distribution, or use of products listed in this... voluntarily amend two tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione product registrations to terminate...- thione products registered for use in the United States. EPA intends to grant this request at the...

  2. Trinuclear rare earth metal complexes based on 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis inositol as catalysts for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Calatayud Sala, José Miguel; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2011-02-14

    Trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [M₃(taciH₋₃)₂](3+) (M = La(3+), Y(3+)), based on a rigid polyamino-polyalcohol ligand 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci), are proven to be efficient catalysts for the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phophate (HPNP), a commonly used RNA model system.

  3. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  4. Acute Oral Toxicity of 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (Sex) in Male and Female Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    flame proof cabinet at room temperature. %.. White--2 Chemical name: 1-Acetyloctahydro-3,5,7-Trinitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine Chemical Abstract Service...Trinitrocyclotetramethylenetetramine Chemical Abstract Service Registry No.: 13980-00-2 Structural formula: 0 11 C-CH 0 2 N-N CH2 HC-N NO 2 , Empirical formula: C6H1

  5. VERA and VERA-EDU 3.5 Release Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Sieger, Matt; Salko, Robert K.; Kochunas, Brendan M.; Adams, Brian M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2016-07-26

    The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications components included in this distribution include selected computational tools and supporting infrastructure that solve neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, fuel performance, and coupled neutronics-thermal hydraulics problems. The infrastructure components provide a simplified common user input capability and provide for the physics integration with data transfer and coupled-physics iterative solution algorithms. Neutronics analysis can be performed for 2D lattices, 2D core and 3D core problems for pressurized water reactor geometries that can be used to calculate criticality and fission rate distributions by pin for input fuel compositions. MPACT uses the Method of Characteristics transport approach for 2D problems. For 3D problems, MPACT uses the 2D/1D method which uses 2D MOC in a radial plane and diffusion or SPn in the axial direction. MPACT includes integrated cross section capabilities that provide problem-specific cross sections generated using the subgroup methodology. The code can be executed both 2D and 3D problems in parallel to reduce overall run time. A thermal-hydraulics capability is provided with CTF (an updated version of COBRA-TF) that allows thermal-hydraulics analyses for single and multiple assemblies using the simplified VERA common input. This distribution also includes coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities to allow calculations using MPACT coupled with CTF. The VERA fuel rod performance component BISON calculates, on a 2D or 3D basis, fuel rod temperature, fuel rod internal pressure, free gas volume, clad integrity and fuel rod waterside diameter. These capabilities allow simulation of power cycling, fuel conditioning and deconditioning, high burnup performance, power uprate scoping studies, and accident performance. Input/Output capabilities include the VERA Common Input (VERAIn) script which converts the ASCII common input file to the intermediate XML used to drive all of the physics

  6. Spectrophotometric analyses of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in water.

    PubMed

    Shi, Cong; Xu, Zhonghou; Smolinski, Benjamin L; Arienti, Per M; O'Connor, Gregory; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for on-site analysis of royal demolition explosive (RDX) in water samples was developed based on the Berthelot reaction. The sensitivity and accuracy of an existing spectrophotometric method was improved by: replacing toxic chemicals with more stable and safer reagents; optimizing the reagent dose and reaction time; improving color stability; and eliminating the interference from inorganic nitrogen compounds in water samples. Cation and anion exchange resin cartridges were developed and used for sample pretreatment to eliminate the effect of ammonia and nitrate on RDX analyses. The detection limit of the method was determined to be 100 μg/L. The method was used successfully for analysis of RDX in untreated industrial wastewater samples. It can be used for on-site monitoring of RDX in wastewater for early detection of chemical spills and failure of wastewater treatment systems.

  7. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in zebrafish: General and reproductive toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed-sex populations of young adult zebrafish (???2-month-old) were exposed to measured RDX concentrations of 0, 1 or 9.6 ppm for up to 12 weeks followed by a 15-day rearing period in untreated water. RDX caused high mortality at 9.6 ppm, with most deaths occurring within the first 8 weeks of exposure. RDX at 9.6 ppm caused lower body weights at 4 and 8 weeks of exposure; and at 1 ppm, lower body weight was observed only at 4 weeks. Fish length was not affected by treatment at any time during the exposure period. The bioconcentration factor for RDX seemed to be influenced by time of exposure but not by water RDX concentration; its overall values were 1.01 ?? 0.13, 0.91 ?? 0.06 and 2.23 ?? 0.04 at 4, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. RDX was not detected in fish collected after the 15-day recovery period. In a separate experiment, adult females and males were separately exposed to RDX at measured concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 3.2 ppm for a period of 6 weeks. Reproductive performance was evaluated by biweekly breeding of the fish and measuring packed-egg volume (PEV) as index of fecundity. At 0.5 ppm, RDX caused elevated PEV levels relative to the control value at 2 weeks but not at 4 or 6 weeks, whereas no significant effects were noted at 3.2 ppm. Egg fertilization and embryo hatching rates were not affected by RDX at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, RDX at sublethal concentrations causes short-term negative effects on growth and, at 0.5 ppm, positive effects on fecundity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  9. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  10. Widespread effusive volcanism on Mercury likely ended by about 3.5 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Chapman, Clark R.; Denevi, Brett W.; Evans, Alexander J.; Klimczak, Christian; Banks, Maria E.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-07-01

    Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that the largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury were emplaced around 3.7 Ga, as determined with recent model production function chronologies for impact crater formation on that planet. To test the hypothesis that all major smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced by about that time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for the nine next-largest deposits, which we interpret also as volcanic. Our crater density measurements are consistent with those of the largest areas of smooth plains on the planet. Model ages based on recent crater production rate estimates for Mercury imply that the main phase of plains volcanism on Mercury had ended by ~3.5 Ga, with only small-scale volcanism enduring beyond that time. Cessation of widespread effusive volcanism is attributable to interior cooling and contraction of the innermost planet.

  11. Effects of inorganic seed aerosols on the particulate products of aged 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Hao, Liqing; Cai, Shunyou; Gu, Xuejun; Zhang, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Wang, Zhenya; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic aerosols such as (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3 and CaCl2 are commonly present in the Chinese urban atmosphere. They could significantly affect the formation and aging of ambient secondary organic aerosols (SOA), but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this work we studied SOA formation from the photooxidation reaction of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135-TMB) with 100 μg/m3 of the above three types of inorganic aerosols as seeds in a laboratory chamber. We focused on the aging products of SOA particles by exposing them to high levels of oxidizing hydroxyl radicals (OH). The particulate products of SOA were measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) were applied to organic mass spectra for clustering. In the presence of (NH4)2SO4 seeds, 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-methyl-imidazole-2-acetaldehyde and other imidazole derivative compounds formed from reactions of NH4+ with methylglyoxal were detected as new aged products. We also observed aromatic nitrogen-containing organic compounds as the major aged products in the presence of NaNO3 seeds as a consequence of reaction with OH and NO2 radicals, which were generated by UV irradiation of acidic aqueous nitrate, inducing nitration reactions with phenolic compounds. As CaCl2 has the strongest hygroscopic properties of the three salt particles tested, the greater water content on the surface of the aerosol may facilitate the condensing of more gas-phase organic acid products to the hygroscopic CaCl2 seeds, forming H+ ions that catalyze the heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes, products of photooxidation of 135-TMB, and forming high-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds. These results provide new insight into the aromatic SOA aging mechanisms.

  12. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  13. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  14. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  15. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  16. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.5 Lost and found,...

  17. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  18. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  19. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  20. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  1. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  2. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  7. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  8. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  9. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  10. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  12. Excited State Processes for Aqueous Rh(NH3)5Cl(2+) and Rh(NH3)5Br(2+).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-10

    white precipitate of Rh(NH3)5(H20)) Br3 was collected and dried overnight at 110-0 C. The resulting yellow product was recrystallized from water/HClO4 to...aquation. In all cases, product concentrations were corrected for the usually small degree of dark or thermal reaction. Pulsed Laser Experiments. The...direct photochemical production . According to Palmer and Harris [16] the reaction Rh(NH 3)5(OH) 2+ + C02(aq) = Rh(NH 3)5(Co3) + + H+ occurs with a rate

  13. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and <111>-oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  14. Modification of amino acids at shock pressures of 3.5 to 32 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Etta; Horz, Friedrich; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-09-01

    Amino acids were subjected to shock impact over a pressure range of 3.5 to 32 GPa both within and without meteoritic mineral matrices. The extent of amino acid destruction, racemization, and conversion to secondary amino acids was examined. Abundances of parent compounds decreased by a factor of 10 3 over this pressure range. Racemization also occurred, but some residual optical activity remained in the amino acids surviving shocks up to 32 GPa. Secondary amino acids formed in the high peak pressure range; those identified were β-alanine, glycine, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and β-aminoisobutyric acid. At 30 GPa, the abundances of these daughter compounds exceeded those of the remaining initial amino acids. As the concomitant effects of high mechanical stress and temperature accompanying shocks cannot be separated in this work, their relative contribution to the observed transformations cannot be estimated. The survival of amino acids in shock experiments suggests that, after formation or emplacement of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies, these objects never experienced impact velocities greater than 5 km/s, which suffices to generate 30 GPa for typical silicate/silicate impacts. These results also provide guidelines for choosing appropriate capture media for interplanetary dust particles on Earth-orbiting platforms.

  15. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting of perfect crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L.

    2006-08-01

    The melting mechanism of superheated perfect crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (α-RDX) has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with the fully flexible force field developed by Smith and Bharadwaj [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3570 (1999)]. Sequential 50ps equilibration simulations of the constant stress-constant temperature ensemble were performed at 10K intervals over the range of 300-650K, corresponding to a heating rate of 2.0×1011K/s. A solid-solid phase transition is observed between 480 and 490K, followed by melting, which occurs between 500 and 510K. The solid-solid phase transition, both displacive and rotational, is characterized by an abrupt decrease in the lengths of the unit cell edges a and b and an increase of the length of edge c. The molecular conformation in the new phase is AAE, although the axial nitro groups have different changes: one shift is more axial and the other is more equatorial. Phases other than α-RDX have been observed experimentally, however, there are insufficient data for comparisons to ascertain that the new phase observed here corresponds to a real phase. At the high heating rate (2.0×1011K /s) used in the simulations, the melted RDX reaches full orientational disorder at about 540K and translational freedom at around 580K. If the simulation at the melting temperature (510K) is run sufficiently long complete rotational freedom is achieved in a few hundreds of picoseconds, while complete translational freedom requires much longer. These results show that given a sufficiently high heating rate, the system can exist for significant periods of time in a near-liquid state in which the molecules are not as free to rotate and diffuse as in the true liquid state. The bond lengths and bond angles undergo little change upon melting, while there are significant changes in the dihedral angles. The molecular conformation of RDX changes from AAE to EEE upon melting. The ramification of this for formulating

  17. [Acceptor activity of 4-N-acetylcytidine in the synthesis of (3'-5')-internucleotide bond catalyzed by pancreatic nuclease].

    PubMed

    Kavunenko, A P; Piaĭvinen, E A; Tikhomirova-Sidorova, N S

    1976-04-01

    Cytidine and 4-N-acetylcytidine were compared as phosphate acceptors in dinucleoside monophosphate synthesis catalyzed by pancreatic ribonuclease with uridine-2',3'-cyclophosphate and cytidine-2',3'-cyclo phosphate as phosphate donors. Because of low solubility of 4-N-acetylcytidine in water, the synthesis was carried out in aqueus-organic media. The results obtained indicate that acetylation of the exoaminogroup of cytidine decreases its acceptor activity. For the first time uridilyl-(3'-5')-4-N-acetylcytidine and cytidilyl-(3'-5')-4-N-acetylcytidine are prepared enzymatically by pancreatic ribonuclease.

  18. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation.

  19. Microscopic Haematuria and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Stage 3-5 Nondiabetic Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    You-Hsien Lin, Hugo; Yen, Chun-Yu; Lim, Lee-Moay; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Hung, Chi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-10-16

    Microscopic haematuria is proposed as a prognostic factor for renal outcomes in patients with glomerulonephritis. However, the role of haematuria in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or heavy proteinuria has not been investigated. We divided 1799 patients with stage 3-5 nondiabetic CKD into 3 groups according to the results from 3 urinalyses: no haematuria (0-2 red blood cells [RBCs]/hpf ≥2 times), mild haematuria (2-5 RBCs/hpf ≥2 times) and moderate haematuria (≥5-10 RBCs/hpf ≥2 times). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was 25.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) of 881 mg/g. The hazard ratios (HRs) of mild and moderate haematuria for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.56, P = 0.024) and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.03-1.74, P = 0.030), respectively. The HR of moderate haematuria for mortality was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.11-2.20, P = 0.011). According to subgroup analysis, the HR of moderate haematuria for ESRD in patients with a UPCR of <500 mg/g was more prominent than that in patients with a UPCR of ≥500 mg/g. Microscopic haematuria in patients with stage 3-5 nondiabetic CKD is associated with increased risks of ESRD and mortality.

  20. In vivo metabolism of N-phenyl-N'-(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-4-yl) thiourea in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaymakcioğlu, Bedia Koçyiğit; Rollas, Sevim; Kartal-Aricioğlu, Feyza

    2003-01-01

    Thiourea derivatives have been shown to posses several biological activities. Therefore a series of N-substituted -N'-(3,5-di/1,3,5trimethylpyrazole-4-yl)thioureas were synthesized and the antitubercular and anticonvulsant activities were studied. Among the new compounds, N-phenyl-N'-(3,5-dimethylpyrazole4-yl)thiourea (S) was demonstrated to have remarkable anticonvulsant activity. In this study, S was selected as a model compound and the in vivo metabolic pathway in rats was investigated. The substrate was given intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg) and blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. The substrate and its potential metabolites were separated using HPLC on reverse phase system. The substrate was detected at all times with small quantity of metabolites.

  1. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  2. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  3. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  4. [(Sp)-8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate induced differentiation on human leukemia HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Su, J; Yang, X B; Wang, L X; Xu, B; Zhang, L H

    1996-01-01

    (Sp)-octyl 8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate(OCC), a newly synthesized cAMP analog, strongly induced growth inhibition and differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells. The effects were dose- and time-dependent and irreversible. In flow cytometry, OCC brought about a block at the G1 phase of HL-60 cell cycle. Determined by incorporation assay, OCC was shown to strongly inhibit DNA synthesis without affecting the synthesis of RNA and protein in HL-60 cells. OCC activated the protein kinase A(PKA) in the cytosol of HL-60 cells and inhibited its binding to cAMP. The activities of PKA in the cytosol of HL-60 cells treated with OCC were more significantly increased than those in control cells. It can be concluded that OCC binds itself to PKA in competition with cAMP and, as a result, activates PKA.

  5. Subthreshold Ξ- Production in Collisions of p (3.5 GeV )+Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Müntzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.; Hades Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Results on the production of the double strange cascade hyperon Ξ- are reported for collisions of p (3.5 GeV )+Nb , studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. For the first time, subthreshold Ξ- production is observed in proton-nucleus interactions. Assuming a Ξ- phase-space distribution similar to that of Λ hyperons, the production probability amounts to PΞ-=[2.0 ±0.4 (stat)±0.3 (norm)±0.6 (syst)]×1 0-4 resulting in a Ξ-/(Λ +Σ0) ratio of PΞ-/PΛ +Σ0=[1.2 ±0.3 (stat)±0.4 (syst)]×1 0-2 . Available model predictions are significantly lower than the measured Ξ- yield.

  6. Subthreshold Ξ^{-} production in collisions of p(3.5  GeV)+Nb.

    PubMed

    Agakishiev, G; Arnold, O; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A V; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Chernenko, S; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O V; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; González-Díaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Müntz, C; Müntzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y V

    2015-05-29

    Results on the production of the double strange cascade hyperon Ξ^{-} are reported for collisions of p(3.5  GeV)+Nb, studied with the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. For the first time, subthreshold Ξ^{-} production is observed in proton-nucleus interactions. Assuming a Ξ^{-} phase-space distribution similar to that of Λ hyperons, the production probability amounts to P_{Ξ^{-}}=[2.0±0.4(stat)±0.3(norm)±0.6(syst)]×10^{-4} resulting in a Ξ^{-}/(Λ+Σ^{0}) ratio of P_{Ξ^{-}}/P_{Λ+Σ^{0}}=[1.2±0.3(stat)±0.4(syst)]×10^{-2}. Available model predictions are significantly lower than the measured Ξ^{-} yield.

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations on 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Tokay, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    In this study 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans were synthesized from benzaldehyde-N-phenylhydrazone and appropriate phenyldiazonium salts having CH(3), Br, and Cl at the o-, m-, and p-positions of 1-phenyl ring. Their structures were determined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectra. Bathochromic effect in accordance with the electron-donating effect of CH(3), Br, and Cl group and its magnitude were dependent upon type and position of substituent on the ring. The ground-state geometries and absorption wavelengths for 1-phenyl substituted formazans were studied with density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The calculations were carried out by using PBE1PBE functional with 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set for lambda(max) of the UV-vis spectra for the studied formazans. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental and computed values.

  8. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Imagery Using Modtran 3.5 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Fabian O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    When performing satellite remote sensing of the earth in the solar spectrum, atmospheric scattering and absorption effects provide the sensors corrupted information about the target's radiance characteristics. We are faced with the problem of reconstructing the signal that was reflected from the target, from the data sensed by the remote sensing instrument. This article presents a method for simulating radiance characteristic curves of satellite images using a MODTRAN 3.5 band model (BM) code to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), and proposes a method for the implementation of an adaptive system for automated atmospheric corrections. The simulation procedure is carried out as follows: (1) for each satellite digital image a radiance characteristic curve is obtained by performing a digital number (DN) to radiance conversion, (2) using MODTRAN 3.5 a simulation of the images characteristic curves is generated, (3) the output of the code is processed to generate radiance characteristic curves for the simulated cases. The simulation algorithm was used to simulate Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for two types of locations: the ocean surface, and a forest surface. The simulation procedure was validated by computing the error between the empirical and simulated radiance curves. While results in the visible region of the spectrum where not very accurate, those for the infrared region of the spectrum were encouraging. This information can be used for correction of the atmospheric effects. For the simulation over ocean, the lowest error produced in this region was of the order of 105 and up to 14 times smaller than errors in the visible region. For the same spectral region on the forest case, the lowest error produced was of the order of 10-4, and up to 41 times smaller than errors in the visible region,

  9. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    : at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most

  10. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  11. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Müller, Patrick; Schiedat, Fabian; Schlömicher, Markus; Strauch, Justus; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Mügge, Andreas; Köhrle, Josef; Rijntjes, Eddy; Lehmphul, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hyperthyroidism predisposes to atrial fibrillation, previous trials have suggested decreased triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations to be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Therapy with thyroid hormones (TH), however, did not reduce the risk of POAF. This study reevaluates the relation between thyroid hormone status, atrial electromechanical function and POAF. Methods Thirty-nine patients with sinus rhythm and no history of atrial fibrillation or thyroid disease undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (T4) and T3, reverse (r)T3, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) were measured preoperatively, complemented by evaluation of echocardiographic and electrophysiological parameters of cardiac function. Holter-ECG and telemetry were used to screen for POAF for 10 days following cardiac surgery. Results Seven of 17 patients who developed POAF demonstrated nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS; defined as low T3 and/or low T4 syndrome), compared to 2 of 22 (p < 0.05) patients who maintained sinus rhythm. In patients with POAF, serum FT3 concentrations were significantly decreased, but still within their reference ranges. 3,5-T2 concentrations directly correlated with rT3 concentrations and inversely correlated with FT3 concentrations. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with NTIS and in subjects who eventually developed POAF. In multivariable logistic regression FT3, 3,5-T2, total atrial conduction time, left atrial volume index and Fas ligand were independent predictors of POAF. Conclusion This study confirms reduced FT3 concentrations in patients with POAF and is the first to report on elevated 3,5-T2 concentrations in cardiac NTIS. The pathogenesis of NTIS therefore seems to involve more differentiated allostatic mechanisms. PMID:26279999

  12. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  13. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  14. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Moissinac, K

    2001-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.

  15. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  16. Nanoscale characterization of 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders and their application into nanowelding at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junwei; Lan, Qianqian; Ma, Hongbin; Qu, Ke; Inkson, Beverley J.; Mellors, Nigel J.; Xue, Desheng; Peng, Yong

    2014-10-01

    One-dimensional Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have been successfully fabricated by a dc electrodeposition technique into nanoporous templates, and their soldering quality has been demonstrated in nanoscale electrical welding for the first time, which indicates that they can easily form remarkably reliable conductive joints. The electrical measurement shows that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders have a resistivity of 28.9 μΩ·cm. The morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of these nanosolders have been characterized at the nanoscale. It is found that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have a continuous morphology and smooth surface. XPS confirms the presence of tin and silver with a mass ratio of 96.54:3.46, and EDX elemental mappings clearly reveal that the Sn and Ag elements have a uniform distribution. Coveragent beam electron diffractions verify that the crystal phases of individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders consist of matrix β-Sn and the intermetallic compound Ag3Sn. The reflow experiments reveal that the eutectic composition of the 1D Sn-Ag alloy nanowire is shifted to the Sn rich corner. This work may contribute one of the most important tin-based alloy nanosolders for future nanoscale welding techniques, which are believed to have broad applications in nanotechnology and the future nano-industry.

  17. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid.

  18. Intramolecular C-arylation of 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-pentofuranose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martin, O R

    1987-12-31

    Upon treatment with tin(IV) chloride, 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl- and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)pentofuranose (D-ribo, L-arabino) undergo intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the aromatic substituent at O-2 to give unusual internal C-glycosyl compounds (isochroman derivatives) in high yield. The final products are also partially debenzylated at O-3 or O-5 (up to 25%) under these conditions. By contrast, the corresponding methyl glycosides are poor substrates for the intramolecular C-arylation reaction, as methyl 2,3,5-tri-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-beta-D-ribofuranoside was found to give preponderantly methyl 3,5-di-O-(3-methylbenzyl)-alpha-D-ribofuranoside (11) (49%), and the C-arylation product in 30% yield only in the presence of the same Lewis acid. The competitive formation of 11 is thought to be due to the anomerization of the substrate leading to a tin(IV) complex coordinated with O-1 and O-2, which promoted the cleavage of the benzyl group at O-2. These reactions provide a novel and efficient C-arylation method and suggest a new approach to selectively protected D-ribofuranose derivatives. Evidence for the uncommon C-arylated structure of the new products was gained from their 1H- and 13C(APT)-n.m.r. spectra.

  19. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  20. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  1. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:7948694

  2. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  3. Central Tropical Pacific Corals Reveal Reduced ENSO Variability 3-5kyBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothe, P. R.; Cobb, K. M.; Liguori, G.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.; Deocampo, D.; Southon, J. R.; Santos, G.; Lu, Y.; Capotondi, A.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future projections of the strength of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the largest source of year-to-year global climate extremes, are highly uncertain. Potential shifts towards stronger and more frequent ENSO extremes (Cai et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2015) would have a profound effect on climate globally. However, the instrumental record of ENSO activity is too short in time to resolve potential anthropogenic trends in ENSO properties, and limits our understanding of the ENSO phenomenon. Thus, we must rely on high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of ENSO that extend through the last centuries to millennia to provide a comprehensive view of ENSO variability. Coral δ18O records from the heart of the ENSO region, in the central tropical Pacific, provide monthly-resolved reconstructions of ENSO activity over the last 7000 years. Here, we quantify ENSO variability in 10 new monthly-resolved fossil coral δ18O records from Kiritimati Island (2°N, 157°W) that are U/Th-dated to the 2-6kyBP interval. When combined with previously published coral δ18O records from Cobb et al., 2013, the new coral δ18O records support a prolonged reduction of ~60% in ENSO variability during the 3-5kyBP interval, as compared to the late 20th century. In comparison, ENSO variability during the last millennium was ~30% reduced compared to the late 20th century. These results are consistent with foraminifera and mollusk records from the eastern tropical Pacific (Koutavas and Joanides, 2012; Carre et al., 2014), implying that the observed 3-5kyBP reduction in ENSO variability was not confined to the central Pacific. Taken together, these new records represent a new target - both in terms of amplitude and timing - for modeling efforts designed to uncover the mechanisms governing past ENSO variability. Such data-model comparisons are critical to refining the simulation of ENSO in simulations of future climate change.

  4. Deep XMM observations of Draco rule out at the 99 per cent confidence level a dark matter decay origin for the 3.5 keV line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeltema, Tesla; Profumo, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    We searched for an X-ray line at energies around 3.5 keV in deep, ˜1.6 Ms XMM-Newton observations of the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco. No line was found in either the Metal Oxide Semi-conductor (MOS) or the p-type/n-type semiconductor (PN) detectors. The data in this energy range are completely consistent with a single, unfolded power-law modelling the particle background, which dominates at these energies, plus instrumental lines; the addition of a ˜3.5 keV line feature gives no improvement to the fit. The corresponding upper limit on the line flux rules out a dark matter decay origin for the 3.5 keV line found in observations of clusters of galaxies and in the Galactic Centre at greater than 99 per cent confidence level.

  5. Soil properties affect the toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Roman G; Checkai, Ronald T; Simini, Michael; Phillips, Carlton T; Kolakowski, Jan E; Lanno, Roman

    2013-11-01

    The authors investigated individual toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the enchytraeid reproduction test. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks that can be used for developing ecological soil-screening levels for ecological risk assessments of contaminated soils and to identify and characterize the predominant soil physicochemical parameters that can affect the toxicities of TNT and RDX to E. crypticus. Soils, which had a wide range of physicochemical parameters, included Teller sandy loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Richfield clay loam, Kirkland clay loam, and Webster clay loam. Analyses of quantitative relationships between the toxicological benchmarks for TNT and soil property measurements identified soil organic matter content as the dominant property mitigating TNT toxicity for juvenile production by E. crypticus in freshly amended soil. Both the clay and organic matter contents of the soil modulated reproduction toxicity of TNT that was weathered and aged in soil for 3 mo. Toxicity of RDX for E. crypticus was greater in the coarse-textured sandy loam soils compared with the fine-textured clay loam soils. The present studies revealed alterations in toxicity to E. crypticus after weathering and aging TNT in soil, and these alterations were soil- and endpoint-specific.

  6. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  7. Ab initio study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of the 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) C 3H 6N 6O 6 molecule is studied by ab initio methods. The results are compared to available experimental observations and against calculations and experimental observations of the conventional non-resonant Raman spectrum for RDX. It is found that all intense bands in the observed CARS spectrum and all Raman differential cross sections are well reproduced by the calculations. The features of the resonant CARS signal vary strongly from the corresponding Raman signal, and are obtained with a considerably larger cross section, a fact that could further facilitate the use of CARS spectroscopy in applications of stand-off detection of gaseous samples at ultra-low concentrations.

  8. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-01

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  9. Cosubstrate independent mineralization of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a Desulfovibrio species under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Clint M; Adrian, Neal R

    2009-02-01

    Past handling practices associated with the manufacturing and processing of the high explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has resulted in extensive environmental contamination. In-situ biodegradation is a promising technology for remediating RDX contaminated sites but often relies on the addition of a cosubstrate. A sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from an RDX-degrading enrichment culture was studied for its ability to grow on RDX as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen and for its ability to mineralize RDX in the absence of a cosubstrate. The results showed the isolate degraded 140 muM RDX in 63 days when grown on RDX as a carbon source. Biomass within the carbon limited culture increased 9-fold compared to the RDX unamended controls. When the isolate was incubated with RDX as sole source of nitrogen it degraded 160 muM RDX in 41 days and exhibited a 4-fold increase in biomass compared to RDX unamended controls. Radiolabeled studies under carbon limiting conditions with (14)C-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine confirmed mineralization of the cyclic nitramine. After 60 days incubation 26% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2), while in the control bottles less than 1% of the radiolabel was recovered as (14)CO(2). Additionally, approximately 2% of the radiolabeled carbon was found to be associated with the biomass. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced and identified the isolate as a novel species of Desulfovibrio, having a 95.1% sequence similarity to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. This is the first known anaerobic bacterium capable of mineralizing RDX when using it as a carbon and energy source for growth.

  10. Determination of azide as the 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl derivative by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Masataka; Kitada, Yoshimi; Imai, Shunsuke

    2004-08-06

    A simple, rapid and reliable capillary electrophoresis method with a photodiode array detector was developed for determination of azide as the 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl derivative in drink samples fortified with sodium azide. Sample preparation was simple and rapid because no more than a simple dilution of samples is needed after quick derivatization. Separation was carried out using a buffer system comprising 25 mM phosphate buffer and 4 mM cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide at pH 3.0. Methyl benzoate was selected as the internal standard (IS). This study investigated the influence of the concentration of phosphate buffer and electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifier, and the buffer pH on migration time and signal response. The optimized method made it possible to determine azide within 5 min. The limit of detection was determined to be 1.9 microg/ml with SIN > 3. The quantitation range was 6.5-323 microg/ml. By the method recoveries of azide in drink samples fortified with sodium azide were investigated. Mean recovery values ranged from 93.6 to 105.8% and results were satisfactory. In addition, no interference was observed in electropherograms of drink samples fortified with sodium azide. Thus, by this method, azide in drink samples can be determined rapidly with high recoveries and good selectivity despite extremely simple sample preparation.

  11. NMR and computational studies of chiral discrimination by amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun K; Bai, Shi; Vyas, Shyam; Wirth, Mary J

    2007-02-08

    Proton NMR and simulations were combined to study the origin of chiral selectivity by a polysaccharide used in a commercial chromatographic stationary phase: amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate). This material has unusually high enantioselectivity for p-O-tert-butyltyrosine allyl ester, which is activated by the presence of an acid. Proton NMR spectra agreed with the HPLC in showing that the l-enantiomer interacts much more strongly with the polysaccharide and that acidity switches on the selectivity. 2D NOESY spectra revealed which protons of each enantiomer and the polysaccharide were in proximity, and these spectra revealed folding of the l-enantiomer. Computations generated energy-minimized structures for the polysaccharide-enantiomer complexes, independently predicting folding of the l-enantiomer. Molecular dynamics simulations 2 ns in duration, repeated for three different energy-minimized structures, generated pair distribution functions that are in excellent agreement with the 2D NOESY spectra. The modeling studies revealed why acidity switches on chiral selectivity and minimally affects the chromatographic retention time of the unfavored d-enantiomer. The results comprise the first case of a chiral separation by a commercial polysaccharide stationary phase being explained using a combination of 2D NOESY and simulations, providing excellent agreement between experiment and computation and lending detailed molecular insight into enantioselectivity for this system.

  12. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  13. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  14. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  15. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  16. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    PubMed Central

    Orghici, Rozalia; Lützow, Peter; Burgmeier, Jörg; Koch, Jan; Heidrich, Helmut; Schade, Wolfgang; Welschoff, Nina; Waldvogel, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules. PMID:22163576

  17. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  18. An updated set of nutations derived from the reanalysis of 3.5 decades VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Koot, Laurence; Rivoldini, Attilio; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    The global VLBI observation started in the 1979. After that the qualities of the measurements are continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 models was introduced in 2002 (Mathews, et.al. 2002, [1]) and it has a good agreement (5 μas) on the short period nutation series (<400 days) with the values derived from 2 decades (1979-2000) VLBI data while a higher uncertainties up to 56 μas for those longer periods (>400 days) nutation series (Herring et.al. 2002). In MHB2000, the forcing frequencies of the nutation series are solved by least-squares fitting to the VLBI data in frequency domain. Koot et al. (2008), have processed another similar set of nutation series by inversing the time series of VLBI data (1984-2005) using a Bayesian approach. In the present work, we will repeat both approaches using the up-to-date 3.5 decades VLBI observations (1980-2014) meanwhile paying more attention on the results of longer period (>400 days). Finally some features of Earth's interior structure will be discussed based on the determined nutation series. [1] Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. & Buffett, B.A., 2002. Modeling of nutation and precession: new nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2068, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000390. [2] Herring, T. A., P. M. Mathews, and B. A. Buffett, Modeling of nutation and precession: Very long baseline interferometry results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 2069, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000165, 2002 [3] Koot, L., Rivoldini, A., de Viron, O. & Dehant, V., 2008. Estimation of Earth interior parameters from a Bayesian inversion of very long baseline interferometry nutation time series, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 8414, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005409.

  19. Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Burrows, John P.; Degenstein, Doug A.; Funke, Bernd; Fussen, Didier; Manney, Gloria L.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Murtagh, Donal; Randall, Cora E.; Raspollini, Piera; Rozanov, Alexei; Russell, James M., III; Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Urban, Joachim; von Clarmann, Thomas; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2+ NO3+ 2 × N2O5+ HNO3+ HNO4+ ClONO2+ BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For NO in the altitude range of 25-50 km, ACE-FTS typically agrees with correlative data to within -10 %. Instrument-averaged mean relative differences are approximately -10 % at 30-40 km for NO2, within ±7 % at 8-30 km for HNO3, better than -7 % at 21-34 km for local morning N2O5, and better than -8 % at 21-34 km for ClONO2. Where possible, the variations in the mean differences due to changes in the comparison local time and latitude are also discussed.

  20. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid's synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2.

  1. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  2. Reversal of Trimethyltin-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits by 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin Yong; Park, Seon Kyeong; Guo, Tian Jiao; Ha, Jeong Su; Lee, Du Sang; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Uk; Kim, Dae Ok

    2016-01-01

    The antiamnesic effect of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA) as the main phenolic compound in Artemisia argyi H. extract on cognitive dysfunction induced by trimethyltin (TMT) (7.1 μg/kg of body weight; intraperitoneal injection) was investigated in order to assess its ameliorating function in mice. In several behavioral tests, namely, the Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze (MWM) test, 3,5-diCQA significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits. After the behavioral tests, brain tissues from the mice were analyzed to characterize the basis of the neuroprotective effect. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels increased, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased upon administration of 3,5-diCQA. In addition, 3,5-diCQA effectively protected against an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, an increase in the oxidized glutathione (GSH) ratio, and a decline of total superoxide dismutase (SOD) level. 3,5-diCQA may prevent neuronal apoptosis through the protection of mitochondrial activities and the repression of apoptotic signaling molecules such as p-Akt, BAX, and p-tau (Ser 404). PMID:28105250

  3. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  4. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  5. Initiation of GnRH agonist treatment on 3-5 days postoperatively in endometriosis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lili; Zhang, Shaofen; Han, Yi; Long, Qiqi; Zou, Shien; Cao, Yuankui

    2015-08-01

    Seventy patients with stage III or IV endometriosis were randomly assigned to 2 groups after conservative surgery. Group O (n = 35) received 3 cycles of a 28-day gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment (goserelin, 3.6 mg) starting 3-5 days postoperatively. Group M (n = 35) received the same treatment starting on days 1-5 of menstruation. Groups were further subdivided according to add-back treatment. Pre- and posttreated levels of estradiol (E2 ), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) and visual analog scale (VAS), Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), and bone mineral density (BMD) scores were recorded. The incidence of uterine bleeding was assessed. In both groups, serum levels of E2 , FSH, and LH and VAS scores decreased significantly after treatment. Spotting was the most frequent bleeding pattern. During cycle 1, the bleeding time in group M was much longer that than that in group O (P =.001), and the bleeding rate in group M was significantly higher than that in group O (P =.024, RR = 1.185). In patients with stage III or IV endometriosis, the efficacy of GnRH-a initiated 3-5 days postoperatively was equivalent to that of GnRH-a initiated on days 1-5 of menstruation. Female patients who initiated GnRH-a treatment 3-5 days postoperatively experienced less uterine bleeding during the first cycle of treatment.

  6. Decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in aqueous solution during UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yingjie; Liao, Qi-Nan; Ji, Feng; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Shoujun; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2017-02-01

    3,5-Dinitrobenzamide has been widely used as a feed additive to control coccidiosis in poultry, and part of the added 3,5-dinitrobenzamide is excreted into wastewater and surface water. The removal of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide from wastewater and surface water has not been reported in previous studies. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals from UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can decompose organic contaminants efficiently. In this study, the decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in aqueous solution during UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes was investigated. The decomposition of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide fits well with a fluence-based pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The decomposition in both two oxidation processes was affected by solution pH, and was inhibited under alkaline conditions. Inorganic anions such as NO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-) inhibited the degradation of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide during the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 oxidation processes. After complete decomposition in both oxidation processes, approximately 50% of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide was decomposed into organic intermediates, and the rest was mineralized to CO2, H2O, and other inorganic anions. Ions such as NH4(+), NO3(-), and NO2(-) were released into aqueous solution during the degradation. The primary decomposition products of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide were identified using time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF). Based on these products and ions release, a possible decomposition pathway of 3,5-dinitrobenzamide in both UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes was proposed.

  7. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  8. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  9. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  10. Bleaching effect of a 405-nm diode laser irradiation used with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Kato, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-09-01

    A 405-nm diode laser has recently been developed for soft tissue problems in dentistry. A new in-office bleaching agent consisting of a titanium dioxide photocatalyst and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide has proven to react well with light irradiated at a wavelength of around 400 nm. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching efficacy of a newly developed 405-nm diode laser on bovine teeth treated with a bleaching agent composed of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 200 mW; Group B, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 400 mW. The bleaching agent with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide was applied to bovine enamel and irradiated for 1 min. The specimens were then washed and dried, and the same procedure was repeated nine more times. After irradiation, we assessed the effects of bleaching on the enamel by measuring the color of the specimens with a spectrophotometer and examining the enamel surfaces with a scanning electron microscope. L* rose to a high score, reaching a significantly higher post-treatment level in comparison to pretreatment. In a comparison of the color difference (Δ E) between Group A and Group B, the specimens in Group B showed significantly higher values after 10 min of irradiation for the post-treatment. No remarkable differences in the enamel surface morphology were found between the unbleached and bleached enamel. The use of a 405-nm diode laser in combination with a bleaching agent of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide may be an effective method for bleaching teeth without the risk of tooth damage.

  11. Peculiarities of the complexation of copper and silver adducts of a 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolate ligand with organoiron compounds.

    PubMed

    Tsupreva, Victoria N; Titov, Alexey A; Filippov, Oleg A; Bilyachenko, Alexey N; Smol'yakov, Alexander F; Dolgushin, Fedor M; Agapkin, Denis V; Godovikov, Ivan A; Epstein, Lina M; Shubina, Elena S

    2011-04-18

    Interaction of the copper, {[3,5-(CF(3))(2)Pz]Cu}(3), and silver, {[3,5-(CF(3))(2)Pz]Ag}(3), macrocycles [3,5-(CF(3))(2)Pz = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolate] with cyclooctatetraeneiron tricarbonyl, (cot)Fe(CO)(3), was investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy for the first time. The formation of 1:1 complexes was observed at low temperatures in hexane. The composition of the complexes (1:1) and their thermodynamic characteristics in hexane and dichloromethane were determined. The π-electron system of (cot)Fe(CO)(3) was proven to be the sole site of coordination in solution and in the solid state. However, according to the single-crystal X-ray data, the complex has a different (2:1) composition featuring the sandwich structure. The complexes of ferrocene with copper and silver macrocycles have a columnar structure (X-ray data).

  12. Growth changes of eighteen herbaceous angiosperms induced by Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Frank L; Koeser, Andrew K; Dawson, Jeffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Study objectives were to describe and quantify growth responses (tolerance as shoot and root biomass accumulation) to soil-applied Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) treatments of eighteen terrestrial, herbaceous, angiospermous species and also; to determine how much of RDX, RDX transformation products, total N and RDX-derived N accumulated in the foliage. RDX altered growth of eighteen plant species or cultivars at levels of 100, 500, and 1,000 mg kg(-1)dry soil in a 75-d greenhouse study. Sixteen species or cultivars exhibited growth inhibition while two were stimulated in growth by RDX. A maximum amount of foliar RDX in a subset of three plant species was 36.0 mg per plant in Coronilla varia. Foliar concentrations of transformation products of RDX were low relative to RDX in the subset of three species. The proportion of RDX-N with respect to total N was constant, suggesting that foliar RDX transformation did not explain differences in tolerance. There was a δ (15)N shift towards that of synthetic RDX in foliage of the three species at a level of 1,000 mg kg(-1) RDX, proportional in magnitude to uptake of N from RDX and tolerance ranking.Reddened leaf margins for treated Sida spinosa indicate the potential of this species as a biosensor for RDX.

  13. In Silico Alkaline Hydrolysis of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: Density Functional Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Shukla, Manoj K; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-09-20

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), an energetic material used in military applications, may be released to the environment during manufacturing, transportation, storage, training, and disposal. A detailed investigation of a possible mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the most promising methods for HMX remediation, was performed by computational study at PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. Obtained results suggest that HMX hydrolysis at pH 10 represents a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, hydroxide attachment accompanied by cycle cleavage, and further decomposition of cycle-opened intermediate to the products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of HMX hydrolysis such as nitrite, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed species. Based on computed reaction pathways for HMX decomposition by alkaline hydrolysis, the kinetics of the entire process was modeled. Very low efficiency of this reaction at pH 10 was observed. Computations predict significant increases (orders of magnitude) of the hydrolysis rate for hydrolysis reactions undertaken at pH 11, 12, and 13.

  14. Evaluation of the Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) at a Tibetan grassland site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Lim, Hee-Jeong; Ichii, Kazuhito; Li, Yingnian

    2013-11-01

    The Tibetan plateau plays an important role in energy and carbon cycles by providing an elevated heat source and by storing a large amount of soil carbon due to low temperature. The main vegetation of the plateau is alpine grassland. This study evaluates performance of Community Land Model 3.5 with carbon and nitrogen cycles (CLM3.5CN) over a alpine grassland in the Tibetan plateau in terms of energy and carbon fluxes in conditions of reasonable phenology and initial carbon pool comparable to observations. Comparison between model and observation shows following features. The model captures the magnitude of maximum leaf area index (LAI) but underestimats leaf mass. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is significantly underestimated during the growing season and soil temperature is also underestimated throughout a year with higher negative bias in winter than in other seasons. In order to examine the cause of the model deficiencies, we design four sensitivity tests: seasonal mulch; shallow rooting depth; reduction of critical soil moisture to limit the decomposition rate; smaller specific leaf area (SLA). Considering seasonal mulch improves the negative bias of soil temperature during dormant season has little effect on the NEE during the growing seasson. Underestimation of NEE during the growing season is partly due to underestimated decomposition rate which results from underestimated soil temperature and deep root placement in the soil column. Underestimation of latent heat flux during summer is partly due to use of large SLA in the model. Other deficiencies are also discussed.

  15. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using a combined Sorescu-Rice-Thompson AMBER force field.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Paras M; Rice, Betsy M; Zheng, Lianqing; Thompson, Donald L

    2006-12-28

    We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) using the SRT-AMBER force field (P. M. Agrawal et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 5721), which combines the rigid-molecule force field developed by Sorescu-Rice-Thompson (D. C. Sorescu, B. M. Rice, and D. L. Thompson, J. Phys. Chem. B 1997, 101, 798) with the intramolecular interactions obtained from the Generalized AMBER Force Field (Wang et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157). The calculated crystal density at room conditions is about 10% lower than the measured value, while the lattice parameters and thermodynamic melting point are within about 5% at ambient pressure. The chair and inverted chair conformation, bond lengths, and bond angles of the RDX molecule are accurately predicted; however, there are some inaccuracies in the calculated orientations of the NO2 groups. The SRT-AMBER force field predicts overall reasonable results, but modifications, probably in the torsional parameters, are needed for a more accurate force field.

  17. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-06

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment.

  18. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Pseudomonas and Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, L S; Hylemon, P B; Phibbs, P V

    1977-01-01

    A modified Gilman assay was used to determine the concentrations of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in rapidly filtered cells and in the culture filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli K-12, and Bacteroides fragilis. In P. aeruginosa cultures, levels of cAMP in the filtrate increased with the culture absorbance (3.5 to 19.8 X 10(-9) M) but did not vary significantly with the carbon source used to support growth. Intracellular concentrations (0.8 to 3.2 X 10(-5) M) were substantially higher and did not vary appreciably during growth or with carbon source. Sodium cAMP (5 mM) failed to reverse the catabolite repression of inducible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) synthesis caused by the addition of 10 mM succinate. Exogenous cAMP also had no discernible effect on the catabolite repression control of inducible mannitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.67). P. aeruginosa was found to contain both soluble cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity, and these were compared to the activities detected in crude extracts of E. coli. B. fragilis crude cell extracts contain neither of these enzyme activities, and little or no cAMP was detected in cells or culture filtrates of this anaerobic bacterium. PMID:187575

  19. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development.

  20. Solvent induced reactivity of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole towards zinc (II) carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Rupam; Kalita, Dipjyoti; Baruah, Jubaraj B

    2009-09-28

    The reactions of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole with zinc(II)acetate dihydrate and varieties of aromatic carboxylic acids led to formation of mono-nuclear zinc complexes of composition [Zn(HDMP)2(RCO2)2] (R = C6H5, p-CH3-C6H4, p-NO2-C6H4 etc. HDMP = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) in methanol, whereas the same reactants in dimethylformamide (DMF) gave binuclear 3,5-dimethylpyrazolato bridged zinc carboxylate complexes containing monodentate 3,5-dimethylpyraozole ligands with composition [Zn2(mu-DMP)2(HDMP)2(RCO2)2]. The mononuclear complexes can be converted to the corresponding binuclear complexes by simply dissolving in DMF. The reaction of zinc(II)acetate dihydrate with p-nitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole in different solvents gave solvated mononuclear complexes of the corresponding solvent. All these solvated complexes having the core [Zn(HDMP)2(p-NO2-C6H4CO2)2] contain two structurally independent molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2).

  1. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  2. 3.5 Year Monitoring of 225 GHz Opacity at the Summit of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asada, Keiichi; Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.; Chen, Ming-Tang; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto; Koch, Patrick M.; Paine, Scott N.; Turner, David D.

    2017-02-01

    We present the 3.5 years monitoring results of 225 GHz opacity at the summit of the Greenland ice sheet (Greenland Summit Camp) at an altitude of 3200 m using a tipping radiometer. We chose this site as our submillimeter telescope (Greenland Telescope) site, because conditions are expected to have low submillimeter opacity and because its location offers favorable baselines to existing submillimeter telescopes for global-scale Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The site shows a clear seasonal variation with the average opacity lower by a factor of two during winter. The 25%, 50%, and 75% quartiles of the 225 GHz opacity during the winter months of November through April are 0.046, 0.060, and 0.080, respectively. For the winter quartiles of 25% and 50%, the Greenland site is about 10%-30% worse than the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) or the South Pole sites. Estimated atmospheric transmission spectra in winter season are similar to the ALMA site at lower frequencies (\\lt 450 GHz), which are transparent enough to perform astronomical observations almost all of the winter time with opacities \\lt 0.5, but 10%-25% higher opacities at higher frequencies (\\gt 450 GHz) than those at the ALMA site. This is due to the lower altitude of the Greenland site and the resulting higher line wing opacity from pressure-broadened saturated water lines in addition to higher dry air continuum absorption at higher frequencies. Nevertheless, half of the winter time at the Greenland Summit Camp can be used for astronomical observations at frequencies between 450 GHz and 1000 GHz with opacities \\lt 1.2, and 10% of the time show \\gt 10 % transmittance in the THz (1035 GHz, 1350 GHz, and 1500 GHz) windows. Summer season is good for observations at frequencies lower than 380 GHz. One major advantage of the Greenland Summit Camp site in winter is that there is no diurnal variation due to the polar night condition, and therefore the durations of low-opacity conditions

  3. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  4. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  5. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  6. Ullmann diaryl ether synthesis: rate acceleration by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione.

    PubMed

    Buck, Elizabeth; Song, Zhiguo Jake; Tschaen, David; Dormer, Peter G; Volante, R P; Reider, Paul J

    2002-05-02

    [reaction: see text]. In the copper salt catalyzed ether formation from aryl bromides or iodides and phenols, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione (TMHD) was found to greatly accelerate the ordinarily difficult reaction, making it occur under more moderate temperatures and reaction times. A series of aryl halides and phenols were shown to form ethers in NMP as the solvent, cesium carbonate as the base, and CuCl and TMHD as the catalysts. The reaction was shown to tolerate electron-rich aryl bromides and electron-neutral phenols.

  7. On the kinetics and energetics of one-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, M E D G; Burrows, H D; Canle, M; Coimbra, R; Fernández, M I; García, M V; Rodrigues, A E; Santaballa, J A; Steenken, S

    2003-01-07

    One-electron oxidation of 1,3,5-triazines is observed with both excited uranyl ion (*UO2(2+)) and sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) in aqueous solution, but not with Tl2+, indicating that the standard reduction potentials E degree of 1,3,5-triazine radical cations are = 2.3 +/- 0.1 V vs. NHE, consistent with theoretical calculations; this suggests that if triazines inhibit electron transfer during photosynthesis, they would need to act on the reductive part of the electron transport chain.

  8. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions.

  9. Bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-kappaN2)silver(I) nitrate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Fackler, John P

    2002-04-01

    The two independent bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole)silver(I) cations in crystalline [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]NO(3) display N-Ag-N angles of 175.51 (14) and 174.44 (13) degrees, and an average Ag-N distance of 2.124 (5) A. The nitrate anion is situated between [Ag(C(5)H(7)N(2))(2)]+ units and interacts via hydrogen bonds with the NH groups. The two 3,5-dimethylpyrazole ligands are trans about the silver center. Only a small deviation from linearity is observed in the coordination around silver.

  10. Overestimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in water samples due to the presence of nitroglycerin or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Lévesque, Richard; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Marois, André

    2012-08-24

    A large number of laboratory studies have reported nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to be among the most common degradation products of the high explosives nitroglycerin (NG) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Additionally, several field studies have reported the presence of RDX or NG along with NO(3)(-) in groundwater near production plants. Most studies, however, did not specify whether their NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) analyses were performed on samples which also contained RDX or NG. Inconsistent NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) results obtained in our laboratory suggested that the presence of RDX or NG in water samples caused an overestimation of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations when using two of the most common analytical methods, namely ionic chromatography and automated colorimetry. This could have important implications for mass balance calculations and for environmental decisions. This paper focused on quantifying the overestimation of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) due to the presence of RDX and NG, and finding a method for extracting RDX and NG from water samples without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Results showed that the overestimation can be predicted using regression coefficients; however the margin of error at the 95% confidence level was between 5 and 15%. Alternatively, a cartridge was found which retains both RDX and NG without affecting NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). The cartridge can be used for concentrating the RDX or NG in dilute environmental samples, while removing RDX/NG from solution to allow the interference-free analysis of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-). Additionally, if recovery of RDX/NG from the cartridges is not desired, the cartridges could be used for the extraction of more than one sample, thus reducing the costs.

  11. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use.

  12. Toxic effects of oral hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    McFarland, Craig A; Quinn, Michael J; Bazar, Matthew A; Talent, Larry G; Johnson, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely used as an explosive in munition formulations, resulting in contamination of wildlife habitat on military installations. To estimate health effects for reptilian species, acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted using the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Estimated oral median lethal doses were 72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49-106) mg/kg body weight (slope, 3.754) for males and 88 (95% CI, 65-119) mg/kg (slope, 4.525) for females. Toxicity from RDX suggested the neurological system as the critical target tissue. A 14-d subacute study followed with males dosed orally with RDX (corn oil) at 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 mg/kg/d. Signs of toxicity frequently included a characteristic body posture. A significant dose-survival relationship was seen over the range of doses, with a significant decrease in survival at 20 mg/kg/d. Males in the 60-d subchronic study were dosed at 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 8, and 11 mg/kg/d, and signs of toxicity included lethargy, cachexia, and anorexia. Survival was decreased at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Reduced growth rate and food consumption occurred at 5 mg/kg/d. Brain tissue was assayed for RDX when seizures were observed at a residue concentration of at least 18 microg/g. No abnormalities were observed in the hematologic indices, whereas plasma proteins were reduced. Hepatic enlargement and decreased testes mass occurred at 8 and 11 mg/kg/d. Plasma testosterone concentrations, sperm counts, and motility measures were variable for all treatment levels. Based on survival, growth rate, food intake, and testes to brain weight ratios, these data suggest a lowest-observed-adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg/d and a no-observed-adverse effect level of 2.5 mg/kg/d.

  13. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation.

  14. 3,5,3′-Triiodo-L-Thyronine- and 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine- Affected Metabolic Pathways in Liver of LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Maria; Silvestri, Elena; Coppola, Maria; Goldberg, Ira J.; Huang, Li-Shin; Salzano, Anna M.; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Ehrenkranz, Joel R.; Goglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), when administered to a model of familial hypercholesterolemia, i.e., low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice fed with a Western type diet (WTD), dramatically reduce circulating total and very low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol with decreased liver apolipoprotein B (ApoB) production. The aim of the study was to highlight putative molecular mechanisms to manage cholesterol levels in the absence of LDLr. A comprehensive comparative profiling of changes in expression of soluble proteins in livers from Ldlr−/− mice treated with either T3 or T2 was performed. From a total proteome of 450 liver proteins, 25 identified proteins were affected by both T2 and T3, 18 only by T3 and 9 only by T2. Using in silico analyses, an overlap was observed with 11/14 pathways common to both iodothyronines, with T2 and T3 preferentially altering sub-networks centered around hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), respectively. Both T2 and T3 administration significantly reduced nuclear HNF4α protein content, while T2, but not T3, decreased the expression levels of the HNFα transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α. Lower PPARα levels were found only following T3 treatment while both T3 and T2 lowered liver X receptor α (LXRα) nuclear content. Overall, this study, although it was not meant to investigate the use of T2 and T3 as a therapeutic agent, provides novel insights into the regulation of hepatic metabolic pathways involved in T3- and T2-driven cholesterol reduction in Ldlr−/− mice. PMID:27909409

  15. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  16. Accumulation of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro- 1,3,5-triazine in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus).

    PubMed

    Belden, Jason B; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Lydy, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    The extensively used military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has been widely released to the environment during production, usage, and disposal operations. Toxic effects of RDX have been reported in terrestrial and aquatic receptors, but investigations regarding the bioaccumulation potential of RDX in aquatic systems are scarce. The objective of the present study was to describe the toxicokinetics of RDX during aqueous exposure for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and aquatic oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) and to compare the amount of RDX accumulation in juvenile catfish following aqueous exposure only, dietary exposure only, and a combination of dietary and aqueous exposure. The toxicokinetics measurements included bioconcentration factors (BCFs), uptake rates, elimination rates, and biological half-lives. First-order, single-compartment models described the toxicokinetics for both species. Uptake of RDX into oligochaetes was relatively rapid (uptake clearance constant [k(u)] of 5.17 ml/g/h) compared to that in catfish (k(u) = 1.28 ml/g/h). However, elimination also was more rapid in oligochaetes, with biological half-lives of 0.28 and 1.09 h for oligochaetes and catfish, respectively. Thus, both species had very similar estimated BCFs of 2.1 ml/g for oligochaetes and 2.0 ml/g for catfish. Accumulation of RDX in fish that were fed oligochaetes exposed to an exceedingly high water concentration of RDX was minimal. The present investigation indicates that RDX uptake via the aqueous route is the expected dominant uptake pathway, with dietary uptake contributing minimally to the overall body burden in fish inhabiting RDX-contaminated sites. Because of the exceedingly low bioaccumulative potential and low reported toxicity of RDX, the presence of this explosive in aquatic systems is unlikely to pose unacceptable risks to invertebrates and fish.

  17. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  18. Stir-bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of trinitrotoluene and l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine in water samples.

    PubMed

    Lokhnauth, John K; Snow, Nicholas H

    2006-02-10

    Stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is interfaced to ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for the rapid detection of trace analytes, with the explosives, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) shown as examples. SBSE retains its inherent advantages as a sensitive, straightforward, solventless, and inexpensive method. Additionally, the new SBSE-IMS technique exhibits excellent sensitivity, has onsite field analysis capabilities and provides the potential to detect and quantitate analytes that are difficult to accomplish using gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The SBSE-IMS technique is shown to be an effective method for the low-level detection of TNT and RDX from water with method standard deviation of 8.6% for TNT and 6.6% for RDX. The short desorption time of 60 s and analysis time of less than 20 ms along with limits of detection of 0.1 ng/mL for TNT and 1.5 ng/mL for RDX and render the method potentially useful for trace analysis. Desorption profiles showing the kinetics of analyte transfer from the stir-bar into the IMS are shown and discussed; the SBSE-IMS configuration shows very rapid desorption from the stir-bar, with the analytes completely transferred in most cases, in under 1 min.

  19. Environmentally assisted cracking of 3.5NiCrMoV low alloy steel under cyclic straining

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Bodai, Masaru; Takei, Mao; Sugita, Yuji; Inagaki, Hironobu

    1997-12-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking of 3.5NiCrMoV low alloy steel under cyclic straining was investigated in water environments at 60 C. Effects of strain range, strain rate, strain hold tie and impurities in the water on the crack initiation life were investigated. The effects of long strain hold time up to 100 hours were studied and found to be especially significant. Lower strain rate, longer strain hold time and higher electric conductivity resulted in shorter crack initiation life. The corrosion current from the strained metal was measured in a simulated electrochemical system to clarify the root cause of the life reduction. Test results showed that higher strain range, lower strain rate, longer strain hold time and higher electric conductivity caused increased charge transfer, which caused shorter crack initiation life. A prediction model for the crack initiation life was proposed based on the charge transfer.

  20. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  1. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No. 58371...), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4) (resulting in receiving stream levels exceeding 0.1 parts per billion... in § 721.125 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to...

  4. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  5. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  6. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  7. Regioselective Glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-Hydroxyflavones by Cultured Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Uesugi, Daisuke; Fujitaka, Yuuya; Okada, Shouta; Tanigawa, Masato; Hamada, Hiroki

    2015-06-01

    Regioselective glycosylation of 3-, 5-, 6-, and 7-hydroxyflavones was investigated using cultured plant cells of Eucalyptus perriniana and Phytolacca americana as biocatalysts. 3- and 7-Hydroxyflavones were practically glycosylated into the corresponding β-D-glucosides by E. perriniana and P. americana.

  8. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  9. Enhanced extraction of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and its application to environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Guarav; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Rai, Pramod Kumar

    2008-08-01

    A method for enhanced extraction of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from environmental samples is developed with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactant. In this study, the concentration of SDS surfactant and other analytical parameters are optimized on a high-performance liquid chromatography-UV system. An isocratic flow of 1.0 mL/min with mobile phase acetonitrile-water; 70:30 (v/v) at 230 nm wavelength on a reverse-phase amide column is used for baseline separation of explosives and making calibration curves. The amount of recovered explosives from spiked soil and water samples are calculated. The limits of detection obtained for HMX and RDX standards are 1.5 and 3.8 ppb (S/N=3), respectively, which are much better than obtained by the Environmental Protection Agency method 8330. The recoveries are found to be enhanced by 1.7 and 1.6-fold with SDS solution as compared to water for HMX and RDX, respectively, from soil samples.

  10. The intensities of methane in the 3-5 mu m region revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejard, L.; Champion, J.; Jouvard, J.; Brown, L.; Pine, A.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the linestrengths of the infrared spectrum of methane (12 and 13) in the 3-5 mu m region has been revisited onthe basis of new measurements from Fourier transform spectra recorded at Kitt Peak under various optical densities.

  11. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  12. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  13. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  14. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  15. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  16. Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method - Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor, Catalyst Technologies Published April 30, 2016 Approved for public...Controlling Costs: The 6-3-5 Method—Case Studies at NAVSEA and NATO Bruce Nagy, President/CEO, Catalyst Technologies Morgan Ames, Senior Advisor... Catalyst Technologies Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems Ricardo Valerdi, Professor, University of

  17. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  18. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  19. Synthesis of 14C-Labelled Octahydor-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (HMx0 and 15N-Isotopic Hexahyrro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) for use in Microcosm Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    bioremediation process. To synthesize C(14)HMX, acetylation of labelled hexamethylenetetramine (C(14)HMTA) was done yielding 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,5,7... hexamethylenetetramine (N(15)HMTA) was done according to the Hale Process. N(15)HMTA was prepared by reaching cold formaldehyde with isotopic nitrogen-15 ammonium hydroxide.

  20. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  1. Nitro Derivatives of 1,3,5-Triazepine as Potential High-Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hari Ji; Upadhyay, Manish Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Structure optimization and frequency calculation of six nitro derivatives of 1,3,5-triazepine were performed using a MP2(FULL)/6-311G(d,p) method. In order to obtain reliable energy data, single-point energy and subsequently thermodynamic properties of the species considered were calculated at a fairly high level of theory, CCSD(T)/6-311G(d,p). Solid-phase heats of formation and crystal density were determined using an electrostatic potential (ESP) method utilizing wave function analysis-surface analysis suite (WFA-SAS) code. The result shows that all nitro derivatives possess high positive heats of formation that increase with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached to the ring moiety. The crystal density was found to be in the range of 1.67-1.90 g/cm3. Detonation properties of the compounds were estimated using the Kamlet-Jacobs equation. The results showed that detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) increased with an increase in the number of nitro groups attached at the ring moiety. It was found that all six nitro derivatives of the title compound had better or comparable performance characteristics than the most widely used commercial explosives, such as TNT, research and development explosives (RDX), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). The trinitro derivative (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazepine, F) yielded detonation pressure (P) and detonation velocity (D) of 45.5 GPa and 9.23 km/s, respectively, at a loading density of 1.90 g/cm3, which are superior to the most powerful available explosive HMX (P = 39.00 GPa and D = 9.11 km/s). The results obtained during the present study show that the title compounds can be used as promising futuristic high-energy-density materials (HEDMs).

  2. 3.5D dynamic PET image reconstruction incorporating kinetics-based clusters

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lijun; Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Tang, Jing; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman

    2012-01-01

    Standard 3D dynamic PET imaging consists of independent image reconstructions of individual frames followed by application of appropriate kinetic model to the time activity curves (TACs) at the voxel or region-of-interest. The emerging field of 4D PET reconstruction, by contrast, seeks to move beyond this scheme and incorporate information from multiple frames within the image reconstruction task. Here we propose a novel reconstruction framework aiming to enhance quantitative accuracy of parametric images via introduction of priors based on voxel kinetics, as generated via clustering of preliminary reconstructed dynamic images to define clustered neighborhoods of voxels with similar kinetics. This is then followed by straightforward maximum a posterior (MAP) 3D PET reconstruction as applied to individual frames; and as such the method is labeled “3.5D” image reconstruction. The use of cluster-based priors has the advantage of further enhancing quantitative performance in dynamic PET imaging, because: (a) there are typically more voxels in clusters than in conventional local neighborhoods, and (b) neighboring voxels with distinct kinetics are less likely to be clustered together. Using realistic simulated 11C-raclopride dynamic PET data, the quantitative performance of the proposed method was investigated. Parametric distribution-volume (DV) and DV ratio (DVR) images were estimated from dynamic image reconstructions using (a) MLEM, and MAP reconstructions using (b) the quadratic prior (QP-MAP), (c) the Green prior (GP-MAP) and (d, e) two proposed cluster-based priors (CP-U-MAP and CP-W-MAP), followed by graphical modeling, and were qualitatively and quantitatively compared for 11 regions-of-interest (ROIs). Overall, the proposed dynamic PET reconstruction methodology resulted in substantial visual as well as quantitative accuracy improvements (in terms of noise vs. bias performance) for parametric DV and DVR images. The method was also tested on a 90 min 11C

  3. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  4. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  5. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N–H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗})/S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N–X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH{sub 3}) or internal conversion to the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Wujcik, C.E.; Seiber, J.N.

    1996-07-01

    Optimization of a methanol-modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique using carbon dioxide has resulted in the effective recovery of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) from spiked and native soils. Several parameters, including modifier concentration, temperature, density, and static and dynamic extraction time were varied independently to determine the effect of each on analyte recovery. The optimal SFE conditions are: 5% methanol, 150{degree}C, 7500 PSI, 5 minutes static extraction and 15 minutes dynamic extraction. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography using electron-capture detection (ECD). SFE quantitatively recovered both TNT and TNB from the soil matrix in considerably less time than conventional Soxhlet extraction with ethyl acetate and sonication with acetonitrile. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  8. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  9. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  10. Crystal structure of [UO2(NH3)5]NO3·NH3

    PubMed Central

    Woidy, Patrick; Kraus, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Penta­ammine dioxide uranium(V) nitrate ammonia (1/1), [UO2(NH3)5]NO3·NH3, was obtained in the form of yellow crystals from the reaction of caesium uranyl nitrate, Cs[UO2(NO3)3], and uranium tetra­fluoride, UF4, in dry liquid ammonia. The [UO2]+ cation is coordinated by five ammine ligands. The resulting [UO2(NH3)5] coordination polyhedron is best described as a penta­gonal bipyramid with the O atoms forming the apices. In the crystal, numerous N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present between the cation, anion and solvent mol­ecules, leading to a three-dimensional network. PMID:27980813

  11. Characterization of 3'----5' exonuclease associated with DNA polymerase of silkworm nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailov, V S; Marlyev, K A; Ataeva, J O; Kullyev, P K; Atrazhev, A M

    1986-01-01

    3'----5' Exonuclease specific for single-stranded DNA copurified with DNA polymerase of nuclear polyhedrosis virus of silkworm Bombyx mori (BmNPV Pol). BmNPV Pol has no detectable 5'----3' exonuclease activity on single-stranded or duplex DNA. Analysis of the products of 3'----5' exonucleolytic reaction showed that deoxynucleoside monophosphates were released during the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA. The exonuclease activity cosedimented with the polymerase activity during ultracentrifugation of BmNPV Pol in glycerol gradient. The polymerase and the exonuclease activities of BmNPV Pol were inactivated by heat with nearly identical kinetics. The mode of the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA by BmNPV Pol-associated exonuclease was strictly distributive. The enzyme dissociated from single-stranded DNA after the release of a single dNMP and then reassociated with a next polynucleotide being degradated. Images PMID:3012482

  12. Crystal structure of 3,5-di­methyl­pyridine N-oxide dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Merino García, Rosario; Ríos-Merino, Francisco Javier; Bernès, Sylvain; Reyes-Ortega, Yasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, also known as 3,5-lutidine N-oxide dihydrate, C7H9NO·2H2O, the N—O bond is weakened due to the involvement of the O atom as an acceptor of hydrogen bonds from the two water mol­ecules of crystallization present in the asymmetric unit. Fused R 3 5(10) ring motifs based on O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form chains in the [010] direction, which are further connected by weak C—H⋯O inter­molecular contacts. As a result, the lutidine mol­ecules are stacked in an efficient manner, with π–π contacts characterized by a short separation of 3.569 (1) Å between the benzene rings. PMID:27980810

  13. High-Pressure Studies of 1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene: Experiment and Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachev, Sergey N.; Pravica, Michael; Kim, Eunja; Romano, Edward; Weck, Philippe F.

    2008-11-12

    High-pressure studies of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene have been performed by using Raman spectroscopy up to 16 GPa and compared with complementary density functional calculations. Angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies were also performed in the solid state at elevated pressure. The lattice constants of solid 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene obtained from the X-ray diffraction pattern taken at 3.8 GPa and room temperature are in good agreement with theoretical results. At least two phase transitions were observed during pressure increase followed by the loss of long-range crystallographic order, which was also associated with a strong pressure-induced luminescence that allowed estimation of band gap alterations with pressure.

  14. Current and Emerging Materials for 3-5 Micron IR Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilman, Richard L.

    1986-12-01

    New, more durable windows and domes will be required for future 3-5 micron IR systems. Various oxide and oxynitride crystalline materials are candidates for these new requirements, including sapphire, spinel, ALON, yttria, and MgO. These materials are compared with respect to optical properties, durability, and fabrication costs. Two extrinsic properties, thermal conductivity and fracture strength, have strong effects on thermal shock resistance. Birefringent polycrystalline materials will not have adequate optical resolution for future systems.

  15. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  16. Proton Relaxation in 1, 3, 5-Triamino-2, 4, 6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-16

    AD-AO? 209 NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC F/G 7/4 PROTON RELAXATION IN 1. 3, 5-TRIAMINO-2, 4. 6-TRINITROBENZENE C-ETC(Ul~JUN A0 A N GARROWAY , H A...TATB) 1 April - 31 September 1979 S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) A.N. Garroway and H.A. Resing DE-AP-03

  17. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  18. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  19. Synthesis and dynamic stereochemistry of 4-aryl-thiomorpholine-3,5-dione derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szawkało, Joanna; Maurin, Jan K.; Pluciński, Franciszek; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    A series of new N-aryl-substituted thiomorpholine-3,5-diones were synthesized. Crystal structures of seven compounds were established on the basis of X-ray crystallography. Stable at room temperature diastereomers were detected for (2-phenyl)-substituted derivatives using 1H NMR. The dynamic stereochemistry of compound 36 was studied with variable-temperature 1H NMR and the mechanism of diastereomers interconversion was proposed on the basis of quantum chemical calculations.

  20. A 3.5 to 12 Micron "Dualband" Spectrometer for Generic UAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    response, and transmission of the Fresnel lens used for this test in place of the F/2.3 fore-optics. A 3.5 to 12 Micron “Dualband” Spectrometer for... Fresnel lens had been used. As described previously, the camera lens images onto the (cooled) spectrometer slit. The long focal length (400 mm) of the...Measured ** ** Based on DRS Modeling Results ** 28 Initial data collect with Prototype Sensor– Test FPA & Fresnel Lens • Used Fresnel lens (awaiting

  1. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. (a) The Act effects a...

  2. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. (a) The Act effects a...

  3. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  4. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  5. 78 FR 1855 - 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024); Amendment To Terminate Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... AGENCY 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024); Amendment To Terminate Uses... unit. Table 1--1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1-Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan1024) Product Cancellation... amendment to terminate uses of 1-Methyl-3,5,7-Triaza-1- Azoniatricyclodecane Chloride (Busan...

  6. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  7. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  8. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.5 Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? (a) The operator of a...

  9. A new type of two-dimensional carbon crystal prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qi-Shi; Tang, Pei-Duo; Huang, Hua-Lin; Du, Fang-Li; Huang, Kai; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Long, Si-Yu; Li, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Jie-Shan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4–6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4–6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4–6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal. PMID:28094298

  10. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  11. A new type of two-dimensional carbon crystal prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Tang, Pei-Duo; Huang, Hua-Lin; Du, Fang-Li; Huang, Kai; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Long, Si-Yu; Li, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Jie-Shan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2017-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2D) carbon crystal, different from graphene, has been prepared from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, consisting of 4-carbon and 6-carbon rings in 1:1 ratio, named 4–6 carbophene by authors, in which all carbon atoms possess sp2 hybrid orbitals with some distortion, forming an extensive conjugated π-bonding planar structure. The angles between the three σ-bonds of the carbon sp2 orbitals are roughly 120°, 90°, and 150°. Each of the three non-adjacent sides of a 6C-ring is shared with a 4C-ring; and each of the two opposite sides of a 4C-ring is shared with a 6C-ring. Dodecagonal holes with a diameter of approximate 5.8 Å are regularly located throughout the 2D carbon crystal. Even though the bond energies in 4–6 carbophene are weaker than those in the graphene, the new planar crystal is quite stable in ambient conditions. The 4–6 carbophene can be synthetized from 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or other benzene derivatives through dehydration and polymerization reactions, and may possess several possible patterns that form a family of 2D carbon crystals. A possible side reaction involving 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene is also discussed, which may produce a carbon-oxygen two dimensional crystal.

  12. Electromigration Behaviors of Cu Reinforced Sn-3.5Ag Composite Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Han, Jing; Ma, Limin; Zuo, Yong; Guo, Fu

    2016-12-01

    The composite approach, by incorporating small amounts of reinforcement particles in the solder matrix, has proven to be one of the effective ways to improve the reliability of solder joints. The effects of Cu addition on electromigration were investigated in this study by incorporating 2% volume fraction Cu particles into Sn-3.5Ag eutectic solder paste by the in situ process. The one-dimensional solder joints, designed to prevent the current crowding effect, were stressed under a constant current density of 104 A/cm2 at room temperature, and the temperature of the sample could reach 105 ± 5°C due to the Joule heating effect. Doping 2 vol.% Cu was found to retard the electromigration phenomenon effectively. After electric current stressing for 528 h, the growth rate of an interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the anode decreased 73% in contrast to that of Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, and the IMC layer at the cathode was almost unchanged. The polarization effect of Cu reinforced composite solder joints was also apparently mitigated. In addition, the surface damage of the composite solder joints was relieved by incorporating 2 vol.% Cu particles. Compared to Sn-3.5Ag solder joints, which had protruded Cu6Sn5 and wrinkles of Sn-solder matrix on the surface, the solder joints with Cu addition had a more even surface.

  13. Structure and applications of metal-organic framework based on cyanide and 3,5-dichloropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; El-bendary, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    The reaction of the aqueous/acetonitrile solutions of K3[Cu(CN)4] and 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-dClpy), in the presence of Me3SnCl affords a new metal-organic framework (MOF), 3∞[(CuCN)2·(3,5-dClpy)2], 1. The structure of the MOF 1 was characterized by IR, UV-visible, TGA and X-ray single crystal analysis. The structure of MOF 1 consists of CuCN building blocks which are connected by CN group forming 1D-zig-zag chains. Each chain is bridged to another chain by hydrogen bonding organizing 2D-sheets. The structure of 1 is further close packed by hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and lp-π interactions creating 3D-network. The emission spectra and the thermodynamic parameters from TGA of the MOF 1 were discussed. The MOF 1 was used as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative discoloration of methylene blue dye (MB) by dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The in vitro cytotoxic activity has been evaluated against the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. The cytotoxic effect of the MOF 1 on the viability of MCF-7 cells was determined by MTT assay.

  14. Degradation kinetics of malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside exposed to microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Xiayang; Wu, Jihong; Liao, Xiaojun; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-16

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the degradation of bioactive compounds during microwave treatment is meaningful for the practical application of this novel technology. The influence of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of anthocyanins (Acys) on the degradation behavior of malvidin-3-glucoside (Mv-3-glu) and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside (Mv-3,5-diglu) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the degradation of both Acys was accelerated with the increase of microwave power, energy density, temperature, pH value, and initial concentration of Acys. The degradation process of both Acys followed the first-order kinetics model (R² > 0.94), whereas the relationship between Acys degradation and energy density fitted to the logistic model well (R² > 0.98). In addition, Mv-3-glu was more susceptible to the microwave treatment than Mv-3,5-diglu. Compared with heating in a 98 ± 2 °C water bath, both Acys degraded more rapidly under microwave treatment at 100 °C, indicating the occurrence of microwave effect. The results provide a guide for the scientific application of microwave treatment.

  15. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Key Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase and Flavonoid 3',5'-Hydroxylase Genes in Affecting the Ratio of Dihydroxylated to Trihydroxylated Catechins in Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Chengcai; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechins (RDTC) is an important indicator of tea quality and biochemical marker for the study of genetic diversity. It is reported to be under genetic control but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) are key enzymes involved in the formation of dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. The transcriptome and HPLC analysis of tea samples from Longjing43 and Zhonghuang2 under control and shading treatment were performed to assess the F3'H and F3'5'H genes that might affect RDTC. A total of 74.7 million reads of mRNA seq (2×101bp) data were generated. After de novo assembly, 109,909 unigenes were obtained, and 39,982 of them were annotated using 7 public databases. Four key F3'H and F3'5'H genes (including CsF3'5'H1, CsF3'H1, CsF3'H2 and CsF3'H3) were identified to be closely correlated with RDTC. Shading treatment had little effect on RDTC, which was attributed to the stable expression of these key F3'H and F3'5'H genes. The correlation of the coexpression of four key genes and RDTC was further confirmed among 13 tea varieties by real time PCR and HPLC analysis. The coexpression of three F3'H genes and a F3'5'H gene may play a key role in affecting RDTC in Camellia sinensis. The current results may establish valuable foundation for further research about the mechanism controlling catechin composition in tea.

  17. Prenatal anxiety, maternal stroking in infancy, and symptoms of emotional and behavioral disorders at 3.5 years.

    PubMed

    Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Hellier, Jennifer; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Animal findings of long-term effects of maternal behaviors mediated via altered GR gene expression will, if translated into humans, have far reaching implications for our understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology. We have previously shown that mothers' self-reported stroking of their infants modifies associations between prenatal depression and anxiety and child outcomes at 29 weeks and 2.5 years. Here, we examine whether the effect of early maternal stroking is evident at 3.5 years, and in a much larger sample than in previous publications. A general population sample of 1233 first-time mothers completed anxiety measures at 20 weeks gestation, 865 reported on infant stroking at 9 weeks, and 813 on child symptoms at 3.5 years. Maternal stroking moderated the association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and internalizing (p = 0.010) and externalizing (p = 0.004) scores, such that an effect of PSA to increase symptoms was markedly reduced for mothers who reported high levels of stroking. There was no effect of maternal stroking on general anxiety. The findings confirm the previously reported effect of maternal stroking, and in a much larger sample. They indicate that there are long-term effects of early maternal stroking, modifying associations between prenatal anxiety and child emotional and behavioral symptoms.

  18. Superagonist, Full Agonist, Partial Agonist, and Antagonist Actions of Arylguanidines at 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) Subunit A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Alix, Katie; Khatri, Shailesh; Mosier, Philip D; Casterlow, Samantha; Yan, Dong; Nyce, Heather L; White, Michael M; Schulte, Marvin K; Dukat, Małgorzata

    2016-11-16

    Introduction of minor variations to the substitution pattern of arylguanidine 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor ligands resulted in a broad spectrum of functionally-active ligands from antagonist to superagonist. For example, (i) introduction of an additional Cl-substituent(s) to our lead full agonist N-(3-chlorophenyl)guanidine (mCPG, 2; efficacy % = 106) yielded superagonists 7-9 (efficacy % = 186, 139, and 129, respectively), (ii) a positional isomer of 2, p-Cl analog 11, displayed partial agonist actions (efficacy % = 12), and (iii) replacing the halogen atom at the meta or para position with an electron donating OCH3 group or a stronger electron withdrawing (i.e., CF3) group resulted in antagonists 13-16. We posit based on combined mutagenesis, crystallographic, and computational analyses that for the 5-HT3 receptor, the arylguanidines that are better able to simultaneously engage the primary and complementary subunits, thus keeping them in close proximity, have greater agonist character while those that are deficient in this ability are antagonists.

  19. Characteristics of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine sulfate metabolism in euthyroid man

    SciTech Connect

    LoPresti, J.S.; Mizuno, L.; Nimalysuria, A.; Anderson, K.P.; Spencer, C.A.; Nicoloff, J.T. )

    1991-10-01

    The sulfated conjugate of T3 (T3S) has long been recognized as a normal product of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism. In order to better understand the role that T3S may play in this process, the metabolic handling of T3S was studied in euthyroid man. After the iv administration of (125I)T3S in man, T3S was found to be rapidly metabolized with estimated mean MCR of 135 {plus minus} 15 liters/day (L/D) after a bolus injection and 127 {plus minus} 8 L/D employing a constant infusion. The primary route of T3S disposal was by deiodination with an efficiency of 92%. The administration of propylthiouracil (PTU, 300 mg every 6 h {times} 5 days) and iopanoic acid (IA, 500 mg every day {times} 5 days), both inhibitors of deiodination, decreased clearance compared to control (87 {plus minus} 9 L/D, P less than 0.01 and 46 {plus minus} 10 L/D, P less than 0.002, respectively). A 3-day fast also reduced the clearance of T3S (56 {plus minus} 10 L/D, P less than 0.002). All three maneuvers decreased the total urinary deiodination fraction of tracer T3S (control 91 {plus minus} 2%, PTU 70 {plus minus} 9%, P less than 0.04, IA 26 {plus minus} 3%, P less than 0.0001, and fasting 58 {plus minus} 6%, P less than 0.01). A strong correlation between T3S clearance and deiodination was noted for fasting and IA only (r = 0.78, P less than 0.003). However, no relationship between clearance and deiodination was noted with PTU administration presumably as a result of a compensatory increase in biliary losses of T3S. The urinary thyronine excretion pattern demonstrated the presence of small amounts of labeled T3,3,3{prime}-T2, and 3,3{prime}-T2S with the major metabolite being T3S itself. TSH levels were not influenced by the infusion of stable T3S designed to achieve a serum value greater than 50 ng/dL. No absorption of intact T3S was detected after its oral ingestion.

  20. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD{sub 30/50} values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  1. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD[sub 30/50] values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  2. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  3. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  4. Hitomi Constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F. A.; Akamatsu, H.; Akimoto, F.; Allen, S. W.; Angelini, L.; Arnaud, K. A.; Audard, M.; Awaki, H.; Axelsson, M.; Bamba, A.; Bautz, M. W.; Blandford, R. D.; Bulbul, E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brown, G. V.; Cackett, E. M.; Chernyakova, M.; Chiao, M. P.; Coppi, P.; Costantini, E.; de Plaa, J.; den Herder, J.-W.; Done, C.; Dotani, T.; Ebisawa, K.; Eckart, M. E.; Enoto, T.; Ezoe, Y.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferrigno, C.; Foster, A. R.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Furuzawa, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Gallo, L. C.; Gandhi, P.; Giustini, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Gu, L.; Guainazzi, M.; Haba, Y.; Hagino, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Harrus, I.; Hatsukade, I.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashida, K.; Hiraga, J.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Hoshino, A.; Hughes, J. P.; Ichinohe, Y.; Iizuka, R.; Inoue, H.; Inoue, S.; Inoue, Y.; Ishibashi, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Itoh, M.; Iwai, M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kallman, T.; Kamae, T.; Kara, E.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuda, S.; Katsuta, J.; Kawaharada, M.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Khangulyan, D.; Kilbourne, C. A.; King, A. L.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kitamoto, S.; Kitayama, T.; Kohmura, T.; Kokubun, M.; Koyama, S.; Koyama, K.; Kretschmar, P.; Krimm, H. A.; Kubota, A.; Kunieda, H.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lee, S.-H.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Limousin, O.; Loewenstein, M.; Long, K. S.; Lumb, D. H.; Madejski, G. M.; Maeda, Y.; Maier, D.; Makishima, K.; Markevitch, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsushita, K.; McCammon, D.; McNamara, B. R.; Mehdipour, M.; Miller, E. D.; Miller, J. M.; Mineshige, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mitsuishi, I.; Miyazawa, T.; Mizuno, T.; Mori, H.; Mori, K.; Moseley, H.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, H.; Murakami, T.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nakagawa, T.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakashima, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Nobukawa, K.; Nobukawa, M.; Noda, H.; Nomachi, M.; O’ Dell, S. L.; Odaka, H.; Ohashi, T.; Ohno, M.; Okajima, T.; Ota, N.; Ozaki, M.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Parmar, A.; Petre, R.; Pinto, C.; Pohl, M.; Porter, F. S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Russell, H. R.; Safi-Harb, S.; Saito, S.; Sakai, K.; Sameshima, H.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, G.; Sato, K.; Sato, R.; Sawada, M.; Schartel, N.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Seta, H.; Shidatsu, M.; Simionescu, A.; Smith, R. K.; Soong, Y.; Stawarz, Ł.; Sugawara, Y.; Sugita, S.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takeda, S.; Takei, Y.; Tamagawa, T.; Tamura, K.; Tamura, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, M.; Tawara, Y.; Terada, Y.; Terashima, Y.; Tombesi, F.; Tomida, H.; Tsuboi, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsunemi, H.; Tsuru, T.; Uchida, H.; Uchiyama, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ueda, S.; Ueda, Y.; Ueno, S.; Uno, S.; Urry, C. M.; Ursino, E.; de Vries, C. P.; Watanabe, S.; Werner, N.; Wik, D. R.; Wilkins, D. R.; Williams, B. J.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaoka, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yamauchi, S.; Yaqoob, T.; Yatsu, Y.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Zoghbi, A.; Hitomi Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E≈ 3.5 {keV} emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S xvi (E≃ 3.44 {keV} rest-frame)—a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.

  5. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  6. Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-12-04

    An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

  7. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  8. Syntheses, Structural Characterization and Thermoanalysis of Transition-Metal Compounds Derived from 3,5-Dinitropyridone

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rong; Zhou, Qiu-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Cai, Mei-Yu; Li, Ping; Gan, Li-Hua; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Li, Ji-Zhen; Fan, Xue-Zhong; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    Nine metal compounds of Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) derived from dinitropyridone ligands (3,5-dinitro-pyrid-2-one, 2HDNP; 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one, 4HDNP and 3,5-dinitropyrid-4-one-N- hydroxide, 4HDNPO) were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and partly by TG-DSC. Three of which were further structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. The structures of the three compounds, Mn(4DNP)2(H2O)4, 4, Zn(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 8, and Cd(4DNPO)2(H2O)4, 9, crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n and Z = 2, with a = 8.9281(9), b = 9.1053(9), c = 10.6881(11) Å, β = 97.9840(10)° for 4; a = 8.4154(7), b = 9.9806(8), c = 10.5695(8) Å, β = 97.3500(10)° for 8; a = 8.5072(7), b = 10.2254(8), c = 10.5075(8) Å, β 96.6500(10)° for 9. All three complexes are octahedral consisting of four equatorial water molecules, and two nitrogen or oxygen donor ligands (DNP or DNPO). The abundant hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions seem to contribute to stabilization of the crystal structures of the compounds. The TG-DTG results revealed that the complexes showed a weight loss sequence corresponding to all coordinated water molecules, nitro groups, the breaking of the pyridine rings and finally the formation of metal oxides. PMID:20526459

  9. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, A; Freitag, M; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, H; Xiang, R; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D,

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  10. Dielectric characteristics of LiCo 3/5Cu 2/5VO 4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Moti

    2010-08-01

    The LiCo 3/5Cu 2/5VO 4 ceramics was produced by the solution-based chemical method and its dielectric and electrical modulus properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. Frequency dependence of dielectric constant ( εr) at some selected temperatures shows low-frequency dispersion. Temperature dependence of εr at 1, 100, 200, 500 kHz and 1 MHz exhibits same value of transition temperature ( Tc=300 °C) with ( εr) max. ∼5147, 396, 270, 162 and 111, respectively. Complex electrical modulus study describes the presence of non- Debye type conductivity relaxation in the material.

  11. Experimental study of free-shear layer transition above a cavity at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Creel, Theodore R., Jr.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1989-01-01

    The transition behavior of a free-shear layer above a cavity with high and low levels of freestream acoustic disturbances has been studied at Mach 3.5. Optical techniques, mean pitot pressure measurements, and hot-wire measurements were employed to detect transition locations. Transition Reynolds numbers of between 363,000 and 530,000 were found, in agreement with previous results. It is suggested that upstream convected disturbances may be at least partially responsible for the insensitivity of transition Reynolds numbers to the freestream acoustic disturbance field.

  12. Synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles via 5-exo-dig cyclization.

    PubMed

    Borkin, Dmitry A; Puscau, Mirela; Carlson, Alena; Solan, Agnes; Wheeler, Kraig A; Török, Béla; Dembinski, Roman

    2012-06-21

    5-Exo-dig cyclocondensation of alk-3-yn-1-ones with hydrazines, in the presence of montmorillonite K-10, provides an effective method with a high atom economy for the synthesis of diversely 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles. The microwave-accelerated reaction proceeds in the absence of solvent and leads to 5-benzyl substituted pyrazoles with good yields (72-91%). The regiochemistry of the process was confirmed by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methylbenzyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole.

  13. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  14. Synthesis, antimalarial activity and molecular docking of hybrid 4-aminoquinoline-1,3,5-triazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Hans Raj; Singh, Udaya Pratap; Thakur, Anjali; Kumar Ghosh, Surajit; Gogoi, Kabita; Prakash, Anil; Singh, Ramendra K

    2015-10-01

    A series of novel hybrid 4-aminoquinoline 1,3,5-triazine derivatives was synthesized in a five-steps reaction and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (RKL-2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Entire synthetic derivatives showed higher antimalarial activity on the sensitive strain while two compounds, viz., 9a and 9c displayed good activity against both the strains of P. falciparum. The observed activity was further substantiated by docking study on both wild and qradruple mutant type P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (pf-DHFR-TS).

  15. Joining C/C composite to copper using active Cu-3.5Si braze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuanxun; Li, Zhenglin; Hao, Chuanyong; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-02-01

    A simple technique was developed to join C/C composite to Cu using active Cu-3.5Si braze for nuclear thermal applications. The brazing alloy exhibited good wettability on C/C substrate due to the reaction layer formed at the interface. A strong interfacial bond of the brazing alloy on C/C with the formation of TiC + SiC + Ti 5Si 3 reaction layer was obtained. The produced CC/Cu/CuCrZr joint exhibited shear strength as high as 79 MPa and excellent thermal resistance during the thermal shock tests.

  16. Dibromidobis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-κN 2)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Tomyn, Stefania; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elżbieta; Penkova, Larysa; Kotova, Natalia V.

    2011-01-01

    In the mononuclear title complex, [CoBr2(C5H8N2)2], the CoII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from two monodentate 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole ligands and two Br atoms in a highly distorted tetra­hedral geometry. In the crystal, the complex mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds into chains along [101]. An intra­molecular N—H⋯Br hydrogen bond is also present. PMID:22219744

  17. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  18. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  19. Formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 and the 3,5-bis-epimer.

    PubMed

    Yodwaree, Sariya; Soorukram, Darunee; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Reutrakul, Vichai; Pohmakotr, Manat

    2014-09-21

    The formal synthesis of (+)-3-epi-eupomatilone-6 () and the 3,5-bis-epimer () has been accomplished. The key synthetic strategy involved the stereoselective construction of (3R,4S,5R)- and (3R,4S,5S)-trisubstituted γ-butyrolactones and from (2R,3R)-2,3-dimethyl-4-pentenoic acid derivative , which was readily obtained via stereoselective conjugate addition of vinylmagnesium chloride to a chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinone (Evans' auxiliary) followed by α-methylation.

  20. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study demonstrates, on the basis of several analyanalytical criteria, that the production and extracellular release of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is widespread among phytoplankton species. The production and release of CAMP varied markedly among different species grown under similar environmental conditions, and intraspecifically during the life cycle of a given algal species. This investigation marks the first time cAMP has been investigated in natural aquatic systems. An examination of epilimnetic lakewater samples from Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan, demonstrated that cAMP existed in both particulate-associated and dissolved forms in these systems.

  1. 3.5-Ga hydrothermal fields and diamictites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt—Paleoarchean crust in cold environments

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Furnes, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of ocean temperatures on Earth 3.5 billion years ago (Ga) range between 26° and 85°C. We present new data from 3.47- to 3.43-Ga volcanic rocks and cherts in South Africa suggesting that these temperatures reflect mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold marine and terrestrial waters. We describe fossil hydrothermal pipes that formed at ~200°C on the sea floor >2 km below sea level. This ocean floor was uplifted tectonically to sea level where a subaerial hydrothermal system was active at 30° to 270°C. We also describe shallow-water glacial diamictites and diagenetic sulfate mineral growth in abyssal muds. These new observations reveal that both hydrothermal systems operated in relatively cold environments and that Earth’s surface temperatures in the early Archean were similar to those in more recent times. PMID:26933677

  2. 3.5-Ga hydrothermal fields and diamictites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt-Paleoarchean crust in cold environments.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maarten J; Furnes, Harald

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of ocean temperatures on Earth 3.5 billion years ago (Ga) range between 26° and 85°C. We present new data from 3.47- to 3.43-Ga volcanic rocks and cherts in South Africa suggesting that these temperatures reflect mixing of hot hydrothermal fluids with cold marine and terrestrial waters. We describe fossil hydrothermal pipes that formed at ~200°C on the sea floor >2 km below sea level. This ocean floor was uplifted tectonically to sea level where a subaerial hydrothermal system was active at 30° to 270°C. We also describe shallow-water glacial diamictites and diagenetic sulfate mineral growth in abyssal muds. These new observations reveal that both hydrothermal systems operated in relatively cold environments and that Earth's surface temperatures in the early Archean were similar to those in more recent times.

  3. X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and DFT studies of 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3,5-diphenylformazan

    SciTech Connect

    Tezcan, H.; Tokay, N.; Alpaslan, G.; Erdönmez, A.

    2013-12-15

    The crystal structure of 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3,5-diphenylformazan was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 23.0788(9), b = 7.9606(3), c = 18.6340(12) Å, Z = 8, sp. gr. Pbca, R{sub 1} = 0.074. The structure was also examined using the density-functional theory. Its structure stability, and frontier molecular orbital components were discussed and the results were compared with X-ray and spectral results. The maximum absorbtion peaks of the UV-vis spectrum of the compound have been calculated using the time-dependent density-functional theory. It was found a good agreement between the calculated and experimental maximum absorption wavelength.

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles and evaluation of their anti-ageing activity.

    PubMed

    Koufaki, Maria; Fotopoulou, Theano; Kapetanou, Marianna; Heropoulos, Georgios A; Gonos, Efstathios S; Chondrogianni, Niki

    2014-08-18

    One-pot uncatalysed microwave-assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between in situ generated nitrile oxides and alkynes bearing protected antioxidant substituents, were regioselectively afforded 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles. The yields were moderate, based on the starting aldehydes, while the reaction times were in general shorter than those reported in the literature. The cytoprotective and anti-ageing effect of the final deprotected compounds was evaluated in vitro, on cellular survival following oxidative challenge and in vivo, on organismal longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The activity of the isoxazole analogues depends on the nature and the number of the antioxidant substituents. Analogue 17 bearing a phenolic group and a 6-OH-chroman group is a promising anti-ageing agent, since it increased survival of human primary fibroblasts following treatment with H2O2 and extended C. elegans lifespan.

  5. Theoretical study of the resonance Raman spectra for meso-tetrakis(3,5-di-tertiarybutylphenyl)-porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ren-hui; Wei, Wen-mei; Zhu, Li-li; Shi, Qiang

    2014-12-10

    Applying time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), we study the resonance Raman spectra for the Q and B bands of the meso-tetrakis(3,5-di-tertiarybutylphenyl)-porphyrin (H2TBPP) molecule including both Raman A term (Franck-Condon term) and Raman B term (Herzberg-Teller term) contributions. It is found that Raman B term can be one order of magnitude larger than Raman A term and dominates resonance Raman for the Q band resonance. In comparison with the recent experimental Raman spectra of H2TBPP with incident light frequency 532nm, we predict the absence of 1580cm(-1) band in the resonance Raman spectra which agrees well with the experimental results, whereas the previous theoretical calculation using non-resonance strategy failed to do so.

  6. Interdiffusion analysis of the soldering reactions in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, K. S.; Kim, S. J.

    2001-11-01

    Extensive microstructural and kinetic studies on the formation and growth of the intermetallics of Sn-rich solder/Cu couples have been reported. However, experimental data on the interdiffusion mechanisms during soldering reactions are limited and in conflict. The interdiffusion processes for soldering of Sn-3.5Ag alloy/Cu couples were investigated by using the Cr-evaporated surface as a reference line. At the beginning of soldering, Cu was observed to outdiffuse to the molten Sn-3.5Ag alloy until saturation, and the Sn-Ag solder dissolved with Cu collapsed below the reference line. As a result, the scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound was formed at the newly-formed Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Cu interface below the original Cu surface. When the soldered joint was reflowed at the lower temperature to suppress the Cu dissolution, the Cu6Sn5/Cu interface moved into the Cu substrate. Therefore, Sn is the dominant diffusing species for the intermetallic formation during the soldering process, although the extensive Cu dissolution occurs at the early stage of soldering.

  7. Stability and Uncertainty of Full Moment Tensor Solutions for M < 3.5 Induced Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in earthquakes associated with industrial activities has created a need to investigate and characterize the source physics of induced seismicity. Many techniques and approaches are available to determine representative source parameters of these events. For M > 3.5 events, high quality seismic data from regional networks can be used to provide reasonable estimates of moment tensor solutions. In this investigation we explore various techniques and datasets to constrain full moment tensor solutions of M < 3.5 induced events, expanding upon the approach developed by Guilhem et al., 2014. Small magnitude events recorded by local seismic networks can yield good quality data with distinct body wave and converted phases depending upon the velocity structure and frequency range. Generating synthetic seismograms or Green's functions to accurately model these high frequency phases can be challenging. To investigate the variability associated with the choice of Green's functions, we test available codes to see how well they capture body wave phases. Other stability and uncertainty measures include the F-test, Jackknife test, residual bootstrap, and Network Sensitivity Solution, (Ford et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2010). Additional datasets to constrain the full moment tensor solution include P-wave first motions and amplitude ratios.

  8. 3,5-Dimethylisoxazoles Act As Acetyl-lysine-mimetic Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Histone–lysine acetylation is a vital chromatin post-translational modification involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. Bromodomains bind acetylated lysines, acting as readers of the histone-acetylation code. Competitive inhibitors of this interaction have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. With 57 distinct bromodomains known, the discovery of subtype-selective inhibitors of the histone–bromodomain interaction is of great importance. We have identified the 3,5-dimethylisoxazole moiety as a novel acetyl-lysine bioisostere, which displaces acetylated histone-mimicking peptides from bromodomains. Using X-ray crystallographic analysis, we have determined the interactions responsible for the activity and selectivity of 4-substituted 3,5-dimethylisoxazoles against a selection of phylogenetically diverse bromodomains. By exploiting these interactions, we have developed compound 4d, which has IC50 values of <5 μM for the bromodomain-containing proteins BRD2(1) and BRD4(1). These compounds are promising leads for the further development of selective probes for the bromodomain and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family and CREBBP bromodomains. PMID:21851057

  9. Design and realization of a planar ultrawideband antenna with notch band at 3.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Azim, Rezaul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Yatim, Baharudin; Arshad, Haslina

    2014-01-01

    A small antenna with single notch band at 3.5 GHz is designed for ultrawideband (UWB) communication applications. The fabricated antenna comprises a radiating monopole element and a perfectly conducting ground plane with a wide slot. To achieve a notch band at 3.5 GHz, a parasitic element has been inserted in the same plane of the substrate along with the radiating patch. Experimental results shows that, by properly adjusting the position of the parasitic element, the designed antenna can achieve an ultrawide operating band of 3.04 to 11 GHz with a notched band operating at 3.31-3.84 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna achieved a good gain except at the notched band and exhibits symmetric radiation patterns throughout the operating band. The prototype of the proposed antenna possesses a very compact size and uses simple structures to attain the stop band characteristic with an aim to lessen the interference between UWB and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band.

  10. The Intrinsic Shape of Sagittarius A* at 3.5 mm Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Blackburn, Lindy; Fish, Vincent L.; Loinard, Laurent; Reid, Mark J.; Castillo, Edgar; Chael, Andrew A.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Hughes, David H.; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Lu, Ru-Sen; Montaña, Alfredo; Narayanan, Gopal; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Sánchez, David; Schloerb, F. Peter; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Shiokawa, Hotaka; SooHoo, Jason; Vertatschitsch, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The radio emission from Sgr A{}\\ast is thought to be powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole of ˜ 4× {10}6 {M}⊙ at the Galactic Center. At millimeter wavelengths, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can directly resolve the bright innermost accretion region of Sgr A{}\\ast . Motivated by the addition of many sensitive long baselines in the north-south direction, we developed a full VLBI capability at the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). We successfully detected Sgr A{}\\ast at 3.5 mm with an array consisting of six Very Long Baseline Array telescopes and the LMT. We model the source as an elliptical Gaussian brightness distribution and estimate the scattered size and orientation of the source from closure amplitude and self-calibration analysis, obtaining consistent results between methods and epochs. We then use the known scattering kernel to determine the intrinsic two-dimensional source size at 3.5 mm: (147+/- 7 μ {{as}})× (120+/- 12 μ {{as}}), at position angle 88^\\circ +/- 7^\\circ east of north. Finally, we detect non-zero closure phases on some baseline triangles, but we show that these are consistent with being introduced by refractive scattering in the interstellar medium and do not require intrinsic source asymmetry to explain.

  11. Immunogenicity of Infanrix™ hexa administered at 3, 5 and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Kolhe, Devayani; Hardt, Karin

    2012-04-05

    A pooled analysis of data from four vaccination studies conducted in Europe was undertaken to assess the immunogenicity of Infanrix™ hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) when administered in a total of 702 healthy infants at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. One month after dose 2, between 96.3% and 100% of subjects had seroprotective antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3; 91.7% against Hib and ≥99.0% were seropositive for each pertussis antigen. One month after the third dose, 98.9-100% of subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for all vaccine antigens. Geometric mean antibody concentrations/titres for each vaccine antigen increased by 6.7-52.9 fold after the third vaccine dose. No serious adverse events in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients were vaccine related. Infanrix™ hexa induces an adequate immune response after 2-dose primary plus booster doses when administered according to a 3, 5 and 11 months schedule.

  12. Inositol lipids: from an archaeal origin to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate faults in human disease.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein, I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from archaeons - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway (TORC1); and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways.

  13. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    minister of Greece, “neither race, nor language, nor skull could be used as the basis for determining the nationality and that national conscience...Serbia, in particular, has been very active in spreading propaganda about the danger posed by the prospect of Greater Albania. The term, alien to the...greater Albania plot.”62 However, for Albanians, despite of their living place, the term “Greater Albania” is alien .63 Instead, they use the term

  14. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  15. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  16. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  17. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify

  18. The effect of chemical structure on the stability of physical vapor deposited glasses of 1,3,5-triarylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyi; Cheng, Kevin; Salami-Ranjbaran, Elmira; Gao, Feng; Li, Chen; Tong, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Chih; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, William; Klinge, Lindsey; Walsh, Patrick J.; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    We detail the formation and properties associated with stable glasses (SG) formed by a series of structural analogues of 1,3-bis(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (α,α,β-TNB), a well-studied SG former. Five compounds with similar structural properties were synthesized and physical vapor-deposited with a constant deposition rate at various substrate temperatures (Tdep) in the range between 0.73 Tg and 0.96 Tg. These molecules include α,α,β-TNB, 3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbenzene (α,α-P), 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene (α,α-A), 9,9'-(5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)dianthracene (β-AA), and 3,3',5,5'-tetra(naphthalen-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl (α,α,α,α-TNBP). Ellipsometry was used to study the transformations from the as-deposited glasses into ordinary glasses (OG). The stability of each film was evaluated by measuring the fictive temperature (Tf) and density difference between the as-deposited glass and OG. It is demonstrated that all five molecules can form SGs upon vapor deposition in this temperature range. In-depth studies on the dependence of the stability of as-deposited glasses upon Tdep were performed with three molecules, α,α,β-TNB, α,α-P, and α,α-A. The general trends of stability were comparable at the same Tdep/Tg for these three compounds. Similar to previous studies on α,α,β-TNB, vapor-deposited glasses of α,α-P and α,α-A formed the most stable structures around Tdep = 0.8-0.85 Tg. The most stable glass of each molecule showed the lowest thermal expansion coefficient compared to OG and a positive optical birefringence. However, the SGs of α,α-A were less stable compared to α,α-P and α,α,β-TNB at the relative Tdep/Tg. Based on Arrhenius extrapolation of the aging time, as a measure of stability, the most stable α,α-A glass was only aged for a few years as opposed to hundreds or thousands of years for other glasses. We hypothesize that the reduced stability is due to slower mobility at the free surface of

  19. Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-16

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.

  20. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  1. DFT STUDY OF CO AND NO ADSORPTION ON BORON NITRIDE (BN)n = 3 - 5 NANOCLUSTERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Pangh, Abdolhakim; Ghorbanpour, Hamed

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of CO and NO molecules by different orientations on (BN)n=3-5 clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311+G* level of theory. Total electronic energies have been corrected for geometrical counterpoise (gCP) and dispersion (D3) energies at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. Formation of a new sigma bond between the gas and (BN)3 cluster, atom in molecules (AIM) results, density of states spectrums (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces, and visualization of wave function of molecular orbitals in the nearest bonding regions to the Fermi level have confirmed that adsorption of CO by carbon end atom, and NO by nitrogen end atom is covalent in nature, so that the charge transfer is occurred from gas molecule to the cluster.

  2. Colorimetric determination of catecholamines by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    el-Rabbat, N A; Omar, N M

    1978-06-01

    A convenient spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of epinephrine, levarterenol, isoproterenol, and methyldopa by reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and subsequent measurement of the formazan at 485 nm. With absolute alcohol as the solvent, maximum color absorption was attained in 30 min at 25 degrees in the presence of 0.1 N KOH. Evidence is provided to account for the reduction of the tetrazolium salt at the expense of the epinephrine catechol moiety. In addition to the considerably high values of the molar absorptivities of the chromogen formed, ideal adherence of the color absorption to the Beer-Lambert law permitted a sensitive microdetermination of these catecholamines in both pure forms and pharmaceutical formulations. The tetrazolium interaction was selective. No interference was encountered from common catecholamine antioxidants, adjuvants, or noncatechol degradation products.

  3. Characterization of Hydrazinium 3,5-Dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Kejian; Meng, Zihui; Xu, Zhibin; Xue, Min; Lin, Zhihui; Wang, Bozhou; Ge, Zhongxue; Qin, Guangmin

    2014-05-01

    The structure of hydrazinium 3,5-dinitroamine-1,2,4-triazole (HDNAT) was investigated with infrared (IR), mass spectrometry, 13C-NMR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray crystallography. The crystal density of HDNAT was determined as 1.91 g/cm3 using X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to a monoclinic system with the space group P2(1). The thermal decomposition process of HDNAT was investigated via thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) at a heating rate of 10 K/min and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under nonisothermal conditions. The decomposition kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were obtained by the Kissinger and Ozawa method. HDNAT can be analyzed by using a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with water : acetonitrile : trifluoroacetic acid (97/3/0.1, v/v/v) as the mobile phase and a capacity factor of 1.33.

  4. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  5. Medium effects in proton-induced K0 production at 3.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Gaitanos, T.; Weil, J.; Hades Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the analysis of the inclusive K0 production in p +p and p +Nb collisions measured with the HADES detector (GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt) at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV. Data are compared to the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model. The data suggest the presence of a repulsive momentum-dependent kaon potential as predicted by the chiral perturbation theory (ChPT). For the kaon at rest and at normal nuclear density, the ChPT potential amounts to ≈35 MeV. A detailed tuning of the kaon production cross sections implemented in the model has been carried out to reproduce the experimental data measured in p +p collisions. The uncertainties in the parameters of the model were examined with respect to the sensitivity of the experimental results from p +Nb collisions to the in-medium kaon potential.

  6. Dichlorobis(3,5-dimethylpyrazole-N2)methylphenyltin(IV)

    PubMed

    Casas; Garcia-Martinez; Garcia-Tasende; Sanchez; Sordo; Vazquez-Lopez; Vidarte

    2000-08-01

    The title compound, [SnCl(2)(CH(3))(C(6)H(5))(C(5)H(8)N(2))(2)], was obtained by reaction of dichloromethylphenyltin(IV) and 3, 5-dimethylpyrazole (dmpz) in chloroform, and was recrystallized from acetone. The structure consists of octahedral all-trans [SnMePhCl(2)(dmpz)(2)] molecules, with the Sn atom coordinated to two C [Sn-C 2.127 (5) and 2.135 (4) A], two Cl [Sn-Cl 2.5753 (8) A] and two N atoms [Sn-N 2.357 (3) A]. The dmpz ligands, bound to the metal through their unprotonated N atoms, form weak intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the Cl ligands via their NH groups, giving rise to a polymeric chain along the c axis.

  7. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-06

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. Effects of wind-tunnel noise on swept-cylinder transition at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Beckwith, I. E.; Chen, F.-J.

    1986-01-01

    Transition data are reported for circular cylinders at swept angles of 45 and 60 degrees in the Mach 3.5 pilot-low-disturbance tunnel where free-stream noise levels are varied from approximately .05-0.5 percent in terms of the rms fluctuating pressure normalized by the mean static pressure. Results indicate that end plate or boundary layer trip disturbances at the upstream end of the cylinders cause turbulent flow along the entire test Reynolds number range of 10-170 thousand per inch. With all end plate and trip disturbances removed, transition at the attachment lines occurred at free-stream Reynolds numbers based on diameters of about 70-80 thousand, independent of stream noise levels. The installation of small trips on the attachement lines caused transition at lower Reynolds numbers, depending on both the roughness height and the wind tunnel noise level.

  9. Optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives as potent bromodomain ligands.

    PubMed

    Hewings, David S; Fedorov, Oleg; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Martin, Sarah; Picaud, Sarah; Tumber, Anthony; Wells, Christopher; Olcina, Monica M; Freeman, Katherine; Gill, Andrew; Ritchie, Alison J; Sheppard, David W; Russell, Angela J; Hammond, Ester M; Knapp, Stefan; Brennan, Paul E; Conway, Stuart J

    2013-04-25

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested.

  10. Optimization of 3,5-Dimethylisoxazole Derivatives as Potent Bromodomain Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The bromodomain protein module, which binds to acetylated lysine, is emerging as an important epigenetic therapeutic target. We report the structure-guided optimization of 3,5-dimethylisoxazole derivatives to develop potent inhibitors of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal domain) bromodomain family with good ligand efficiency. X-ray crystal structures of the most potent compounds reveal key interactions required for high affinity at BRD4(1). Cellular studies demonstrate that the phenol and acetate derivatives of the lead compounds showed strong antiproliferative effects on MV4;11 acute myeloid leukemia cells, as shown for other BET bromodomain inhibitors and genetic BRD4 knockdown, whereas the reported compounds showed no general cytotoxicity in other cancer cell lines tested. PMID:23517011

  11. Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol poisoning: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying-Mei; Hao, Feng-Tong; Xia, Yu-Jing

    2014-06-01

    Sodium 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol (STCP) is an important intermediate for synthesizing organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. At present, chlorpyrifos is one of the world's largest species of pesticide products. Many studies have focused on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, but few reports have looked at the toxicity mechanism of STCP. Even fewer studies have looked at STCP poisoning. With increasing production and usage of STCP, the chances of such poisoning will increase. In this study, we present a report on four workers who helped in the industrial manufacture of STCP and who were affected by exposure to it. We hope that these case studies will provide a foundation for further research into STCP.

  12. Crystal structure of ammonium (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetate hemihydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    In the structure of the title hydrated salt, NH4 (+)·C8H5Cl2O3 (-)·0.5H2O, where the anion derives from (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid, the ammonium cation is involved in extensive N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding with both carboxyl-ate and ether O-atom acceptors giving sheet structures lying parallel to (100). The water mol-ecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and is involved in intra-sheet O-H⋯Ocarboxyl-ate hydrogen-bonding inter-actions. In the anion, the oxoacetate side chain assumes an antiperiplanar conformation with the defining C-O-C-C torsion angle = -171.33 (15)°.

  13. Theoretical Studies on 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guozheng, Zhao; Ming, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Seven analogues of a new high-energetic material, 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazole (LLM-116), were designed through changing NH2 or NO2 groups on the pyrazole ring of LLM-116. Density functional theory studies on LLM-116 and its analogues were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometric and electronic structures, natural bond orbital, charge on the nitro group (-QNO2 ), density, detonation properties, and bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of these molecules were investigated and compared with LLM-116. The results showed that molecules E , F , and G had comparable performance with better insensitivity characteristics and might be potential candidates of powerful energetic materials.

  14. Heat transfer in a compact tubular heat exchanger with helium gas at 3.5 MPa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Douglas A.; Glover, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    A compact heat exchanger was constructed consisting of circular tubes in parallel brazed to a grooved base plate. This tube specimen heat exchanger was tested in an apparatus which radiatively heated the specimen on one side at a heat flux of up to 54 W/sq cm, and cooled the specimen with helium gas at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 3000 to 35,000. The measured friction factor of the tube specimen was lower than that of a circular tube with fully developed turbulent flow, although the uncertainty was high due to entrance and exit losses. The measured Nusselt number, when modified to account for differences in fluid properties between the wall and the cooling fluid, agreed with past correlations for fully developed turbulent flow in circular tubes.

  15. [In vitro synthesis of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Deme, D; Gavaret, J M; Pommier, J; Nunez, J

    1978-01-01

    3,5,3'-triiodotyronine formation was studied in vitro after iodination of goiter thyroglobulin catalyzed by purified thyroid peroxidase. A fractionnal number of T3 is always obtained per mole of thyroglobulin in both in vitro and in vivo. This result cannot be explained by a heterogeneity in thyroglobulin iodination or in a partial conversion of T3 to T4. It is suggested that thyroglobulin is heterogenous either in its primary sequence or in its teritiary configuration. Thyroglobulin contains tyrosine residues which are specific for the T3 formation and moreover T3 is not the precursor of T4. The efficiency of T3 formation was studied: the maximal number of T3 molecules is obtained with 30 iodine atoms per mole of thyroglobulin. In addition the results suggest that the tyrosines which are coupled with a high efficiency are iodinated sequentially.

  16. Coral reefs in Saudi Arabia: 3.5 years after the Gulf War oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, I. P.

    1995-11-01

    As a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, 6-8 million barrels of oil were released into the marine environment and a total of 1.12 billion barrels were burned in the Kuwaiti oil fields. In order to detect delayed effects of the Gulf War pollution, six permanent transect lines were placed on Saudi Arabian offshore and inshore reefs. A comparison of three sets of video recordings taken between 1992 and 1994 indicated a significant increase in live coral cover. Therefore, it has been concluded that corals in Saudi Arabia survived the largest oil spill on record remarkably unscathed, with no visible signs of immediate or late effects up to 3.5 years after the Gulf War.

  17. Crossflow Instability on a Wedge-Cone at Mach 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeler, George B.; Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Balakumar, P.; McDaniel, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    As a follow-on activity to the HyBoLT flight experiment, a six degree half angle wedge-cone model at zero angle of attack has been employed to experimentally and computationally study the boundary layer crossflow instability at Mach 3.5 under low disturbance freestream conditions. Computed meanflow and linear stability analysis results are presented along with corresponding experimental Pitot probe data. Using a model-mounted probe survey apparatus, data acquired to date show a well defined stationary crossflow vortex pattern on the flat wedge surface. This effort paves the way for additional detailed, calibrated flow field measurements of the crossflow instability, both stationary and traveling modes, and transition-to-turbulence under quiet flow conditions as a means of validating existing stability theory and providing a foundation for dynamic flight instrumentation development.

  18. Hydrothermal alteration in the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht Group of South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R.; Dewit, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    K-Ar studies of authigenic and alteration phases from the 3.5 b.y. old Onverwacht group of South Africa delineate hydrothermal metamorphism that ended 3.3 b.y. years ago. A whole rock K-Ar errochron from analysis of barite, dolomite, chert, and serpentinite (komatiite) gives an age of 3.3 b.y. with an intercept of 1,678 + or - 103. The 3.3. b.y. age for the metamorphism in the Onverwacht was confirmed by the Argon isotopes stepwise heating experiments of komatiites and basaltic komatiites from the Onverwacht Group. In addition, the errochron suggests all the phase studied equilibrated with a reservoir of hydrothermal argon with relatively uniform isotopic composition. The concept of hydrothermal activity in the Onverwacht Group is discussed and illustrated with photographs.

  19. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  20. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. T.; Ozturk, T.; An, N.; Türkeş, M.; Kurnaz, L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period of 2071-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3°C up to more than 7°C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  1. Unhydrolyzable analogues of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate demonstrating growth inhibition and differentiation in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yokozaki, H; Tortora, G; Pepe, S; Maronde, E; Genieser, H G; Jastorff, B; Cho-Chung, Y S

    1992-05-01

    A set of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) analogues that combine exocyclic sulfur substitutions in the equatorial (Rp) or the axial (Sp) position of the cyclophosphate ring with modifications in the adenine base of cAMP were tested for their effect on the growth of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and LS-174T human colon carcinoma cells. Both diasteromeres of the phosphorothioate derivatives were growth inhibitory, exhibiting a concentration inhibiting 50% of cell proliferation of 3-100 microM. Among the analogues tested, Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS and Sp-8-Br-cAMPS were the two most potent. Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS was 5- to 10-fold less potent than 8-Cl-cAMP while Sp-8-Br-cAMPS was approximately 6-fold more potent than 8-Br-cAMP. The growth inhibition was not due to a block in a specific phase of the cell cycle or due to cytotoxicity. Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS enhanced its growth-inhibitory effect when added together with 8-Cl-cAMP and increased differentiation in combination with N6-benzyl-cAMP. The binding kinetics data showed that these Sp and Rp modifications brought about a greater decrease in affinity for Site B than for Site A of RI (the regulatory subunit of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and a substantial decrease of affinity for Site A of RII (the regulatory subunit of type II protein kinase) but only a small decrease in affinity for Site B of RII, indicating the importance of the Site B binding of RII in the growth-inhibitory effect. These results show that the phosphorothioate analogues of cAMP are useful tools to investigate the mechanism of action of cAMP in growth control and differentiation and may have practical implication in the suppression of malignancy.

  2. Platinum group elements in a 3. 5 Ga nickel-iron occurrence: Possible evidence of a deep mantle origin

    SciTech Connect

    Tredoux, M.; Hart, R.J.; Lindsay, N.M.; Sellschop, J.P.F. ); de Wit, M.J. Lunar and Planetary Inst., Houston, TX ); Armstrong, R.A. )

    1989-01-10

    The Bon Accord (BA) Ni-Fe deposit occurs in chemically depleted ultramafic rocks of the circa 3.5 Ga Jamestown opholite complex in the Barberton greenstone belt of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa. BA is unusual both mineralogically and chemically. It consists of a rare Ni-rich assemblage: Ni-oxide (bunsenite), -spinels (trevorite, nichromite), and -silicates (e.g., liebenbergite, the Ni end-member olivine) and their altered equivalents. NiO (average = 38%) and FeO + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (average = 34%) are the major chemical constituents. The Cu and S contents are very low (both < 100 ppm), and no evidence for replacement of preexisting sulphides has been detected. BA is enriched in platinum group elements (PGE) and shows bimodal patterns on the standard PGE diagrams. Differences between the patterns are much greater for Os and Ir than for the other PGE. This observation is interpreted as being indicative of a high-temperature process (> 2000C; lower mantle). High Ni/Fe and Ni/Co ratios (relative to C-1 chondrite) suggest that BA might have been derived form siderophile-rich material that remained in the lower mantle after inefficient core formation. A model is presented wherein such a metal-silicate heterogeneity is fractionated and oxidized during ascent through the mantle in a thermal plume which originates in the lowermost mantle during formation of the Archean oceanic crust. Inclusion of such fractionated pods in the old subcontinental 'keel' of the Kaapvaal craton might constitute a potential PGE source, which could have been tapped by subsequent magmatic activity.

  3. Short Term Clinical Outcome after Laparoscopic Cryoablation of the Renal Tumor < or = 3.5 cm.

    PubMed

    Polascik, T J; Nosnik, I; Mayes, J M; Mouraviev, V

    2007-12-01

    Between September 2000 and September 2006, 26 patients underwent primary laparoscopic cryosurgical procedures (28) for an organ-confined renal tumor(s). In one case, cryosurgery was done sequentially on both kidneys. All patients had been carefully selected based on the following criteria: tumor size < or = 3.5 cm, the absence of local and systemic spread on cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the ability to tolerate general anesthesia. A pure laparoscopic approach was employed using third generation cryotechnology (Galil Medical Inc., Plymouth Meeting, USA). Patients were followed by serial CT or MRI scan, creatinine level, and physical examination at least every six months after cryotherapy. The mean patient age was 64 years (range: 44-79) and the mean follow-up was 20.9 +/- 17.2 months. The median tumor size was 2.0 cm (range: 1-3.5 cm). Only one patient required a blood transfusion and one patient developed a transient ileus. The median length of stay was 2.0 days (range: 0-9 days). The median change in creatinine was 0.1 mg/dl (range:-0.4 to 1.8). No patient was converted to open surgery. No evidence of recurrence or progression was found in all patients, and overall survival rate was 100%. Laparoscopic renal cryoablation of the small renal tumor is a safe procedure with minimal complications. Although there were no recurrences with short term follow-up, further long term study is needed to verify its efficacy.

  4. Surfactant media to grow new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Sheng; Bai, Linlu; Xiong, Wei-Wei; Li, Peizhou; Ding, Junfeng; Zhang, Guodong; Wu, Tom; Zhao, Yanli; Lee, Jong-Min; Yang, Yanhui; Geng, Baoyou; Zhang, Qichun

    2014-08-18

    In this report, three new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), [Co3(μ3-OH)(HBTC)(BTC)2Co(HBTC)]·(HTEA)3·H2O (NTU-Z30), [Co(BTC)]·HTEA·H2O (NTU-Z31), [Co3(BTC)4]·(HTEA)4 (NTU-Z32), where H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA = triethylamine, and NTU = Nanyang Technological University, have been successfully synthesized under surfactant media and have been carefully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and IR spectromtry. NTU-Z30 has an unusual trimeric [Co3(μ3-OH)(COO)7] secondary building unit (SBU), which is different from the well-known trimeric [Co3O(COO)6] SBU. The topology studies indicate that NTU-Z30 and NTU-Z32 possess two new topologies, 3,3,6,7-c net and 2,8-c net, respectively, while NTU-Z31 has a known topology rtl type (3,6-c net). Magnetic analyses show that all three materials have weak antiferromagnetic behavior. Furthermore, NTU-Z30 has been selected as the heterogeneous catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of alkene, and our results show that this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity as well as good stability. Our success in growing new crystalline cobalt 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate MOFs under surfactant media could pave a new road to preparing new diverse crystalline inorganic materials through a surfactant-thermal method.

  5. APE2 Zf-GRF facilitates 3'-5' resection of DNA damage following oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Bret D.; Berman, Zachary; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Lin, Yunfeng; Chang, Timothy; Andres, Sara N.; Wojtaszek, Jessica L.; DeRose, Eugene F.; Appel, C. Denise; London, Robert E.; Yan, Shan; Williams, R. Scott

    2016-12-27

    The Xenopus laevis APE2 (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2) nuclease participates in 3'-5' nucleolytic resection of oxidative DNA damage and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response (DDR) pathway via ill-defined mechanisms. Here we report that APE2 resection activity is regulated by DNA interactions in its Zf-GRF domain, a region sharing high homology with DDR proteins Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α) and NEIL3 (Nei-like DNA glycosylase 3), as well as transcription and RNA regulatory proteins, such as TTF2 (transcription termination factor 2), TFIIS, and RPB9. Biochemical and NMR results establish the nucleic acid-binding activity of the Zf-GRF domain. Moreover, an APE2 Zf-GRF X-ray structure and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses show that the Zf-GRF fold is typified by a crescent-shaped ssDNA binding claw that is flexibly appended to an APE2 endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase (EEP) catalytic core. Structure-guided Zf-GRF mutations impact APE2 DNA binding and 3'-5' exonuclease processing, and also prevent efficient APE2-dependent RPA recruitment to damaged chromatin and activation of the ATR-Chk1 DDR pathway in response to oxidative stress in Xenopus egg extracts. Collectively, our data unveil the APE2 Zf-GRF domain as a nucleic acid interaction module in the regulation of a key single-strand break resection function of APE2, and also reveal topologic similarity of the Zf-GRF to the zinc ribbon domains of TFIIS and RPB9.

  6. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... or regulation. (d) The entitlements under sections 6381 through 6387 of title 5, United States...

  7. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  8. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  9. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  10. Outreach impact study: the case of the Greater Midwest Region*

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest Region (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive impact on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223

  11. The formation and inversion of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and the uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: Implications for the wider Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Stephen J.; Braham, William; Lavrishchev, Vladimir A.; Maynard, James R.; Harland, Melise

    2016-12-01

    The western Greater Caucasus formed by the tectonic inversion of the western strand of the Greater Caucasus Basin, a Mesozoic rift that opened at the southern margin of Laurasia. Subsidence analysis indicates that the main phase of rifting occurred during the Aalenian to Bajocian synchronous with that in the eastern Alborz and, possibly, the South Caspian Basin. Secondary episodes of subsidence during the late Tithonian to Berriasian and Hauterivian to early Aptian are tentatively linked to initial rifting within the western, and possibly eastern, Black Sea and during the late Campanian to Danian to the opening of the eastern Black Sea. Initial uplift, subaerial exposure, and sediment derivation from the western Greater Caucasus occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Oligocene and younger sediments on the southern margin of the former basin were derived from the inverting basin and uplifted parts of its northern margin, indicating that the western Greater Caucasus Basin had closed by this time. A predominance of pollen representing a montane forest environment (dominated by Pinacean pollen) within these sediments suggests that the uplifting Caucasian hinterland had a paleoaltitude of around 2 km from early Oligocene time. The closure of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and significant uplift of the range at approximately 34 Ma is earlier than stated in many studies and needs to be incorporated into geodynamic models for the Arabia-Eurasia region.

  12. Mechanical and thermomechanical stability issues of 96.5SN-3.5AG solder joints in microelectronic packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong

    thus hamper the creep deformation rate. The aspect ratio may also influence the creep deformation rate. A constitutive model is established which describes the mechanical deformation behavior of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag as a function of stress, time, and temperature. The constitutive equation was implemented in a two dimensional finite element model to study the solder joint reliability under a typical thermal cycling condition. The strain range values can be used in the Coffin-Manson equation for estimating the accelerating factors and thus to predict the life of a flip chip package. The methodology used in this investigation can be applied in the areas of solder mechanics, solder processing, and electronic packaging technologies.

  13. EVALUATION OF IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN MULTIPLE SAMPLE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were evaluated for the determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP) in multiple sample media (dust, soil, food, and urine). The dust and soil samples were analyzed by the RaPID (TM) commercial immunoassay testing ...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  16. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  17. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-5 - Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production of food-chain crops (interim final). 257.3-5 Section 257.3-5 Protection of Environment... Application to land used for the production of food-chain crops (interim final). (a) Cadmium. A facility or... for the production of food-chain crops shall not exist or occur, unless in compliance with...

  19. PI(3,5)P2 controls endosomal branched actin dynamics by regulating cortactin–actin interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nan Hyung; Qi, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Branched actin critically contributes to membrane trafficking by regulating membrane curvature, dynamics, fission, and transport. However, how actin dynamics are controlled at membranes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the branched actin regulator cortactin as a direct binding partner of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and demonstrate that their interaction promotes turnover of late endosomal actin. In vitro biochemical studies indicated that cortactin binds PI(3,5)P2 via its actin filament-binding region. Furthermore, PI(3,5)P2 competed with actin filaments for binding to cortactin, thereby antagonizing cortactin activity. These findings suggest that PI(3,5)P2 formation on endosomes may remove cortactin from endosome-associated branched actin. Indeed, inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 production led to cortactin accumulation and actin stabilization on Rab7+ endosomes. Conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity greatly reduced cortactin localization to late endosomes. Knockdown of cortactin reversed PI(3,5)P2-inhibitor–induced actin accumulation and stabilization on endosomes. These data suggest a model in which PI(3,5)P2 binding removes cortactin from late endosomal branched actin networks and thereby promotes net actin turnover. PMID:26323691

  20. An intramolecular interaction within the lipid kinase Fab1 regulates cellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Strunk, Bethany S; Azad, Nadia; Petersen, Jason L; Weisman, Lois S

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated phosphoinositide lipids (PPIs) are low-abundance signaling molecules that control signal transduction pathways and are necessary for cellular homeostasis. The PPI phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is essential in multiple organ systems. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from PI3P by the conserved lipid kinase Fab1/PIKfyve. Defects in the dynamic regulation of PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases. However, few mechanisms that regulate PI(3,5)P2 have been identified. Here we report an intramolecular interaction between the yeast Fab1 kinase region and an upstream conserved cysteine-rich (CCR) domain. We identify mutations in the kinase domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 and impair the interaction between the kinase and CCR domain. We also identify mutations in the CCR domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 Together these findings reveal a regulatory mechanism that involves the CCR domain of Fab1 and contributes to dynamic control of cellular PI(3,5)P2 synthesis.

  1. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE...

  2. Ultrasound-mediated synthesis of 4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates catalyzed by 1-carboxymethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under solvent free condition.

    PubMed

    He, Jing-Yu; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Yao, Qing-Guo; Liu, Si-Jie; Yue, Hong-Kun; Yu, Hong-Wei; Hu, Rui-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    4-Substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates (4) have been synthesized by the solvent-free reaction of aldehyde, methyl propiolate and ammonium carbonate catalyzed by ionic liquid 1-carboxymethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under ultrasonic irradiation. The effects of changes in the ultrasonic power, temperature, catalysts and reactants on the synthesis of 4-substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylates (4) are discussed. With the optimized reaction conditions, various aldehydes were used to synthesize 1,4-dihydropyridines (4) under the influence of ultrasound irradiation. Compared with the conventional thermal methods, the remarkable advantages of this method are the simple experimental procedure, shorter reaction time (2-10min) and high yield of product (76-95%). Furthermore, the green catalytic system can be recycled specific times without significantly decreasing the yields and reaction rates.

  3. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  4. Fourier transform and Vernier spectroscopy using an optical frequency comb at 3-5.4  μm.

    PubMed

    Khodabakhsh, Amir; Ramaiah-Badarla, Venkata; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johansson, Alexandra C; Lee, Kevin F; Jiang, Jie; Mohr, Christian; Fermann, Martin E; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-01

    We present a versatile mid-infrared frequency comb spectroscopy system based on a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator tunable in the 3-5.4 μm range and two detection methods: a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a continuous-filtering Vernier spectrometer (CF-VS). Using the FTS with a multipass cell, we measure high precision broadband absorption spectra of CH4 at 3.3 μm and NO at 5.25 μm, the latter for the first time with comb spectroscopy, and we detect atmospheric species (CH4, CO, CO2, and H2O) in air in the signal and idler ranges. Multiline fitting yields minimum detectable concentrations of 10-20  ppb Hz-1/2 for CH4, NO, and CO. For the first time in the mid-infrared, we perform CF-VS using an enhancement cavity, a grating, and a single detector, and we measure the absorption spectrum of CH4 and H2O in ambient air at ∼3.3  μm, reaching a 40 ppb concentration detection limit for CH4 in 2 ms.

  5. Evaluation of a vital staining protocol with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride for cancellous bone in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, René; Bischoff, Sabine J; Matziolis, Georg; Schmidt, Martin

    2017-03-27

    Decision making on the optimal surgical treatment of fractures often is hampered by the lack of a method for direct assessment of bone vitality. In various contexts, for example to determine the extents of cerebral insults or of myocardial infarctions in experimental studies, tetrazolium based staining procedures of vital cells are widely used. Here, we set out to test the applicability of tetrazolium based staining on bone samples. 8 brains and 26 femoral heads from sheep were used to prepare tissue slices, which were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) at various times (1 to 12h) after explantation. Staining of tissue slices was quantified by densitometric image analysis. Spectrophotometry was used for quantification in cultured cells. TTC-staining of tissue slices indicated detectability of vital cells in slices from both tissues up to 4h after explantation. Staining intensity at later time-points was indistinguishable from the staining of untreated samples or sodium azide treated (necrotic cells) controls. We provide experimental evidence that the choice of the optimal surgical approach for the treatment of fractures involving cancellous bone could be aided by a simple staining procedure for vital bone. However, the described procedure depends on the availability of bone specimens (slices). Therefore, search for an improved stain directly applicable to the bone surface is needed.

  6. The NEWFIRM HETDEX Survey - Studying Galaxy Growth with 400,000 Galaxies at 2 < z < 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Jogee, S.; Papovich, C. J.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Acquaviva, V.; Weinzirl, T.; HETDEX

    2014-01-01

    We present the NEWFIRM HETDEX survey - a K-band survey with NEWFIRM on the KPNO 4m Mayall telescope of a 28 deg^2 region of the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) equatorial field. Here we provide the survey plan, as well as results from the first year (out of four) of our survey. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, deep 3.6 and 4.5 micron images from Spitzer/IRAC, deep far-IR imaging at 250, 350, and 500 microns from HERSCHEL-SPIRE, and R ~ 800 integral-field spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's VIRUS spectrographs (filling factor 1:1), our observations will allow extinction-corrected star-formation rates (SFRs) to be obtained for ~400,000 galaxies at 2 < z < 3.5. Our survey covers a co-moving volume of 0.5 Gpc^3 and is sensitive to SFRs down to 10 Msol/yr, covering a 10-100 times larger volume and going three times deeper than previous surveys. Our very large volume will allow us to explore galaxy growth as a function of stellar mass, halo mass, and local environment, in addition to providing K-band legacy data for the field.

  7. Simple dialkyl pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylates show in vitro and in vivo activity against disease-causing trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Reviriego, Felipe; Olmo, Francisco; Navarro, Pilar; Marín, Clotilde; Ramírez-Macías, Inmaculada; García-España, Enrique; Albelda, María Teresa; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Ramón; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Arán, Vicente J

    2017-04-03

    The synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some simple dialkyl pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylates (compounds 2-6) and their sodium salts (pyrazolates) (compounds 7-9) against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis are reported. In most cases the studied compounds showed, especially against the clinically significant amastigote forms, in vitro activities higher than those of the reference drugs (benznidazole for T. cruzi and glucantime for Leishmania spp.); furthermore, the low non-specific cytotoxicities against Vero cells and macrophages shown by these compounds led to good selectivity indexes, which are 8-72 times higher for T. cruzi amastigotes and 15-113 times higher for Leishmania spp. amastigotes than those of the respective reference drugs. The high efficiency of diethyl ester 3 and its sodium salt 8 against the mentioned protozoa was confirmed by further in vitro assays on infection rates and by an additional in vivo study in a murine model of acute and chronic Chagas disease. The inhibitory capacity of compounds 3 and 8 on the essential iron superoxide dismutase of the aforementioned parasites may be related to the observed anti-trypanosomatid activity. The low acute toxicity of compounds 3 and 8 in mice is also reported in this article.

  8. A 3.5 mm POLARIMETRIC SURVEY OF RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, I.; Thum, C.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Krichbaum, T. P. E-mail: thum@iram.f E-mail: tkrichbaum@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d

    2010-07-15

    We present the results from the first large (>100 sources) 3.5 mm polarimetric survey of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This wavelength is favorable within the radio-millimeter range for measuring the intrinsic linearly polarized emission from AGNs, since in general it is only marginally affected by Faraday rotation of the electric vector position angle and depolarization. The I, Q, U, and V Stokes parameter observations were performed with the XPOL polarimeter at the IRAM 30 m Telescope on different observing epochs from 2005 July (when most of the measurements were made) to 2009 October. Our sample consists of 145 flat-radio-spectrum AGNs with declination >-30{sup 0} (J2000.0) and flux density {approx}>1 Jy at {approx}86 GHz, as measured at the IRAM 30 m Telescope from 1978 to 1994. This constraint on the radio spectrum causes our sample to be dominated by blazars, which allows us to conduct new statistical studies on this class of high-luminosity, relativistically beamed emitters. We detect linear and circular polarization (above minimum 3{sigma} levels of {approx}1.5% and {approx}0.3%) for 76% and 6% of the sample, respectively. We find a clear excess in degree of linear polarization detected at 86 GHz with regard to that at 15 GHz by a factor of {approx}2. Over our entire source sample, the luminosity of the jets is anticorrelated with the degree of linear polarization. Consistent with previous findings claiming larger Doppler factors for brighter {gamma}-ray blazars, quasars listed in our sample, and in the Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Source Catalog (LBAS), show larger luminosities than non-LBAS ones, but our data do not allow us to confirm the same for BL Lac objects. We do not find a clear relation between the linear polarization angle and the jet structural position angle for any source class in our sample. We interpret this as the consequence of a markedly non-axisymmetric character of the 3 mm emitting region in the jets. We find that

  9. Evidence for Early Life in ˜3.5 Billion-Year-Old Pillow Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recently discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of ˜3.5 billion-year-old pillow lavas from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa suggest they were colonized by microbes early in Earth's history. These subaqueous volcanic rocks represent a new geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. This is not entirely surprising since microbial alteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from recent oceanic crust and well-preserved ophiolites. The BGB magmatic sequence contains exceptionally well-preserved mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3.48 to 3.22 billion-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. We observed micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite in the formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas. Based on their similarity to textures observed in recent glassy pillow basalts we interpret these structures to represent ancient traces of microbial activity formed during biogenic etching of the originally glassy pillow rims as microbes colonized the glass surface. Petrographic observations coupled with overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates indicate this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas. Subsequent greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration caused the structures to be mineralized by titanite; a process also observed in ophiolitic pillow lavas of much younger age. X-ray mapping reveals the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures interpreted as residual organic material. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially-altered BGB pillow rims have low carbon isotope values consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. In contrast, disseminated carbonate in the crystalline pillow interiors have carbon isotope values bracketed between Archean marine carbonate and mantle carbon dioxide. It remains to be seen how deep into the Archean oceanic

  10. Preliminary toxicological study of PYX explosive: (2,6-bis(picrylamino)-3,5-dinitropyridine)

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, G.A.; London, J.E.; Smith, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    The acute oral LD/sub 30//sup 50/ values for PYX explosive for mice and rats is greater than 5 g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered slightly or practically nontoxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit with PYX explosive demonstrated that it was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was a very mild and transitory irritant in rabbit eye application studies. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show PYX explosive to be deleterious in this regard, although a firm thickening and erythema were seen at the injection sites 72 h after administration.

  11. APO 3.5-meter remote observing program--2002 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Bruce

    2002-12-01

    The Apache Point Observatory 3.5-meter telescope is a working model of a modern mid-sized telescope used primarily on a shared-night, remote-observing basis. After a decade of successful remote operation and scientific accomplishments, the Astrophysical Research Consortium, builder and owner of the telescope, is examining the role by which this university-owned instrument can best serve its constituency and astronomy at large in the coming years. Various "niche" scientific capabilities are described for the telescope, including fast-response observations of transient phenomena, synoptic observing programs, reactive queue-scheduled observations, temporal study programs, plus being a capable test bed for new instruments. While specialized uses of the telescope offer potential for major scientific discoveries, traditional observing capabilities need to be sustained for the ongoing and future research programs for the majority of the consortium astronomers and students, a large and diverse community. Finding an appropriate balance between the "unique and specialized" versus the "bread-and-butter" observing models is discussed, as is the role hands-on remote observing can serve to support the various operational models.

  12. Impact ionization of molecular oxygen by 3.5-MeV/u bare carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, Aditya N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Kumar, Ajay; Tachino, Carmen A.; Rivarola, Roberto D.; Martín, F.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2012-06-01

    We have measured the absolute double-differential cross sections (DDCSs) for electron emission in ionization of O2 molecules under the impact of 3.5-MeV/u C6+ ions. The data were collected between 10 and 600 eV, in an angular range of 30∘ to 150∘. The single-differential cross sections (SDCSs) in emission angle and electron energy are deduced from the electron DDCS spectra. Also, the total cross section has been obtained from the SDCS spectra. The DDCS spectra as well as the SDCS spectra are compared with continuum distorted-wave eikonal initial-state calculations which employ molecular wave functions built as linear combinations of atomic orbitals. The DDCS ratio i.e. σO2/2σO, derived by dividing the experimental DDCS for molecular oxygen with the theoretical DDCS for atomic oxygen, does not show any primary or secondary oscillations arising from Young-type interference, which is apparently in contrast to what has been observed earlier for H2 and in agreement with the model calculation. Similarly, the forward-backward angular asymmetry increases monotonically with the velocity of the emitted electrons. However, the results on the DDCSs, SDCSs, the asymmetry parameter, and the nonexistence of oscillations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model used.

  13. Structural, antimicrobial and computational characterization of 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea.

    PubMed

    Atiş, Murat; Karipcin, Fatma; Sarıboğa, Bahtiyar; Taş, Murat; Çelik, Hasan

    2012-12-01

    A new thiourea derivative, 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea (bcht) has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol with benzoyl isothiocyanate. The title compound has been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, (13)C, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of bcht derived from X-ray diffraction of a single crystal has been presented. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using density functional method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete assignments of all vibrational modes were performed on the basis of the total energy distributions (TED). Isotropic chemical shifts ((13)C NMR and (1)H NMR) were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Theoretical calculations of bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and nuclear magnetic resonance are in good agreement with experimental results. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ACN and MeOH were recorded. Bcht was also screened for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  14. Free stream noise and transition measurements in a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Creel, T. R., Jr.; Chen, F.-J.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Free stream fluctuating pressures are determined from hot-wire measurements in a Mach 3.5 pilot quiet nozzle over a unit Reynolds number range from 10-60 million per meter. Further, the transition Reynolds numbers on a sharp tip 5 degree half-angle cone at zero angle of attack are obtained over the same range of unit Reynolds numbers from equilibrium temperature measurements on the cone. Results show that the nozzle provides noise levels in the upstream regions of the test rhombus that are substantially lower than in conventional nozzles. The normalized rms levels of the fluctuating static pressures are found to vary from extremely low values of less than 0.03% up to about 0.8% depending on the unit Reynolds number, the axial location in the test rhombus, and the bleed slot flow. By opening the boundary-layer bleed flow, the wall boundary layers over upstream regions of the nozzle become laminar and the absence of high frequency radiated noise then results in cone transition Reynolds numbers that are in the range of free-flight data. As the unit Reynolds numbers are increased, the nozzle wall boundary layers become transitional and turbulent, and the noise increases to peak levels of about 0.5% with significant energy up to 150 KHz. The cone transition Reynolds numbers then decrease to values that are in the range of those measured in conventional wind tunnels.

  15. Structure of Sputnik, a virophage, at 3.5-Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Sun, Siyang; Xiang, Ye; Wong, Jimson; Klose, Thomas; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-11-06

    "Sputnik" is a dsDNA virus, referred to as a virophage, that is coassembled with Mimivirus in the host amoeba. We have used cryo-EM to produce an electron density map of the icosahedral Sputnik virus at 3.5-Å resolution, sufficient to verify the identity of most amino acids in the capsid proteins and to establish the identity of the pentameric protein forming the fivefold vertices. It was also shown that the virus lacks an internal membrane. The capsid is organized into a T = 27 lattice in which there are 260 trimeric capsomers and 12 pentameric capsomers. The trimeric capsomers consist of three double "jelly-roll" major capsid proteins creating pseudohexameric capsomer symmetry. The pentameric capsomers consist of five single jelly-roll proteins. The release of the genome by displacing one or more of the pentameric capsomers may be the result of a low-pH environment. These results suggest a mechanism of Sputnik DNA ejection that probably also occurs in other big icosahedral double jelly-roll viruses such as Adenovirus. In this study, the near-atomic resolution structure of a virus has been established where crystallization for X-ray crystallography was not feasible.

  16. Backscatter from a limestone seafloor at 2-3.5 kHz: measurements and modeling.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Raymond J; Gragg, Robert F

    2003-05-01

    Physics-based interface scattering models for the seafloor [H.-H. Essen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 1299-1310 (1994); Gragg et al., ibid. 110, 2878-2901 (2001)] exhibit features in their predicted grazing angle dependence. These features have a strong dependence on the assumed composition and roughness of the bottom. Verifying such predictions requires data that cover a wide range of grazing angles and involve minimal sub-bottom penetration. Such measurements were performed in the frequency band 2-3.5 kHz over an exposed limestone bottom off the Carolina coast during the second Littoral Warfare Advanced Development Focused Technology Experiment of 1996 (LWAD FTE 96-2). Direct-path bottom scattering strengths were obtained in shallow water (198-310 m deep) for grazing angles from 8 degrees to 75 degrees using data fusion from multiple experimental geometries coupled with careful signal processing. The processing included corrections for the surface-reflected path, other multipaths, and characteristics of the reverberation decay observed over the pulse duration at higher grazing angles. The resulting frequency and grazing-angle dependences exhibit trends consistent with theoretical predictions, and geoacoustic parameters obtained by inversion are consistent with values expected for limestone.

  17. Deoxythymidine 3', 5'-di-p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a synthetic substrate for bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Liao, T

    1975-05-25

    Bovine pancreatic deoxyribonuclease liberates p-nitrophenol from the 3'-group of deoxythymidine 3', 5'-di-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. A similar hydrolysis occurs with deoxythymidine 3'-p-nitrophenyl phosphate 5'-phsophate, but the rate is less than 2% of that with the di-p-nitrophenyl ester. The rate of formation of the p-nitrophenol, measured spectrophotometrically at 400 nm, varies linearly with DNase concentration. The binding of the substrate is not strong (K-m(app) in the 10 mM range), but the hydrolysis is rapid; 1 mug of DNase (free from other phosphodiesterases) can be assayed in 3 min after addition to a 10 mM substrate solution at pH 7.2, 10mM in MnCl2, and 1mM in CaCl2. All four bovine pancreatic DNases (A,B,C, and D) show the same relative activities toward DNA and toward the di-p-nitrophenyl ester; both activities are lost when DNase is inactivated by iodoacetate or by trypsin. The specificity of DNase toward the di-p-nitrophenyl substrate is different from that which has been established for the enzyme's predominant action on DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides, where a monoesterified phosphate group is formed at the 5'-position.

  18. Global search for minimum energy (H2O)n clusters, n = 3-5.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Beth; Kirschner, Karl N; Shields, George C

    2005-08-04

    The Gaussian-3 (G3) model chemistry method has been used to calculate the relative deltaG(o) values for all possible conformers of neutral clusters of water, (H2O)n, where n = 3-5. A complete 12-fold conformational search around each hydrogen bond produced 144, 1728, and 20,736 initial starting structures of the water trimer, tetramer, and pentamer. These structures were optimized with PM3, followed by HF/6-31G* optimization, and then with the G3 model chemistry. Only two trimers are present on the G3 potential energy hypersurface. We identified 5 tetramers and 10 pentamers on the potential energy and free-energy hypersurfaces at 298 K. None of these 17 structures were linear; all linear starting models folded into cyclic or three-dimensional structures. The cyclic pentamer is the most stable isomer at 298 K. On the basis of this and previous studies, we expect the cyclic tetramers and pentamers to be the most significant cyclic water clusters in the atmosphere.

  19. [Effects of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPZP) on soil nitrification].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun-feng; Wu, Zhi-jie; Chen, Li-jun; Sun, Zhi-mei

    2007-05-01

    With aerobic incubation test, this paper studied the effects of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPZP) on soil nitrification, taking dicyandiamide (DCD) as reference. The results indicated that when the dosage was 1.0% of applied N, DMPZP could significantly inhibit the oxidation of soil ammonium, increase soil NH4+ -N concentration, and decrease soil NO3- -N concentration. The inhibitory effect of DMPZP increased with its increasing dosage. DCD showed a higher efficacy when its dosage was the same with DMPZP, but a lower efficacy when the DMPZP was applied two-fold. However, the efficacy of equimolar DMPZP was significantly higher than that of DCD, because of the smaller molecular weight of DCD. The highest inhibitory effect of DMPZP was observed during the period of 7-14 days after its application, with an inhibition rate higher than 30%. Compared with the control, the apparent inhibition rate was decreased by 29.3% and 41.7% on the 7th day, and by 18.6% and 34.3% on the 14th day when the application rate of DMPZP was 1.0% and 2.0% of applied N, respectively. DMPZP could also slow down the falling rate of soil pH, but no significant difference was observed between the treatments of applying DMPZP and DCD.

  20. Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan; Linza, Robert; Garcia, Sam; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Creel, Jonathan; Norton, Robert; Urbin, John; Howe, Don

    2008-01-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5KW at 20K, are used at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryo-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. Equipment refurbishment and upgrades to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the mechanical and control issues that necessitated the equipment refurbishment and controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The upgrades -- the controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology and the newly refurbished equipment -- have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e.: at various loads in the vacuum chambers). Capabilities, configuration, and performance data pre, and post, upgrading will be presented.

  1. Electromigration induced Kirkendall void growth in Sn-3.5Ag/Cu solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yong; Yu, Jin

    2014-02-28

    Effects of electric current flow on the Kirkendall void formation at solder joints were investigated using Sn-3.5Ag/Cu joints specially designed to have localized nucleation of Kirkendall voids at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface. Under the current density of 1 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}, kinetics of Kirkendall void growth and intermetallic compound thickening were affected by the electromigration (EM), and both showed the polarity effect. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} showed a strong susceptibility to the polarity effect, while Cu{sub 3}Sn did not. The electromigration force induced additional tensile (or compressive) stress at the cathode (or anode), which accelerated (or decelerated) the void growth. From the measurements of the fraction of void at the Cu{sub 3}Sn/Cu interface on SEM micrographs and analysis of the kinetics of void growth, the magnitude of the local stress induced by EM was estimated to be 9 MPa at the anode and −7 MPa at the cathode.

  2. Doping of Cn (N = 1, 3, 5, 8) cluster ion tracks in polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Klett, R.; Chung, W. H.; Grünwald, R.; Döbeli, M.; Ames, F.; Chadderton, L. T.; Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.

    Cn+ cluster ions (n = 1, 3, 5, and 8) are implanted at 1 MeV/carbon atom and at fluences of 1010 to 1014 cluster ions/cm2 into thin polyimide foils. The ion-induced radiochemical changes are examined by infrared spectroscopy. The samples are then doped with either aqueous LiCl, or methylene blue dye solutions. The dopant uptake is determined by UV-Vis spectrometry in the first, and by NDP (neutron depth profiling) in the latter case. NDP examinations additionally give information about the depth distributions of the incorporated Li+ ions. Remarkable changes in the infrared signals and in the dopant uptake are found only at fluences when ion track overlapping sets in. For the same fluence, clusters with larger size show more efficient destruction than smaller ones. Also the dopant uptake capability is higher in cluster-irradiated polymers than in single-atomic C+ ion irradiated samples. The depth distribution of the incorporated dopant usually consists of both a pronounced surface-near, and a bulk dopant-enriched region. The surface-near dopant profile increases in height and width with increasing cluster size and fluence. The depth profile shape of the bulk component follows the one of the ion's energy transfer to the target via nuclear collisions. A rule of thumb to describe the action of such a cluster ion onto polymers is given.

  3. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. DNA binding studies of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol pesticide metabolite.

    PubMed

    Kashanian, Soheila; Shariati, Zohreh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Ghobadi, Sirous

    2012-07-01

    3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a stable metabolite of two major pesticides, Chlopyrifos insecticide and Triclopyr herbicide, which are widely used in the world. The potential health hazard associated with TCP is identified due to its high affinity to the DNA molecule. Therefore, in this study, the interaction of native calf thymus DNA with TCP has been investigated using spectrophotometric, circular dichroism (CD), spectrofluorometric, viscometric and voltametric techniques. It was found that TCP molecules could interact with DNA via a groove-binding mode, as evidenced by hyperchromism, with no red shift in the UV absorption band of TCP, no changes in K(b) values in the presence of salt, no significant changes in the specific viscosity and CD spectra of DNA, and a decrease in peak currents with no shift in the voltamogram. In addition, TCP is able to release Hoechst 33258, a strong groove binder, in the DNA solutions. The results are indicative of the groove-binding mode of TCP to DNA.

  5. Molecular structure and spectral investigations of 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, M.; Aydin, B.; Dogan, O.; Dereli, O.

    2017-01-01

    Conformational analysis of 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone molecule was performed and two stable conformers were determined by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). Using the most stable one, molecular structural parameters, vibrational frequencies were calculated by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31G(d) and BLYP/6-31G(d,p) levels of theory. The FT-IR spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 4000-550 cm-1. The Raman spectrum was also recorded in the region 3500-100 cm-1. Calculated results were compared with experimental counterparts. The best results were obtained from B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. Experimental 13C and 1H NMR data of tittle compound were taken from literature and the calculated results compared with these data. Vibrational and NMR band assignments were performed. HOMO-LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potentials and thermodynamic properties were also given for further investigations of our structure.

  6. Structural, antimicrobial and computational characterization of 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atiş, Murat; Karipcin, Fatma; Sarıboğa, Bahtiyar; Taş, Murat; Çelik, Hasan

    2012-12-01

    A new thiourea derivative, 1-benzoyl-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)thiourea (bcht) has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-amino-4-chlorophenol with benzoyl isothiocyanate. The title compound has been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 13C, 1H NMR spectroscopy and the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The structure of bcht derived from X-ray diffraction of a single crystal has been presented. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated by using density functional method using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The complete assignments of all vibrational modes were performed on the basis of the total energy distributions (TED). Isotropic chemical shifts (13C NMR and 1H NMR) were calculated using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. Theoretical calculations of bond parameters, harmonic vibration frequencies and nuclear magnetic resonance are in good agreement with experimental results. The UV absorption spectra of the compound that dissolved in ACN and MeOH were recorded. Bcht was also screened for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  7. A Pharmacokinetic Study of Antimalarial 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Dambuza, Ntokozo; Smith, Peter; Evans, Alicia; Taylor, Dale; Chibale, Kelly; Wiesner, Lubbe

    2015-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for approximately 80% of the incidence and 90% of deaths which occur in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region, with children and pregnant women having the highest incidence. P. falciparum has developed resistance, and therefore new effective candidate antimalarial drugs need to be developed. Previous studies identified 3,5-diaryl-2-aminopyridines as potential antimalarial drug candidates; therefore, derivatives of these compounds were synthesized in order to improve their desired properties and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of the derivatives were investigated in a mouse model which was dosed orally and intravenously. Collected blood samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The mean peak plasma level of 1.9 μM was obtained at 1 hour for compound 1 and 3.3 μM at 0.5 hours for compound 2. A decline in concentration was observed with a half-life of 2.53 and 0.87 hours for compound 1 in mice dosed orally and intravenously, respectively. For compound 2 a half-life of 2.96 and 0.68 hours was recorded. The bioavailability was 69% and 59.7% for compound 1 and compound 2, respectively. PMID:25893131

  8. Complex brecciation and shock effects in the Buck Mountain Wash (H3-5) chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, Melinda; Ruzicka, Alex; Pugh, Richard; Sloan, Larry; Thompson, Edwin

    2007-06-01

    Buck Mountain Wash (BMW) is a new genomict breccia (H3-5) found in the Franconia (H5) strewn field in Arizona that shows complex brecciation and shock effects. It contains three distinct chondritic lithologies in sharp contact: a) a main lithology that consists primarily of petrographic type 5 material but which has finely intermixed type 3 and 4 material, b) a shock-blackened (shock stage S5) type 3 lithology (lithology A), and c) a shock-blackened type 3/4 lithology (lithology B). Buck Mountain Wash was lithified after impact-mixing and impact-melting of weakly and strongly metamorphosed materials, possibly at depth in the regolith of the parent body. Shock effects included brecciation on a fine scale, localized impact-melting of silicates, partial melting, and mobilization of metal-sulfide, and chemical fractionations that produced non-H-group composition kamacite by two disequilibrium mechanisms. Shock heating did not cause significant thermal metamorphism in the shock-blackened lithologies of BMW, except possibly in areas adjacent to whole-rock shock melt. During lithification, cooling must have been rapid at high temperatures to preserve glass and inhomogeneous silicate compositions, but not so fast at lower temperatures as to produce dendritic metal-sulfide globules or martensite.

  9. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  10. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Gubler, H P; Engel, G; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-02-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists.

  11. Evaluation of diazotized 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA) as a new derivatizing reagent.

    PubMed

    Idowu, S O; Olaniyi, A A

    2001-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the reactivity of diazotized 4-amino-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (ADBA) towards selected aromatic compounds has been described. Successful diazo coupling of pharmaceuticals possessing aromatic rings of varying reactivities was achieved with the arenediazonium ion of ADBA at room (30 degrees C) or elevated temperature (80 degrees C). The adducts formed in spot-test reactions were coloured for some compounds (e.g, cloxacillin and chloroxylenol), others showed colour at elevated temperature of reaction (e.g., salicylic acid and aspirin), while others showed no detectable change in colour of reaction mixture, even at elevated temperature (e.g., imidazole and tinidazole). The coloured product formed at room temperature decomposed and the colour discharged at elevated temperature in some cases (e.g., beta-naphthol). However, thin layer chromatographic analysis suggested that a more lipophilic derivative, relative to the original compound was formed for some of the compounds studied which did not show any detectable colour change in the spot test reactions. The diazotized ADBA is thus shown to be a reactive coupling reagent with which a suitable derivatization methodology could be developed for a wide range of pharmaceuticals in ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis.

  12. Corrosion inhibition properties of graphene oxide on mild steel in 3.5% NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandh Senthilvasan, Prem; Rangarajan, Murali

    2016-09-01

    In this work the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 3.5% Sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at ambient conditions by Graphene Oxide (GO) has been studied. Graphene oxide was prepared by Modified Hummers Method and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The electrochemical corrosion behaviour of mild steel has been studied in the absence and presence of GO coatings by Tafel polarization and impedance analyses. The modified electrode has 44.8mV potential shift in the cathodic direction and reduction in current by 41.9 μA (61%). This indicates the strong protection offered by graphene oxide film. The obtained impedance spectra also clearly show that the charge transfer resistance of graphene oxide film is much higher than that of the uncoated steel electrode, demonstrating the strong protection offered by graphene oxide films for mild steel.

  13. Theoretical study of the electronic states of small cationic niobium clusters, Nbn+ (n=3-5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, D.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2001-07-01

    Geometries and energy separations of the various low-lying electronic states of Nbn+ (n=3-5) clusters with different structural arrangements have been investigated. The complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASMCSCF) method followed by the multireference singles plus doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) that included up to 13 million configuration spin functions have been used to compute several electronic states of these clusters. A 5A2 isosceles triangle geometry in C2v symmetry and a 2A' pyramid structure in Cs symmetry are computed as the ground states of Nb3+ and Nb4+ clusters, respectively. In the case of Nb5+, a 1A' state of distorted edge-capped tetrahedral structure (in Cs symmetry) was found to be the ground state. We also compared our MRSDCI results with density functional calculations. The dissociation and atomization energies have been calculated at the MRSDCI level and the results have been found to be in agreement with experimental findings.

  14. Sonochemical synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-Yin

    1996-05-01

    The synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from trichlorotrinitrobenzene (TCTNB) in toluene and ammonium hydroxide solution under the influence of ultrasonic waves was investigated. When the two-phase reaction mixture was irradiated with high intensity ultrasound at ambient temperature, fine-particle TATB (FP-TATB) was produced. This sonochemically produced TATB powder is lemon color in appearance and was analyzed to have the same explosive properties as reported in the literature. That is, it is insensitive to impact stimuli, and thermally stable. The median particle diameter of FP-TATB was calculated to be around 14 {mu}m, and the powder can be pressed to a density of 1.82 g/cm{sup 3} without a binder. The amination process is simple and requires neither the monitoring of the ammonia gas pressure nor the controlling of the reaction temperature during amination reaction, and we anticipate no problem in large scale production of FP-TATB.

  15. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  16. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  17. Identification of the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes from Antarctic moss and their regulation during abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenghao; Ju, Jianfang; Xia, Guangmin

    2014-06-10

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant secondary metabolites, and their hydroxylation pattern determines their color, stability, and antioxidant capacity. The hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of flavonoids is determined by the activity of two members of cytochrome P450 protein (P450) family, the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3',5'H). However, they are still not well documented in lower plants such as bryophytes. We report the identification of gene encoding F3'H, F3',5'H from Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans and their transcriptional regulation under different stress conditions. Totally, sixteen cDNAs were isolated from P. nutans by RT-PCR and RACE techniques, all of which were predicted to code for F3'Hs or F3',5'Hs based on their annotations of Blast results. Amino acid alignment showed that they possessed the featured conserved domains of flavonoid hydroxylase, including proline-rich "hinge" region, EXXR motif, oxygen binding pocket motif, heme binding domain and substrate recognition sites. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that moss F3'Hs and F3',5'Hs were highly conserved and have independent evolution from the monocots, dicots and ferns. Meanwhile, real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression profiling of flavonoid hydroxylase genes was influenced by diverse abiotic stresses including cold, salinity, drought or UV-B radiation and plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) or jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Since 3',4',5'-hydroxylated flavonoid-derivatives may serve a multitude of functions, including antioxidant activity and UV filters, the evolution and expression profile of flavonoid hydroxylase probably reflect the adaptive value of Antarctic moss in the acclimation of polar environment.

  18. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  19. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  20. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  1. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  2. Transformation of one of two C tbnd6 N groups of o-dicyanobenzene in the presence of cyanoguanidine. Crystal and gas-phase structure of 2-(2'-cyanophenyl)-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janczak, Jan; Kubiak, Ryszard

    2005-07-01

    The transformation of one C tbnd6 N group in o-dicyanobenzene in the presence of cyanoguanidine yielding the melaminium derivative in crystalline form has been performed. In the final step of the closing of 1,3,5-triazined ring both hydrogen atoms of one amine group in cyanoguanidine should be transferred to the C tbnd6 N group. Additionally, it has been stated that due to the steric effect of the triazine ring formed from cyanoguanidine and one of cyano group of o-dicyanobenzene, the transformation process of the second C tbnd6 N group in o-dicyanobenzene in the presence of excess of cyanoguanidine is impossible. The 2-(2'-cyanophenyl)-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine crystallises in the centrosymmetric space group of triclinic system. In the crystal the 2-(2'-cyanophenyl)-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine molecule is non-planar due to the steric effect of triazine and cyano groups. The interaction of polar C tbnd6 N group with the nitrogen atom of triazine ring makes the rotation of one ring in relation to other by 22.1° as shown by the ab initio full optimised molecular orbital calculation performed on isolated molecule that corresponds to the gas-phase geometry. In the crystal the rotation angle is almost two times greater due to the intermolecular interaction and hydrogen bonding system. The molecules related by the inversion center interact via two pairs of almost linear N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds forming chains. The chains via more bent N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds form two-dimensional layers parallel to the (110) plane. The hydrogen bonding system and π-π interactions between the rings are responsible for the arrangement of molecules in the crystal. The molecular orbital calculations and conformational analysis have shown four equivalent minima and two pairs of maximum on the potential energy surface. The highest rotational barrier is almost the half of the hydrogen bond energy.

  3. Ionothermal synthesis and structural transformation targeted by ion exchange in metal-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing-Qing; Liu, Bing; Xu, Ling; Jiao, Huan

    2017-03-01

    Ionothermal reactions of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate acid (H3BTC) and Ni(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2 and Cu(NO3)2 gave two discrete 32-membered ring-like allomers, [M2(HBTC)2(NH2CONH2)2(H2O)4]·3H2O (M=Ni(1), Co(2)) and one layered [Cu2(BTC)Cl(H2O)4] (3). The weak interactions in 1 can be deconstructed to some degree in ion exchange by exploring the factors of divalent and trivalent metal species, metal concentration and soaking time, which are demonstrated by PXRD and N2 absorption. Cu2+ has the highest N2 adsorbance when soaking with 1, and 1 can keep structure stable when Cu2+ below 0.16 mol L-1 and the soaking time within 24d. As Cu2+ beyond 0.16 mol L-1 and the soaking time beyond 24d, the structure of compound 1 starts to transform with the crystal morphology from clear pale green to opaque blue. Ionothermal reactions of compound 1 with different Cu2+ amounts obtained Ni2+-Cu2+ hetero complexes, whose PXRD patterns are similar to that of 3 and EDS indicates Cu2+% increases with Cu2+ additions and close to 100% as Cu2+ being 1.6 mmol. It suggests that 3 is a controlled product and Cu2+ can transform discrete compound 1 into 2D compound 3.

  4. Enhanced luminescence of novel rare earth complexes Eu(3,5-DNBA)3Phen in nano-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuguang; Zhang, Jingchang; Cao, Weiliang; Fu, Yali

    2009-02-01

    Eu(3+) (or Tb(3+)) of 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline ternary rare earth complexes were synthesized and characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In this study an organic-inorganic combined device indium tin oxide/poly(N-vinylcar-bazole):RE(3,5-DNBA)(3)Phen:TiO(2)/Al was fabricated. The nano-TiO(2) has been used in the luminescence layer to change the electroluminescence property of RE(3,5-DNBA)(3) Phen (RE=Eu(3+)or Tb(3+)).

  5. GPM/DPR precipitation compared with 3.5-km-resolution NICAM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, S.; Terasaki, K.; Miyoshi, T.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to compare the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)-derived precipitation data with other precipitation products and numerical model simulations as the first step toward the possible use of GPM-derived precipitation data in numerical weather prediction through data assimilation. In February 2014, the GPM satellite was launched successfully and started observing global precipitation between 65S and 65N using the new DPR (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar) sensor. The GPM/DPR observes three-dimensional meteorological echoes with Ku-band and Ka-band radars. It is among our interests how the precipitation data from GPM/DPR compare with other precipitation data. In this study, we compare the GPM/DPR precipitation data with simulated precipitation from the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) at a 3.5-km horizontal resolution. Precipitation products derived from GPM/GMI (GPM Microwave Imager) and GSMaP/NRT are also compared. We focus on two precipitation types from May to July, 2014: frontal precipitation cases and tropical cyclone cases. The spatial pattern of the frontal precipitation measured by GPM/DPR agrees generally well with those of the other precipitation data. However, GPM/GMI-derived precipitation is systematically less than that of the NICAM simulation. By contrast, the vertical structures are considerably different between GPM/DPR and the NICAM simulation. The simulated mixing ratios indicate snow and graupel at upper levels, but these are not captured by GPM/DPR. The tropical cyclones captured by GPM/DPR are simulated reasonably well by NICAM. Further investigations will be made and will be included in this presentation.

  6. Characterizing K2 Exoplanets with NIR Transit Photometry from the 3.5m WIYN Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, Knicole D.; Barclay, Thomas; Thompson, Susan E.; Coughlin, Jeffrey; Barentsen, Geert; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission has discovered over 400 transiting exoplanets as of October 2016 and continues to produce new discoveries on a regular basis. Expected to launch in late 2017, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will continue the era of exoplanet discovery by performing an all-sky search for transiting exoplanets. Given the ever increasing number of known exoplanets, it is critical that we optimize follow-up observations now in order to characterize the many interesting systems discovered by these missions. For example, K2 is finding (and TESS will find even more) small, super-Earth-size planets around cool, nearby stars. I will present results from our program for near-infrared (NIR) transit photometry of K2 exoplanet candidates conducted using the 3.5m WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. NIR transit photometry with the high spatial resolution WHIRC imager installed on the WIYN telescope allows us to confirm the transit host, to verify that the transit is achromatic, and to constrain the planet radius by minimizing effects of stellar limb darkening. Furthermore, the high-precision and high-cadence photometry from WIYN+WHIRC allows us to track and constrain the transit ephemeris, which is crucial for future follow-up efforts with other facilities like the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Ultimately, this program will vet K2 exoplanet candidates and identify prime targets for detailed characterization with JWST. This program complements K2 follow-up being done with the Spitzer Space Telescope and demonstrates the capabilities of a ground-based facility that can be used to characterize small planets from K2 and TESS for years to come.This work was supported by the NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research (NN-EXPLORE) program.

  7. Lambda hyperon production and polarization in collisions of p(3.5 GeV)+Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A. V.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O. V.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y. V.

    2014-05-01

    Results on hyperon production are reported for collisions of p(3.5 GeV) + Nb , studied with the High-Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) at SIS18 at GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy-Ion Research, Darmstadt. The transverse mass distributions in rapidity bins are well described by Boltzmann shapes with a maximum inverse slope parameter of about 90 MeV at a rapidity of y = 1.0, i.e. slightly below the center-of-mass rapidity for nucleon-nucleon collisions, . The rapidity density decreases monotonically with increasing rapidity within a rapidity window ranging from 0.3 to 1.3. The phase-space distribution is compared with results of other experiments and with predictions of two transport approaches which are available publicly. None of the present versions of the employed models is able to fully reproduce the experimental distributions, i.e. in absolute yield and in shape. Presumably, this finding results from an insufficient modelling in the transport models of the elementary processes being relevant for production, rescattering and absorption. The present high-statistics data allow for a genuine two-dimensional investigation as a function of phase space of the self-analyzing polarization in the weak decay . Finite negative values of the polarization in the order of 5-20% are observed over the entire phase space studied. The absolute value of the polarization increases almost linearly with increasing transverse momentum for p t > 300 MeV/c and increases with decreasing rapidity for y < 0.8.

  8. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-01-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  9. Thermal Considerations of Space Solar Power Concepts with 3.5 GW RF Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal challenge of the Space Solar Power (SSP) design concepts with a 3.5 GW radio-frequency (RF) output. High efficiency klystrons are thermally more favored than solid state (butterstick) to convert direct current (DC) electricity to radio-frequency (RF) energy at the transmitters in these concepts. Using klystrons, the heat dissipation is 0.72 GW. Using solid state, the heat dissipation is 2.33 GW. The heat dissipation of the klystrons is 85% at 500C, 10% at 300C, and 5% at 125C. All the heat dissipation of the solid state is at 100C. Using klystrons, the radiator area is 74,500 square m Using solid state, the radiator area is 2,362,200 square m Space constructable heat pipe radiators are assumed in the thermal analysis. Also, to make the SSP concepts feasible, the mass of the heat transport system must be minimized. The heat transport distance from the transmitters to the radiators must be minimized. It can be accomplished by dividing the radiator into a cluster of small radiators, so that the heat transport distances between the klystrons and radiators can be minimized. The area of each small radiator is on the order of 1 square m. Two concepts for accommodating a cluster of small radiators are presented. If the distance between the transmitters and radiators is 1.5 m or less, constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) are acceptable for heat transport. If the distance exceeds 1.5 m, loop heat pipes (LHPs) are needed.

  10. Pulse radiolysis studies of 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Singh, Beena G; Sharma, Asmita; Jain, Vimal K; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2014-11-06

    One electron redox reaction of two asymmetric 3,5-dimethyl pyrazole derivatives of selenoethers attached to ethanoic acid (DPSeEA) and propionic acid (DPSePA) were studied by pulse radiolysis technique using transient absorption detection. The reaction of the hydroxyl ((•)OH) radical with DPSeEA or DPSePA at pH 7 produced transients absorbing at 500 nm and at 300 nm, respectively. The absorbance at 500 nm increased with increasing parent concentration indicating formation of dimer radical cations. From the absorbance changes, the equilibrium constants for the formation of dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated as 2020 and 1608 M(-1), respectively. The rate constants at pH 7 for the reaction of the (•)OH radical with DPSeEA and DPSePA were determined to be 9.6 × 10(9) and 1.4 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The dimer radical cation of DPSeEA and DPSePA decayed by first order kinetics with a rate constant of 2.8 × 10(4) and 5.5 × 10(3) s(-1), respectively. The yield of radical cations of DPSeEA and DPSePA were estimated from the secondary electron transfer reaction, which corresponds to 38% and 48% of (•)OH radical yield, respectively. Some fraction of monomer radical cation undergoes decarboxylation reaction, and the yield of decarboxylation was 25% and 20% for DPSeEA and DPSePA, respectively. These results have implication in understanding their antioxidant activity. The reaction of trichloromethyl peroxyl radical, glutathione, and ascorbic acid further support their antioxidant behavior.

  11. Barium aluminides BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Röhr, Caroline

    2009-05-01

    Three aluminides of the series BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba7Al10 was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3¯m, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12) pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagomé (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al5. The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ( 27Al-NMR chemical shift δ=660 pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagomé net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(δ=490 ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba3Al5 and Ba4Al5, the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P63/mmc; Ba3Al5: a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba4Al5: a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba7Al10.

  12. 3.5 billion years of glass bioalteration: Volcanic rocks as a basis for microbial life?

    SciTech Connect

    Staudigel, H.; Furnes, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Banerjee, N.R.; Connell, L.B.; Templeton, A.

    2009-04-07

    Alteration textures in volcanic glass from the seafloor fall into two classes, one suggestive of abiotic/diffusive hydration and chemical exchange, and another likely to be caused by microbial, cavity-forming, congruent dissolution. Glass bioalteration is common in submarine lavas throughout the world's ocean, dominant in the upper 300 m of the oceanic crust, and found in all well-preserved ophiolites and greenstone belts dating back to 3.5 Ga. It may yield a significant fraction of the global biomass and geochemical fluxes and is relevant to the development of the earliest life on Earth. We present a critical review concerning these glass bioalteration textures and present new data on their microchemical environment. We explore arguments for their biogenicity and further develop the prevalent model for their formation by relating corrosion morphology to the mechanism of microbial dissolution. Biological alteration produces conspicuous micron-scale granular and tubular textures. Granular glass alteration is well explained by colonizing microbes that selectively dissolve the glass in their contact area, forming a sponge-like interconnected network of micron-sized cavities along glass surfaces. Tubular alteration meanwhile, is more likely to be caused by filamentous cell extensions in a process similar to fungal tunneling of soil feldspars and marine carbonates. While we see clear functional similarities to fungal dissolution behavior, we do not know whether fungal or prokaryotic organisms are involved. However, this functional constraint may eventually help to identify potential microbes responsible for these features, potentially including eukaryotic or prokaryotic organisms. Yet, we caution that these organisms may be difficult to identify and to study, because they are likely to be sparsely distributed, slow growing, and difficult to cultivate.

  13. Adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in Thermomonospora curvata during cellulase biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Neubauer, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1983-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose requires the synergistic activity of at least three enzymes: exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.91), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.4), and beta-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21). Despite extensive studies on a variety of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the mechanism(s) regulating the biosynthesis of this inducible catabolic enzyme complex remains unknown. The intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) have been shown to play a major role in mediating catabolite repression of enzyme biosynthesis. The cAMP acts through a cAMP receptor protein (termed CRP or CAP) which is a dimer having two identical subunits each capable of binding one molecule of cAMP. The N-terminal domain of the CRP binds the cAMP while the C-terminal domain binds to DNA at the promotor region of a cAMP-dependent operon and stimulates transcription by promoting the formation of a preinitiation complex between RNA polymerase and the DNA. Intracellular cAMP levels in E. coli (the prototype organism for such studies) are influenced by the type and availability of carbon source used for growth. High intracellular cAMP levels should lead to higher concentrations of cAMP-CRP complexes which should increase the transcription rates for cAMP-dependent operons (such as the lac operon of beta-galactosidase) and indeed the differential rate of beta-galactosidase biosynthesis correlates to intracellular cAMP levels. In the case of cellulase, catabolite repression by glucose or other readily metabolizable compounds closely controls production in an apparently similar manner and therefore a correlation may exist between enzyme biosynthesis and intracellular cAMP levels. This communication describes the fluctuation in cAMP levels during cellulase induction and repression in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata.

  14. Transfer and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene in an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, Tineke; Segner, Helmut; Mayer, Philipp; Smith, Kilian; Igumnova, Elizaveta; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Dömötörová, Milena; Oehlmann, Jörg; Liebig, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes are environmentally relevant compounds that are measured in biota at concentrations in the μg/kg lipid range. Despite their widespread occurrence, literature data on the accumulation and effects of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems are sparsely available. The goal of this study was to gain insights into the biomagnification and effects of 1,2,3,5,7-pentachloronaphthalene (PeCN52) in an experimental food chain consisting of benthic worms and juvenile rainbow trout. Worms were contaminated with PeCN52 by passive dosing from polydimethylsiloxane silicone. The contaminated worms were then used to feed the juvenile rainbow trout at 0.12, 0.25 or 0.50 μg/g fish wet weight/day, and the resulting internal whole-body concentrations of the individual fish were linked to biological responses. A possible involvement of the cellular detoxification system was explored by measuring PeCN52-induced expression of the phase I biotransformation enzyme gene cyp1a1 and the ABC transporter gene abcb1a. At the end of the 28-day study, biomagnification factors were similar for all dietary intake levels with values between 0.5 and 0.7 kg lipid(fish)/kg lipid(worm). The average uptake efficiency of 60% indicated that a high amount of PeCN52 was transferred from the worms to the fish. Internal concentrations of up to 175 mg/kg fish lipid in the highest treatment level did not result in effects on survival, behavior, or growth of the juvenile trout, but were associated with the induction of phase I metabolism which was evident from the significant up-regulation of cyp1a1 expression in the liver. In contrast, no changes were seen in abcb1a transcript levels.

  15. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3.5 cyanide species analytical methods development. FY 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

  16. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3. 5 cyanide species analytical methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

  17. Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Li, G. Y.; Shi, X. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of 95.8Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu solder joints was investigated over a range of test temperatures (25°C, 75°C, and 125°C), frequencies (0.001 Hz, 0.01 Hz, and 0.1 Hz), and strain ranges (0.78%, 1.6%, and 3.1%). Effects of temperature and frequency on the LCF life were studied. Results show that the LCF lifetime decreases with an increase in test temperature or a decrease of test frequency, which is attributed to the longer exposure time to creep and the stress relaxation mechanism during fatigue testing. A modified Coffin-Manson model considering effects of temperature and frequency on the LCF life is proposed. The fatigue exponent and ductility coefficient were found to be influenced by both the temperature and frequency. By fitting the experimental data, the mathematical relations between the fatigue exponent and temperature, and ductility coefficient and temperature, were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cross-sections and fracture surfaces of failed specimens at different temperature and frequency was applied to verify the failure mechanisms.

  18. Electromigration-induced cracks in Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu solder reaction couple at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongwen, He; Guangchen, Xu; Fu, Guo

    2009-03-01

    Electromigration (EM) behavior of Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu solder reaction couple was investigated with a high current density of 5 × 103 A/cm2 at room temperature. One dimensional structure, copper wire/solder ball/copper wire SRC was designed and fabricated to dissipate the Joule heating induced by the current flow. In addition, thermomigration effect was excluded due to the symmetrical structure of the SRC. The experimental results indicated that micro-cracks initially appeared near the cathode interface between solder matrix and copper substrate after 474 h current stressing. With current stressing time increased, the cracks propagated and extended along the cathode interface. It should be noted that the continuous Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer both at the anode and at the cathode remained their sizes. Interestingly, tiny cracks appeared at the root of some long column-type Cu6Sn5 at the cathode interface due to the thermal stress.

  19. Synthesis and Investigation of 2,6-Bis(picrylamino)-3,5-dinitro-pyridine (PYX) and Its Salts.

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Weyrauther, Michael; Witkowski, Tomasz G

    2016-06-13

    2,6-Bis(picrylamino)pyridine (1; pre-PYX) and 2,6-bis(picrylamino)-3,5-dinitropyridine (2; PYX) were synthesized using an improved literature method. Compounds 1 and 2 were reinvestigated in detail and the X-ray structures (1: ρ=1.698 g cm(-3) at 173 K; 2: ρ=1.757 g cm(-3) at 298 K) are given. The reactions of 2 with different bases, such as alkali metal hydroxides (sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium), and N-bases (ammonia, hydrazine, hydroxylamine, guanidinium carbonate, aminoguanidine bicarbonate) are reported, as well as metathesis reactions producing energetic salts. Several energetic compounds were synthesized and characterized for the first time using vibrational (IR, Raman) and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and DSC. The crystal structures of four energetic salts were determined using low temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Heats of formation for the metal-free species were calculated using the Gaussian 09 software. Detonation parameters were estimated using the EXPLO5 program. The sensitivities towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were also determined.

  20. Rapid and sensitive spectrofluorimetric determination of enrofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro- p-benzoquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2009-06-01

    A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the first time, for the analysis of three fluoroquinolones (FQ) antibacterials, namely enrofloxacin (ENR), levofloxacin (LEV) and ofloxacin (OFL) in pharmaceutical preparations through charge transfer (CT) complex formation with 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro- p-benzoquinone (chloranil,CLA). At the optimum reaction conditions, the FQ-CLA complexes showed excitation maxima ranging from 359 to 363 nm and emission maxima ranging from 442 to 488 nm. Rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 50-1000, 50-1000 and 25-500 ng mL -1 for ENR, LEV and OFL, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 17 ng mL -1 for ENR, 17 ng mL -1 for LEV, 8 ng mL -1 for OFL, respectively. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official method; no significant difference in the accuracy and precision as revealed by the accepted values of t- and F-tests, respectively.

  1. Ultrafast primary processes of the stable neutral organic radical, 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl, in liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Christoph; Wezisla, Boris; Lindner, Jörg; Vöhringer, Peter

    2015-05-28

    Femtosecond spectroscopy with hyperspectral white-light detection was used to elucidate the ultrafast primary processes of the thermodynamically stable organic radical, 1,3,5-triphenylverdazyl, in liquid acetonitrile solution at room temperature. The radical was excited with optical pulses having a duration of 39 fs and a center wavelength of 800 nm thereby accessing its energetically lowest electronically excited state (D1). The apparent spectrotemporal response is understood in terms of an ultrafast primary D1-to-D0 internal conversion that generates the electronic ground state of the radical in a highly vibrationally excited fashion within a few hundred femtoseconds. The replenished electronic ground state subsequently undergoes vibrational cooling on a time scale of a few picoseconds. The instantaneous absorption spectra of the radical derived from the femtosecond pump-probe data are analyzed within the Sulzer-Wieland formalism for calculating the electronic spectra of "hot" polyatomic molecules. The pump-probe spectra together with transient anisotropy data in the region of the D0 → D1 ground-state bleach gives evidence for an additional transient absorption that arises from a dark excited state, which gains oscillator strength with increasing vibrational excitation of the radical by virtue of vibronic coupling.

  2. Associate K0 production in p +p collisions at 3.5 GeV: The role of Δ(1232)++

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Hades Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    An exclusive analysis of the four-body final states Λ +p+π++K0 and Σ0+p+π++K0 measured with HADES for p +p collisions at a beam kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV is presented. The analysis uses various phase space variables, such as missing mass and invariant mass distributions, in the four-particle event selection (p,π+,π+,π-) to find cross sections of the different production channels, contributions of the intermediate resonances Δ++ and Σ(1385)+, and corresponding angular distributions. A dominant resonant production is seen, where the reaction Λ +Δ+++K0 has a cross section about ten times higher (29.45±0.08-1.46+1.67±2.06μb) than the analogous nonresonant reaction (2.57±0.02-1.98+0.21±0.18μb). A similar result is obtained in the corresponding Σ0 channels with 9.26±0.05-0.31+1.41±0.65μb in the resonant and 1.35±0.02-1.35+0.10±0.09μb in the nonresonant reactions.

  3. Baryon resonance production and dielectron decays in proton-proton collisions at 3.5 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Dıaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We report on baryon resonance production and decay in proton-proton collisions at a kinetic energy of 3.5 GeV based on data measured with HADES. The exclusive channels and as well as are studied simultaneously for the first time. The invariant masses and angular distributions of the pion-nucleon systems were studied and compared to simulations based on a resonance model ansatz assuming saturation of the pion production by an incoherent sum of baryonic resonances ( R with masses < 2 GeV/c2. A very good description of the one-pion production is achieved allowing for an estimate of individual baryon resonance production cross sections which are used as input to calculate the dielectron yields from decays. Two models of the resonance decays into dielectrons are examined assuming a point-like coupling and the dominance of the meson. The results of model calculations are compared to data from the exclusive channel by means of the dielectron and invariant mass distributions.

  4. Earthquake-enhanced permeability - evidence from carbon dioxide release following the ML 3.5 earthquake in West Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Matyska, C.; Heinicke, J.

    2017-02-01

    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region is characterized by earthquake swarm activity and degassing of CO2 of mantle origin. A fast increase of CO2 flow rate was observed 4 days after a ML 3.5 earthquake in May 2014 in the Hartoušov mofette, 9 km from the epicentres. During the subsequent 150 days the flow reached sixfold of the original level, and has been slowly decaying until present. Similar behavior was observed during and after the swarm in 2008 pointing to a fault-valve mechanism in long-term. Here, we present the results of simulation of gas flow in a two dimensional model of Earth's crust composed of a sealing layer at the hypocentre depth which is penetrated by the earthquake fault and releases fluid from a relatively low-permeability lower crust. This simple model is capable of explaining the observations, including the short travel time of the flow pulse from 8 km depth to the surface, long-term flow increase and its subsequent slow decay. Our model is consistent with other analyse of the 2014 aftershocks which attributes their anomalous character to exponentially decreasing external fluid force. Our observations and model hence track the fluid pressure pulse from depth where it was responsible for aftershocks triggering to the surface where a significant long-term increase of CO2 flow started 4 days later.

  5. Toxicity of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol tested at multiple stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) development.

    PubMed

    Suvarchala, Gonuguntla; Philip, Gundala Harold

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphate compounds (OP) are widely used throughout the world for pest control. 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a primary metabolite of two OP compounds namely CP and triclopyr. This study is carried out to know whether a metabolite of parent compound is doing well or harm to biota. The potential effect of TCP was evaluated on development as destabilization of any events transpiring during embryogenesis could be deleterious. To determine this, 4-hpf zebrafish embryos were exposed to five concentrations of TCP (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 μg/L) or 99.5 % acetone (solvent control). Different early life-stage parameters were observed at four different developmental stages, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hpf. TCP-treated embryo/larvae showed increased mortality, delay in hatching time and decrease in percentage of hatched embryos. Reduction in heartbeat rate, blood flow and body and eye pigmentation was noticed in a dose-dependent manner. Pericardial and yolk sac edema were most severe malformations caused by TCP. Along with this crooked spine/notochord, tail deformation was noticed in hatched and unhatched embryos. The malformations observed provide a good starting point for examination of the molecular mechanisms that are affected during development by TCP. Results gain significance as TCP, which is a breakdown product, appears to be more toxic during development compared to parent compound, CP (our earlier publication).

  6. All-solid state supercapacitors operating at 3.5 V by using ionic liquid based polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayalneh Tiruye, Girum; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2015-04-01

    All-solid state supercapacitors (SCs) using Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolyte (IL-b-PE) and activated carbon were assembled and characterized electrochemically. IL-b-PE consisted of a binary blend of a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL), poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (pDADMATFSI), and their corresponding ionic liquid (IL), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) in a ratio of 40:60,w/w respectively. Assembling of supercapacitors simply consists of facing two impregnated electrodes without the need of additional separator. Several all-solid state SCs with impregnation ratios (IL-b-PE mass/active material mass) ranging from 5 to 18 were characterized. An all-solid state SC with impregnation ratio of 7 showed the best performance with specific capacitance (Cam) and real energy (Ereal) of 100 F g-1 and 32 Wh kg-1, respectively. After increasing temperatures to 60 °C, the performance of SCs further improved exhibiting Ereal values of 42 Wh kg-1 at 1 mA cm-2. These figures of merit are only slightly lower than those obtained for convectional SCs using pure PYR14TFS and much higher as compared with other solid SCs based on conventional polymer electrolytes. This is mainly due to the high electrochemical stability of this IL-b-PE that allows these solid SCs to operate at maximum voltages as high as 3.5 V for the first time.

  7. Male reproductive toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    1,3-Dinitrobenzene has been characterized as a testicular toxicant in both laboratory rats and mice. Recently, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) has been shown to elicit testicular toxicity in rats. Given the need for data with which to do ecological risk assessments of munitions waste and by-products (including nitrobenzenes), male white-footed mice were fed a diet containing 0, 1 50, 375, or 750 mg TNB/kg diet (20 animals per treatment) for 90 days. Testis weight and epididymis weight variables exhibited considerable variation at time of animal sacrifice and were found not to differ significantly by ANOVA or by Tukey`s Studentized Range Test (SAS, Cary, NC). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility. Optimization of the CeliTrak/S{trademark} (Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, CA) CASA system for tracking sperm heads was performed on sperm from untreated Peromyscus. Cauda epididymal sperm from treated animals were videotaped at 200 frames per second. In addition to the percentage of motile sperm, sperm head curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), and amplitude of head displacement (ALH) were measured. These measurements were also characterized by considerable within-treatment variation, and again no statistical significance was found. Discussion is made regarding the relevance of this feral rodent model for male reproductive toxicity assessment.

  8. A comparative experimental and quantum chemical study on monomeric and dimeric structures of 3,5-dibromoanthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Cinar, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    This study presents the structural and spectroscopic characterization of 3,5-dibromoanthranilic acid with help of experimental techniques (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR) and quantum chemical calculations. The vibrational spectra of title compound were recorded in solid state with FT-IR and FT-Raman in the range of 4000-400 and 4000-50 cm(-1), respectively. The vibrational frequencies were also computed using B3LYP method of DFT with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The (1)H, (13)C and DEPT NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and calculated by gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) method. The UV absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm in ethanol, water and DMSO solutions. Solvent effects were calculated using time-dependent density functional theory and CIS method. The ground state geometrical structure of compound was predicted by B3LYP method and compared with the crystallographic structure of similar compounds. All calculations were made for monomeric and dimeric structure of compound. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. Mulliken atomic charges of neutral and anionic form of the molecule were computed and compared with anthranilic acid.

  9. Ratiometric bioluminescence indicators for monitoring cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in live cells based on luciferase-fragment complementation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Nagaoka, Yasutaka; Yamada, Toshimichi; Takakura, Hideo; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2010-11-15

    Bioluminescent indicators for cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate AMP (cAMP) are powerful tools for noninvasive detection with high sensitivity. However, the absolute photon counts are affected substantially by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and d-luciferin concentrations, limiting temporal analysis in live cells. This report describes a genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for detecting intracellular cAMP based on complementation of split fragments of two-color luciferase mutants originated from click beetles. A cAMP binding domain of protein kinase A was connected with an engineered carboxy-terminal fragment of luciferase, of which ends were connected with amino-terminal fragments of green luciferase and red luciferase. We demonstrated that the ratio of green to red bioluminescence intensities was less influenced by the changes of ATP and d-luciferin concentrations. We also showed an applicability of the bioluminescent indicator for time-course and quantitative assessments of intracellular cAMP in living cells and mice. The bioluminescent indicator will enable quantitative analysis and imaging of spatiotemporal dynamics of cAMP in opaque and autofluorescent living subjects.

  10. Thermal dissociation and relaxation in vinyl fluoride, 1,1-difluoroethane and 1,3,5-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui

    This study reports measurements of the thermal dissociation of 1,1-difluoroethane in the shock tube. The experiments employ laser schlieren measurements of rate for the dominant HF elimination using 10% 1,1-difluoroethane in Kr over 1500--2000 K and 43 < P < 424 torr. The product vinyl then dissociates affecting the late density gradient. We include a laser schlieren study (1717--2332 K, 75 < P < 482 torr in 10% and 4% vinyl fluoride in Kr) of this dissociation. This latter work also includes a set of experiments using shock-tube time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (4% vinyl fluoride in neon, 1500--1980 K, 500 < P < 1300 torr), which confirm the theoretical expectation that the only reaction in vinyl fluoride is HF elimination. The relaxation experiments (1--20% C2H3F in Kr, 415--1975 K, 5 < P < 50 torr, and 2% and 5% C2H4F2 in Kr, 700--1350 K, 6 < P < 22 torr) exhibit very rapid relaxation, and incubation delays should be negligible in dissociation. A RRKM model of dissociation in 1,1-difluoroethane based on a G3B3 calculation of barrier and other properties fits the experiments but requires a very large down of 1600cm-1 . Dissociation of vinyl fluoride has two parallel HF eliminations both three-center and four-center with nearly equal barriers. An RRKM fit to the observed falloff again requires an unusually large down and the experiments actually support a slightly reduced barrier. Both 1,3,5-triazine and pyrazine relax extremely rapidly with energy transfer in a few collisions, any incubation delay can be confidently discounted in dissociation. 1,3,5-triazine dissociation experiments show fall-off with a clear pressure dependence. The three body product dissociation mechanism models this dissociation perfectly. Experimental data agree well with an RRKM calculation using a down of 1200cm-1 and a barrier E0 = 84.66 kcal/mol. Dyakov et al. suggested lower barrier of E0 = 81 kcal/mole. The new RRKM calculation using this barrier seems a better

  11. Transplacental stimulation of lung development in the fetal rabbit by 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine.

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, P L; Benson, B J; Brehier, A; Carter, J P; Kriz, B M; Jorgensen, E C

    1980-01-01

    The effect of thyroid hormone on maturation of fetal rabbit lung was studied with maternal treatment using 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine (DIMIT), a synthetic analogue of triiodothyronine. To investigate the in vivo kinetics and distribution of DIMIT, we prepared [3H]DIMIT and injected both pregnant rats (18-21 d gestation) and rabbits (25 d gestation). In the rat, maximal concentrations of radioactivity in maternal plasma, fetal plasma, and amniotic fluid occurred within 10 min, 1-2 h, and 4-6 h, respectively, after intramuscular injection. After 7 h the concentration of radioactivity in fetal plasma was 163 and 71% of the maternal level in rats and rabbits, respectively, indicating that DIMIT readily crosses the placenta. We treated pregnant rabbits for 1-2 d with DIMIT in doses of 0.5-3 mg/kg per d and examined the fetuses at 26 and 27 d gestation. Treatment did not affect fetal growth or viability. In fetal liver, DIMIT increased the activity of NADPH cytochromeac reductase by 64% and decreased the glycogen content by 73% compared to controls. The rate of choline incorporation by lung minces increased in dose-dependent manner to a maximum of +104% at 3 mg/kg DIMIT; this does stimulated by 38% the activity of lung phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAPase), a corticosteroid-responsive enzyme, but there was no increase in tissue PAPase activity at most lower doses of DIMIT that enhanced choline incorporation. Treated lungs had 38% less glycogen tha controls, but there was no effect on tissue levels of DNA, protein, or phospholipid. DIMIT treatment increased the amount of total phospholipid (+163%). saturated phosphatidylcholine (+330%), and PAPase activity (+134%) in lung lavage fluid. The DIMIT effects on both choline incorporation by lung minces and phospholipid content of lavage fluid were substantially greater than what had occurred with an optimal dose of betamethasone. DIMIT also increased corticosteroid binding capacity in fetal plasma and produced a

  12. Heterologous expression of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene of Vinca major alters flower color in transgenic Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Mori, S; Kobayashi, H; Hoshi, Y; Kondo, M; Nakano, M

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is the key enzyme for the expression of blue or purple flower color. A full-length cDNA for the F3'5'H gene was cloned from petals of Vinca major, and its genomic clone, designated VmFH1 (accession number AB078781 in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases), was isolated from leaves by a PCR-based strategy. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that VmFH1 contains one intron and an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 506 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows between 51% and 83% identity with those of previously reported F3'5'H genes. Southern blot analysis showed that there are 3-4 copies of the F3'5'H gene in the genome of V. major. Transcripts of the F3'5'H gene were detected in young flower petals but not in leaves as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. When VmFH1 was expressed in transgenic Petunia hybrida under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, some transgenic plants showed drastic flower color alteration from red to deep red with deep purple sectors. These transgenic plants accumulated 3',5'-hydroxylated anthocyanins in their petals, which were never detected in non-transgenic plants by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicate that VmFH1 isolated from V. major encodes F3'5'H and is active in a heterologous plant species.

  13. Effect of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid in a broiler Clostridium perfringens infection model.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Mussarat; Rempel, Heidi; Kuang, Xiaomei Tallie; Allen, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M; Malouin, François; Diarra, Moussa S

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to explore strategies to control Clostridium perfringens, we investigated the synergistic effect of a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) with penicillin G in a broiler challenge model. All chicks were inoculated in the crop by gavage on d 14, 15, and 16 with a mixture of 4 C. perfringens strains. Birds were treated with saline (control group) or 20 nmol of c-di-GMP by gavage or intramuscularly (IM) on d 24, all in conjunction with penicillin G in water for 5 d. Weekly samplings of ceca and ileum were performed on d 21 to 35 for C. perfringens and Lactobacillus enumeration. On d 35 of age, the IM treatment significantly (P < 0.05) reduced C. perfringens in the ceca, suggesting possible synergistic activity between penicillin G and c-di-GMP against C. perfringens in broiler ceca. Moreover, analysis of ceca DNA for the presence of a series of C. perfringens virulence genes showed a prevalence of 30% for the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene (cpa) from d 21 to 35 in the IM-treated group, whereas the occurrence of the cpa gene increased from 10 to 60% in the other 2 groups (control and gavage) from d 21 to 35. Detection of β-lactamase genes (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM) indicative of gram-negative bacteria in the same samples from d 21 to 35 did not show significant treatment effects. Amplified fragment-length polymorphism showed a predominant 92% similarity between the ceca of 21-d-old control birds and the 35-d-old IM-treated c-di-GMP group. This suggests that c-di-GMP IM treatment might be effective at restoring the normal microflora of the host on d 35 after being challenged by C. perfringens. Our results suggest that c-di-GMP can reduce the colonization of C. perfringens in the gut without increasing the selection pressure for some β-lactamase genes or altering the commensal bacterial population.

  14. Electron attachment to a hydrated DNA duplex: the dinucleoside phosphate deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Wong, Ning-Bew; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, F Henry

    2010-11-22

    The minimal essential section of DNA helices, the dinucleoside phosphate deoxyguanylyl-3',5'-deoxycytidine dimer octahydrate, [dGpdC](2), has been constructed, fully optimized, and analyzed by using quantum chemical methods at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Study of the electrons attached to [dGpdC](2) reveals that DNA double strands are capable of capturing low-energy electrons and forming electronically stable radical anions. The relatively large vertical electron affinity (VEA) predicted for [dGpdC](2) (0.38 eV) indicates that the cytosine bases are good electron captors in DNA double strands. The structure, charge distribution, and molecular orbital analysis for the fully optimized radical anion [dGpdC](2)(·-) suggest that the extra electron tends to be redistributed to one of the cytosine base moieties, in an electronically stable structure (with adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) 1.14 eV and vertical detachment energy (VDE) 2.20 eV). The structural features of the optimized radical anion [dGpdC](2)(·-) also suggest the probability of interstrand proton transfer. The interstrand proton transfer leads to a distonic radical anion [d(G-H)pdC:d(C+H)pdG](·-), which contains one deprotonated guanine anion and one protonated cytosine radical. This distonic radical anion is predicted to be more stable than [dGpdC](2)(·-). Therefore, experimental evidence for electron attachment to the DNA double helices should be related to [d(G-H)pdC:d(C+H)pdG](·-) complexes, for which the VDE might be as high as 2.7 eV (in dry conditions) to 3.3 eV (in fully hydrated conditions). Effects of the polarizable medium have been found to be important for increasing the electron capture ability of the dGpdC dimer. The ultimate AEA value for cytosine in DNA duplexes is predicted to be 2.03 eV in aqueous solution.

  15. CARMENES: First Results from the CAHA 3.5m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, Andreas; Consortium, CARMENES

    2015-12-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument currently undergoing commissioning at the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory. It has been developed by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions (see also Quirrenbach et al. 2010; 2012; 2014). CARMENES will conduct a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. An important and unique feature of the CARMENES instrument is that it consists of two separate échelle spectrographs, which together cover the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000. The spectrographs are fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope.The main scientific objective of the CARMENES project is to carry out a survey of late-type main sequence stars with the goal of detecting low-mass planets in their habitable zones (HZs). In the focus of the project are very cool stars later than spectral type M4 and moderately active stars. We aim at being able to detect a 2M⊕ planet in the HZ of an M5 star. A long-term radial velocity precision of 1ms-1 per measurement will permit to attain such goals. For stars later than M4 (M < 0.25M⊙), such precision will yield detections of super-Earths of 5M⊕ and smaller inside the entire width of the HZ. The CARMENES survey will thus provide a comprehensive overview of planetary systems around nearby Northern M dwarfs. By reaching into the realm of Earth-like planets, it will provide a treasure trove for follow-up studies probing their habitability.Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Mandel, H., et al. (2010). CARMENES: Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs. In Ground-based and airborne instrumentation for astronomy III. Eds. McLean, I.S., Ramsay, S.K., & Takami, H., SPIE 773513Quirrenbach, A., Amado, P.J., Seifert, W., et al. (2012). CARMENES. I: Instrument

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Planning Meeting (6th). Held at U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, December 3-5, 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    business. But I steel myself to believe that you can’t hurt yourself by knowing what is going on. And so I insisted on understanding the business in...against the frontiers here. I heard someone talking 10IS. Heck, I am just as willing to talk 1024. Why set your goals low ? I had some of my...characteristics that are essentially fundamental to microwave satellite optical and wired technologies can be developed and easily put into place. We

  17. Proceedings of Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting (23rd) held in Pasadena, California on December 3-5, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-05

    X 2 1970 $25.00 X 3 1971 $25.00 X 4 1972 $25.00 X 5 1973 $25.00 X 6 1974 $25.00 X ...7 1975 $25.00 X 8 1976 X 9 1977 X 10 1978 $25.00 X 11 1979 $25.00 X 12 1980 $25.00 X 13 1981 $25.00 X 14 1982 $25.00 X 15 1983 $25.00 X 16 1984...25.00 X 17 1985 $25.00 X 18 1986 $20.00 X 19 1987 $25.00 X 20 1988 $35.00 X 21 1989 $65.00 X 22 1990

  18. Correlation between bio-hydrogen production and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siang Chen; Liou, Syuan Zih; Lee, Chi Mei

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the competition between H(2) production and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation of Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 when grown on six different substrates. From the results, strain WP3-5 can utilize acetate, propionate, malate, and lactate to produce H(2) but can only synthesize PHB on acetate and propionate. The substrate conversion efficiency (SCE) on acetate and propionate increased significantly after the maximum PHB content was achieved, illustrating a competition for reducing power when PHB synthesis occurred. However, when strain WP3-5 was cultivated at suboptimal pH values on acetate, the synthesized PHB prevented strain WP3-5 from the stress of the inappropriate pH and retained H(2) producing efficiency as at optimal pH value. Consequently, although PHB synthesis does compete with H(2) production in R. palustris WP3-5, it is still conducive to H(2) production when strain WP3-5 is in a stressful condition.

  19. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. Treatment of symptomatic greater trochanteric fracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jeffrey I; Chuang, Michael J; Cerynik, Douglas L; Johanson, Norman A

    2009-08-01

    Isolated greater trochanter fractures after total hip arthroplasty are associated with major comorbidities such as debilitating weakness, pain, and dislocation. No definitive standard of care has been established for these fracture. However, it is well known that reestablishing osseous union in these patients is strongly associated with return of functional status. We report a case of an elderly patient with multiple hip revision surgeries now presenting with unilateral greater trochanter fracture. Treatment incorporated the use of a trochanteric claw plate, cerclage wiring, and adjuvant demineralized bone matrix allograft to achieve successful osseous union. This is the first reported use of adjuvant demineralized bone matrix for fixing these fractures.