Science.gov

Sample records for 3-5 times higher

  1. Higher order corrections and unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model: SOFTSUSY3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, B. C.; Bednyakov, A.; Ruiz de Austri, R.

    2015-04-01

    We explore the effects of three-loop minimal supersymmetric standard model renormalisation group equation terms and some leading two-loop threshold corrections on gauge and Yukawa unification: each being one loop higher order than current public spectrum calculators. We also explore the effect of the higher order terms (often 2-3 GeV) on the lightest CP even Higgs mass prediction. We illustrate our results in the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. Neglecting threshold corrections at the grand unified scale, the discrepancy between the unification scale αs and the other two unified gauge couplings changes by 0.1% due to the higher order corrections and the difference between unification scale bottom-tau Yukawa couplings neglecting unification scale threshold corrections changes by up to 1%. The difference between unification scale bottom and top Yukawa couplings changes by a few percent. Differences due to the higher order corrections also give an estimate of the size of theoretical uncertainties in the minimal supersymmetric standard model spectrum. We use these to provide estimates of theoretical uncertainties in predictions of the dark matter relic density (which can be of order one due to its strong dependence on sparticle masses) and the LHC sparticle production cross-section (often around 30%). The additional higher order corrections have been incorporated into SOFTSUSY, and we provide details on how to compile and use the program. We also provide a summary of the approximations used in the higher order corrections.

  2. Attempts to detect cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in higher plants by three assay methods.

    PubMed

    Bressan, R A; Ross, C W

    1976-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (Avena sativa L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were measured with a modified Gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. The incorporation of adenosine-8-(14)C into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic AMP was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. The binding assay proved reliable for mouse and rat liver analyses, but was nonspecific for plant tissues. It responded to various components from lettuce and potato tissues chromatographically similar to but not identical with cyclic AMP. The protein kinase activation assay was much more specific, but it also exhibited positive responses in the presence of compounds not chromatographically identical to cyclic AMP. The concentrations of cyclic AMP in the plant tissues tested were at the lower limits of detection and characterization obtainable with these assays. The estimates of maximal levels were much lower than reported in many previous studies. PMID:16659419

  3. Creative Responses to Changing Realities: A Conference for Northwest Postsecondary and Higher Education (Portland, Oregon, November 3-5, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Midway, WA. Northwest Program Development and Coordination Center.

    Proceedings of the 1981 Creative Responses Conference, which explored approaches to the rapidly changing realities of postsecondary and higher education, are presented. The following major addresses and authors are included: "Hard Times: Constraints or Opportunities," Dale Parnell; "Leadership in the Challenge of Global Competition," George B.…

  4. No Time for Tea (Grade Level: Elementary Grades, 3-5)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Designed for Grades 3-5, this lesson plan aims to let the students learn how the Constitution of the United States provided the framework for the country's democratic form of government. Students will learn how the Constitution provided for representation within the government. A short story about the Boston Tea Party gives the background related…

  5. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  6. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  7. Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159985.html Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans Post-traumatic stress disorder increases ... 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders are six times more likely among American military veterans than in ...

  8. Development of cellulose derivatives as novel enteric coating agents soluble at pH 3.5-4.5 and higher.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, H; Obara, S; Minemura, K; Tanaka, T

    1997-08-01

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was selected as a base polymer to develop novel enteric coating agents for acid protection which can dissolve at pH around 4, and was modified with trimellitic acid or maleic acid at various degrees of substitution. These carboxylic acids have higher dissociation constants and higher solubility in water than the carboxylic acids of existing enteric coating polymers. The synthesized polymers were micronized and dispersed in aqueous medium to determine their pKa values by potentiometric titration. The pH of dissolution and the water vapor permeability of the cast films prepared from organic solutions were also evaluated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose trimellitate (HPMCT) showed good acid resistance, and the pH at which it dissolves can be controlled in the range of pH 3.5 to 4.5 by varying the content of trimellityl groups and the methoxyl substitution of the base polymer. PMID:9301034

  9. Strategies for Hard Times in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desfosses, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Planning and management strategies used in the private sector have practical applications for higher education in a period of systemic and organizational stress. Promising strategies include organizational delayering; employee empowerment; boundless thinking, problem-solving teams; accelerated processes; quality management and improvement; and…

  10. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  11. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  12. A molecular dynamics study of the early-time mechanical heating in shock-loaded octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    We study the shock-induced hot spot formation mechanism of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosives by molecular dynamics, compare different kinds of desensitizers and different shock velocities. A set of programs is written to calculate the physical picture of shock loading. Based on the simulations and analyses, the hot spots are found at the interface and are heated by plastic work in three ways: the interface intrinsic dissipation, the pore collapse, and the coating layer deformation. The work/heat transition rate is proved to be increasing with a loading speed.

  13. Human type 3 5α-reductase is expressed in peripheral tissues at higher levels than types 1 and 2 and its activity is potently inhibited by finasteride and dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Yamana, Kazutoshi; Labrie, Fernand; Luu-The, Van

    2010-08-01

    5α-Reductases are crucial enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone, the most potent natural androgen. To date, three types of 5α-reductases, chronologically named types 1, 2 and 3 5α-reductases (SRD5a-1, 2 and 3) have been described. In the present paper, we characterized the activity and compared the mRNA expression levels of SRD5a-3 with those of SRD5a-1 and 2 in various human tissues, and determined its sensitivity to finasteride and dutasteride. We have established HEK-293 cell line that stably expressed SRD5a-3 for studying its activity and the inhibitory effect of finasteride, using [14C]labeled steroids. mRNA expression levels were quantified using real-time PCR in many male and female human tissues including the prostate, adipose tissue, mammary gland, as well as breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Incubation of HEK-SRD5a-3 cells with [14C]4-androstenedione and [14C]testosterone allowed us to show that SRD5a-3 can catalyze very efficiently both substrates 4-androstenedione and testosterone into 5α-androstanedione and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. We observed that the affinity of the enzyme for 4-androstenedione is higher than for testosterone. The activity of SRD5a-3 and SRD5a-2 are similarly sensitive to finasteride, whereas dutasteride is a much more potent inhibitor of SRD5a-3 than SRD5a-2. Tissue distribution analysis shows that SRD5a-3 mRNA expression levels are higher than those of SRD5a-1 and SRD5a-2 in 20 analyzed tissues. In particular, it is highly expressed in the skin, brain, mammary gland and breast cancer cell lines, thus suggesting that SRD5a-3 could play an important role in the production of androgens in these and other peripheral tissues. PMID:25961201

  14. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  15. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  16. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8 3.

    PubMed

    Breidt, F; Kay, K; Cook, J; Osborne, J; Ingham, B; Arritt, F

    2013-07-01

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phase acidity (acetic acid of 1.5 to 2.5% or higher) can contribute to lethality, but there is a lack of data showing how the use of common ingredients such as acetic acid and preservatives, alone or in combination, can result in a 5-log reduction for strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in the absence of a postpackaging pasteurization step. In this study, we determined the times needed at 10° C to achieve a 5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica, and L. monocytogenes in pickling brines with a variety of acetic and benzoic acid combinations at pH 3.5 and 3.8. Evaluation of 15 different acid-pH combinations confirmed that strains of E. coli O157:H7 were significantly more acid resistant than strains of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Among the acid conditions tested, holding times of 4 days or less could achieve a 5-log reduction for vegetative pathogens at pH 3.5 with 2.5% acetic acid or at pH 3.8 with 2.5% acetic acid containing 0.1% benzoic acid. These data indicate the efficacy of benzoic acid for reducing the time necessary to achieve a 5-log reduction in target pathogens and may be useful for supporting process filings and the determination of critical controls for the manufacture of acidified foods. PMID:23834800

  17. Higher Education in Recessionary Times: A UK Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about a meeting on "Higher Education in Recessionary Times" on March 24, 2010, which was hosted by the Society for Higher Education Research Policy Network. Although the meeting did take place in the context of an expected General Election, and on budget day, there was a general sense on the day that whoever won the Election (or…

  18. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  19. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This investigation…

  20. Effect of Ni layer thickness and soldering time on intermetallic compound formation at the interface between molten Sn-3.5Ag and Ni/Cu substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Lee, H.M.

    1999-11-01

    The binary eutectic Sn-3.5wt.%Ag alloy was soldered on the Ni/Cu plate at 250 C, the thickness of the Ni layer changing from 0 through 2 and 4 {micro}m to infinity, and soldering time changing from 30 to 120 s at intervals of 30 s. The infinite thickness was equivalent to the bare Ni plate. The morphology, composition and phase identification of the intermetallic compound (IMC, hereafter) formed at the interface were examined. Depending on the initial Ni thickness, different IMC phases were observed at 30 s: Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} on bare Cu, detestable NiSn{sub 3} + Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni(2 {micro}m)/Cu, Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni(4 {micro}m)/Cu, and Ni{sub 3}Sn + Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on bare Ni. With increased soldering time, a Cu-Sn-based {eta}-(Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}){sub 1{minus}x}Ni{sub x} phase formed under the pre-formed Ni-Sn IMC layer both at 60s in the Ni(2 {micro}m)/Cu plate and at 90s in the Ni(4 {micro}m)/Cu plate. The two-layer IMC pattern remained thereafter. The wetting behavior of each joint was different and it may have resulted from the type of IMC formed on each plate. The thickness of the protective Ni layer over the Cu plate was found to be an important factor in determining the interfacial reaction and the wetting behavior.

  1. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  2. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  3. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  4. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  5. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  6. Determination of 5-log reduction times for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, or Listeria monocytogenes in acidified foods with pH 3.5 or 3.8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical factor in ensuring the safety of acidified foods is the establishment of a thermal process that assures the destruction of acid-resistant vegetative pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. For acidified foods such as dressings and mayonnaises with pH values of 3.5 or higher, the high water phas...

  7. Late-time acceleration in higher dimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Pahwa, Isha; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Seshadri, T.R. E-mail: debajyoti.choudhury@gmail.com

    2011-09-01

    We investigate late time acceleration of the universe in higher dimensional cosmology. The content in the universe is assumed to exert pressure which is different in the normal and extra dimensions. Cosmologically viable solutions are found to exist for simple forms of the equation of state. The parameters of the model are fixed by comparing the predictions with supernovae data. While observations stipulate that the matter exerts almost vanishing pressure in the normal dimensions, we assume that, in the extra dimensions, the equation of state is of the form P∝ρ{sup 1−γ}. For appropriate choice of parameters, a late time acceleration in the universe occurs with q{sub 0} and z{sub tr} being approximately -0.46 and 0.76 respectively.

  8. Improved Continuous-Time Higher Harmonic Control Using Hinfinity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Frank H.

    The helicopter is a versatile aircraft that can take-off and land vertically, hover efficiently, and maneuver in confined space. This versatility is enabled by the main rotor, which also causes undesired harmonic vibration during operation. This unwanted vibration has a negative impact on the practicality of the helicopter and also increases its operational cost. Passive control techniques have been applied to helicopter vibration suppression, but these methods are generally heavy and are not robust to changes in operating conditions. Feedback control offers the advantages of robustness and potentially higher performance over passive control techniques, and amongst the various feedback schemes, Shaw's higher harmonic control algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for attenuating harmonic disturbance in helicopters. In this thesis, the higher harmonic disturbance algorithm is further developed to achieve improved performance. One goal in this thesis is to determine the importance of periodicity in the helicopter rotor dynamics for control synthesis. Based on the analysis of wind tunnel data and simulation results, we conclude the helicopter rotor can be modeled reasonably well as linear and time-invariant for control design purposes. Modeling the helicopter rotor as linear time-invariant allows us to apply linear control theory concepts to the higher harmonic control problem. Another goal in this thesis is to find the limits of performance in harmonic disturbance rejection. To achieve this goal, we first define the metrics to measure the performance of the controller in terms of response speed and robustness to changes in the plant dynamics. The performance metrics are incorporated into an Hinfinity control problem. For a given plant, the resulting Hinfinity controller achieves the maximum performance, thus allowing us to identify the performance limitation in harmonic disturbance rejection. However, the Hinfinity controllers are of high order, and may

  9. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  10. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  11. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  12. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  13. A photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging apparatus for femtosecond time-resolved molecular dynamics with electron time-of-flight resolution of {sigma}=18 ps and energy resolution {delta}E/E=3.5%

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenborg, Arno; Roeterdink, Wim G.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2008-06-15

    We report on the construction and performance of a novel photoelectron-photoion coincidence machine in our laboratory in Amsterdam to measure the full three-dimensional momentum distribution of correlated electrons and ions in femtosecond time-resolved molecular beam experiments. We implemented sets of open electron and ion lenses to time stretch and velocity map the charged particles. Time switched voltages are operated on the particle lenses to enable optimal electric field strengths for velocity map focusing conditions of electrons and ions separately. The position and time sensitive detectors employ microchannel plates (MCPs) in front of delay line detectors. A special effort was made to obtain the time-of-flight (TOF) of the electrons at high temporal resolution using small pore (5 {mu}m) MCPs and implementing fast timing electronics. We measured the TOF distribution of the electrons under our typical coincidence field strengths with a temporal resolution down to {sigma}=18 ps. We observed that our electron coincidence detector has a timing resolution better than {sigma}=16 ps, which is mainly determined by the residual transit time spread of the MCPs. The typical electron energy resolution appears to be nearly laser bandwidth limited with a relative resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}/E=3.5% for electrons with kinetic energy near 2 eV. The mass resolution of the ion detector for ions measured in coincidence with electrons is about {delta}m{sub FWHM}/m=1/4150. The velocity map focusing of our extended source volume of particles, due to the overlap of the molecular beam with the laser beams, results in a parent ion spot on our detector focused down to {sigma}=115 {mu}m.

  14. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  15. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  16. Polarization orientation dependence of the far infrared spectra of oriented single crystals of 1,3,5,-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) using terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Von H; Hooks, Dan E; Ramos, Kyle J; O' Hara, John F; Azad, A K; Taylor, A J; Barber, J; Averitt, R D

    2008-01-01

    The far infrared spectra of (100), (010), and (001)-oriented RDX single crystals were measured as the crystal was rotated about the axis perpendicular to the polarization plane of the incident radiation. Absorption measurements were taken at temperatures of both 20 K and 295 K for all rotations using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A number of discrete absorptions were found ranging from 10-100 cm(-1) (0.3-3 THz). The absorptions are highly dependent on the orientation of the terahertz polarization with respect to crystallographic axes.

  17. California's "Gold Standard" for Higher Education Falls Upon Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    Few documents in higher education have enjoyed the influence or longevity of the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the 1960 law that transformed the state's public colleges and served as a blueprint for public systems across the country. Even today, almost 50 years after it was written, the master plan retains a mythic status in…

  18. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  19. Part-Time Students and Their Experience of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom; And Others

    A questionnaire survey sought to determine the characteristics of part-time university students in Great Britain, the reasons why they choose part-time study, the difficulties they encounter, the extent and incidence of non-completion, and to identify examples of "good practice" in the provision and management of part-time degree courses.…

  20. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  1. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  2. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an…

  3. Time for Action to Bolster Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in America had its origins in New England more than 350 years ago. Since then, America's colleges and universities have been the incubators of great ideas, birthplaces of great inventions, and testing grounds of great individuals. For generations of New Englanders, a college education has provided the opportunity to fully embrace…

  4. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  5. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  6. Numerical Relativity in Higher-Dimensional Space-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Helvi

    2013-09-01

    Black holes are among the most exciting phenomena predicted by General Relativity and play a key role in fundamental physics. Many interesting phenomena involve dynamical black hole configurations in the high curvature regime of gravity. In these lecture notes I will summarize the main numerical relativity techniques to explore highly dynamical phenomena, such as black hole collisions, in generic D-dimensional space-times. The present notes are based on my lectures given at the NR/HEP2 spring school at IST/Lisbon (Portugal) from March 11-14, 2013.

  7. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  8. Time-dependent density functional calculations on the electronic spectra of the neutral nickel complex [Ni(LISQ)2] (LISQ = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-diiminobenzosemiquinonate(1-)) and its monoanion and dication.

    PubMed

    Bachler, Vinzenz

    2009-10-01

    The electronic spectrum of the neutral nickel complex [Ni(LISQ)2] (LISQ = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-diiminobenzosemiquinonate(1-)) and the spectra of its anion and dication have been calculated by means of time-dependent density functional theory. The electronic ground state of the neutral complex exhibits an open shell singlet diradical character. The mandatory multireference problem for this electronic ground state has been treated approximately by using the unrestricted and spin symmetry broken Kohn-Sham Slater determinant as the wave function for the noninteracting reference system in the time-dependent density functional calculations. A reasonable agreement with observed transition energies and band intensities has been achieved. This holds also for the long wavelength transitions that are shown to be of charge transfer type. The charge distributions in the electronic ground state and the corresponding low lying excited states, however, are rather similar. Thus, the known failure of standard time-dependent density functional theory to describe improperly long range charge transfer transitions is absent in this work. The applied computational scheme might be adequate for calculating electronic spectra of transition metal complexes with noninnocent ligands. PMID:19229945

  9. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  10. State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of higher education in state budgets. It empirically models and tests the balance wheel hypothesis in a robust framework. The balance wheel model posits that in good economic times, higher education is an attractive area for states to fund and tends to be funded at a higher rate than other state budget categories.…

  11. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but "blocking out time" and "time shifting" suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  12. Changing Times of Feminism and Higher Education: From Community to Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dorothy; Richter, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher…

  13. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  14. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  15. The Legal Rights of Tenured and Part-Time Faculty Members in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Sherie P.

    A review of faculty-related court decisions in the areas of status, compensation, and unit determination points out legal rights of part-time and full-time faculty in higher education. These rights have been tested and defined by many court cases. Litigation has occurred about the difference between part-time and full-time faculty. In regard to…

  16. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  17. Higher Education Students in Part-Time Work in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses students taking part-time work whilst studying higher education (HE). It suggests that cross-national trends can be observed in the purposes, types, benefits, negative aspects and outcomes of part-time work by HE students. The paper reviews literature on HE students working part-time in the UK and the US, and UNESCO studies…

  18. Creating Space for Learning: Conceptualizing Women and Higher Education through Space and Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dot

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the strengths of giving visibility to the concepts of space and time in research related to women's lives and higher education. It is based on research that explores the everyday practice and experience of women higher education students at a community college in the north of England. It focuses on the ways in which space and…

  19. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  20. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  1. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  2. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  3. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  4. 43 CFR 3.5 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 3.5 Section 3.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRESERVATION OF AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES § 3.5 Application. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secretary having jurisdiction, and must...

  5. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  6. Part-time Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Scott L.; Hoyt, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to inform researchers of those predictive factors of job satisfaction previously identified for part-time faculty in higher education. They used the information gathered to help develop a survey instrument that was administered to 700 part-time faculty at their own institution. The results of the study,…

  7. Preparation and Support for Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education: Case Studies of Departmental Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred, Comp.; Thompson, Sheila, Comp.

    This publication presents 14 departmental case studies of the preparation and support provided to part-time teachers in Scottish institutions of higher education. The case studies are grouped in four sections according to the category of part-time staff involved: practicing professionals (professional teaching assistants, lawyers, artists, and…

  8. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  9. Predicting Hyper-Chaotic Time Series Using Adaptive Higher-Order Nonlinear Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia-Shu; Xiao, Xian-Ci

    2001-03-01

    A newly proposed method, i.e. the adaptive higher-order nonlinear finite impulse response (HONFIR) filter based on higher-order sparse Volterra series expansions, is introduced to predict hyper-chaotic time series. The effectiveness of using the adaptive HONFIR filter for making one-step and multi-step predictions is tested based on very few data points by computer-generated hyper-chaotic time series including the Mackey-Glass equation and four-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. A comparison is made with some neural networks for predicting the Mackey-Glass hyper-chaotic time series. Numerical simulation results show that the adaptive HONFIR filter proposed here is a very powerful tool for making prediction of hyper-chaotic time series.

  10. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626

  11. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  12. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  13. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  14. Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

  15. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the top 200…

  16. What Determines Employment of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangmin; Zhang, Liang

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a cross-section national sample of four-year colleges and universities in the United States to examine the variation of part-time faculty employment. Results of this study suggest that higher educational institutions actively design and adopt contingent work arrangements to save on labor costs and to manage their resource…

  17. 41 CFR 51-3.5 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fees. 51-3.5 Section 51-3... FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 3-CENTRAL NONPROFIT AGENCIES § 51-3.5 Fees. A central nonprofit agency may charge fees to nonprofit agencies for facilitating...

  18. 21 CFR 556.220 - 3,5-Dinitrobenzamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature. The 3,5-DNBA therefrom is treated a second time with activated carbon and then recrystallized three more times from specially denatured alcohol 3A. The third crystallization is washed with diethyl... be run five different times. Plot equivalent concentration in tissue versus mean absorbance at...

  19. MultiFacTV: module detection from higher-order time series biological data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying modules from time series biological data helps us understand biological functionalities of a group of proteins/genes interacting together and how responses of these proteins/genes dynamically change with respect to time. With rapid acquisition of time series biological data from different laboratories or databases, new challenges are posed for the identification task and powerful methods which are able to detect modules with integrative analysis are urgently called for. To accomplish such integrative analysis, we assemble multiple time series biological data into a higher-order form, e.g., a gene × condition × time tensor. It is interesting and useful to develop methods to identify modules from this tensor. Results In this paper, we present MultiFacTV, a new method to find modules from higher-order time series biological data. This method employs a tensor factorization objective function where a time-related total variation regularization term is incorporated. According to factorization results, MultiFacTV extracts modules that are composed of some genes, conditions and time-points. We have performed MultiFacTV on synthetic datasets and the results have shown that MultiFacTV outperforms existing methods EDISA and Metafac. Moreover, we have applied MultiFacTV to Arabidopsis thaliana root(shoot) tissue dataset represented as a gene×condition×time tensor of size 2395 × 9 × 6(3454 × 8 × 6), to Yeast dataset and Homo sapiens dataset represented as tensors of sizes 4425 × 6 × 6 and 2920×14×9 respectively. The results have shown that MultiFacTV indeed identifies some interesting modules in these datasets, which have been validated and explained by Gene Ontology analysis with DAVID or other analysis. Conclusion Experimental results on both synthetic datasets and real datasets show that the proposed MultiFacTV is effective in identifying modules for higher-order time series biological data. It provides, compared to traditional non

  20. American Higher Education in 1975 and 1976: The Academy's Response to Continuing Kondratieff Recession as Reported in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, John B.; And Others

    Articles on American higher education that appeared in 1975 and 1976 in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London) are analyzed in connection with two statements about American society and its economy. These statements are Joseph A. Schumpeter's 1939 analysis of business cycles, and James B. Shuman's and Davis Rosenau's 1972 description of…

  1. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  2. Bioavailability of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) to the Praire Vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Driver, Crystal J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Harvey, Scott D.

    2006-07-01

    Estimating risk to wildlife requires that measures of exposure be equivalent to that of the laboratory studies from which toxic responses were observed. Exposure measures are often based on modeled estimates of uptake through the food web. These modeled estimates use largely untested assumptions that can lead to inaccurate, uncertain, and unreliable estimates of exposure. Recently, concerns have been raised over the potential bioavailability and biotransfer of munitions or energetics materials such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). RDX is more recalcitrant in the soil, may remain as the parent compound for extended periods of time, and is rapidly taken up by the roots of higher plants and partitioned predominantly into the above ground, herbivore-accessible tissues. This study assessed plant incorporated [14C]-RDX and plant derived [14C]-RDX-metabolites ingestion by a representative hindgut herbivore, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The animals were fed the labeled chow (≤10 g/ day max) for five or seven days followed by a six or four day chase period with the control chow prior to final weighing and sacrifice. Animal excreta including feces, urine, and respired CO2 were collected and measured. Greater than 95% of all label presented to the voles was recovered in the summed excreta. Seventy-four percent of the label in the total excreta was found in the fecal non-absorbed bulk. This means that greater than 20% of the presented 14C-RDX and plant-derived 14C-RDX-metabolites were absorbed by the animal’s digestive tracts over the time course of the experiment and modified prior to release. These materials were either metabolized to 14CO2 (8 to 10% of the total label) or removed as nitrogenous waste through the kidneys (10 to 14%). The feeding regimes were followed by a rapid, 2 to 3 day, clearing of label from the bulk feces with the cessation of exposure. Both 14C-urine and 14CO2 excretion continued after the feces cleared indicating

  3. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  4. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.

  5. Water Sourcebook. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville.

    The goal of this supplemental activity guide for elementary students in grades 3-5 is to develop awareness, knowledge, and skills for sound water use decisions. Materials developed for the program are compatible with existing curriculum standards established by State Boards of Education throughout the United States and teach concepts included in…

  6. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  7. 32 CFR 3.5 - Appropriate use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION TRANSACTIONS OTHER THAN CONTRACTS, GRANTS, OR COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR PROTOTYPE PROJECTS § 3.5 Appropriate use. In accordance... is participating to a significant extent in the prototype project; or (b) No nontraditional...

  8. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  9. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching. PMID:25900009

  10. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  11. 3,5-Dichlorophenol Removal From Wastewater Using Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Lipovský, Marek; Wachter, Igor; Soldán, Maroš

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of 3,5-dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative low cost adsorbents. Waste from the production and processing of metals (black nickel mud, red mud) and a biosorbent (Lemna minor) were used for this research. Initial concentration of the contaminant was 4 mmol L-1, the contact time of sorbent and waste water was 0 - 48 hrs and the temperature during experiment was 25 ± 0.2 °C. The results show that the highest removal efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol (58.18 %) was reached by the red mud in 48 hours.

  12. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  13. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  14. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  15. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  16. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  17. Renewing Quality Assurance at a Time of Turbulence: An Attempt to Reenergise Quality in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    The renewal of quality assurance in Australian higher education comes at a time when the higher education sectors in Australia and around the world are experiencing a number of key challenges. These include: ongoing decline in public funding of universities; the massification of higher education and demand for it during global recession;…

  18. Experimental evaluation of a Mach 3.5 axisymmetric inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Koncsek, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results for a large scale inlet model designed for Mach 3.5 are presented and compared with analytical predictions. The inlet is an axisymmetric mixed-compression type with a lip diameter of 49.723 cm. The inlet design was developed using analytical procedures. Data are shown for freestream Mach numbers from 0.6 to 3.5. The test results indicate that boundary layer bleed requirements can be accurately predicted. Good agreement was obtained with analytical predictions of the flowfield structure and boundary layer development in the supersonic diffuser yielding high performance at the design Mach number. The highest engine face total pressure recovery at Mach 3.5 was 85.8%; this was obtained at 0.05 Mach tolerance with only 2.8% total pressure distortion and 13.4% bleed. In the started Mach number range from 1.6 to 3.5, the total pressure recovery in the throat, downstream of the terminal normal shock, ranged between 91% and 95%. Total pressure losses in the subsonic diffuser varied from 3% to 13%. The higher losses occuring between Mach 2.5 and 3.2 were believed to be caused by the rapid rate of increase in the area of the diffuser just downstream of the throat, possibly coupled with inadequate centerbody throat bleed. In the unstarted mode at transonic speeds, the maximum inlet flow was over 99% of the theoretical maximum capture mass-flow.

  19. Bouncebacks in Higher Education Funding: Patterns in Length of Time to Recovery following Cuts in State Appropriations. WISCAPE Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.; Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    State appropriations for higher education are highly cyclical, with downturns in funding during difficult financial times followed by increases in funding when state finances improve. This policy brief shares recent research about whether the duration of recoveries from cuts in appropriations for higher education has changed over time and which…

  20. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  1. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  2. The 3.5-meter telescope enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Michael H.

    1994-04-01

    The 3.5-m telescope enclosure is designed to perform two functions as part of the U.S. Air Force's 3.5-m telescope system: (1) to provide weather and temperature protection when the telescope is not in use and (2) to permit open-air operation of the telescope while minimizing atmospheric disturbances in the field of view (FOV). The use of a standard rotating dome is impractical because of the large telescope and its high rotational rate and acceleration. The enclosure is a 40-ft tall cylinder with a diameter of 72 ft. This steel and aluminum structure does not rotate but collapses vertically to fully expose the telescope to the open air and to provide it with an unobscured view of the horizon at all azimuthal angles. To lessen wind disturbances in the FOV, the enclosure has a moderately sloped roof and smooth, vertical walls. To minimize thermal flow, the outer surface has a high-reflectivity, low-emissivity coating and ambient air is forced through the double-skinned walls and roof. These measures make it possible to keep the enclosure surface temperature near that of the ambient air during viewing. With these features, the enclosure adds minimal degradation to the seeing.

  3. Microbial degradation and toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Park, Joonhong

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, current knowledge on the potential fate, microbial degradation, and toxicity of hexahydro- 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was thoroughly reviewed, focusing on the toxicological assessment of a variety of potential RDX degradation pathways in bacteria and fungi. The present review on microbial degradation pathways and toxicities of degradation intermediates suggests that, among aerobic RDX degradation pathways, the one via denitration may be preferred in a toxicological perspective, and that among anaerobic pathways, those forming 4- nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) via ring cleavage of 1-nitroso- 3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (MNX) may be toxicologically advantageous owing to its potential mineralization under partial or complete anoxic conditions. These findings provide important information on RDX-degrading microbial pathways, toxicologically most suitable to be stimulated in contaminated fields. PMID:23075780

  4. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  5. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment…

  6. Troubled Times for American Higher Education: The 1990s and Beyond. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark; And Others

    This volume looks at the future of American higher education in 13 essays most of which were originally speeches to gatherings around the United States and the globe. The first series of essays in Part I looks at possible "contours" of the future and what choices should be made by higher education to advance the quality of future performance. One…

  7. Department Chairs' Perceptions of Part-Time Faculty Status in Maryland Public and Private Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of part-time, non-tenure track faculty in higher education has become a nationwide phenomenon. The college-teaching part-time instructor is one who is working for low pay, has little job security, and has few benefits. College part-time instructors' employment is in a contingent state. They do not have the job protection provided…

  8. Higher Education Enrollments and Student Success in Times of Budget Scarcity: Examining System-Level Impacts in Recessionary Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetstein, Matthew; Hays, Brianna; Nguyen, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to extend the literature on higher education enrollment patterns during times of recession by examining patterns of enrollment and successful course completion in one of the world's largest higher education systems--the California Community College system. The data are drawn from publicly available data sources on the web. CCC…

  9. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  10. Use of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education: Numbers and Impact. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ross

    Colleges and universities of all kinds rely on part-time faculty to teach students from the freshman year through graduate studies, although they are more likely to teach lower division students. Overall, 43% of postsecondary instructional faculty work part-time, while full-time tenure track positions are held by about 18% of faculty members.…

  11. 1,3,5-Hydroxybenzene structures in mosses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Sawyer, J.; Hatcher, P.G.; Lerch, H. E., III

    1989-01-01

    A number of mosses from widely different families have been studied by cross polarization solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Although polysaccharide-type materials dominate the NMR spectra, significant amounts of aromatic carbons are observed in some mosses. Some of this material can be removed by ultrasonic bath treatment, and is lignin derived, probably from impurities from fine root material from associated higher plants. However other material is truly moss-derived and appears to be from 1,3,5-hydroxybenzene structures. This is inconsistent with lignin as being a component of mosses, and suggests a tannin or hydroxybenzofuran polymer is responsible for moss rigidity. ?? 1989.

  12. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-06-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  13. Examining a Higher Education Funding Formula in a Time of Shifting Currents: Kentucky's Benchmark Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew; Frost, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Keeling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Although datasets such as the Integrated Postsecondary Data System are available as inputs to higher education funding formulas, these datasets can be unreliable, incomplete, or unresponsive to criteria identified by state education officials. State formulas do not always match the state's economic and human capital goals. This article analyzes…

  14. Retention and Attrition of Students in Higher Education: Challenges in Modern Times to What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Marguerite; Macallister, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Retention and attrition rates in higher education have long been a focus of research. This paper presents findings of a single case study, undertaken in a School of Education, which identify important strategies that have led to attrition of five to eight per cent, compared with 18 per cent cross the education sector in Australia (Department of…

  15. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  16. Building a Strong Future for Higher Education: Strategies for Tough Economic Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Leo I., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This is no ordinary recession. And, for leaders in higher education, its impact will resonate long after it has passed. In the years ahead, the author believes that the past thirty years will be viewed as a kind of golden age of academic prosperity that was brought to a crashing end by this recession. Yet, the end of the golden age has also…

  17. Time to Look Anew: Critical Pedagogy and Disciplines within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the attitudes of writers within the tradition of critical pedagogy towards disciplines in higher education. With particular focus on Henry Giroux's work, it contrasts his portrayal of disciplines as closed, limiting and elitist with an alternative one of disciplines as complex, permeable and contested spaces. Critical…

  18. The Challenge and Promise of Catholic Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Catholic colleges and universities face significant challenges in the present context of American higher education. Yet, there are opportunities to be found in the midst of this crisis when one carefully examines the intersections between the Catholic mission and objectives of an institution and current culture and academia. A return to the…

  19. Rural Education: A Field of Study Whose Time Has Come in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.; Kale, Karen E.

    Although professional educators and public school decision makers have attempted to respond to increased educational demands and a broader spectrum of students, the education of rural youth is a neglected area both in higher education and in educational legislation. The record indicates that policy decisions and the resulting legislation have…

  20. Challenges to Christian Higher Education at a Time of Increasing Emphasis on Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, both Christian and non-Christian higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced a rapidly changing external environment that is becoming more performance-driven, particularly in relation to faculty research. Academics working in Australian Christian HEIs often feel pressure to keep pace with their counterparts in non-Christian…

  1. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  2. Seasonal and diurnal dependence of Pc 3-5 magnetic pulsation power at geomagnetically conjugate stations in the auroral zones

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Hiroaki National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo ); Sato, Natsuo ); Tonegawa, Yutaka ); Yoshino, Takeo ); Saemundsson, T. )

    1989-06-01

    Seasonal and diurnal variations of Pc 3-5 magnetic pulsation powers have been examined using 2 years of magnetic data from geomagnetically conjugate stations, Syowa in Antarctica and Husafell and Tjoernes in Iceland. The magnetic pulsation powers are found to be relatively higher at the winter hemisphere station than at the summer station. The pulsations observed during equinox show a diurnal dependence, i.e., that the power density is higher in the geomagnetic morning at the stations in Iceland than at Syowa, and this relationship is reversed in the afternoon. The power density ratio of Pc 3 pulsations between the conjugate stations, which is associated with the seasons and with local time, is higher than that of Pc 5. These characteristics can be attributed to the effects of sunlight in the ionosphere, i.e., Pc 3-5 pulsations are shielded when the waves propagate from the magnetosphere to the ground through the sunlit ionosphere.

  3. Do Diligent Students Perform Better? Complex Relations between Student and Course Characteristics, Study Time, and Academic Performance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; Broeckmans, Jan; Doumen, Sarah; Groenen, Anne; Molenberghs, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Research has reported equivocal results regarding the relationship between study time investment and academic performance in higher education. In the setting of the active, assignment-based teaching approach at Hasselt University (Belgium), the present study aimed (a) to further clarify the role of study time in academic performance, while taking…

  4. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda. PMID:20382673

  5. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Perkins, Edward J; Meyer, Sharon A

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ~50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs=47 mg/kg) in female Sprague-Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs=24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte-erythrocyte-monocyte-megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1(+)) or erythroid (CD71(+)) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. PMID:23219714

  6. DNA replication timing and higher-order nuclear organization determine single nucleotide substitution patterns in cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide substitutions (SNS) are a defining characteristic of cancer genomes. Many SNS in cancer genomes arise due to errors in DNA replication, which is spatio-temporally stratified. Here we propose that DNA replication patterns help shape the mutational landscapes of normal and cancer genomes. Using data on five fully sequenced cancer types and two personal genomes, we determined that the frequency of intergenic SNS is significantly higher in late DNA replication timing regions, even after controlling for a number of genomic features. Furthermore, some substitution signatures are more frequent in certain DNA replication timing zones. Finally, integrating data on higher-order nuclear organization, we found that genomic regions in close spatial proximity to late replicating domains display similar mutation spectra as the late replicating regions themselves. These data suggest that DNA replication timing together with higher-order genomic organization contribute to the patterns of SNS in normal and cancer genomes. PMID:23422670

  7. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  8. Transformation or Decline? Using Tough Times to Create Higher-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley

    2011-01-01

    Instead of doing less with less during these fiscally challenging times, school districts can seize the moment to usher in school transformation that will leave the schools, families, and communities better off. They could follow the lead of districts such as Baltimore City, Syracuse, and Charlotte-Mecklenburg to think outside traditional cost…

  9. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  10. Science Feedback 3. 5-14 Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Office Education and Industry Dept., Edinburgh.

    This publication presents information derived from the fourth Assessment of Achievement Programme (AAP), a survey of students' attainment in science (Scotland, 1996). The main AAP objectives are to describe national levels of attainment and to provide evidence of changes in these levels over time. This booklet was developed primarily as an…

  11. Using higher organisms in biological early warning systems for real-time toxicity detection.

    PubMed

    van der Schalie, W H; Shedd, T R; Knechtges, P L; Widder, M W

    2001-09-01

    Many biological early warning systems (BEWS) have been developed in recent years that evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of whole organisms to water quality. Using a fish ventilatory monitoring system developed at the US Army Centre for Environmental Health Research as an example, we illustrate the operation of a BEWS at a groundwater treatment facility. During a recent 12-month period, the fish ventilatory system was operational for 99% of the time that the treatment facility was on-line. Effluent-exposed fish responded as a group about 2.8% of the time. While some events were due to equipment problems or non-toxic water quality variations, the fish system did indicate effluent anomalies that were subsequently identified and corrected. The fish monitoring BEWS increased treatment facility engineers' awareness of effluent quality and provided an extra measure of assurance to regulators and the public. Many operational and practical considerations for whole organism BEWS are similar to those for cell- or tissue-based biosensors. An effective biomonitoring system may need to integrate the responses of several biological and chemical sensors to achieve desired operational goals. Future development of an 'electronic canary', analogous to the original canary in the coal mine, could draw upon advances in signal processing and communication to establish a network of sensors in a watershed and to provide useful real-time information on water quality. PMID:11544040

  12. Identification of Impact Location in a Plate Based on Elastodynamics and Higher Order Time Frequency Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Kim, S. J.

    In a nuclear power plant, impact force due to loose part is related to the structural damage in the plant. In general, the steam generator of the nuclear power plant is structured by thick plate. The paper presents a novel approach to locate an impact load in a thick plate. The approach is based on the analysis of the acoustic waveforms measured by a sensor array located on the plate surface. For accurate estimation of the location of the impact source, the time differences in the arrival times of the waves at the sensors and their propagation velocities are determined. The dispersion curves for multi modes of Lamb wave are calculated by using exact plate theory and SDPT. It is difficult to measure directly the group velocity for Lamb mode of acoustic waveform in the thick plate because they are dispersive wave. However, most of the energy in the wave is carried by the flexural waves (A0 mode), the group velocity of this mode is extracted using the CHOTF technique for estimating the impact source location. The estimates are shown to be in excellent agreement with the actual locations and it is applied to the damage analysis due to the loose part in a nuclear power plant.

  13. The Transition from Higher Education to Employment in Europe: The Analysis of the Time to Obtain the First Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Velasco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the transition from higher education to work across Europe using various specifications of duration models and a one-time multi-country survey of university graduates from nine European countries. Results point to differences between the North and South of Europe in the difficulty of getting a first job.…

  14. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  15. Impact of the Headscarf Ban Policy on the Identity Development of Part-Time Unveilers in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Austin, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of the Turkish higher education headscarf ban policy on the plural self-identities (i.e., as Turkish citizens, as Muslims, and as females) of part-time unveilers, female students who cover their hair in their private life but who remove the headscarf (or conceal it to appear unveiled) while at a Turkish…

  16. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  17. 3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.

    2008-07-01

    Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.

  18. Modern U-Pb chronometry of meteorites: advancing to higher time resolution reveals new problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J.; Zartman, R.E.; Chen, J.-H.; Gopel, C.; Neymark, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the factors that influence the accuracy of lead (Pb)-isotopic ages of meteorites, and may possibly be responsible for inconsistencies between Pb-isotopic and extinct nuclide timescales of the early Solar System: instrumental mass fractionation and other possible analytical sources of error, presence of more than one component of non-radiogenic Pb, migration of ancient radiogenic Pb by diffusion and other mechanisms, possible heterogeneity of the isotopic composition of uranium (U), uncertainties in the decay constants of uranium isotopes, possible presence of "freshly synthesized" actinides with short half-life (e.g. 234U) in the early Solar System, possible initial disequilibrium in the uranium decay chains, and potential fractionation of radiogenic Pb isotopes and U isotopes caused by alpha-recoil and subsequent laboratory treatment. We review the use of 232Th/238U values to assist in making accurate interpretations of the U-Pb ages of meteorite components. We discuss recently published U-Pb dates of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their apparent disagreement with the extinct nuclide dates, in the context of capability and common pitfalls in modern meteorite chronology. Finally, we discuss the requirements of meteorites that are intended to be used as the reference points in building a consistent time scale of the early Solar System, based on the combined use of the U-Pb system and extinct nuclide chronometers.

  19. A generative spike train model with time-structured higher order correlations

    PubMed Central

    Trousdale, James; Hu, Yu; Shea-Brown, Eric; Josić, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies are revealing the spiking activity in ever larger neural ensembles. Frequently, this spiking is far from independent, with correlations in the spike times of different cells. Understanding how such correlations impact the dynamics and function of neural ensembles remains an important open problem. Here we describe a new, generative model for correlated spike trains that can exhibit many of the features observed in data. Extending prior work in mathematical finance, this generalized thinning and shift (GTaS) model creates marginally Poisson spike trains with diverse temporal correlation structures. We give several examples which highlight the model's flexibility and utility. For instance, we use it to examine how a neural network responds to highly structured patterns of inputs. We then show that the GTaS model is analytically tractable, and derive cumulant densities of all orders in terms of model parameters. The GTaS framework can therefore be an important tool in the experimental and theoretical exploration of neural dynamics. PMID:23908626

  20. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  1. PETSc Users Manual Revision 3.5

    SciTech Connect

    Balay, S.; Abhyankar, S.; Adams, M.; Brown, J.; Brune, P.; Buschelman, K.; Eijkhout, V.; Gropp, W.; Kaushik, D.; Knepley, M.; McInnes, L. Curfman; Rupp, K.; Smith, B.; Zhang, H.

    2014-09-08

    This manual describes the use of PETSc for the numerical solution of partial differential equations and related problems on high-performance computers. The Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) is a suite of data structures and routines that provide the building blocks for the implementation of large-scale application codes on parallel (and serial) computers. PETSc uses the MPI standard for all message-passing communication. PETSc includes an expanding suite of parallel linear, nonlinear equation solvers and time integrators that may be used in application codes written in Fortran, C, C++, Python, and MATLAB (sequential). PETSc provides many of the mechanisms needed within parallel application codes, such as parallel matrix and vector assembly routines. The library is organized hierarchically, enabling users to employ the level of abstraction that is most appropriate for a particular problem. By using techniques of object-oriented programming, PETSc provides enormous flexibility for users. PETSc is a sophisticated set of software tools; as such, for some users it initially has a much steeper learning curve than a simple subroutine library. In particular, for individuals without some computer science background, experience programming in C, C++ or Fortran and experience using a debugger such as gdb or dbx, it may require a significant amount of time to take full advantage of the features that enable efficient software use. However, the power of the PETSc design and the algorithms it incorporates may make the efficient implementation of many application codes simpler than “rolling them” yourself. ;For many tasks a package such as MATLAB is often the best tool; PETSc is not intended for the classes of problems for which effective MATLAB code can be written. PETSc also has a MATLAB interface, so portions of your code can be written in MATLAB to “try out” the PETSc solvers. The resulting code will not be scalable however because

  2. Molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Sylke; Murray, Jane S; Politzer, Peter

    2009-11-28

    In the context of a continuing investigation of factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials to detonation initiation, we have carried out a molecular dynamics characterization of void defects in crystalline (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane). An empirical force field that is capable of handling flexible molecules in a pliable crystal was used. Voids ranging in size from 2 to 30 adjacent vacated sites were created in model lattices of 216 or 512 molecules. Energetic and geometric ground state properties were determined. The void formation energy per molecule removed was found to decrease from 50 kcal/mol for a single vacancy to about 23+/-2 kcal/mol for voids larger than one unit cell (8 molecules). Analysis of the local binding energies in the vicinity of a void reveals not only the expected decrease for molecules directly on the void surface but also a wide spread of values in the first 5-10 A away from the surface; this includes some molecules with local binding energies significantly higher than in the defect-free lattice. Molecular conformational changes and reorientations begin to be found in the vicinities of voids larger than one unit cell. Thermal behavior investigated includes void and molecular diffusion coefficients and fluctuations in void size. PMID:19947705

  3. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene from 3,5-dichloroanisole

    DOEpatents

    Ott, D.G.; Benziger, T.M.

    1991-03-05

    Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) from 3,5-dichloroanisole is described. Nitration of 3,5-dichloroanisole under relatively mild conditions gave 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole in high yield and purity. Ammonolysis of this latter compound gave the desired TATB. Another route to TATB was through the treatment of the 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-trinitroanisole with thionyl chloride and dimethylformamide to yield 1,3,5-trichloro-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. Ammonolysis of this product produced TATB. 8 figures.

  4. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  5. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  6. 29 CFR 5.3-5.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 5.3-5.4 Section 5.3-5.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO CONTRACTS COVERING FEDERALLY FINANCED AND ASSISTED... WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures §§ 5.3-5.4...

  7. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  8. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  9. 38 CFR 3.5 - Dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation. 3.5 Section 3.5 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.5 Dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) Dependency...

  10. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  11. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  12. 43 CFR 3435.3-5 - Notice of public hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of public hearing. 3435.3-5 Section 3435.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND....3-5 Notice of public hearing. After the lessee or lease applicant and the Secretary agree on...

  13. 28 CFR 3.5 - Forfeiture of gambling devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forfeiture of gambling devices. 3.5 Section 3.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.5 Forfeiture of gambling devices. For purposes of seizure and forfeiture of gambling devices see section 8 of this chapter....

  14. 45 CFR 1210.3-5 - Preparation for appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for appeal. 1210.3-5 Section 1210.3-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES VISTA Volunteer Early Termination § 1210.3-5 Preparation for...

  15. Delayed myelosuppression with acute exposure to hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and environmental degradation product hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jaligama, Sridhar; Kale, Vijay M.; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Perkins, Edward J.; Meyer, Sharon A.

    2013-02-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a widely used munitions compound, and hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), its N-nitroso product of anaerobic microbial nitroreduction, are contaminants of military sites. Previous studies have shown MNX to be the most acutely toxic among the nitroreduced degradation products of RDX and to cause mild anemia at high dose. The present study compares hematotoxicity with acute oral exposure to MNX with parent RDX. Both RDX and MNX caused a modest decrease in blood hemoglobin and ∼ 50% loss of granulocytes (NOAELs = 47 mg/kg) in female Sprague–Dawley rats observed 14 days post-exposure. We explored the possibility that blood cell loss observed after 14 days was delayed in onset because of toxicity to bone marrow (BM) progenitors. RDX and MNX decreased granulocyte/macrophage-colony forming cells (GM-CFCs) at 14, but not 7, days (NOAELs = 24 mg/kg). The earliest observed time at which MNX decreased GM-CFCs was 10 days post-exposure. RDX and MNX likewise decreased BM burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-Es) at 14, but not 7, days. Granulocyte–erythrocyte–monocyte–megakaryocyte (GEMM)-CFCs were unaffected by RDX and MNX at 7 days suggesting precursor depletion did not account for GM-CFC and BFU-E loss. MNX added to the culture media was without effect on GM-CFC formation indicating no direct inhibition. Flow cytometry showed no differential loss of BM multilineage progenitors (Thy1.1{sup +}) or erythroid (CD71{sup +}) precursors with MNX suggesting myeloid and erythroid lineages were comparably affected. Collectively, these data indicate that acute exposure to both RDX and MNX caused delayed suppression of myelo- and erythropoiesis with subsequent decrease of peripheral granulocytes and erythrocytes. Highlights: ► Acute oral exposure to munitions RDX causes myelosuppression. ► Environmental degradation product MNX is comparable in effect. ► RDX and MNX are cytotoxic to both myeloid and erythroid

  16. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning. PMID:24011119

  17. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  18. Microbially Mediated Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5- Triazine by Extracellular Electron Shuttling Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Man Jae; Finneran, Kevin T.

    2006-01-01

    The potential for humic substances to stimulate the reduction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was investigated. This study describes a novel approach for the remediation of RDX-contaminated environments using microbially mediated electron shuttling. Incubations without cells demonstrated that reduced AQDS transfers electrons directly to RDX, which was reduced without significant accumulation of the nitroso intermediates. Three times as much reduced AQDS (molar basis) was needed to completely reduce RDX. The rate and extent of RDX reduction differed greatly among electron shuttle/acceptor amendments for resting cell suspensions of Geobacter metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor. AQDS and purified humic substances stimulated the fastest rate of RDX reduction. The nitroso metabolites did not significantly accumulate in the presence of AQDS or humic substances. RDX reduction in the presence of poorly crystalline Fe(III) was relatively slow and metabolites transiently accumulated. However, adding humic substances or AQDS to Fe(III)-containing incubations increased the reduction rates. Cells of G. metallireducens alone reduced RDX; however, the rate of RDX reduction was slow relative to AQDS-amended incubations. These data suggest that extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX transformation is not organism specific but rather is catalyzed by multiple Fe(III)- and humic-reducing species. Electron shuttle-mediated RDX reduction may eventually become a rapid and effective cleanup strategy in both Fe(III)-rich and Fe(III)-poor environments. PMID:16957213

  19. Accumulation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a sandy loam soil.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Manon; Dodard, Sabine G; Savard, Kathleen; Lachance, Bernard; Robidoux, Pierre Y; Kuperman, Roman G; Hawari, Jalal; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2009-10-01

    The heterocyclic polynitramine hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a highly energetic compound found as a soil contaminant at some defense installations. Although RDX is not lethal to soil invertebrates at concentrations up to 10,000 mg/kg, it decreases earthworm cocoon formation and juvenile production at environmentally relevant concentrations found at contaminated sites. Very little is known about the uptake of RDX in earthworms and the potential risks for food-chain transfer of RDX in the environment. Toxicokinetic studies were conducted to quantify the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) using adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed for up to 14 d to sublethal concentrations of nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX in a Sassafras sandy loam soil. High-performance liquid chromatography of acetonitrile extracts of tissue and soil samples indicated that nonlabeled RDX can be accumulated by the earthworm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The BAF, expressed as the earthworm tissue to soil concentration ratio, decreased from 6.7 to 0.1 when the nominal soil RDX concentrations were increased from 1 to 10,000 mg/kg. Tissue concentrations were comparable in earthworms exposed to nonlabeled RDX or [14C]RDX. The RDX bioaccumulation also was estimated using the kinetically derived model (BAFK), based on the ratio of the uptake to elimination rate constants. The established BAFK of 3.6 for [14C]RDX uptake was consistent with the results for nonlabeled RDX. Radioactivity also was present in the tissue residues of [14C]RDX-exposed earthworms following acetonitrile extraction, suggesting the formation of nonextractable [14C]RDX metabolites associated with tissue macromolecules. These findings demonstrated a net accumulation of RDX in the earthworm and the potential for food-chain transfer of RDX to higher-trophic-level receptors. PMID:19432505

  20. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  1. State-Space Analysis of Time-Varying Higher-Order Spike Correlation for Multiple Neural Spike Train Data

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-ichi; Brown, Emery N.; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  2. State-space analysis of time-varying higher-order spike correlation for multiple neural spike train data.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Brown, Emery N; Grün, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Precise spike coordination between the spiking activities of multiple neurons is suggested as an indication of coordinated network activity in active cell assemblies. Spike correlation analysis aims to identify such cooperative network activity by detecting excess spike synchrony in simultaneously recorded multiple neural spike sequences. Cooperative activity is expected to organize dynamically during behavior and cognition; therefore currently available analysis techniques must be extended to enable the estimation of multiple time-varying spike interactions between neurons simultaneously. In particular, new methods must take advantage of the simultaneous observations of multiple neurons by addressing their higher-order dependencies, which cannot be revealed by pairwise analyses alone. In this paper, we develop a method for estimating time-varying spike interactions by means of a state-space analysis. Discretized parallel spike sequences are modeled as multi-variate binary processes using a log-linear model that provides a well-defined measure of higher-order spike correlation in an information geometry framework. We construct a recursive Bayesian filter/smoother for the extraction of spike interaction parameters. This method can simultaneously estimate the dynamic pairwise spike interactions of multiple single neurons, thereby extending the Ising/spin-glass model analysis of multiple neural spike train data to a nonstationary analysis. Furthermore, the method can estimate dynamic higher-order spike interactions. To validate the inclusion of the higher-order terms in the model, we construct an approximation method to assess the goodness-of-fit to spike data. In addition, we formulate a test method for the presence of higher-order spike correlation even in nonstationary spike data, e.g., data from awake behaving animals. The utility of the proposed methods is tested using simulated spike data with known underlying correlation dynamics. Finally, we apply the methods

  3. Less Time to Study, Less Well Prepared for Work, yet Satisfied with Higher Education: A UK Perspective on Links between Higher Education and the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Arthur, Lore

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores graduates' views on the relationship between higher education and employment. It draws on a major European study involving graduates five years after graduation and highlights similarities and differences between UK graduates' experiences and their European counterparts. Specifically, we address questions raised in the study…

  4. The 3.5 micron light curves of long period variable stars. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    Infrared observations at an effective wavelength of 3.5 microns of a selected group of long period variable (LPV) stars are presented. Mira type and semiregular stars of M, S, and C spectral classifications were monitored throughout the full cycle of variability. Although the variable infrared radiation does not exactly repeat in intensity or time, the regularity is sufficient to produce mean 3.5 micron light curves. The 3.5 micron maximum radiation lags the visual maximum by about one-seventh of a cycle, while the minimum 3.5 micron intensity occurs nearly one-half cycle after infrared maximum. In some stars, there are inflections or humps on the ascending portion of the 3.5 micron light curve which may also be seen in the visual variations.

  5. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  6. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  7. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  8. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  9. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  10. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  11. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  12. The Relationship of Higher Education to Substance Use Trajectories: Variations as a Function of Timing of Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, KARA; HOMEL, JACQUELINE; LEADBEATER, BONNIE

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between time to enrollment into postsecondary education and trajectories of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and marijuana use using a prospective longitudinal study. Method Participants included 391 postsecondary students (55% female) drawn from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave, multi-cohort sample interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Using piecewise latent growth modeling, we compared changes in the trajectories of HED and marijuana use before and after postsecondary enrollment across three groups of young adults: (a) direct entrants (enrolled directly out of high school), (b) gap entrants (took a year off), and (c) delayed entrants (took longer than a year off). Results Heavy drinking increased after enrollment for direct entrants and gap entrants and decreased for delayed entrants. Marijuana use increased after enrollment for direct entrants, and decreased for gap entrants and delayed entrants. Yet, overall levels of marijuana use were significantly higher among the gap and delay entrants over time compared with direct entrants. Group differences in heavy drinking appeared to reflect age-related changes in drinking patterns. However, differences in marijuana use may reflect pre-existing inequities in access to higher education across groups. Conclusions The association between postsecondary education and increased substance use may be limited to students who enroll at a postsecondary institution directly out of high school. However, students who delay enrollment have higher levels of substance use before enrollment, as well as lower high school grades and socioeconomic status compared with direct entrants, and may be particularly vulnerable to long-term substance use problems and degree noncompletion. PMID:25486398

  13. Lower theta inter-trial phase coherence during performance monitoring is related to higher reaction time variability: a lifespan study.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Hämmerer, Dorothea; Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-12-01

    Trial-to-trial reaction time (RT) variability is consistently higher in children and older adults than in younger adults. Converging evidence also indicates that higher RT variability is (a) associated with lower behavioral performance on complex cognitive tasks, (b) distinguishes patients with neurological deficits from healthy individuals, and also (c) predicts longitudinal cognitive decline in older adults. However, so far the processes underlying increased RT variability are poorly understood. Previous evidence suggests that control signals in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) are reflected in theta band activity and may implicate the coordination of distinct brain areas during performance monitoring. We hypothesized that greater trial-to-trial variability in theta power during performance monitoring may be associated with greater behavioral variability in response latencies. We analyzed event-related theta oscillations assessed during a cued-Go/NoGo task in a lifespan sample covering the age range from middle childhood to old age. Our results show that theta inter-trial coherence during NoGo trials increases from childhood to early adulthood, and decreases from early adulthood to old age. Moreover, in all age groups, individuals with higher variability in medial frontal stimulus-locked theta oscillations showed higher trial-to-trial RT variability behaviorally. Importantly, this effect was strongest at high performance monitoring demands and independent of motor response execution as well as theta power. Taken together, our findings reveal that lower theta inter-trial coherence is related to greater behavioral variability within and across age groups. These results hint at the possibility that more variable MFC control may be associated with greater performance fluctuations. PMID:23876249

  14. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  15. Genetically encoded fluorescent probe to visualize intracellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate localization and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Mingkun; Tsang, Wai Lok; Zhang, Yanling; Yau, Richard Gar Wai; Weisman, Lois S.; Xu, Haoxing

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is a low-abundance phosphoinositide presumed to be localized to endosomes and lysosomes, where it recruits cytoplasmic peripheral proteins and regulates endolysosome-localized membrane channel activity. Cells lacking PI(3,5)P2 exhibit lysosomal trafficking defects, and human mutations in the PI(3,5)P2-metabolizing enzymes cause lysosome-related diseases. The spatial and temporal dynamics of PI(3,5)P2, however, remain unclear due to the lack of a reliable detection method. Of the seven known phosphoinositides, only PI(3,5)P2 binds, in the low nanomolar range, to a cytoplasmic phosphoinositide-interacting domain (ML1N) to activate late endosome and lysosome (LEL)-localized transient receptor potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channels. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe, generated by the fusion of fluorescence tags to the tandem repeats of ML1N. The probe was mainly localized to the membranes of Lamp1-positive compartments, and the localization pattern was dynamically altered by either mutations in the probe, or by genetically or pharmacologically manipulating the cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2. Through the use of time-lapse live-cell imaging, we found that the localization of the PI(3,5)P2 probe was regulated by serum withdrawal/addition, undergoing rapid changes immediately before membrane fusion of two LELs. Our development of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe may facilitate studies of both intracellular signal transduction and membrane trafficking in the endosomes and lysosomes. PMID:24324172

  16. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  19. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  20. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  1. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting.

    PubMed

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries-conjoint analysis-which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  2. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  3. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  4. Bleaching effect of a 405-nm diode laser irradiation used with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Kato, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Hirai, Y.

    2007-09-01

    A 405-nm diode laser has recently been developed for soft tissue problems in dentistry. A new in-office bleaching agent consisting of a titanium dioxide photocatalyst and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide has proven to react well with light irradiated at a wavelength of around 400 nm. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching efficacy of a newly developed 405-nm diode laser on bovine teeth treated with a bleaching agent composed of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide. Sixteen bovine incisors were randomly divided into two groups: Group A, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 200 mW; Group B, irradiated by the 405-nm diode laser at 400 mW. The bleaching agent with titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide was applied to bovine enamel and irradiated for 1 min. The specimens were then washed and dried, and the same procedure was repeated nine more times. After irradiation, we assessed the effects of bleaching on the enamel by measuring the color of the specimens with a spectrophotometer and examining the enamel surfaces with a scanning electron microscope. L* rose to a high score, reaching a significantly higher post-treatment level in comparison to pretreatment. In a comparison of the color difference (Δ E) between Group A and Group B, the specimens in Group B showed significantly higher values after 10 min of irradiation for the post-treatment. No remarkable differences in the enamel surface morphology were found between the unbleached and bleached enamel. The use of a 405-nm diode laser in combination with a bleaching agent of titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide may be an effective method for bleaching teeth without the risk of tooth damage.

  5. Ovine ruminal microbes are capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; De Lorme, M; Chaney, R L; Craig, A M

    2011-08-01

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor that could be transported to the site of contamination. Bovine rumen fluid has been previously shown to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a similar compound, in 4 h. In this study, RDX incubated in whole ovine rumen fluid was nearly eliminated within 4 h. Whole ovine rumen fluid was then inoculated into five different types of media to select for archaeal and bacterial organisms capable of RDX biotransformation. Cultures containing 30 μg mL(-1) RDX were transferred each time the RDX concentration decreased to 5 μg mL(-1) or less. Time point samples were analyzed for RDX biotransformation by HPLC. The two fastest transforming enrichments were in methanogenic and low nitrogen basal media. After 21 days, DNA was extracted from all enrichments able to partially or completely transform RDX in 7 days or less. To understand microbial diversity, 16S rRNA-gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting was conducted. Cloning and sequencing of partial 16S rRNA fragments were performed on both low nitrogen basal and methanogenic media enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed similar homologies to eight different bacterial and one archaeal genera classified under the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Euryarchaeota. After continuing enrichment for RDX degraders for 1 year, two consortia remained: one that transformed RDX in 4 days and one which had slowed after 2 months of transfers without RDX. DGGE comparison of the slower transforming consortium to the faster one showed identical banding patterns except one band. Homology matches to clones from the two consortia identified the same uncultured Clostridia genus in both; Sporanaerobacter

  6. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  7. Pattern formations in miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Moubissi, Alain B.; Porsezian, K.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, we investigate the structure and dynamics of miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates confined within a time-independent anisotropic parabolic trap potential. In the zero-temperature mean-field approximation leading to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, we show that these equations can be mapped onto the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system up to a first-order of accuracy. Paying particular attention to two-species mixtures and looking forward deriving a panel of miscellaneous excitations to the above equations, we analyze the singularity structure of the system by means of Weiss et al.'s [J. Weiss, M. Tabor, and G. Carnevale, J. Math. Phys. 24, 522 (1983); 25, 13 (1984).] methodology and provide its general Lax representation. As a result, we unearth a typical spectrum of localized and periodic coherent patterns while depicting elastic and nonelastic interactions among such structures alongside the splitting and resonance phenomena occurring during their motion.

  8. Real-time evaluation of individual cow milk for higher cheese-milk quality with increased cheese yield.

    PubMed

    Katz, G; Merin, U; Bezman, D; Lavie, S; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, L; Leitner, G

    2016-06-01

    Cheese was produced in a series of experiments from milk separated in real time during milking by using the Afilab MCS milk classification service (Afikim, Israel), which is installed on the milk line in every stall and sorts milk in real time into 2 target tanks: the A tank for cheese production (CM) and the B tank for fluid milk products (FM). The cheese milk was prepared in varying ratios ranging from ~10:90 to ~90:10 CM:FM by using this system. Cheese was made with corrected protein-to-fat ratio and without it, as well as from milk stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8d before production. Cheese weight at 24h increased along the separation cutoff level with no difference in moisture, and dry matter increased. The data compiled allowed a theoretical calculation of cheese yield and comparing it to the original van Slyke equation. Whenever the value of Afi-Cf, which is the optical measure of curd firmness obtained by the Afilab instrument, was used, a better predicted level of cheese yield was obtained. In addition, 27 bulk milk tanks with milk separated at a 50:50 CM:FM ratio resulted in cheese with a significantly higher fat and protein, dry matter, and weight at 24h. Moreover, solids incorporated from the milk into the cheese were significantly higher in cheeses made of milk from A tanks. The influence of storage of milk up to 8d before cheese making was tested. Gross milk composition did not change and no differences were found in cheese moisture, but dry matter and protein incorporated in the cheese dropped significantly along the storage time. These findings confirm that milk stored for several days before processing is prone to physico-chemical deterioration processes, which result in loss of milk constituents to the whey and therefore reduced product yield. The study demonstrates that introducing the unknown parameters for calculating the predicted cheese yield, such as the empiric measured Afi-Cf properties, are more accurate and the increase in cheese

  9. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  10. Delaware Student Testing Program. State Summary Report: Reading, Mathematics, Writing Spring. 2002 Administration: Grades 3, 5, 8, and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    The results in this report, from the fifth administration of the grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 reading, mathematics, and writing portions of the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP), represent an important step in Delawares efforts to educate all students to a higher level. Reading, mathematics, and writing data for grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 are…

  11. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  12. Automated determination of P-phase arrival times at regional and local distances using higher order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lee, J.; Friederich, W.; Working Group, EGELADOS

    2010-05-01

    We present an algorithm for automatic P-phase arrival time determination for local and regional seismic events based on higher order statistics (HOS). Using skewness or kurtosis a characteristic function is determined to which a new iterative picking algorithm is applied. For P-phase identification we apply the Akaike Information Criterion to the characteristic function, while for a precise determination of the P-phase arrival time a pragmatic picking algorithm is applied to a recalculated characteristic function. In addition, an automatic quality estimate is obtained, based on the slope and the signal-to-noise ratio, both calculated from the characteristic function. To get rid of erroneous picks, a Jackknife procedure and an envelope function analysis is used. The algorithm is applied to a large data set with very heterogeneous qualities of P-onsets acquired by a temporary, regional seismic network of the EGELADOS-project in the southern Aegean. The reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithm is tested by comparing more than 3000 manually derived P readings, serving as reference picks, with the corresponding automatically estimated P-wave arrival times. We find an average deviation from the reference picks of 0.26 +/- 0.64s when using kurtosis and 0.38 +/- 0.75s when using skewness. If automatically as excellent classified picks are considered only, the average difference from the reference picks is 0.07 +/- 0.31s and 0.07 +/- 0.41s, respectively. However, substantially more P-arrival times are determined when using kurtosis, indicating that the characteristic function derived from kurtosis estimation is to be preferred. Since the characteristic function is calculated recursively, the algorithm is very fast and hence suited for earthquake early warning purposes. Furthermore, a comparative study with automatically derived P-readings using Allen's and Baer & Kradolfer's picking algorithms applied to the same data set demonstrates better quantitative and

  13. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  14. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  15. 21 CFR 176.230 - 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 3,5-Dimethyl-1,3,5,2H-tetrahydrothiadiazine-2-thione. 176.230 Section 176.230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances for Use Only...

  16. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  17. Sensitivity of 2,6-Diamino-3, 5-Dinitropyrazine-1-Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Tran, T D

    2005-01-20

    The thermal and shock sensitivities of plastic bonded explosive formations based on 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (commonly called LLM-105 for Lawrence Livermore Molecule No.105) are reported. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) apparatus was used to generate times to thermal explosion at various initial temperatures. A four-reaction chemical decomposition model was developed to calculate the time to thermal explosion versus inverse temperature curve. Three embedded manganin pressure gauge experiments were fired at different initial pressures to measure the pressure buildup and the distance required for transition to detonation. An Ignition and Growth reactive model was calibrated to this shock initiation data. LLM-105 exhibited thermal and shock sensitivities intermediate between those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazine (HMX).

  18. Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Huai, Qi-Yong; Shen, Zhi-Lun; Li, Hui-Jing; Liu, Chen; Wu, Yan-Chao

    2015-03-20

    Rearrangement of dypnones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes is described. The reaction is proposed to involve an aldol-type self-condensation of dypnones, followed by an intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition and a retro-[2 + 2] cycloaddition. The reaction goes smoothly under obviously milder conditions in comparison to the cyclotrimerization of acetophenones to 1,3,5-triarylbenzenes (10 mol % of TsOH, 80 °C versus 130-148 °C). This unexpected rearrangement would provide new possible considerations in dypnone-involved organic synthesis. PMID:25740008

  19. Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Ochoa, Kelly M; Francisco, Michael J San; Cox, Stephen B; Dixon, Kenneth; Anderson, Todd A; Cobb, George P

    2013-06-01

    Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation are 3 critical aspects affecting toxicant action in animals. In the present study, B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus) were exposed for 28 d to contaminated feed that contained 1 of 5 different hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) concentrations: 0 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg. The authors quantified RDX and its reductive transformation products hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in the stomach, intestine, plasma, liver, and brain of these mice. Average RDX concentrations followed a dose-dependent pattern for all matrices tested. No controls had concentrations above limits of detection. Average RDX concentrations in tissues of exposed mice ranged from 11.1 ng/mL to 182 ng/mL, 25.6 ng/g to 3319 ng/g, 123 ng/g to 233 ng/g, 144 ng/g to 35 900 ng/g, and 51.1 ng/g to 2697 ng/g in the plasma, brain, liver, stomach, and intestine, respectively. A considerable amount of RDX was present in the brain, especially in the highest-exposure group. This is consistent with the widely observed central nervous system effects caused by γ-aminobutyric acid inhibition associated with RDX exposure. N-nitroso metabolites of RDX were also present in tested tissues in a dose-dependent pattern. Average MNX concentrations in the stomachs of mice exposed to RDX ranged from nondetectable in control exposures to 490 ng/g in the highest-exposure groups. In the brain, MNX accumulated at a maximum average concentration of 165.1 ng/g, suggesting the potential formation of MNX from RDX within the brain. At higher exposures, DNX and TNX were present in the stomach, plasma, and brain of mice. The presence of RDX metabolites at notable amounts in different tissues suggests that RDX can transform into its N-nitroso metabolites in vivo by an undefined mechanism. PMID:23423972

  20. The Campus in Hard Times. New York's Higher Education Crisis. How It Happened. How It Can Be Resolved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Henry D.

    How did the New York State system of colleges and universities arrive at the brink of fiscal disaster? What is a possible new perception of higher education financing for New York? The radical shift in enrollment from independent to government-sponsored campuses, and the steep escalation in tax-levy burden for higher education resulted in the New…

  1. Higher Education in Russia: Traditions and Modern Times (Report at the Seventh Congress of the Russian Union of Rectors)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovnichii, V.

    2004-01-01

    This article represents a speech delivered by the author at the Seventh Congress of the Russian Union of Rectors. In his address, the author describes the current higher educational trend in Russia. He explains how higher education's orientation toward the state, its openness to all social classes, and its fundamental character are the principles…

  2. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r(->), r(->)'). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r(->), r(->)') onto a semilocal model density matrix γ(SL)(ρ(r(->)), ∇ρ(r(->)), r(->) - r(->)'). γSL depends on the electron density ρ(r(->) at reference point r(->), and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r(->) - r(->)' dependence of γSL in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γSL yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms. PMID:25053297

  3. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  4. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  5. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  6. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  7. 9 CFR 3.5 - Mobile or traveling housing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.5 Mobile or traveling housing facilities. (a) Heating, cooling, and temperature. Mobile or traveling housing facilities for dogs and cats must be sufficiently heated and cooled when necessary to protect the dogs and cats from temperature...

  8. Science in Action Series: AGATE ( pt 3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This show was made for the Office of Education at NASA Langley. The objective is to make math and science appealing to a middle school audience. This clip (pt 3/5 ) tells us more about the plane. How much will it cost to run, and how will we learn to fly?

  9. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  10. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  11. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  12. Differentiating Instruction with Menus Grades 3-5: Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Laurie E.

    2007-01-01

    "Differentiating Instruction With Menus Grades 3-5" offers teachers everything they need to create a student-centered learning environment based on choice. Addressing the four main subject areas (language arts, math, science, and social studies) and the major concepts taught within these areas, these books provide a number of different types of…

  13. Lessons for Algebraic Thinking. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Kharas, Katharine; Burns, Marilyn

    Algebra is one of the top priorities of mathematics instruction for the elementary and middle grades. This book is designed to help 3-5 teachers meet the challenge of making algebra an integral part of their mathematics instruction and realize both what to teach and how to teach central algebraic concepts. Classroom-tested lessons help teachers…

  14. 39 CFR 3.5 - Delegation of authority by Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF GOVERNORS (ARTICLE III) § 3.5 Delegation of authority by Board. As authorized by 39 U.S.C. 402, these bylaws... that this delegation of authority does not conflict with powers reserved to the Governors or to...

  15. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine and Its Mononitroso Derivative Hexahydro-1-Nitroso-3,5-Dinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain SCZ-1 Isolated from an Anaerobic Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    In previous work, we found that an anaerobic sludge efficiently degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but the role of isolates in the degradation process was unknown. Recently, we isolated a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae strain SCZ-1, using MIDI and the 16S rRNA method from this sludge and employed it to degrade RDX. Strain SCZ-1 degraded RDX to formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (CH3OH) (12% of total C), carbon dioxide (CO2) (72% of total C), and nitrous oxide (N2O) (60% of total N) through intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (O2NNHCH2NHNO2). Likewise, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) was degraded to HCHO, CH3OH, and N2O (16.5%) with a removal rate (0.39 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) similar to that of RDX (0.41 μmol · h−1 · g [dry weight] of cells−1) (biomass, 0.91 g [dry weight] of cells · liter−1). These findings suggested the possible involvement of a common initial reaction, possibly denitration, followed by ring cleavage and decomposition in water. The trace amounts of MNX detected during RDX degradation and the trace amounts of hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine detected during MNX degradation suggested that another minor degradation pathway was also present that reduced —NO2 groups to the corresponding —NO groups. PMID:12406722

  16. Chemiluminescence detection of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine explosives.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, David N; Barnett, Neil W; Agg, Kent M; Graham, Duncan; Lenehan, Claire E; Prior, Chad; Lim, Kieran F; Francis, Paul S

    2012-01-15

    A simple controlled chemical reduction of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and related nitramine compounds with zinc amalgam generates species that elicit intense chemiluminescence with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III), which extends this widely utilised chemiluminescence reagent to a new class of analyte and presents a sound chemical basis for a screening test for nitramine high explosives. Examination of the chemiluminescence profiles under stopped-flow conditions revealed contributions from multiple transient species formed in the initial reduction step. PMID:22265569

  17. The Rest-Frame Optical Luminosity Functions of Galaxies at 2<=z<=3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, D.; van Dokkum, P.; Quadri, R.; Rudnick, G.; Franx, M.; Lira, P.; Wuyts, S.; Gawiser, E.; Christlein, D.; Toft, S.

    2007-02-01

    We present the rest-frame optical (B, V, and R band) luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 2<=z<=3.5, measured from a K-selected sample constructed from the deep NIR MUSYC, the ultradeep FIRES, and the GOODS-CDFS. This sample is unique for its combination of area and range of luminosities. The faint-end slopes of the LFs at z>2 are consistent with those at z~0. The characteristic magnitudes are significantly brighter than the local values (e.g., ~1.2 mag in the R band), while the measured values for Φ* are typically ~5 times smaller. The B-band luminosity density at z~2.3 is similar to the local value, and in the R band it is ~2 times smaller than the local value. We present the LF of distant red galaxies (DRGs), which we compare to that of non-DRGs. While DRGs and non-DRGs are characterized by similar LFs at the bright end, the faint-end slope of the non-DRG LF is much steeper than that of DRGs. The contribution of DRGs to the global densities down to the faintest probed luminosities is 14%-25% in number and 22%-33% in luminosity. From the derived rest-frame U-V colors and stellar population synthesis models, we estimate the mass-to-light ratios (M/L) of the different subsamples. The M/L ratios of DRGs are ~5 times higher (in the R and V bands) than those of non-DRGs. The global stellar mass density at 2<=z<=3.5 appears to be dominated by DRGs, whose contribution is of order ~60%-80% of the global value. Qualitatively similar results are obtained when the population is split by rest-frame U-V color instead of observed J-K color. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatories on Paranal, Chile as part of the ESO program 164.O-0612.

  18. A novel imaging method revealed phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate-rich domains in the endosome/lysosome membrane

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Sho; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We developed a new method to observe distribution of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] using electron microscopy. In freeze-fracture replicas of quick-frozen samples, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was labeled specifically using recombinant ATG18 tagged with glutathione S-transferase and 4×FLAG, which was mixed with an excess of recombinant PX domain to suppress binding of ATG18 to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Using this method, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was found to be enriched in limited domains in the yeast vacuole and mammalian endosomes. In the yeast vacuole exposed to hyperosmolar stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was distributed at a significantly higher density in the intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient liquid-ordered domains than in the surrounding IMP-rich domains. In mammalian cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was observed in endosomes of tubulo-vesicular morphology labeled for RAB5 or RAB7. Notably, distribution density of PtdIns(3,5)P2 in the endosome was significantly higher in the vesicular portion than in the tubular portion. The nano-scale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 revealed in the present study is important to understand its functional roles in the vacuole and endosomes. PMID:27195064

  19. Hearings on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5240. (Washington, DC, March 27-29, April 3-5, and April 10-12; St. Louis, Missouri, March 30; Flushing, New York, April 2; Winona, Minnesota, April 6, and Eau Claire, Wisconsin, April 7, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Hearings on a bill to reauthorize the Higher Education Act of 1965 are presented, with attention to policy formulations of the Higher Education Act Amendments of 1984 and the Administration's fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and legislative proposals. Consideration is given to the appropriate federal role in higher education, the proper focus of…

  20. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  1. Possible Population III remnants at redshift 3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, Neil H. M.; O'Meara, John M.; Murphy, Michael T.

    2016-03-01

    The first stars, known as Population III (PopIII), produced the first heavy elements, thereby enriching their surrounding pristine gas. Previous detections of metals in intergalactic gas clouds, however, find a heavy element enrichment larger than 1/1000 times that of the solar environment, higher than expected for PopIII remnants. In this letter, we report the discovery of a Lyman limit system (LLS) at z = 3.53 with the lowest metallicity seen in gas with discernable metals, 10-3.41±0.26 times the solar value, at a level expected for PopIII remnants. We make the first relative abundance measurement in such low metallicity gas: the carbon-to-silicon ratio is 10-0.26±0.17 times the solar value. This is consistent with models of gas enrichment by a PopIII star formation event early in the Universe, but also consistent with later, Population II enrichment. The metals in all three components comprising the LLS, which has a velocity width of 400 km s-1, are offset in velocity by ˜+6 km s-1 from the bulk of the hydrogen, suggesting the LLS was enriched by a single event. Relative abundance measurements in this near-pristine regime open a new avenue for testing models of early gas enrichment and metal mixing.

  2. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  3. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  4. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  5. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  6. 36 CFR 3.5 - Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the appropriate reporting authority in a timely manner that complies with the requirements of 33 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Do I have to report an accident involving a vessel to the National Park Service? 3.5 Section 3.5 Parks, Forests, and...

  7. Synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulioukina, N. S.; Makukhin, N. N.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review comprehensively covers the currently available synthetic routes to 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles. There are demonstrated significant advances in this field over the last 10–15 years caused by the use of the Bestmann–Ohira reagent [as well as (diazomethyl)phosphonates and phosphonylated hydrazonoyl halides] in reactions with diverse dipolarophiles. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of diazo compounds to α,β-unsaturated phosphonates as well as intramolecular heterocyclization of (1-diazoallyl)phosphonates and (3--diazo-1-propenyl)phosphonates are discussed. Synthetic potential of cyclocondensation of organophosphorus 1,3-dielectrophilic compounds with hydrazines is shown. Ways to introduce a phosphonate group into the pyrazole ring are considered. Examples of chemical transformations of 3(5)-phosphonylated pyrazoles are reported. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  8. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.; Tyson, C.A.; Johnson, J.S.

    1982-10-11

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 and 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. The only effects that were considered treatment-related were a squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of high-dose rats and the increased incidence of dried red material on the faces of these rats during exposures compared with other groups.

  9. Removing 3,5-Dichlorophenol from Wastewater by Alternative Adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobetičová, Hana; Galbičková, Blanka; Ševčíková, Janka; Soldán, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate an efficiency of 3,5 - dichlorophenol removal from wastewater by using alternative adsorbents. Chlorophenols are organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring, OH groups and also atoms of chlorine. Chlorophenols may have a huge isomere variety that means there are differences in their chemical and physical properties. Due to their toxicity it is necessary to remove them from waste water and in this paper an alternative way of such process is described.

  10. Dendrimers Based on [1,3,5]-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    STEFFENSEN, MACKAY B.; HOLLINK, EMILY; KUSCHEL, FRANK; BAUER, MONIKA; SIMANEK, ERIC E.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive and chronological account of dendrimers based on [1,3,5]-triazines is provided. Synthetic strategies to install the triazine through cycloaddition, cyclotrimerization, and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of cyanuric chloride are discussed. Motivations and applications of these architectures are surveyed, including the preparation of supra-molecular assemblies in the solution and solid states and their use in medicines, advanced materials, and separations when anchored to solid supports. PMID:19953202

  11. Practical auxiliary basis implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J.

    2014-07-21

    Approximate exchange-correlation functionals for Kohn-Sham density functional theory often benefit from incorporating exact exchange. Exact exchange is constructed from the noninteracting reference system's nonlocal one-particle density matrix γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector}′). Rung 3.5 functionals attempt to balance the strengths and limitations of exact exchange using a new ingredient, a projection of γ(r{sup -vector},r{sup -vector} ′) onto a semilocal model density matrix γ{sub SL}(ρ(r{sup -vector}),∇ρ(r{sup -vector}),r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′). γ{sub SL} depends on the electron density ρ(r{sup -vector}) at reference point r{sup -vector}, and is closely related to semilocal model exchange holes. We present a practical implementation of Rung 3.5 functionals, expanding the r{sup -vector}−r{sup -vector} ′ dependence of γ{sub SL} in an auxiliary basis set. Energies and energy derivatives are obtained from 3D numerical integration as in standard semilocal functionals. We also present numerical tests of a range of properties, including molecular thermochemistry and kinetics, geometries and vibrational frequencies, and bandgaps and excitation energies. Rung 3.5 functionals typically provide accuracy intermediate between semilocal and hybrid approximations. Nonlocal potential contributions from γ{sub SL} yield interesting successes and failures for band structures and excitation energies. The results enable and motivate continued exploration of Rung 3.5 functional forms.

  12. Cusp-related Pc3-5 Wave Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.; Belakhovsky, V.; Lessard, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Pc3-5 pulsations were found to be an ubiquitous element of dayside ULF wave activity at the cusp region. We examine observations of Pc3-5 wave activity by search coil and flux-gate magnetometers at three locations on Svalbard, covering geomagnetic latitudes 74o-76o. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal from the SuperDARN Finland radar covering the Svalbard archipelago. The ULF meridional spatial structure is examined using the amplitude-phase gradient technique. This analysis shows no specific mode conversion pattern near the cusp region. The amplitude gradient mainly has the same direction at all frequencies, and only during periods when the cusp is shifted to very high latitudes, the gradient may change sign. The phase delay is chaotic and does not show any consistent pattern. This behavior corresponds to the occurrence of a localized peak in the latitudinal distribution of Pc3-5 power, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but about several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. We suppose that compressional Pc3 fluctuations leaking from the magnetosheath into the entry layer of the magnetosphere can modulate the precipitating electron fluxes, which produce the ground response.

  13. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  14. Quality after the Cuts? Higher Education Practitioners' Accounts of Systemic Challenges to Teaching Quality in Times of "Austerity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Anna; Iqani, Mehita

    2015-01-01

    What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching staff perceive their teaching practices? What impact are funding cuts, increases in student fees and the concomitant increased workloads having on faculty morale? How might this influence "quality cultures" in teaching…

  15. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  16. Breaking the Mold: New Approaches for Higher Education in Tough Economic Times. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human capital is the key to economic development. Without highly-skilled workers, states and territories cannot attract the productive businesses they need. That makes higher education a key element of any governor's growth strategy. But many public colleges and universities are struggling to produce more graduates. Overall graduation rates often…

  17. Applying the Modality Principle to Real-Time Feedback and the Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Effectively presenting complex material is a crucial component of instructional design within simulation-based training (SBT) environments. One approach to facilitate the acquisition of higher-order knowledge is to embed instructional strategies within the systems themselves. Currently, however, there are few established guidelines to inform…

  18. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  19. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  20. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  1. Australian Higher Education Leaders in Times of Change: The Role of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Bell, Sharon; Coates, Hamish; Grebennikov, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses responses provided by 31 Pro Vice-Chancellors (PVCs) and Deputy Vice-Chancellors (DVCs) who were part of a larger study of more than 500 higher education leaders in roles ranging from DVC to head of programme in 20 Australian universities. Using both quantitative and qualitative data the paper gives an insider's perspective on…

  2. A Call to Action on New England's Innovation Economy: Will Business and Higher Education Answer This Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, William

    2003-01-01

    Mass Insight Corp, a public policy and communications firm that organizes public-private initiatives to support economic growth in Massachusetts, recently issued a new report, titled "An Economy at Risk," making the case for a Massachusetts economic development strategy organized around higher education and science and technology. Massachusetts,…

  3. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  4. Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times. Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education Annual Conference (2nd, Seattle, Washington, October 13-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education 1981 conference are summarized. Authors and the summarized papers are as follows: "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The University Perspective" (George M. Beckmann); "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The Community College Perspective" (Don A. Morgan); "Report from China"…

  5. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies,…

  6. Full-Time Employed Students as University Consumers--Consequences and Triggers of Marketisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mägi, Eve; Jaakson, Krista; Aidla, Anne; Kirss, Laura; Reino, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a qualitative study of student employment patterns among students who both study and work full-time. In the study, 17 employed bachelor students at state-commissioned study places in three Estonian universities, 12 lecturers from the same universities, and 13 employers supervising those full-time students, were interviewed.…

  7. Lateral Transfer of Genes for Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Degradation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Andeer, Peter F.; Stahl, David A.; Bruce, Neil C.; Strand, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that degradation of the military explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by species of Rhodococcus, Gordonia, and Williamsia is mediated by a novel cytochrome P450 with a fused flavodoxin reductase domain (XplA) in conjunction with a flavodoxin reductase (XplB). Pulse field gel analysis was used to localize xplA to extrachromosomal elements in a Rhodococcus sp. and distantly related Microbacterium sp. strain MA1. Comparison of Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y and Microbacterium plasmid sequences in the vicinity of xplB and xplA showed near identity (6,710 of 6,721 bp). Sequencing of the associated 52.2-kb region of the Microbacterium plasmid pMA1 revealed flanking insertion sequence elements and additional genes implicated in RDX uptake and degradation. PMID:19270122

  8. Higher rank Wilson loops in the {N}=2{SU}(N)\\times {SU}(N) conformal quiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Benjo

    2016-01-01

    In this note we compute the expectation value of a circular supersymmetric Wilson loop in the ‘higher rank’ totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations of {SU}(N) in the {\\hat{A}}1 quiver {N}=2 conformal field theory, using a matrix model. We discuss the connection with a recent conjecture stating that expectation values of observables in this sector are obtained from {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory by a universal renormalization of the ’t Hooft coupling.

  9. Dehalogenation of the Herbicides Bromoxynil (3,5-Dibromo-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) and Ioxynil (3,5-Diiodino-4-Hydroxybenzonitrile) by Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans

    PubMed Central

    Cupples, Alison M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Sims, Gerald K.

    2005-01-01

    Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans has been shown to grow by coupling the oxidation of lactate to the metabolic reductive dehalogenation of ortho chlorines on polysubstituted phenols. Here, we examine the ability of D. chlororespirans to debrominate and deiodinate the polysubstituted herbicides bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), ioxynil (3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), and the bromoxynil metabolite 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate (DBHB). Stoichiometric debromination of bromoxynil to 4-cyanophenol and DBHB to 4-hydroxybenzoate occurred. Further, bromoxynil (35 to 75 μM) and DBHB (250 to 260 μM) were used as electron acceptors for growth. Doubling times for growth (means ± standard deviations for triplicate cultures) on bromoxynil (18.4 ± 5.2 h) and DBHB (11.9 ± 1.4 h), determined by rate of [14C]lactate uptake into biomass, were similar to those previously reported for this microorganism during growth on pyruvate (15.4 h). In contrast, ioxynil was not deiodinated when added alone or when added with bromoxynil; however, ioxynil dehalogenation, with stoichiometric conversion to 4-cyanophenol, was observed when the culture was amended with 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (a previously reported electron acceptor). To our knowledge, this is the first direct report of deiodination by a bacterium in the Desulfitobacterium genus and the first report of an anaerobic pure culture with the ability to transform bromoxynil or ioxynil. This research provides valuable insights into the substrate range of D. chlororespirans. PMID:16000784

  10. Factors Associated with Higher Sitting Time in General, Chronic Disease, and Psychologically-Distressed, Adult Populations: Findings from the 45 & Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Short, Camille; Grunseit, Anne; James, Erica; Johnson, Natalie; Bauman, Adrian; D’Este, Catherine; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with higher sitting time in general, chronic disease, and psychologically-distressed, adult populations (aged ≥45 years). A series of logistic regression models examined potential socio-demographic and health factors associated with higher sitting (≥6hrs/day) in adults from the 45 and Up Study (n = 227,187), including four separate subsamples for analysis comprising those who had ever had heart disease (n = 26,599), cancer (n = 36,381), diabetes (n = 19,550) or psychological distress (n = 48,334). Odds of higher sitting were significantly (p<.01) associated with a number of factors across these groups, with an effect size of ORs≥1.5 observed for the high-income ≥$70,000AUD, employed full-time and severe physical limitations demographics. Identification of key factors associated with higher sitting time in this population-based sample will assist development of broad-based, public health and targeted strategies to reduce sitting-time. In particular, those categorized as being high-income earners, full-time workers, as well as those with severe physical limitations need to be of priority, as higher sitting appears to be substantial across these groups. PMID:26039739

  11. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  12. An updated set of nutations derived from the reanalysis of 3.5 decades VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Koot, Laurence; Rivoldini, Attilio; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    The global VLBI observation started in the 1979. After that the qualities of the measurements are continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 models was introduced in 2002 (Mathews, et.al. 2002, [1]) and it has a good agreement (5 μas) on the short period nutation series (<400 days) with the values derived from 2 decades (1979-2000) VLBI data while a higher uncertainties up to 56 μas for those longer periods (>400 days) nutation series (Herring et.al. 2002). In MHB2000, the forcing frequencies of the nutation series are solved by least-squares fitting to the VLBI data in frequency domain. Koot et al. (2008), have processed another similar set of nutation series by inversing the time series of VLBI data (1984-2005) using a Bayesian approach. In the present work, we will repeat both approaches using the up-to-date 3.5 decades VLBI observations (1980-2014) meanwhile paying more attention on the results of longer period (>400 days). Finally some features of Earth's interior structure will be discussed based on the determined nutation series. [1] Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. & Buffett, B.A., 2002. Modeling of nutation and precession: new nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth's interior, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2068, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000390. [2] Herring, T. A., P. M. Mathews, and B. A. Buffett, Modeling of nutation and precession: Very long baseline interferometry results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, B4, 2069, doi: 10.1029/2001JB000165, 2002 [3] Koot, L., Rivoldini, A., de Viron, O. & Dehant, V., 2008. Estimation of Earth interior parameters from a Bayesian inversion of very long baseline interferometry nutation time series, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 8414, doi: 10.1029/2007JB005409.

  13. Pulling Structured Inequality into Higher Education: The Impact of Part-Time Working on English University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the social and academic effects of term-time working on undergraduate students at an English university. Data initially collected via a survey of student social relationships were enhanced by the inclusion of end-of-year academic performance. Various inferential statistical techniques were used to identify these effects. Path…

  14. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  15. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  16. Part-Time Faculty Personnel Management Policies. American Council on Education/Macmillan Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biles, George E.; Tuckman, Howard P.

    A framework for integrating part-time college faculty into an existing institutional structure is presented. Suggestions are offered on ways that department and division heads can make personnel policies that meet both the part-timer's need for fairness, certainty, and structure, and the college's need for flexibility and order. Policies are…

  17. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  18. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  19. Time-variant fMRI activity in the brainstem and higher structures in response to acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali; Park, Kyungmo; Kim, Jieun; Makris, Nikos; Kwong, Kenneth K; Harris, Richard E; Purdon, Patrick L; Kettner, Norman; Hui, Kathleen K S

    2009-08-01

    Acupuncture modulation of activity in the human brainstem is not well known. This structure is plagued by physiological artifact in neuroimaging experiments. In addition, most studies have used short (<15 min) block designs, which miss delayed responses following longer duration stimulation. We used brainstem-focused cardiac-gated fMRI and evaluated time-variant brain response to longer duration (>30 min) stimulation with verum (VA, electro-stimulation at acupoint ST-36) or sham point (SPA, non-acupoint electro-stimulation) acupuncture. Our results provide evidence that acupuncture modulates brainstem nuclei important to endogenous monoaminergic and opioidergic systems. Specifically, VA modulated activity in the substantia nigra (SN), nucleus raphe magnus, locus ceruleus, nucleus cuneiformis, and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Activation in the ventrolateral PAG was greater for VA compared to SPA. Linearly decreasing time-variant activation, suggesting classical habituation, was found in response to both VA and SPA in sensorimotor (SII, posterior insula, premotor cortex) brain regions. However, VA also produced linearly time-variant activity in limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus, and SN), which was bimodal and not likely habituation--consisting of activation in early blocks, and deactivation by the end of the run. Thus, acupuncture induces different brain response early, compared to 20-30 min after stimulation. We attribute the fMRI differences between VA and SPA to more varied and stronger psychophysical response induced by VA. Our study demonstrates that acupuncture modulation of brainstem structures can be studied non-invasively in humans, allowing for comparison to animal studies. Our protocol also demonstrates a fMRI approach to study habituation and other time-variant phenomena over longer time durations. PMID:19345268

  20. A Sequential Linear Quadratic Approach for Constrained Nonlinear Optimal Control with Adaptive Time Discretization and Application to Higher Elevation Mars Landing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Amit

    A sequential quadratic programming method is proposed for solving nonlinear optimal control problems subject to general path constraints including mixed state-control and state only constraints. The proposed algorithm further develops on the approach proposed in [1] with objective to eliminate the use of a high number of time intervals for arriving at an optimal solution. This is done by introducing an adaptive time discretization to allow formation of a desirable control profile without utilizing a lot of intervals. The use of fewer time intervals reduces the computation time considerably. This algorithm is further used in this thesis to solve a trajectory planning problem for higher elevation Mars landing.

  1. Magnetic hard disk overcoats in the 3-5 nm thickness range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, E. V.; Yang, M. M.; Chao, J. L.; Russak, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Protective properties of 3-5 nm thick carbon overcoat layers deposited on magnetic hard disks by ion beam deposition (IBD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were investigated. It is found that these overcoats are superior to the sputtered carbon films at thicknesses below 5 nm. Low-stiction performance of 3-nm-thick IBD films without any detectable wear was observed during 50 000 contact start-stop cycles at 55 °C and 10% relative humidity. Surface concentration of cobalt ions is reduced by as much as an order of magnitude as compared to the media with sputtered overcoats. Polarization resistivity values for IBD and PECVD overcoats are by an order of magnitude higher. The results show that thickness of protective carbon overcoats on magnetic hard disks can be reduced to 3-5 nm without compromising media reliability requirements. This reduction is critical for the continuing growth of storage density.

  2. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions. PMID:25911044

  3. Progress integrating ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology with accessory mineral geochemistry: towards better accuracy and higher precision time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly common that hand samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks contain zircon with dates that span between zero and >100 ka. This recognition comes from the increased application of U-series geochronology on young volcanic rocks and the increased precision to better than 0.1% on single zircons by the U-Pb ID-TIMS method. It has thus become more difficult to interpret such complicated datasets in terms of ashbed eruption or magma emplacement, which are critical constraints for geochronologic applications ranging from biotic evolution and the stratigraphic record to magmatic and metamorphic processes in orogenic belts. It is important, therefore, to develop methods that aid in interpreting which minerals, if any, date the targeted process. One promising tactic is to better integrate accessory mineral geochemistry with high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology. These dual constraints can 1) identify cogenetic populations of minerals, and 2) record magmatic or metamorphic fluid evolution through time. Goal (1) has been widely sought with in situ geochronology and geochemical analysis but is limited by low-precision dates. Recent work has attempted to bridge this gap by retrieving the typically discarded elution from ion exchange chemistry that precedes ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and analyzing it by ICP-MS (U-Pb TIMS-TEA). The result integrates geochemistry and high-precision geochronology from the exact same volume of material. The limitation of this method is the relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to in situ techniques, and thus averages potentially complicated trace element profiles through single minerals or mineral fragments. In continued work, we test the effect of this on zircon by beginning with CL imaging to reveal internal zonation and growth histories. This is followed by in situ LA-ICPMS trace element transects of imaged grains to reveal internal geochemical zonation. The same grains are then removed from grain-mount, fragmented, and

  4. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. PMID:22841928

  5. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  6. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services. PMID:19132096

  7. Microbial Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl under Anaerobic Conditions in the Absence of Soil or Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Leah; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial enrichment cultures developed with Baltimore Harbor (BH) sediments were found to reductively dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,5,6-CB) when incubated in a minimal estuarine medium containing short-chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of sediment. Primary enrichment cultures formed both meta and ortho dechlorination products from 2,3,5,6-CB. The lag time preceding dechlorination decreased from 30 to less than 20 days as the cultures were sequentially transferred into estuarine medium containing dried, sterile BH sediment. In addition, only ortho dechlorination was observed following transfer of the cultures. Sequential transfer into medium without added sediment also resulted in the development of a strict ortho-dechlorinating culture following a lag of more than 100 days. Upon further transfer into the minimal medium without sediment, the lag time decreased to less than 50 days. At this stage all cultures, regardless of the presence of sediment, would produce 2,3,5-CB and 3,5-CB from 2,3,5,6-CB. The strict ortho-dechlorinating activity in the sediment-free cultures has remained stable for more than 1 year through several transfers. These results reveal that the classical microbial enrichment technique using a minimal medium with a single polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener selected for ortho dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-CB. Furthermore, this is the first report of sustained anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the complete absence of soil or sediment. PMID:9687458

  8. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures.

  9. Elevated root retention of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coniferous trees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Mueller, Jakob O; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Schenke, Detlef; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2014-03-01

    For decades, the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) has been used for military and industrial applications. Residues of RDX pollute soils in large areas globally and the persistence and high soil mobility of these residues can lead to leaching into groundwater. Dendroremediation, i.e. the long-term use of trees to clean up polluted soils, is gaining acceptance as a green and sustainable strategy. Although the coniferous tree species Norway spruce and Scots pine cover large areas of military land in Central Europe, the potential of any coniferous tree for dendroremediation of RDX is still unknown. In this study, uptake experiments with a (14)C-labelled RDX solution (30 mg L(-1)) revealed that RDX was predominantly retained in the roots of 6-year-old coniferous trees. Only 23 % (pine) to 34 % (spruce) of RDX equivalents (RDXeq) taken up by the roots were translocated to aboveground tree compartments. This finding contrasts with the high aerial accumulation of RDXeq (up to 95 %) in the mass balances of all other plant species. Belowground retention of RDXeq is relatively stable in fine root fractions, since water leaching from tissue homogenates was less than 5 %. However, remobilisation from milled coarse roots and tree stubs reached up to 53 %. Leaching from homogenised aerial tree material was found to reach 64 % for needles, 58 % for stems and twigs and 40 % for spring sprouts. Leaching of RDX by precipitation increases the risk for undesired re-entry into the soil. However, it also opens the opportunity for microbial mineralisation in the litter layer or in the rhizosphere of coniferous forests and offers a chance for repeated uptake of RDX by the tree roots. PMID:24281674

  10. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetostructural transition in Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. S.; Mudryk, Ya.; Paudyal, D.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Schlagel, D. L.; Lograsso, T. A.

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic and crystallographic properties of Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5 were investigated using dc magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of an oriented single crystal, combined with temperature and magnetic field dependent x-ray powder diffraction. The compound undergoes an unusual magnetostructural transition at 40 K and a nonmagnetic second-order transition around 63 K. The detailed crystallographic study of Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5 shows that contrary to the R5(SixGe1-x)4 systems ( R is a rare-earth metal), the structural transition occurs without shear displacements of the [R5T4]∞2 slabs ( T=Si , Ge, and Sb), and a substantial volume change (-0.5%) does not lead to a change in crystallographic symmetry. The first-principles electronic structure calculations show higher interslab than intraslab ferromagnetic exchange interaction indicating that Sm5Ge4 type of structure supports a ferromagnetic ground state in Gd5Sb0.5Ge3.5 .

  12. 1s2s2p2 5p3 5S transition in B ii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannervik, S.; Cederquist, H.; Martinson, I.; Brage, T.; Froese Fischer, C.

    1987-04-01

    An experimental and theoretical study has been made of the 1s2s2p2 5P-1s2p3 5S transition in B ii. The experimental wavelength and lifetime (1323.92+/-0.07 Å and 0.65+/-0.01 ns), determined by beam-foil spectroscopy, are more than five times more accurate than previous experimental results. Our theoretical data, from multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations, 1311.6 Å and 0.601 ns, are in excellent agreement with previous theoretical predictions of Beck and Nicolaides [Phys. Lett. 61A, 227 (1977)]. We have also observed the 1s2p3 5S-1s2p23s 5P transition, at 857.7+/-0.2 Å, in accord with the theoretical value 859.1 Å.

  13. Dissolution and sorption of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) residues from detonated mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Ashley M; Douglas, Thomas A; Walsh, Marianne E; Trainor, Thomas P

    2011-08-01

    Composition B (Comp B) is a commonly used military formulation composed of the toxic explosive compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Numerous studies of the temporal fate of explosive compounds in soils, surface water and laboratory batch reactors have been conducted. However, most of these investigations relied on the application of explosive compounds to the media via aqueous addition and thus these studies do not provide information on the real world loading of explosive residues during detonation events. To address this we investigated the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX from Comp B residues loaded to pure mineral phases through controlled detonation. Mineral phases included nontronite, vermiculite, biotite and Ottawa sand (quartz with minor calcite). High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the dissolution and sorption of TNT and RDX residues loaded onto the mineral surfaces. Detonation resulted in heterogeneous loading of TNT and RDX onto the mineral surfaces. Explosive compound residues dissolved rapidly (within 9 h) in all samples but maximum concentrations for TNT and RDX were not consistent over time due to precipitation from solution, sorption onto mineral surfaces, and/or chemical reactions between explosive compounds and mineral surfaces. We provide a conceptual model of the physical and chemical processes governing the fate of explosive compound residues in soil minerals controlled by sorption-desorption processes. PMID:21601233

  14. Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteironeto, Othon Derego

    1988-11-01

    Thermal oxidation of 3-5 compound semiconductors has been studied in the temperature range of 300 to 600 C. Two members of this class of materials, namely InP and GaAs, were the object of the experimental work carried out here. The main analytical tools used were transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM was employed to access microstructural changes and SIMS to access the composition redistribution that takes place as a consequence of the oxidation reaction. Below 400 C oxidation of both materials led to the formation of amorphous scales, which consisted of a mixture of gallium and arsenic oxides in the case of GaAs, and indium phosphate and oxide in the case of InP. The oxidation kinetics of InP was found to be slower than that of GaAs. In the high temperature regime, i.e., above 400 C, the oxidation of both materials resulted in crystalline products. Precipitation of the group 5 element at the scale/semiconductor interface took place during oxidation. At the GaAs/Ga2O3interface, As precipitates were formed with a truncated square pyramid shape bound by (111) sub GaAs planes. The precipitates found at the InPO4/InP interface were either a phosphorus rich phase or red phosphorus. Strong vaporization under the electron beam prohibited a more accurate determination. The morphology of those precipitates were very similar to the As ones in GaAs.

  15. The role of biotransformation and oxidative stress in 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) induced nephrotoxicity in isolated renal cortical cells from male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Racine, Christopher R; Ferguson, Travis; Preston, Debbie; Ward, Dakota; Ball, John; Anestis, Dianne; Valentovic, Monica; Rankin, Gary O

    2016-02-01

    Among the mono- and dichloroanilines, 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) is the most potent nephrotoxicant in vivo and in vitro. However, the role of renal biotransformation in 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity is unknown. The current study was designed to determine the in vitro nephrotoxic potential of 3,5-DCA in isolated renal cortical cells (IRCC) obtained from male Fischer 344 rats, and the role of renal bioactivation and oxidative stress in 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity. IRCC (∼ 4 million cells/ml) from male rats were exposed to 3,5-DCA (0-1.0mM) for up to 120 min. In IRCC, 3,5-DCA was cytotoxic at 1.0mM by 60 min as evidenced by the increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but 120 min was required for 3,5-DCA 0.5mM to increase LDH release. In subsequent studies, IRCC were exposed to a pretreatment (antioxidant or enzyme inhibitor) prior to exposure to 3,5-DCA (1.0mM) for 90 min. Cytotoxicity induced by 3,5-DCA was attenuated by pretreatment with inhibitors of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO; methimazole, N-octylamine), cytochrome P450 (CYP; piperonyl butoxide, metyrapone), or peroxidase (indomethacin, mercaptosuccinate) enzymes. Use of more selective CYP inhibitors suggested that the CYP 2C family contributed to 3,5-DCA bioactivation. Antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, α-tocopherol, ascorbate, pyruvate) also attenuated 3,5-DCA nephrotoxicity, but oxidized glutathione levels and the oxidized/reduced glutathione ratios were not increased. These results indicate that 3,5-DCA may be activated via several renal enzyme systems to toxic metabolites, and that free radicals, but not oxidative stress, contribute to 3,5-DCA induced nephrotoxicity in vitro. PMID:26808022

  16. Uptake and fate of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in coastal marine biota determined using a stable isotopic tracer, (15)N - [RDX].

    PubMed

    Ballentine, Mark L; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Smith, Richard W; Cooper, Christopher; Vlahos, Penny; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J; Tobias, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is globally one of the most commonly used military explosives and environmental contaminant. (15)N labeled RDX was added into a mesocosm containing 9 different coastal marine species in a time series experiment to quantify the uptake of RDX and assess the RDX derived (15)N retention into biota tissue. The (15)N attributed to munitions compounds reached steady state concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 0.67 μg (15)N g dw(-1), the bulk (15)N tissue concentration for all species was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher suggesting a common mechanism or pathway of RDX biotransformation and retention of (15)N. A toxicokinetic model was created that described the (15)N uptake, elimination, and transformation rates. While modeled uptake rates were within previous published values, elimination rates were several orders of magnitude smaller than previous studies ranging from 0.05 to 0.7 days(-1). These small elimination rates were offset by high rates of retention of (15)N previously not measured. Bioconcentration factors and related aqueous:organism ratios of compounds and tracer calculated using different tracer and non-tracer methods yielded a broad range of values (0.35-101.6 mL g(-1)) that were largely method dependent. Despite the method-derived variability, all values were generally low and consistent with little bioaccumulation potential. The use of (15)N labeled RDX in this study indicates four possible explanations for the observed distribution of compounds and tracer; each with unique potential implications for possible toxicological impacts in the coastal marine environment. PMID:27010164

  17. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1990-01-01

    About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

  18. PoroTomo Subtask 3.5 GPS Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Corne Kreemer

    2015-09-17

    CSV files with links to RINEX data for stations BRAD and BRDY for all days after those reported previous (i.e., since 21-JAN-2015) Links to websites that show the position time-series of both stations.

  19. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  20. Adsorption-desorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, S.K.; Selim, H.M.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1995-11-01

    This study studied the adsorption-desorption behavior of TNT (2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) in a bentonite/sand reference material (Swy-1 montmorillonite clay mixed with acid-washed sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Release of TNT,RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. The kinetics of TNT and RDX retention were measured using batch methods for a range of input concentrations. For RDX, the adsorption isotherms were distinctly linear. The TNT adsorption isotherm for bentonite/sand mixture appeared linear and was described equally well using linear, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a modified Langmuir model. For the Norwood and Kolin soils, TNT adsorption isotherms exhibited distinct nonlinearity and the Freundlich model provided the best fit. As indicated by the K{sub d} values, TNT exhibited stronger retention or affinity to all soils and the bentonite/sand mixture than for RDX. The RDX retention data indicated little time-dependent behavior. The TNT retention data indicated a continued decrease in TNT concentration with time in the Norwood and Kolin soils. This was possibly caused by the formation and subsequent adsorption of transformation products because transformation products, such as amino nitro toluene compounds, were identified during batch experiments. For the bentonite/sand mixture, TNT retention was rapid initially and reached apparent equilibrium within 1 day. Unlike Kolin and Norwood soils, there was no hysteretic behavior of TNT adsorption-desorption by the bentonite/sand mixture and a mass balance suggested fully reversible retention mechanisms. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.

  2. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  3. Heteroadamantanes and their derivatives. 4. Synthesis of 1,3,5-triazaadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A.I.; Kosmakov, V.A.; Unkovskii, B.V.

    1985-12-01

    Reduction of 7-nitro-1,3,5-triazaadamantane with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of Raney nickel gave 7-hydroxyamino- and 7-amino-1,3,5-triazaadamantane, from which 7-chloro-, 7-bromo-, and 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantanes were synthesized by substitutive deamination. Desulfurization of 7-thiocyanato-1,3,5-triazaadamantane in the presence of Raney nickel gave 1,3,5-triazaadamantane.

  4. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion. PMID:26930513

  5. Dynamics of higher-order rational solitons for the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Yang, Yunqing

    2016-06-01

    The integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential [M. J. Ablowitz and Z. H. Musslimani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064105 (2013)] is investigated, which is an integrable extension of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Its novel higher-order rational solitons are found using the nonlocal version of the generalized perturbation (1,N-1)-fold Darboux transformation. These rational solitons illustrate abundant wave structures for the distinct choices of parameters (e.g., the strong and weak interactions of bright and dark rational solitons). Moreover, we also explore the dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rational solitons with some small noises on the basis of numerical simulations. PMID:27368788

  6. Build a Bird House. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students construct bird nests and birdhouses. Students research a bird of their choice in order to design a house that will meet that bird's specific needs. The activity works well in conjunction with a high school level woodshop class where students would partner up. This activity requires an 80-minute time period for…

  7. Design Weather Instruments Using Lego Sensors. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students design and create a LEGO (plastic building blocks) structure to house and protect a temperature sensor. The structure is left in a safe spot and the temperature is regularly checked and charted. This activity uses a time frame of 45 minutes. (Author/SOE)

  8. An explanation for the universal 3.5 power-law observed in currency markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    We present a mathematical theory to explain a recent empirical finding in the Physics literature (Zhao et al., 2013) in which the distributions of waiting-times between discrete events were found to exhibit power-law tails with an apparent universal exponent: α ∼ 3.5 . This new theory provides the first ever qualitative and quantitative explanation of Zhao et al.'s surprising finding. It also provides a mechanistic description of the origin of the observed universality, assigning its cause to the emergence of dynamical feedback processes between evolving clusters of like-minded agents.

  9. STAT3/5-Dependent IL9 Overexpression Contributes to Neoplastic Cell Survival in Mycosis Fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Vieyra-Garcia, Pablo A.; Wei, Tianling; Naym, David Gram; Fredholm, Simon; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Odum, Niels; O'Malley, John T.; Gniadecki, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sustained inflammation is a key feature of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Resident IL9–producing T cells have been found in skin infections and certain inflammatory skin diseases, but their role in MF is currently unknown. Experimental Design We analyzed lesional skin from patients with MF for the expression of IL9 and its regulators. To determine which cells were producing IL9, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify malignant clones and Vb-specific antibodies were employed to visualize malignant cells in histologic preparations. To explore the mechanism of IL9 secretion, we knocked down STAT3/5 and IRF4 by siRNA transfection in CTCL cell lines receiving psoralen+UVA (PUVA) ± anti-IL9 antibody. To further examine the role of IL9 in tumor development, the EL-4 T-cell lymphoma model was used in C57BL/6 mice. Results Malignant and reactive T cells produce IL9 in lesional skin. Expression of the Th9 transcription factor IRF4 in malignant cells was heterogeneous, whereas reactive T cells expressed it uniformly. PUVA or UVB phototherapy diminished the frequencies of IL9- and IL9r-positive cells, as well as STAT3/5a and IRF4 expression in lesional skin. IL9 production was regulated by STAT3/5 and silencing of STAT5 or blockade of IL9 with neutralizing antibodies potentiated cell death after PUVA treatment in vitro. IL9-depleted mice exhibited a reduction of tumor growth, higher frequencies of regulatory T cells, and activated CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. Conclusion Our results suggest that IL9 and its regulators are promising new targets for therapy development in mycosis fungoides. PMID:26851186

  10. Accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McMurry, S T; Jones, L E; Smith, P N; Cobb, G P; Anderson, T A; Lovern, M B; Cox, S; Pan, X

    2012-03-01

    Environmental contamination by energetic compounds is an increasing international concern, although little is known of their accumulation in and affect on wildlife. Reptiles are often good models for contaminants studies due to natural history traits that increase their potential for exposure. We report a study to assess accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, High Melting Explosive) in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) was estimated to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight in adult male and female anoles using a standard up-and-down method. Accumulation of HMX was assessed in adult females via dietary exposure and into eggs by two routes (directly from the soil and via maternal transfer). HMX readily accumulated into adult females in a dose-dependent manner and into eggs following both exposure pathways. However, total HMX in soil-exposed eggs was up to 40-times greater than those exposed via maternal transfer. Although there was a suggestion of an HMX-induced reduction in body weight in adult females, overall there were no effects observed over the 12 week exposure period. The only significant effect on eggs was a 50% reduction in hatching success for eggs exposed to 2000 mg/kg HMX in the soil during incubation. Growth and survival of hatchlings was not affected by HMX exposure. Our results demonstrate that HMX accumulates through the food chain and into eggs from the soil, but likely poses minimal threat to lizards except to hatching success in eggs incubated in soils with HMX levels near maximum environmental concentrations. PMID:21947615

  11. Superplane! High Speed Civil Transport ( pt3/5 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This light-hearted promotional piece explains what the HSCT 'Superplane' is and what advantages it will have over current aircraft. As envisioned, the HSCT is a next-generation supersonic (faster than the speed of sound) passenger jet that would fly 300 passengers at more than 1,500 miles per hour -- more than twice the speed of sound. It will cross the Pacific or Atlantic in less than half the time of modern subsonic jets, and at a ticket price less than 20 percent above comparable, slower flights

  12. IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPOSOMES AND OPTISON® BY ACOUSTIC SCATTERING AT 3.5 MHZ

    PubMed Central

    Coussios, Constantin-C.; Holland, Christy K.; Jakubowska, Ludwika; Huang, Shao-Ling; Macdonald, Robert C.; Nagaraj, Ashwin; McPherson, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that can encapsulate both gas and fluid. With antibody conjugation, new formulations, known as immunoliposomes, can be targeted to atheroma and other pathologic components and are, thus, being developed as novel diagnostic ultrasound (US) echo contrast agents to enhance atherosclerosis imaging. The majority of these echogenic liposomes range in diameter from 0.25 to 5.0 µm. To quantify the echogenicity of liposome suspensions of varying concentrations, the backscattering coefficient at 3.5 MHz was determined experimentally. The backscattering coefficient was also estimated theoretically as a function of air volume fraction by modeling the encapsulated air as a free air bubble and assuming single bubble scattering. For most of the liposome concentrations examined in this study (on the order of 108/mL), the backscattering coefficient equals or exceeds that of Optison® at the human clinical dosage (on the order of 104/mL). Experimental measurement of the decrease in backscattering coefficient shows promise as a sensitive method for determining whether liposomes are left intact or destroyed during imaging; thus, helping to explore their potential as a vehicle for targeted drug delivery. In addition, the attenuation of US through liposome suspensions is negligible at 3.5 MHz relative to the attenuation through Optison® (0.25 dB/cm), suggesting that liposomes have a much higher scatter-to-attenuation ratio and could be more efficient as contrast agents. PMID:14998670

  13. Acoustic characterization of liposome suspensions and Optison® at 3.5 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussios, Constantin-C.; Holland, Christy K.; Jakubowska, Ludwika; Huang, Shao-Ling; MacDonald, Robert C.; Nagaraj, Ashwin; McPherson, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Liposomes-phospholipid vesicles that can encapsulate both gas and fluid-are currently being developed as contrast agents and vehicles for targeted drug delivery. The backscattering coefficient and attenuation of liposome suspensions were measured at 3.5 MHz as a function of liposome concentration and compared to those of Optison®. The backscattering coefficient of liposomes at concentrations in excess of 1.15×108/ml exceeds that of Optison® at the clinical dose (5.0-8.0×104/ml). On the other hand, the attenuation of ultrasound through liposome suspensions is negligible relative to the attenuation through Optison® (0.25 dB/cm), suggesting that liposomes have a much higher scatter-to-attenuation ratio and could be more efficient as contrast agents. A theoretical model that treats the gas within the liposomes as a free air bubble was used to estimate the backscattering coefficient and correlated well with experimental results. Church's model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)] for Albunex® was also found to provide an accurate estimate of the backscattering coefficient of Optison®. These models suggest that the marked difference in attenuation between the two agents can be attributed to the fact that liposomes are sub-resonant in size at 3.5 MHz, but Optison® microspheres act as resonant scatterers. a)Currently at Boston University.

  14. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  15. Proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, Tetsuo; Ueda, Kouhei; Oguni, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    On the polycrystalline sample of 4-amino-3,5-dihalogenobenzoic acid, 4-NH2-3,5-X2C6H2COOH, which has a symmetric dimer structure in the crystal, the proton tunneling in the hydrogen bonds has been investigated by NQR and NMR spin-lattice relaxation times T1 measurements. Two 35Cl NQR lines of the X = Cl derivative show the existence of two crystallographically inequivalent chlorine atoms in the high-temperature phase, in consistency with the reported crystal structure. Below 138 K, each splits into a doublet indicating the symmetry breaking of the benzoic acid dimer. The proton dynamics was analyzed by a coherent and incoherent tunneling models, for the high- and low-temperature phases, respectively. The temperature dependence of the correlation time of proton translation was estimated. As for the X = I derivative, the proton dynamics was discussed similarly by 1H NMR T1 data by assuming occurrence of a phase transition at low-temperature.

  16. Epitaxial 3-5 semiconductors for integrated electro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Wayne A.; Beachley, O. T., Jr.; Kwok, H. S.; Liu, P. L.; Wie, C. R.

    1988-06-01

    Research has been conducted on the synthesis and evaluation of new organometallics (OM), growth of epitaxial layers by OMCVD and laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD), laser interaction with materials, structural and chemical evaluation of epitaxial layers, electrical evaluation of epitaxial layers and radiation effects in semiconductors and insulators. New OM precursors were developed and used in OMCVD. New OM sources are considered for lower toxicity and more efficient reaction. For the first time, InSb was grown in CdTe by OMCVD. A quadrupole mass analyzer and low temperature luminescence were installed for in situ diagnostics. Laser interaction studies reveal the importance of tunneling ionization for carrier generation in low bandgap materials. Ion emission has been measured from a metal surface due to laser irradiation. Ions were observed at low laser fluence and at a frequency corresponding to an energy less than the material work function. Rocking curve studies of MBE-grown strained GaInAs on GaAs is the most reliable technique for strains less than 0.3 percent. LO-TO splitting in ion damaged GaAs has been explained by the effective ionic charge of the ion beam-induced point defects. Deep level transient spectroscopy studies of irradiated p-InP has revealed trap levels and annealing effects of importance in extraterrestrial applications. A Yb/p-InP device has shown good linearity and improved stability as a temperature sensor from 100 to 400K.

  17. 3.5 billion years of reshaped Moho, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    According to some previous studies, Archean continental crust is, on global average, apparently thinner than Proterozoic crust. Subsequently, the validity of this statement has been questioned. To provide an additional perspective on this issue, we present analyses of Moho signatures derived from recent seismic data along swaths 2000 km in length across southern Africa and its flanking ocean. The imaged crust has a near continuous age range between ca. 0.1 and 3.7 billion years, and the seismic data allow direct comparison of Moho depths between adjacent Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crust. We find no simple secular change in depth to Moho over this time period. In contrast, there is significant variation in depth to Moho beneath both Archean and Proterozoic crust; Archean crust of southern Africa displays as much crustal diversity in thickness as the adjacent Proterozoic crust. The Moho beneath all crustal provinces that we have analysed has been severely altered by tectono-metamorphic and igneous processes, in many cases more than once, and cannot provide unequivocal data for geodynamic models dealing with secular changes in continental crust formation. These results and conclusions are similar to those documented along ca. 2000 km swaths across the Canadian Shield recorded by Lithoprobe. Tying the age and character of the Precambrian crust of southern Africa to their depth diversities is clearly related to manifold processes of tectono-thermal ‘surgery’ subsequent to their origin, the details of which are still to be resolved, as they are in most Precambrian terranes. Reconstructing pristine Moho of the early Earth therefore remains a formidable challenge. In South Africa, better knowledge of ‘fossilised’ Archean crustal sections ‘turned-on-edge’, such as at the Vredefort impact crater (for the continental crust), and from the Barberton greenstone belt (for oceanic crust) is needed to characterize potential pristine Archean Moho transitions.

  18. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability. PMID:26164104

  19. Aromatic fluorine compounds. I. The synthesis of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluorides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.

    1944-01-01

    The preparation of 2,5- and 3,5-difluorobenzotrifluoride and some of their intermediates is described. 3,5-Dinitrobenzotrifluoride was prepared from 3-nitrobenzotrifluoride with a fuming nitric-sulfuric acid mixture.

  20. The Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model LIM3.5: global and regional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, C.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Madec, G.; Fichefet, T.; Flavoni, S.; Barthélemy, A.; Benshila, R.; Chanut, J.; Levy, C.; Masson, S.; Vivier, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present the new 3.5 version of the Louvain-la-Neuve sea ice model (LIM) integrated in NEMO 3.6. The main novelty is the improvement of model robustness and versatility for a wide range of applications, from global to regional scales. Several modifications to the code were required. First, the time stepping scheme of the model was changed from parallel to sequential (ice dynamics first, then thermodynamics). Such a scheme enables to diagnose the different physical processes responsible for exchanges through the air-ice-ocean interfaces, as well as the online inspection of mass, heat and salt conservation properties of the code. In the course of these developments, several minor conservation leaks were found and fixed, so that LIM3.5 is exactly conservative. Second, lateral boundary conditions for regional ice-covered configurations have been implemented. To illustrate the new capabilities, two simulations are performed. One is a global simulation at a nominal 2° resolution forced by atmospheric climatologies and is found reasonably realistic although no specific tuning was done. The other is a regional simulation at 2 km resolution around the Svalbard Archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, with prescribed conditions at the four boundaries including tides. The simulation is able to resolve small-scale features and transient events such as the opening and closing of coastal polynyas. The ice mass budgets for both simulations are illustrated and mostly differ by the strength of ice formation in open water. LIM3.5 now forms a solid base for future scientific studies and model developments.

  1. The beta]-[delta phase transition in the energetic nitramine-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine: Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Asay, B. W.; Dickson, P. M.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we present second harmonic generation (SHG) experiments designed to confirm the mechanism and quantify the transformation kinetics of the beta]-[delta solid state phase transition in the organic nitramine molecule octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). The beta phase adopts a centrosymmetric crystallographic configuration (P21)/c while the delta phase adopts a noncentrosymmetric one (P61(P65)). As expected, this results in a very poor generation of SHG intensity from the beta phase, while the delta phase is very efficient, rivaling KH2PO4 in absolute efficiency. SHG thus provides a very high sensitivity zero background probe of the delta phase. We discuss the use of this signal as a quantitative measure of the delta phase mole fraction in ensembles of free HMX crystals and crystals embedded in a visco-elastic polymer matrix. We report imaging experiments where the spatial characteristics of the transformation are shown to be consistent with nucleation from a low density of initial sites, followed by rapid growth. We also report experiments where the total integrated SHG is measured and used to infer the transition progress as a function of time in a series of isothermal experiments on both beta]-[delta conversion and delta]-[beta reversion. Additionally, reversibility experiments are reported which are used to verify both the volumetric mechanism of SHG generation in this system and the independence of these results to the internal stress state of the polycrystalline samples. We compare the measured SHG intensity as a function of time for a range of temperatures with predictions of the two state kinetic model presented in the accompanying paper [B. F. Henson [et al.], J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3780 (2002)]. We perform a set of parameter optimization calculations based on agreement with the predictions of the model. Optimization does not significantly change the kinetic parameters that are thermodynamically constrained by the model, but

  2. Spectrophotometric analyses of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in water.

    PubMed

    Shi, Cong; Xu, Zhonghou; Smolinski, Benjamin L; Arienti, Per M; O'Connor, Gregory; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for on-site analysis of royal demolition explosive (RDX) in water samples was developed based on the Berthelot reaction. The sensitivity and accuracy of an existing spectrophotometric method was improved by: replacing toxic chemicals with more stable and safer reagents; optimizing the reagent dose and reaction time; improving color stability; and eliminating the interference from inorganic nitrogen compounds in water samples. Cation and anion exchange resin cartridges were developed and used for sample pretreatment to eliminate the effect of ammonia and nitrate on RDX analyses. The detection limit of the method was determined to be 100 μg/L. The method was used successfully for analysis of RDX in untreated industrial wastewater samples. It can be used for on-site monitoring of RDX in wastewater for early detection of chemical spills and failure of wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26141876

  3. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in zebrafish: General and reproductive toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed-sex populations of young adult zebrafish (???2-month-old) were exposed to measured RDX concentrations of 0, 1 or 9.6 ppm for up to 12 weeks followed by a 15-day rearing period in untreated water. RDX caused high mortality at 9.6 ppm, with most deaths occurring within the first 8 weeks of exposure. RDX at 9.6 ppm caused lower body weights at 4 and 8 weeks of exposure; and at 1 ppm, lower body weight was observed only at 4 weeks. Fish length was not affected by treatment at any time during the exposure period. The bioconcentration factor for RDX seemed to be influenced by time of exposure but not by water RDX concentration; its overall values were 1.01 ?? 0.13, 0.91 ?? 0.06 and 2.23 ?? 0.04 at 4, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. RDX was not detected in fish collected after the 15-day recovery period. In a separate experiment, adult females and males were separately exposed to RDX at measured concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 3.2 ppm for a period of 6 weeks. Reproductive performance was evaluated by biweekly breeding of the fish and measuring packed-egg volume (PEV) as index of fecundity. At 0.5 ppm, RDX caused elevated PEV levels relative to the control value at 2 weeks but not at 4 or 6 weeks, whereas no significant effects were noted at 3.2 ppm. Egg fertilization and embryo hatching rates were not affected by RDX at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, RDX at sublethal concentrations causes short-term negative effects on growth and, at 0.5 ppm, positive effects on fecundity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Widespread effusive volcanism on Mercury likely ended by about 3.5 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Paul K.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Chapman, Clark R.; Denevi, Brett W.; Evans, Alexander J.; Klimczak, Christian; Banks, Maria E.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-07-01

    Crater size-frequency analyses have shown that the largest volcanic plains deposits on Mercury were emplaced around 3.7 Ga, as determined with recent model production function chronologies for impact crater formation on that planet. To test the hypothesis that all major smooth plains on Mercury were emplaced by about that time, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for the nine next-largest deposits, which we interpret also as volcanic. Our crater density measurements are consistent with those of the largest areas of smooth plains on the planet. Model ages based on recent crater production rate estimates for Mercury imply that the main phase of plains volcanism on Mercury had ended by ~3.5 Ga, with only small-scale volcanism enduring beyond that time. Cessation of widespread effusive volcanism is attributable to interior cooling and contraction of the innermost planet.

  5. True ferroelectric switching in thin films of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA).

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, A V; Putzeys, T; Urbanavičiūtė, I; Janssen, R A J; Wübbenhorst, M; Sijbesma, R P; Kemerink, M

    2016-08-24

    We have investigated the ferroelectric polarization switching properties of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA), which is a model system for a large class of novel organic ferroelectric materials. In the solid state BTAs form a liquid crystalline columnar hexagonal phase that provides long range order that was previously shown to give rise to hysteretic dipolar switching. In this work the nature of the polar switching process is investigated by a combination of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, depth-resolved pyroelectric response measurements, and classical frequency- and time-dependent electrical switching. We show that BTAs, when brought in a homeotropically aligned hexagonal liquid crystalline phase, are truly ferroelectric. Analysis of the transient switching behavior suggests that the ferroelectric switching is limited by a highly dispersive nucleation process, giving rise to a wide distribution of switching times. PMID:27510767

  6. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for identifying the designated agency component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket Applications § 3.5 Procedures for identifying...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4265 Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). (a) Chemical... hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-) (PMN P-97-649; CAS No. 167412-23-9) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  12. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  13. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  14. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  15. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts,...

  16. 41 CFR 102-3.5 - What does this subpart cover and how does it apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? 102-3.5 Section 102-3.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...? § 102-3.5 What does this subpart cover and how does it apply? This subpart provides the policy...

  17. 43 CFR 2812.3-5 - Use by the United States and its licensees of rights received from a permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-5 Use by... from Government lands or from other lands during such periods of time as the timber thereon may be committed by a cooperative agreement to coordinated administration with timber of the United States....

  18. 43 CFR 2812.3-5 - Use by the United States and its licensees of rights received from a permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-5 Use by... from Government lands or from other lands during such periods of time as the timber thereon may be committed by a cooperative agreement to coordinated administration with timber of the United States....

  19. 43 CFR 2812.3-5 - Use by the United States and its licensees of rights received from a permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-5 Use by... from Government lands or from other lands during such periods of time as the timber thereon may be committed by a cooperative agreement to coordinated administration with timber of the United States....

  20. 43 CFR 2812.3-5 - Use by the United States and its licensees of rights received from a permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.3-5 Use by... from Government lands or from other lands during such periods of time as the timber thereon may be committed by a cooperative agreement to coordinated administration with timber of the United States....

  1. The State of the Earth's Atmosphere 3.5 Ga Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, B.; Avice, G.; Kuga, M.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere evolved through time upon escape to space and exchange of volatile elements with the Earth's solid reservoirs (mantle, crust). We are currently investigating the composition of the ancient atmosphere by analyzing gases trapped in Archean chemical sedimentary rocks, including fluid inclusions in Archean hydrothermal quartz. The rationale of the study is that trapped noble gases, as well as nitrogen for some of the samples, represent ancient atmospheric gases that were dissolved in surface fluids (seawater, freshwater), so that their isotope compositions and elemental ratios reflect those of the Archean atmosphere at the time of trapping. Particular care was given to select samples for which fluids did not exchange significantly since the epoch of trapping. Data show that: (i) the felsic continental crust grew up mostly during the time interval 3.5-2.7 Ga ago [1]; (ii) the atmospheric nitrogen isotope composition and density were comparable to the modern one, implying the existence of a significant terrestrial magnetic field at that time [2]; (iii) Archean neon and krypton isotopic ratios were similar to their modern ones; but (iv) the xenon isotopic composition was isotopically fractionated and intermediate between those of potential cosmochemical (chondritic, solar) end-members and of the present-day atmosphere[3,4]. These differences are attributed to different ionization efficiencies for atmospheric species, and subsequent escape to space for Xe [3-5]. Together with the constant Ne, Kr and N isotope compositions, they shed strong constraints on the nature of the solar UV flux 1Ga after Earth's formation. [1] Pujol. M. et al. (2013), Nature 498, 87-90. [2] Marty B. et al. (2013), Science 342, 101-104. [3] Pujol M. et al. (2011), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 308, 298-306. [4] Avice G. & Marty B. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, In press. [5] Hébrard E. & Marty B. (2014), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 385, 40-48.

  2. Lanthanum inhibition of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced enterosorption and its effects on intestinal mucosa cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels.

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, G J; Amer, M S

    1975-01-01

    Several trivalent cations, including lanthanum (La3+), inhibited the secretion (enterosorption) induced by the enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli in the rabbit ileum in vivo. High concentrations (greater than 10 mM) of La3+ were required to inhibit cholera enterotoxin (CE)-induced enterosorption, probably because of the adsorption of the La3+ often potentiated the CE-induced enterosorption. If luminal La3+ exposure followed CE exposure, some recovery of the enterosorptive response was observed. The longer the lag between the CE exposure and the La3+ exposure, the greater was the recovery of the enterosorptive response. Lanthanum inhibited HCO3- secretion more than Cl- secretion. By altering the luminal fluid pH at the time of La3+ exposure, it was found that La3+ was adsorbed to negatively charged luminal sites, having an apparent pK between 2.5 and 3.0. Although La3+ antagonized the enterosorptive response to CE, it mimicked rather than antagonized the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate elevation and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate depression induced by the toxin. It is therefore concluded that the La3+ inhibition of the CE-induced enterosorption must have occurred at a site following the generation of the cyclic nucleotides. Cholera enterotoxin caused complex time-dependent changes in the mucosal cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels, as revealed by studying tissue cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate/cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate ratios. The possible roles these two cyclic nucleotides may play in the pathogenesis of the cholera diarrhea are discussed. PMID:164410

  3. Unidirectional growth and characterization of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindan, V.; Dhatchayani, S.; Sarala, N.; Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2016-05-01

    1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene single crystals has been grown by both conventional slow evaporation and Unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. Colourless, highly transparent crystal of size 20 mm × 10 mm × 3mm with well defined morphology was grown from slow evaporation solution method and <111>-oriented unidirectional bulk single crystal of size 23 mm length and 23 mm diameter was grown by the SR method. From the PXRD measurement the material has been crystallized in orthorhombic crystal system. The functional groups were assessed by the use of FTIR analysis. The optical parameter of the grown crystal was obtained from UV-visible spectral analysis and the cutoff wavelength was observed at 247 nm. Mechanical and thermal properties of the grown crystals were carried out from Vicker's hardness test method and TG-DSC analysis respectively. From the TG-DSC studies, the melting points were confirmed at 172°C and no decompose or dissociation was observed. The powder Kurtz method confirms that 1,3,5-Triphenylbenzene has second harmonic generation (SHG) and the SHG efficiency was found to be 0.7 times that of KDP.

  4. Nutrition effects on the biofilm immobilization and 3,5-DNBA degradation of Comamonas testosteroni A3 during bioaugmentation treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhongqin; Meng, Xiangxun; Xie, Liqun; Xu, Hongqing; Li, Mengying

    2015-01-01

    The survival of inoculated microbes is critical for successful bioaugmentation in wastewater treatment. The influence of readily available nutrients (RANs) on the colonization of two functional bacteria, Pseudomonas putida M9, a strong biofilm-forming strain, and Comamonas testosteroni A3, a 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (3,5-DNBA)-degrading strain, in biofilms was studied with 3,5-dinitrobenoic acid synthetic wastewater (DCMM) complemented with various ratios of Luria-Bertani broth (LB). With the increase in LB rate, the biofilm biomass was increased, the percentage of gfp-labeled M9 measured in the mixed culture enhanced, and also M9 became dominant. In laboratory-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors, with the increase in 3,5-DNBA concentration and extension of the running time, the 3,5-DNBA removal in DCMM wastewater complemented with RANs tended to be more efficient and its removal rates increased gradually over the experimental period. Our study demonstrated that supplementing RANs could be a useful strategy for enhancing colonization of degrading bacteria in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:25345550

  5. Isolation of three hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-degrading species of the family Enterobacteriaceae from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, C L; Cunningham, D P; Unkefer, P J

    1994-01-01

    Three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that biochemically reduced hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were isolated from nitramine explosive-contaminated soil. Two isolates, identified as Morganella morganii and Providencia rettgeri, completely transformed both RDX and the nitroso-RDX reduction intermediates. The third isolate, identified as Citrobacter freundii, partially transformed RDX and generated high concentrations of nitroso-RDX intermediates. All three isolates produced 14CO2 from labeled RDX under O2-depleted culture conditions. While all three isolates transformed HMX, only M. morganii transformed HMX in the presence of RDX. PMID:7811097

  6. Vibrational properties, phonon spectrum and related thermal parameters of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wen; Zhang, Weibin; Zong, Hehou; Gao, Guofang; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The vibrational spectrum, phonon dispersion curve, and phonon density of states (DOS) of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) crystal were obtained by molecular simulation and calculations. As results, it was found that the peaks at low frequency (0-2.5 THz) are comparable with the experimental Terahertz absorption and the molecular vibrational modes are in agreement with previous reports. Thermodynamic properties including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity as functions of temperature were obtained based on the calculated phonon spectrum. The heat capacity at normal temperature was calculated using linear fitting method, with a result consistent with experiments. Graphical Abstract Phonon spectrum and heat capacity of β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine from DFT calculation. PMID:26669878

  7. Rethinking the biological relationships of the thyroid hormones, l-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Maher, Stacey K; Wojnarowicz, Pola; Ichu, Taka-Aki; Veldhoen, Nik; Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary; Propper, Catherine R; Helbing, Caren C

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs), l-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for vertebrate growth and development. Classically, T4 is 5'-deiodinated to the active hormone, T3, in target tissues which then binds nuclear TH receptors (TRs) and regulates gene transcription. However, it is possible that T4 acts directly on target tissues. Frog metamorphosis is a powerful TR-dependent model for studying TH action. Premetamorphic Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles were injected with 0.1-50 T3 or 0.5-250T4pmol/gbodyweight to account for their 5-fold difference in biological activity and the mRNA profiles in six tissues from well-characterized TH-responsive genes were evaluated after 48h using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. 5'-deiodinase-poor tissues should produce superimposable dose-response curves if T4 does not require conversion to T3. This was the case in lung and tail fin; the latter tissue recapitulating these responses in organ culture. 5'-deiodinase-rich tissues should convert T4 to T3. Because T3 has a higher affinity to TRs, a 5-fold higher T4 dose compared to T3 should produce greater transcript induction. This was observed in the brain and for most intestinal transcripts. However, some gene transcripts in the intestine and all transcripts in the back skin produced superimposable response curves suggesting that a direct mode of T4 action is plausible in these tissues. While the liver showed results consistent with its 5'-deiodinase-poor status, we found evidence of an alternate, non-genomic mechanism for two gene transcripts. Therefore, mechanisms not requiring T4 conversion to T3 may play a far greater role than previously thought. PMID:27085304

  8. Role of Nitrogen Limitation in Transformation of RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine) by Gordonia sp. Strain KTR9

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dawn E.; Jung, Carina M.; Eberly, Jed O.; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  9. Role of nitrogen limitation in transformation of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) by Gordonia sp. strain KTR9.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Hancock, Dawn E; Jung, Carina M; Eberly, Jed O; Mohn, William W; Eltis, Lindsay D; Crocker, Fiona H

    2013-03-01

    The transcriptome of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)-degrading strain Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 and its glnR mutant were studied as a function of nitrogen availability to further investigate the observed ammonium-mediated inhibition of RDX degradation. The results indicate that nitrogen availability is a major determinant of RDX degradation and xplA gene expression in KTR9. PMID:23275513

  10. Heat transfer mapping in 3-5 μm planar light emitting structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.; Malyutenko, O. Yu.; Dazzi, A.; Gross, N.; Ortega, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    We report on the heat distribution inside a p+-InAsSb(Zn)/n-InAsSbP/n-InAs planar structure, emitting at 4.3 μm at 300 K. The experimental setup consists of both an infrared scanning microscope and a fiber tip as remote heat sensors (spatial resolution of some μm) operating in a time-resolved (10 μs temporal resolution) manner in the 3-5 μm spectral range. By comparing light and heat maps, we show that current crowding generates local hot regions (somewhat like heat traps) and remarkable temperature gradients (up to 3000 °C/cm) inside the emitting structure.

  11. Geophysical detection of relict metasomatism from an Archean (approximately 3.5 Ga) subduction zone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Rondenay, Stéphane; Evans, Rob L; Snyder, David B

    2009-11-20

    When plate tectonics started on Earth has been uncertain, and its role in the assembly of early continents is not well understood. By synthesizing coincident seismic and electrical profiles, we show that subduction processes formed the Archean Slave craton in Canada. The spatial overlap between a seismic discontinuity and a conductive anomaly at approximately 100 kilometers depth, in conjunction with the occurrence of mantle xenoliths rich in secondary minerals representative of a metasomatic front, supports cratonic assembly by subduction and accretion of lithospheric fragments. Although evidence of cratonic assembly is rarely preserved, these results suggest that plate tectonics was operating as early as Paleoarchean times, approximately 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). PMID:19965424

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations on 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Habibe; Tokay, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    In this study 1-substituted phenyl-3,5-diphenylformazans were synthesized from benzaldehyde-N-phenylhydrazone and appropriate phenyldiazonium salts having CH(3), Br, and Cl at the o-, m-, and p-positions of 1-phenyl ring. Their structures were determined by infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectra. Bathochromic effect in accordance with the electron-donating effect of CH(3), Br, and Cl group and its magnitude were dependent upon type and position of substituent on the ring. The ground-state geometries and absorption wavelengths for 1-phenyl substituted formazans were studied with density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory. The calculations were carried out by using PBE1PBE functional with 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set for lambda(max) of the UV-vis spectra for the studied formazans. A good agreement was obtained between the experimental and computed values. PMID:19910246

  13. Time Is Money...and the Enemy of College Completion: Transform American Higher Education to Boost Completion and Reduce Costs. Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Stan Jones' testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training. In his testimony, he talks about a new American majority of students that is emerging on campuses, especially at community colleges. These students must delicately balance long hours at jobs they must…

  14. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite Imagery Using Modtran 3.5 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Fabian O.; Velez-Reyes, Miguel

    1997-01-01

    When performing satellite remote sensing of the earth in the solar spectrum, atmospheric scattering and absorption effects provide the sensors corrupted information about the target's radiance characteristics. We are faced with the problem of reconstructing the signal that was reflected from the target, from the data sensed by the remote sensing instrument. This article presents a method for simulating radiance characteristic curves of satellite images using a MODTRAN 3.5 band model (BM) code to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE), and proposes a method for the implementation of an adaptive system for automated atmospheric corrections. The simulation procedure is carried out as follows: (1) for each satellite digital image a radiance characteristic curve is obtained by performing a digital number (DN) to radiance conversion, (2) using MODTRAN 3.5 a simulation of the images characteristic curves is generated, (3) the output of the code is processed to generate radiance characteristic curves for the simulated cases. The simulation algorithm was used to simulate Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for two types of locations: the ocean surface, and a forest surface. The simulation procedure was validated by computing the error between the empirical and simulated radiance curves. While results in the visible region of the spectrum where not very accurate, those for the infrared region of the spectrum were encouraging. This information can be used for correction of the atmospheric effects. For the simulation over ocean, the lowest error produced in this region was of the order of 105 and up to 14 times smaller than errors in the visible region. For the same spectral region on the forest case, the lowest error produced was of the order of 10-4, and up to 41 times smaller than errors in the visible region,

  15. Divided We Fail: Why It's Time for a Broader, More Inclusive Conversation on the Future of Higher Education. A Final Report on the 2013 National Issues Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    At state and institutional levels, leaders are discussing and enacting policy changes that could shape the future of higher education for decades-especially public higher education. But when citizens talk about the mission of higher education today, their conversations are different from those of policymakers. How do their values and concerns…

  16. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education: Leadership in Uncertain Times. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions (19th, New York, New York, March 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Joan A., Ed.; Johnson, Beth H., Ed.

    This proceedings document discusses academic leadership in uncertain times, the need for a cooperative model of collective bargaining to provide administration and faculty the flexibility required to respond to changing times, who should bargain for whom and for what, readiness of the next generation to lead, and retirement issues for college…

  17. Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome in Cardiac Illness Involves Elevated Concentrations of 3,5-Diiodothyronine and Correlates with Atrial Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Johannes W.; Müller, Patrick; Schiedat, Fabian; Schlömicher, Markus; Strauch, Justus; Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Klein, Harald H.; Mügge, Andreas; Köhrle, Josef; Rijntjes, Eddy; Lehmphul, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Background Although hyperthyroidism predisposes to atrial fibrillation, previous trials have suggested decreased triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations to be associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Therapy with thyroid hormones (TH), however, did not reduce the risk of POAF. This study reevaluates the relation between thyroid hormone status, atrial electromechanical function and POAF. Methods Thirty-nine patients with sinus rhythm and no history of atrial fibrillation or thyroid disease undergoing cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. Serum concentrations of thyrotropin, free (F) and total (T) thyroxine (T4) and T3, reverse (r)T3, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) and 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) were measured preoperatively, complemented by evaluation of echocardiographic and electrophysiological parameters of cardiac function. Holter-ECG and telemetry were used to screen for POAF for 10 days following cardiac surgery. Results Seven of 17 patients who developed POAF demonstrated nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS; defined as low T3 and/or low T4 syndrome), compared to 2 of 22 (p < 0.05) patients who maintained sinus rhythm. In patients with POAF, serum FT3 concentrations were significantly decreased, but still within their reference ranges. 3,5-T2 concentrations directly correlated with rT3 concentrations and inversely correlated with FT3 concentrations. Furthermore, 3,5-T2 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with NTIS and in subjects who eventually developed POAF. In multivariable logistic regression FT3, 3,5-T2, total atrial conduction time, left atrial volume index and Fas ligand were independent predictors of POAF. Conclusion This study confirms reduced FT3 concentrations in patients with POAF and is the first to report on elevated 3,5-T2 concentrations in cardiac NTIS. The pathogenesis of NTIS therefore seems to involve more differentiated allostatic mechanisms. PMID:26279999

  18. Identification and characterisation of CYP75A31, a new flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, isolated from Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the regulation of the flavonoid pathway is important for maximising the nutritional value of crop plants and possibly enhancing their resistance towards pathogens. The flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) enzyme functions at an important branch point between flavonol and anthocyanin synthesis, as is evident from studies in petunia (Petunia hybrida), and potato (Solanum tuberosum). The present work involves the identification and characterisation of a F3'5'H gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and the examination of its putative role in flavonoid metabolism. Results The cloned and sequenced tomato F3'5'H gene was named CYP75A31. The gene was inserted into the pYeDP60 expression vector and the corresponding protein produced in yeast for functional characterisation. Several putative substrates for F3'5'H were tested in vitro using enzyme assays on microsome preparations. The results showed that two hydroxylation steps occurred. Expression of the CYP75A31 gene was also tested in vivo, in various parts of the vegetative tomato plant, along with other key genes of the flavonoid pathway using real-time PCR. A clear response to nitrogen depletion was shown for CYP75A31 and all other genes tested. The content of rutin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside was found to increase as a response to nitrogen depletion in most parts of the plant, however the growth conditions used in this study did not lead to accumulation of anthocyanins. Conclusions CYP75A31 (NCBI accession number GQ904194), encodes a flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase, which accepts flavones, flavanones, dihydroflavonols and flavonols as substrates. The expression of the CYP75A31 gene was found to increase in response to nitrogen deprivation, in accordance with other genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, as expected for a gene involved in flavonoid metabolism. PMID:20128892

  19. Characterization of Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) with Municipal Anaerobic Sludge†

    PubMed Central

    Hawari, Jalal; Halasz, Annamaria; Sheremata, Tamara; Beaudet, Sylvie; Groom, Carl; Paquet, Louise; Rhofir, Chakib; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in liquid cultures with municipal anaerobic sludge showed that at least two degradation routes were involved in the disappearance of the cyclic nitramine. In one route, RDX was reduced to give the familiar nitroso derivatives hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX). In the second route, two novel metabolites, methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] and bis(hydroxymethyl)nitramine [(HOCH2)2NNO2], formed and were presumed to be ring cleavage products produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of the inner C—N bonds of RDX. None of the above metabolites accumulated in the system, and they disappeared to produce nitrous oxide (N2O) as a nitrogen-containing end product and formaldehyde (HCHO), methanol (MeOH), and formic acid (HCOOH) that in turn disappeared to produce CH4 and CO2 as carbon-containing end products. PMID:10831452

  20. Expression of Porcine Fusion Protein IRF7/3(5D) Efficiently Controls Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Carvajal, Lisbeth; Díaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Hickman, Danielle; Long, Charles R.; Zhu, James; Rodríguez, Luis L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type I, II, or III interferons (IFNs) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector expressing IFNs can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. In this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poIRF7/3(5D), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of IFN activity against FMD virus (FMDV). We showed that poIRF7/3(5D) is a potent inducer of type I IFNs, including alpha IFN (IFN-α), IFN-β, and IFN-ω but not type III IFN (interleukin-28B), without inducing cytotoxicity. Expression of poIRF7/3(5D) significantly and steadily reduced FMDV titers by up to 6 log10 units in swine and bovine cell lines. Treatment with an IFN receptor inhibitor (B18R) combined with an anti-IFN-α antibody neutralized the antiviral activity in the supernatants of cells transduced with an Ad5 vector expressing poIRF7/3(5D) [Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D)]. However, several transcripts with known antiviral function, including type I IFNs, were still highly upregulated (range of increase, 8-fold to over 500-fold) by poIRF7/3(5D) in the presence of B18R. Furthermore, the sera of mice treated with Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) showed antiviral activity that was associated with the induction of high levels of IFN-α and resulted in complete protection against FMDV challenge at 6, 24, or 48 h posttreatment. This study highlights for the first time the antiviral potential of Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) in vitro and in vivo against FMDV. IMPORTANCE FMD remains one of the most devastating diseases that affect livestock worldwide. Effective vaccine formulations are available but are serotype specific and require approximately 7 days before they are able to elicit protective immunity. We have shown that vector-delivered IFN is an option to protect animals against many FMDV serotypes as soon as 24 h

  1. Identification of adducts formed by reaction of N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liang; Sun, Hsiao-Lan; Wishnok, John S.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Skipper, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic amines constitute one of the most extensively studied classes of chemical carcinogens. Although monocyclic aromatic amines are generally regarded as weak carcinogens, a recent epidemiologic study of bladder cancer found that the arylamine 3,5-dimethylaniline (3,5-DMA) may play a significant role in the etiology of this disease in man. Investigations using experimental animals also strongly suggested that DNA adducts—of indeterminate structure—formed by 3,5-DMA might account for its presumptive activity. The present study was undertaken to determine the structures of the major DNA adducts formed in vitro by the known, and possibly carcinogenic, N-hydroxylated metabolite. Calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was modified by reaction with N-acetoxy-3,5-dimethylaniline (N-AcO-3,5-DMA). After enzymatic hydrolysis of DNA to individual 2'-deoxyribonucleosides, adduct profiles were determined using HPLC/MS. 3,5-DMA formed four major DNA adducts, one to 2’-deoxyguanosine (dG), two to 2’-deoxyadenosine (dA), and one to 2’-deoxycytidine (dC). Reactions of N-AcO-3,5-DMA with dG, dA, and dC produced the same adducts as reaction with ct-DNA with very similar profiles. Adducts were isolated chromatographically and unambiguously characterized as N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dG-C8−3,5-DMA), 4-(deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-N6-3,5-DMA), N-(deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dA-C8−3,5-DMA), and N-(deoxycytidin-5-yl)-3,5-dimethylaniline (dC-C5−3,5-DMA) by high-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) and NMR spectroscopy including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and two-dimensional NMR. This report includes the first detailed description of a dC adduct of an aromatic amine. The present results provide chemical support for a carcinogenic mechanism of action by 3,5-DMA based on N-hydroxylation and the intermediacy of a nitrenium ion in the formation of DNA adducts. PMID:18020398

  2. Optical spectroscopy of europium 3,5-dinitrosalicylates-Intense red luminophores.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, K; Tsaryuk, V; Kudryashova, V; Zolin, V; Yakovlev, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2009-06-01

    It was found, that alkali metal-europium dinitrosalicylates of composition M(3)Eu(3,5-NO(2)-Sal)(3).nH(2)O (M=Li, Na, K, Cs) are intense red luminophores with wide excitation band. Using methods of optical spectroscopy we studied the influence of nitrogroups and alkali metal counterions on Eu(3+) luminescence efficiency and on processes of excitation energy transfer to Eu(3+) ion in compounds synthesized. The Eu(3+) luminescence and Eu(3+) luminescence excitation spectra, as well as vibrational IR and Raman spectra were investigated. Details of the structure of compounds were discussed. The network of hydrogen bonds in lanthanide dinitrosalicylates is weakening at introduction of large alkali metal ions in compounds and at the increase of the temperature. As a consequence, the long-wavelength shift of the intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) band in Eu(3+) excitation spectra arises at inclusion of Cs(+) cations instead of Li(+) in the crystal lattice of europium dinitrosalicylates and at heating of these compounds. To obtain the energy of the lowest excited triplet state the phosphorescence spectra of alkali metal-gadolinium compounds M(3)Gd(3,5-NO(2)-Sal)(3).nH(2)O, of alkali metal dinitrosalicylate and salicylate salts were measured with time delay. Change of the energies of ligand electronic states and ligand-metal charge transfer state (LM CTS) can give a two-three orders of magnitude enhancement of the Eu(3+) luminescence efficiency in dinitrosalicylates in comparison with salicylates and ten-fold enhancement at the substitution of Li(+) and Na(+) for Cs(+) in dinitrosalicylates. PMID:19186098

  3. Polypropylene compositional evolution under 3.5 MeV He+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Montgomery, P.

    2012-05-01

    A helium beam at 3.5 MeV was used to induce damage in thin polypropylene film of 5.1 μm in thickness. The fluence ranges from 2 × 1012 to 3.5 × 1015 cm-2. The evolution of the atomic composition (C and H) as a function of the fluence was investigated in situ by forward elastic scattering (C(α, α)C) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (H(α, H)α), respectively. The helium beam was used at the same time for irradiation and analysis. In respect to the high sensitivity of the polypropylene to radiation damage, the beam current was kept at very low intensity of 0.5 nA. The mass loss becomes significant above a fluence of ˜5 × 1013 He+ cm-2. The carbon depletion levels off at a fluence of ˜5 × 1014 He+ cm-2 approximately while hydrogen loss continues to be present along the whole of the studied fluence range. The final carbon and hydrogen losses, at the highest fluence, are around 17% and 48% of their initial contents, respectively. Satisfactory fits to the release curves have been obtained in the framework of the bulk molecular recombination model (BMR). The deduced hydrogen and carbon release cross sections are 7.8 and 65.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. A comparison with our previous measurements of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film irradiated with 3.7 MeV He+ beam is made.

  4. Biodegradation of the Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine Ring Cleavage Product 4-Nitro-2,4-Diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-01-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 μmol kg−1), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 μmol kg−1), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 μmol kg−1), and traces of NDAB (3.8 μmol kg−1). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 ± 22 μmol kg−1) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  5. Biodegradation of the hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine ring cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Spanggord, Ronald J; Bottaro, Jeffrey C; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-02-01

    Initial denitration of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 produces CO2 and the dead-end product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), OHCNHCH2NHNO2, in high yield. Here we describe experiments to determine the biodegradability of NDAB in liquid culture and soils containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium. A soil sample taken from an ammunition plant contained RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; 3,057 micromol kg(-1)), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine; 155 micromol kg(-1)), and traces of NDAB (3.8 micromol kg(-1)). The detection of the last in real soil provided the first experimental evidence for the occurrence of natural attenuation that involved ring cleavage of RDX. When we incubated the soil with strain DN22, both RDX and MNX (but not HMX) degraded and produced NDAB (388 +/- 22 micromol kg(-1)) in 5 days. Subsequent incubation of the soil with the fungus led to the removal of NDAB, with the liberation of nitrous oxide (N2O). In cultures with the fungus alone NDAB degraded to give a stoichiometric amount of N2O. To determine C stoichiometry, we first generated [14C]NDAB in situ by incubating [14C]RDX with strain DN22, followed by incubation with the fungus. The production of 14CO2 increased from 30 (DN22 only) to 76% (fungus). Experiments with pure enzymes revealed that manganese-dependent peroxidase rather than lignin peroxidase was responsible for NDAB degradation. The detection of NDAB in contaminated soil and its effective mineralization by the fungus P. chrysosporium may constitute the basis for the development of bioremediation technologies. PMID:14766596

  6. Stride time variability as a marker for higher level of gait control in multiple sclerosis: its association with fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Allali, Gilles; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stéphane; Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Assal, Frédéric; Lalive, Patrice H

    2016-06-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) and gait disorders represent both prevalent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, the association between FOF and higher level of gait control (HLGC) has not been studied in MS. This study aims to assess the association between FOF and HLGC in patients with MS. HLGC was assessed by stride time variability (STV) during single and dual-tasks (forward counting, backward counting, categorical verbal fluency and literal verbal fluency) and FOF was quantified by the falls efficacy scale-international (FES-I). Seventy-one patients (age: 39.27 ± 9.77 years; 63 % female) were included in this cross-sectional study (Expanded Disability Status Scale (median): 2.00) with a low prevalence of FOF (FES-I: 21.52 ± 8.37). The mean gait speed was 1.19 ± 0.23 m/s with a STV of 2.35 ± 1.68 % during single walking task. STV during single task and the dual tasks of forward counting and backward counting were associated with the FES-I in the univariable linear regression models (p ≤ 0.001), but only STV while backward counting (β: 0.42, [0.18;0.66]) was associated with FOF in the multivariable model (adjusted for age, gender, previous fall, Expanded Disability Status Scale and gait speed). These findings indicate that FOF is associated with STV while backward counting, a marker of HLGC in relationship with working memory in a MS population including a majority of low disabled patients. PMID:27106906

  7. Nanoscale characterization of 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders and their application into nanowelding at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Junwei; Lan, Qianqian; Ma, Hongbin; Qu, Ke; Inkson, Beverley J.; Mellors, Nigel J.; Xue, Desheng; Peng, Yong

    2014-10-01

    One-dimensional Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have been successfully fabricated by a dc electrodeposition technique into nanoporous templates, and their soldering quality has been demonstrated in nanoscale electrical welding for the first time, which indicates that they can easily form remarkably reliable conductive joints. The electrical measurement shows that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag nanosolders have a resistivity of 28.9 μΩ·cm. The morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of these nanosolders have been characterized at the nanoscale. It is found that individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders have a continuous morphology and smooth surface. XPS confirms the presence of tin and silver with a mass ratio of 96.54:3.46, and EDX elemental mappings clearly reveal that the Sn and Ag elements have a uniform distribution. Coveragent beam electron diffractions verify that the crystal phases of individual 1D Sn-3.5Ag alloy nanosolders consist of matrix β-Sn and the intermetallic compound Ag3Sn. The reflow experiments reveal that the eutectic composition of the 1D Sn-Ag alloy nanowire is shifted to the Sn rich corner. This work may contribute one of the most important tin-based alloy nanosolders for future nanoscale welding techniques, which are believed to have broad applications in nanotechnology and the future nano-industry.

  8. [Adsorption of p-nitrophenol by nanosized titanium dioxide surface modified with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feng-ying; Qian, Sha-hua; Li, Shun-xing; Chen, Zhi-yu

    2006-06-01

    Nanometer size titanium dioxide modified with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (3,5-DA) was prepared using chemical adsorption method. The influences of surface modification on the adsorption of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and the dispersion in solvent such as water, benzene and ethanol were studied. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid is bonded to the surface hydroxyl from TiO2 nanoparticles, results in the formation of a stable, six-ring complex which color is buff. The 3, 5-DA-modified TiO2 nanoparticles have good dispersive capacity in water, benzene and ethanol. Under the optimum conditions such as pH value 3, adsorption time 10 min, the adsorption ratio of PNP by TiO2 is improved from 43% to 99.9% through surface modification. A new method could be used to remove directly 3 approximately 10mg/L PNP, and the residual concentrations is below the integrated wastewater discharge standard (GB 8978-1996). PMID:16921950

  9. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  10. From Lean Times to Enrollment Declines: The Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmayer, Patricia

    Conditions in higher education in Michigan and the role of the Governor's Commission on the Future of Higher Education in Michigan are highlighted. The average college tuition rate in Michigan is the highest in the nation, and a critical maintenance and equipment problem exists. The Commission is composed of knowledgeable persons without vested…

  11. Down-Regulation of Porcine Heart Diaphorase Reactivity by Trimanganese Hexakis(3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate), Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)6, and Down-Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase Reactivity by Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) and Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4).

    PubMed

    Booth, B L; Pitters, E; Mayer, B; Sorenson, J R

    1999-01-01

    Purposes of this work were to examine the plausible down-regulation of porcine heart diaphorase (PHD) enzyme reactivity and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme reactivity by trimanganese hexakis(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate), [Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)] as well as dicopper tetrakis(3,5- diisopropylsalicylate, [Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4)] as a mechanistic accounting for their pharmacological activities.Porcine heart disease was found to oxidize 114 muM reduced nicotinamide-adenine- dinucleotide-'(3)-phosphate (NADPH) with a corresponding reduction of an equivalent concentration of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP). As reported for Cu(II)(2) (3,5-DIPS)(4), addition of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) to this reaction mixture decreased the reduction of DCPIP without significantly affecting the oxidation of NADPH. The concentration of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) that produced a 50% decrease in DCPIP reduction (IC(50)) was found to be 5muM. Mechanistically, this inhibition of DCPIP reduction with ongoing NADPH oxidation by PHD was found to be due to the ability of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) to serve as a catalytic electron acceptor for reduced PHD as had been reported for Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4). This catalytic decrease in reduction of DCPIP by Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) was enhanced by the presence of a large concentration of DCPIP and decreased by the presence of a large concentration of NADPH, consistent with what had been observed for the activity of Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4)Oxidation of NADPH by PHD in the presence of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) and the absence of DCPIP was linearly related to the concentration of added Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) through the concentration range of 2.4 muM to 38muM with a 50% recovery of NADPH oxidation by PHD at a concentration of 6 muM Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6)Conversion of [(3)H] L-Arginine to [(3)H] L-Citrulline by purified rat brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was decreased in a concentrated related fashion with the addition of Mn(3)(3,5-DIPS)(6) as well as Cu(II)(2)(3,5-DIPS)(4) which is an extention of

  12. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26949227

  13. Energetic Salts Based on 3,5-Bis(dinitromethyl)-1,2,4-triazole Monoanion and Dianion: Controllable Preparation, Characterization, and High Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Dharavath, Srinivas; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-06-22

    Molecular modification of known explosives is considered to be an efficient route to design new energetic materials. A new family of energetic salts based on the 3,5-bis(dinitromethyl)-1,2,4-triazole monoanion and dianion were controllably synthesized by using 1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene as a precursor. X-ray structure determination of monohydrazinium 3,5-bis(dinitromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolate (5) and monoammonium (6) and diammonium 3,5-bis(dinitromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolate hydrate (8·H2O) further confirmed the structures of these anions. In addition, as supported by X-ray data, in the monoanion system, the roving proton on the ring nitrogen rather than on the gem-dinitro carbon results in extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions and higher packing coefficients. Interestingly, 5 and 6 possess the highest calculated crystal densities, 1.965 and 1.957 g cm(-3) at 150 K, for hydrazinium and ammonium energetic salts, respectively. Energetic evaluation indicates that 5 (detonation velocity vD = 9086 m s(-1); detonation pressure P = 38.7 GPa) and 6 (vD, 9271 m s(-1); P = 41.0 GPa) exhibit great detonation properties, superior to those of current highly explosive benchmarks, such as 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). PMID:27267735

  14. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  15. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  16. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Evaluation and Research, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, and the Center for Drug Evaluation... for Drug Evaluation and Research and the Center for Devices and Radiological Health;” “Intercenter... component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT......

  17. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  18. 21 CFR 3.5 - Procedures for identifying the designated agency component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for identifying the designated agency component. 3.5 Section 3.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PRODUCT JURISDICTION Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket...

  19. Method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5- dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Nawata, K.; Hiratsuka, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of refining 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol is described which is characterized by recrystallization of 2,2-isopropylidenebis-3,5-dibromophenylene-4-oxydiethanol using one or more aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene or pseudocumene.

  20. IMMUNOASSAY METHODS FOR MEASURING ATRAZINE AND 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL IN FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods for the analysis of two potential environmental contaminants in food sample media, atrazine and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP). Two different immunoassay formats are employed: a magnetic...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  2. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  3. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  4. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10158 - 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (organic vapor, acid gas, or substance-specific). (ii) Hazard communication program. Requirements as... Substances § 721.10158 2-Pentanone, 3,5-dichloro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-pentanone, 3,5-dichloro- (PMN P-06-16; CAS No....

  6. Novel H2 activation by a tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borane frustrated Lewis pair.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Thomas J; Thom, Alex J W; White, Andrew J P; Ashley, Andrew E

    2012-08-14

    Tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borane (1, BArF(18)), has been synthesised on a practical scale for the first time. According to the Gutmann-Beckett method it is a more powerful Lewis acid than B(C(6)F(5))(3). It forms a 'frustrated Lewis pair' with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine which cleaves H(2) to form a salt containing the novel anion [μ-H(BArF(18))(2)](-). PMID:22532230

  7. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  11. Untemplated nonenzymatic polymerization of 3',5'cGMP: a plausible route to 3',5'-linked oligonucleotides in primordia.

    PubMed

    Šponer, Judit E; Šponer, Jiří; Giorgi, Alessandra; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna

    2015-02-19

    The high-energy 3',5' phosphodiester linkages conserved in 3',5' cyclic GMPs offer a genuine solution for monomer activation required by the transphosphorylation reactions that could lead to the emergence of the first simple oligonucleotide sequences on the early Earth. In this work we provide an in-depth characterization of the effect of the reaction conditions on the yield of the polymerization reaction of 3',5' cyclic GMPs both in aqueous environment as well as under dehydrating conditions. We show that the threshold temperature of the polymerization is about 30 °C lower under dehydrating conditions than in solution. In addition, we present a plausible exergonic reaction pathway for the polymerization reaction, which involves transient formation of anionic centers at the O3' positions of the participating riboses. We suggest that excess Na(+) cations inhibit the polymerization reaction because they block the anionic mechanism via neutralizing the negatively charged O3'. Our experimental findings are compatible with a prebiotic scenario, where gradual desiccation of the environment could induce polymerization of 3',5' cyclic GMPs synthesized in liquid. PMID:25625780

  12. Hypocrellin B graft on activated carbon and photocatalytic oxidation of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Jucheng; Min, Yong; Yi, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Canbang; Wu, Mingzhu; Chen, Rui

    2008-12-01

    Hypocrellin B, a photosensitizer isolated from Hypocrella Bambuase sacc in Yunnan province, has significant anti-tumor and anti-virus character. In this article, hypocrellin B, which was grafted on activated carbon, was used as photocatalysts to catalytic oxidize 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone because of its high photons efficiency. This study realized nearly 100% selectivity for 2,3,5-trimethylhydrobenzoquinone under visible light irradiation (>400nm) at aerobic atmosphere. The photocatalytic oxidation process has been studied by different parameters like the pretreatment of activated carbon, synthetic mehtod of grafted hypocrellin, and photo-assisted oxidation catalysis of 2,3,5-trimethylphenol to 2,3,5-trimethylhdrobenzoquinone. Compared to the conventional methods, this process could be more eco-friendly.

  13. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. PMID:7948694

  14. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  15. Study of Li 2TiO 3 + 5 mol% TiO 2 lithium ceramics after long-term neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhray, Y.; Shestakov, V.; Maksimkin, O.; Turubarova, L.; Osipov, I.; Kulsartov, T.; Kuykabayeba, A.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Kawamura, H.; Tsuchiya, K.

    2009-04-01

    Given work presents the results of complex material-science studies of 1 mm diameter ceramic pebbles manufactured of Li 2TiO 3 + 5 mol% TiO 2 ceramics before and after long-time neutron irradiation. Ceramic samples were placed in specially ampoules (six items) made of stainless steel Cr18Ni10Ti which were vacuumized and filled with helium. Irradiation of ampoules was carried out in the loop channel of WWRK reactor (Almaty, Kazakhstan) during 223 days at 6 MW power. After irradiation light-colored pebbles became grey-colored due to structure changes which generation of grey-colored inclusions (lithium oxide) with low density and microhardness. There is a radiation softening of lithium ceramic and that effect is higher for lower irradiation temperature 760 K than for 920 K. The value of maximum permissible load (pebble crash limit) at that is low and comprises ˜37.9 N. The content of residual tritium is higher for ceramic irradiated at 760 K (6.6 ± 0.6 × 10 11 Bq/kg) than for ceramic irradiated at 920 K (17 ± 3 × 10 10 Bq/kg). The size change indicates that pebble increase more after irradiation at 760 K than at 920 K where the bigger portion of tritium leaves the pebble. X-ray analysis shows radiation modification of Li 2TiO 3 + 5 mol% TiO 2 phase composition and generation of new phases: LiTi 2O 4, LiTiO 2 and Li 4Ti 5O 12.

  16. sym-Trisubstituted 1,3,5-Triazine Derivatives as Promising Organic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Acidic Solution.

    PubMed

    El-Faham, Ayman; Dahlous, Kholood A; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Mahdy, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Triazine derivatives, namely, 2,4,6-tris(quinolin-8-yloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (T3Q), N²,N⁴,N⁶-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (T3AMPy) and 2,2',2''-[(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(azanediyl)] tris(ethan-1-ol) (T3EA) were synthesized and their inhibition of steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The corrosion protection of the prepared compounds increased with increasing concentration and reached up to 98% at 250 ppm. The adsorption of T3Q, T3AMPy, and T3EA on the steel surface was in accordance with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The electrochemical results revealed that T3Q, T3AMPy and T3EA act as excellent organic inhibitors and can labeled as mixed type inhibitors. The efficiencies of the tested compounds were affected by the nature of the side chain present in the triazine ring, where T3EA gave the least inhibition while T3Q and T3AMPy gave higher and almost the same inhibition effects. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the different electrochemical techniques were in good agreement. PMID:27043517

  17. The X-Ray Line Feature at 3.5 KeV in Galaxy Cluster Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Sylwester, B.; Sylwester, J.

    2015-08-01

    Recent work by Bulbul et al. and Boyarsky et al. has suggested that a line feature at ∼3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and individual galaxies seen with XMM-Newton is due to the decay of sterile neutrinos, a dark matter candidate. This identification has been criticized by Jeltema & Profumo on the grounds that model spectra suggest that atomic transitions in helium-like potassium (K xviii) and chlorine (Cl xvi) are more likely to be the emitters. Here it is pointed out that the K xviii lines have been observed in numerous solar flare spectra at high spectral resolution with the RESIK crystal spectrometer and also appear in Chandra HETG spectra of the coronally active star σ Gem. In addition, the solar flare spectra at least indicate a mean coronal potassium abundance, which is a factor between 9 and 11 higher than the solar photospheric abundance. This fact, together with the low statistical quality of the XMM-Newton spectra, completely account for the ∼3.5 keV feature and there is therefore no need to invoke a sterile neutrino interpretation of the observed line feature at ∼3.5 keV.

  18. SUZUKI-MIYAURA COUPLING REACTIONS OF 3,5-DICHLORO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOLE

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Boykin, David W.

    2014-01-01

    3,5-Dichloro-1,2,4-thiadiazole was allowed to react with different arylboronic acids under different Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions: at room temperature 5-aryl-3-chloro-1,2,4-thiadiazoles were obtained and at toluene reflux temperature the products were 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles. Sequential coupling reactions lead to 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles with non-identical aryl groups. The structure of 3-methoxy-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole was established from X-ray crystallographic data. PMID:24644388

  19. Evolution of Mediterranean sea surface temperatures 3.5-1.5 Ma: Regional and hemispheric influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Ng, Gideon; Cleaveland Peterson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We present a composite time series of Mediterranean sea surface temperature (SST) and marine biomarker accumulation for the time span from 3.5 to 1.525 Ma, based on alkenone unsaturation and concentration from hemipelagic sediments outcropping in southern Italy and Sicily. Paleotemperature data define three regimes: a late Pliocene climate on average 4- 5 °C warmer than modern, a latest Pliocene to early Pleistocene onset of 41 kyr cycles, and a major increase in the range of glacial-interglacial temperature change at ∼ 1.84 Ma that shortly precedes the former definition of the Plio-Pleistocene boundary in the Crotone sequence. Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) cycles are dominated by precession, with a ∼ 1.5 °C range. Obliquity-related rhythms influence SST significantly shortly after ∼ 2.8 Ma (equivalent to MIS G10) and dominate after ∼ 2.51 Ma (equivalent to MIS 100). However, little, if any, long-term cooling occurred on an interglacial basis until after ∼ 1.85 Ma. Alkenone concentrations provide a good proxy for the accumulation of marine organic matter, and primarily reflect regional hydrology. Organic sedimentation, including the formation of layers highly enriched in organic matter ("sapropels") was paced throughout by precessional variations despite changes in both average regional temperature, and the shift in temperature variance to the 41 kyr obliquity cycle in the latest Pliocene and early Pleistocene. Our reconstruction therefore highlights the intermingling of both hemispheric-wide changes in temperature and regional variations in the hydrological cycle that combined to force major evolutionary changes in the fauna and flora of northern Africa and the southern Mediterranean in late Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene time.

  20. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  1. Synthesis, structure, and one- and two-photon absorption properties of N-substituted 3,5-bisarylidenepropenpiperidin-4-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonova, Evgeniya S.; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Fonari, Alexandr; Lucero, Rachael; Perry, Joseph W.; Sammeth, David M.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2013-04-01

    A series of 3,5-bisarylidenepropenpiperidin-4-one compounds with a D-π-A-π-D structure, containing donors (R1 = NEt2, NMe2) and terminal groups at the central nitrogen ring atom (R2 = H, Me, Et, P(O)(OEt)2) was synthesized with the goal of improving one- and two-photon absorption properties of the earlier designed compounds, which potential activity as photosensitizers was demonstrated with appeal of biological and spectroscopic data. Several of the compounds studied have a two photon absorption cross section approximately six times larger than previously measured for 3,5-bisarylidenemethylenpiperidin-4-ones with short alkene chains. Spectral data are discussed in connection with structural characteristics of studied materials.

  2. Novel reaction of N,N'-bisarylmethanediamines with formaldehyde. Synthesis of some new 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazines.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Salimi, Farshid; Olyaei, Abolfazl

    2006-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation of N,N'-bisaryl (aryl = 2-pyrimidinyl, 2-pyrazinyl and 4-nitrophenyl) methanediamines 5a-c with aqueous formaldehyde in refluxing acetonitrile leads to the formation of the corresponding 1,3,5-triaryl-1,3,5-hexa-hydrotriazines 6a-c. The stoichiometric reactions of 2-aminopyrimidine and 2-amino-pyrazine with aqueous formaldehyde in acetonitrile under reflux conditions also afforded 6a and 6b, respectively. Treatment of 2-aminopyrimidine with aqueous formaldehyde in a 3:2 ratio yielded N,N',N"-tris(2-pyrimidinyl)dimethylenetriamine (7a) as a sole product, which upon subsequent reaction with formaldehyde also afforded 6a. The reaction of N,N'-biphenylmethanediamine with formaldehyde was also investigated. PMID:17971727

  3. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  4. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoic acid-capped upconverting nanocrystals for the selective detection of melamine.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Chanchal; Adusumalli, Venkata N K B; Mahalingam, Venkataramanan

    2014-05-28

    In this Research Article, we report for the first time the use of upconverting nanoparticles to detect melamine up to nanomolar concentration. Detection of melamine is important as it is one of the adulterant in protein rich food products due to its high nitrogen content. In this work, we have shown how the electron deficient 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (DNB)-coated Er/Yb-NaYF4 nanocrystals can specifically bind to electron rich melamine and alter the upconverting property of the nanocrystals. This selective binding led to the quenching of the upconversion emission from the nanocrystals. The high selectivity is verified by the addition of various analytes similar in structure with that of melamine. In addition, the selective quenching of the upconversion emission is reversible with the addition of dilute acid. This process has been repeated for more than five cycles with only a slight decrease in the sensing ability. The study was also extended to real milk samples, where the milk adulterated with melamine quenches the emission intensity of the DNB coated NaYF4:Er/Yb nanocrystals, whereas hardly any change is noted for the unadulterated milk sample. The high robustness and the sharp emission peaks make Er(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals a potential melamine sensing material over other organic fluorophores and nanocrystals possessing broad emissions. PMID:24742261

  5. Control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels by depolarizing agents in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Trevillyan, J M; Pall, M L

    1979-01-01

    It has been reported that diverse treatments which depolarize the plasma membrane of Neurospora crassa produce rapid increases in cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels. In the current study, membrane active antibiotics, which are known or putative depolarizing agents, were found to produce similar cyclic AMP increases, not only in N. crassa, but also in the distantly related fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mucor racemosus. Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, which have been found to depolarize Neurospora, also produced cyclic AMP increases in all three fungi. The time course of the cyclic AMP response to these various treatments was similar in all three fungi. The fungal studies and studies on depolarized central nervous tissue suggest that cyclic AMP increases may be produced in response to plasma membrane depolarization in diverse eucaryotic cells. A model is proposed for eucaryotic microorganisms in which membrane depolarization serves as a signal of breakdown of the plasma membrane integrity. The subsequent cyclic AMP increase, in turn, may mediate cellular response to help protect the plasma membrane from chemical and mechanical threats to its integrity. PMID:220213

  6. Oligoribonucleotides containing 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages exhibit binding selectivity for 3',5'-RNA over 3',5'-ssDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Giannaris, P A; Damha, M J

    1993-01-01

    Oligoribonucleotides containing 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages have been synthesized on a solid support by the 'silyl-phosphoramidite' method. The stability of complexes formed between these oligonucleotides and complementary 3',5'-RNA strands have been studied using oligoadenylates and a variety of oligonucleotides of mixed base sequences including phosphorothioate backbones. In many cases, particularly for 2',5'-linked adenylates, the UV melting profiles are quite sharp and exhibit large hyperchromic changes. Substituting a few 3',5'-linkages with the 2',5'-linkage within an oligomer lowers the Tm of the complex and the degree of destabilization depends on the neighboring residues and neighboring linkages. The 2',5'-linked oligoribonucleotides prepared in this study exhibited remarkable selectivity for complementary single stranded RNA over DNA. For example, in 0.01 M phosphate buffer--0.10 M NaCl (pH 7.0), no association was observed between 2',5'-r(CCC UCU CCC UUC U) and its Watson-Crick DNA complement 3',5'-d(AGAAGGGAGAGGG). However, 2',5'-r(CCC UCU CCC UUC U) with its RNA complement 3',5'-r(AGAAGGGAGAGGG) forms a duplex which melts at 40 degrees C. The decamer 2',5'-r(Ap)9A forms a complex with both poly dT and poly rU but the complex [2',5'-r(Ap)9A]:[poly dT] is unstable (Tm, -1 degree C) and is seen only at high salt concentrations. In view of their unnatural character and remarkable selectivity for single stranded RNA, 2',5'-oligo-RNAs and their derivatives may find use as selective inhibitors of viral mRNA translation, and as affinity ligands for the purification of cellular RNA. Images PMID:7694233

  7. Understanding the Changing Faculty Workforce in Higher Education: A Comparison of Full-Time Non-Tenure Track and Tenure Line Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly; Cisneros, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Non-tenure track faculty are a growing majority in American higher education, but research examining their work lives is limited. Moreover, the theoretical frameworks commonly used by scholars have been critiqued for reliance on ideologically charged assumptions. Using a conceptual model developed from Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job…

  8. Technology, Time and Transition in Higher Education--Two Different Realities of Everyday "Facebook" Use in the First Year of University in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Within the range of websites and apps that are part of first-year undergraduates' digital environments, the social network site "Facebook" is perhaps the most popular and prominent. As such, the ubiquitous nature of "Facebook" in the higher education landscape has drawn much attention from scholars. Drawing on data from a…

  9. Providing Higher Education in Post-Modern Times: What Do University Mission Statements Tell Us about What They Believe and Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jennifer; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are critical to the delivery of education for all in any nation state. What they believe and what they do are critical components to creating societal impact. But what they believe and do is not always clear. Using a derivative of SWIFT (Structured Word Identification and Frequency Totals), the authors examined…

  10. Assessing the Impact of a Statewide STEM Investment on K-12, Higher Education, and Business/Community STEM Awareness over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.; Walten, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite monetary and educational investments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) being at record high levels, little attention has been devoted to generating a common understanding of STEM. In addition, working with business, K-12 schools, and/or institutions of higher education to establish a grassroots effort to help…

  11. Photochemical carbonylation of adamantanes; simple synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitroadamantane

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Li, J.; Gelber, N.

    1995-12-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetranitroadamantane (2) was obtained from the irradiation of a mixture of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (1) and oxalylchloride followed by conversion of chlorocarbonyl functions to nitro groups using the method of Eaton et. al.

  12. Progreso con el "Telescopio de Nueva Tecnologia" de 3.5 m (NTT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Desde septiembre de 1980 cuando el primer artlculo sobre el Telescopio ESO de Nueva Tecnologla de 3.5 m fue publicado en "EI Mensajero", el diserio para este instrumento ha hecho progresos satisfactorios.

  13. 3,5-T2 is an alternative ligand for the thyroid hormone receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Navarrete-Ramírez, P; Hernández-Puga, G; Villalobos, P; Holzer, G; Renaud, J P; Laudet, V; Orozco, A

    2013-08-01

    Several liganded nuclear receptors have alternative ligands acting in a tissue-specific fashion and playing important biological roles. We present evidence that 3,5-diiodothyronine (T(2)), a naturally occurring iodothyronine that results from T(3) outer-ring deiodination, is an alternative ligand for thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ1). In tilapia, 2 TRβ isoforms differing by 9 amino acids in the ligand-binding domain were cloned. Binding and transactivation studies showed that T(2) activates the human and the long tilapia TRβ1 isoform, but not the short one. A chimeric human TRβ1 (hTRβ1) that contained the 9-amino-acid insert showed no response to T(2), suggesting that the conformation of the hTRβ1 naturally allows T(2) binding and that other regions of the receptor are implicated in TR activation by T(2). Indeed, further analysis showed that the N terminus is essential for T(2)-mediated transactivation but not for that by T(3) in the long and hTRβ1, suggesting a functional interaction between the N-terminal domain and the insertion in the ligand-binding domain. To establish the functional relevance of T(2)-mediated TRβ1 binding and activation, mRNA expression and its regulation by T(2) and T(3) was evaluated for both isoforms. Our data show that long TRβ1expression is 10(6)-fold higher than that of the short isoform, and T(3) and T(2) differentially regulate the expression of these 2 TRβ1 isoforms in vivo. Taken together, our results prompted a reevaluation of the role and mechanism of action of thyroid hormone metabolites previously believed to be inactive. More generally, we propose that classical liganded receptors are only partially locked to very specific ligands and that alternative ligands may play a role in the tissue-specific action of receptors. PMID:23736295

  14. Adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in Thermomonospora curvata during cellulase biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Neubauer, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1983-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose requires the synergistic activity of at least three enzymes: exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.91), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.4), and beta-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21). Despite extensive studies on a variety of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the mechanism(s) regulating the biosynthesis of this inducible catabolic enzyme complex remains unknown. The intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) have been shown to play a major role in mediating catabolite repression of enzyme biosynthesis. The cAMP acts through a cAMP receptor protein (termed CRP or CAP) which is a dimer having two identical subunits each capable of binding one molecule of cAMP. The N-terminal domain of the CRP binds the cAMP while the C-terminal domain binds to DNA at the promotor region of a cAMP-dependent operon and stimulates transcription by promoting the formation of a preinitiation complex between RNA polymerase and the DNA. Intracellular cAMP levels in E. coli (the prototype organism for such studies) are influenced by the type and availability of carbon source used for growth. High intracellular cAMP levels should lead to higher concentrations of cAMP-CRP complexes which should increase the transcription rates for cAMP-dependent operons (such as the lac operon of beta-galactosidase) and indeed the differential rate of beta-galactosidase biosynthesis correlates to intracellular cAMP levels. In the case of cellulase, catabolite repression by glucose or other readily metabolizable compounds closely controls production in an apparently similar manner and therefore a correlation may exist between enzyme biosynthesis and intracellular cAMP levels. This communication describes the fluctuation in cAMP levels during cellulase induction and repression in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata.

  15. Higher Education in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report presents information about higher education in Arkansas. Arkansas is 49th in the United States in the number of citizens over the age of 25 with a baccalaureate or higher degree. Arkansas faces shortages of qualified teachers and nurses in regions of the state at a time when the number of graduates in these professions is declining…

  16. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1+ and Rab7+ vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1+perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13023.001 PMID:27008179

  17. The ML1Nx2 Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate Probe Shows Poor Selectivity in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Gerald R. V.; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takehiko; Balla, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) is a quantitatively minor phospholipid in eukaryotic cells that plays a fundamental role in regulating endocytic membrane traffic. Despite its clear importance for cellular function and organism physiology, mechanistic details of its biology have so far not been fully elucidated. In part, this is due to a lack of experimental tools that specifically probe for PtdIns(3,5)P2 in cells to unambiguously identify its dynamics and site(s) of action. In this study, we have evaluated a recently reported PtdIns(3,5)P2 biosensor, GFP-ML1Nx2, for its veracity as such a probe. We report that, in live cells, the localization of this biosensor to sub-cellular compartments is largely independent of PtdIns(3,5)P2, as assessed after pharmacological, chemical genetic or genomic interventions that block the lipid’s synthesis. We therefore conclude that it is unwise to interpret the localization of ML1Nx2 as a true and unbiased biosensor for PtdIns(3,5)P2. PMID:26460749

  18. PI(3,5)P2 biosynthesis regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Lenk, Guy M; Lin, Jing-Ping; Lee, Seung Joon; Twiss, Jeffery L; Vaccari, Ilaria; Bolino, Alessandra; Havton, Leif A; Min, Sang H; Abrams, Charles S; Shrager, Peter; Meisler, Miriam H; Giger, Roman J

    2016-01-01

    Proper development of the CNS axon-glia unit requires bi-directional communication between axons and oligodendrocytes (OLs). We show that the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is required in neurons and in OLs for normal CNS myelination. In mice, mutations of Fig4, Pikfyve or Vac14, encoding key components of the PI(3,5)P2 biosynthetic complex, each lead to impaired OL maturation, severe CNS hypomyelination and delayed propagation of compound action potentials. Primary OLs deficient in Fig4 accumulate large LAMP1(+) and Rab7(+) vesicular structures and exhibit reduced membrane sheet expansion. PI(3,5)P2 deficiency leads to accumulation of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) in LAMP1(+)perinuclear vesicles that fail to migrate to the nascent myelin sheet. Live-cell imaging of OLs after genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis revealed impaired trafficking of plasma membrane-derived MAG through the endolysosomal system in primary cells and brain tissue. Collectively, our studies identify PI(3,5)P2 as a key regulator of myelin membrane trafficking and myelinogenesis. PMID:27008179

  19. Tissue culture-induced flower-color changes in Saintpaulia caused by excision of the transposon inserted in the flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) promoter.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuru; Kawabe, Takashi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2011-05-01

    The variegated Saintpaulia cultivar Thamires (Saintpaulia sp.), which has pink petals with blue splotches, is generally maintained by leaf cuttings. In contrast, tissue culture-derived progeny of the cultivar showed not only a high percentage of mutants with solid-blue petals but also other solid-color variants, which have not been observed from leaf cuttings. Solid-color phenotypes were inherited stably by their progeny from tissue culture. Petals from each solid-color variant were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and shown to contain different proportions of three main anthocyanin derivatives: malvidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin. Analysis of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) sequences showed no differences in the coding region among the variants and variegated individuals. However, a transposon belonging to the hAT superfamily was found in the promoter region of variegated individuals, and the presence of transposon-related insertions or deletions correlated with the observed flower-color phenotypes. Solid-blue flower mutants contained 8-base pair (bp) insertions (transposon excision footprints), while solid-pink mutants had 58- to 70-bp insertions, and purple- and deep-purple mutants had 21- and 24-bp deletions, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that F3'5'H expression levels correlated with insertions and deletions (indels) caused by hAT excision, resulting in flower-color differences. Our results showed that tissue culture of Saintpaulia 'Thamires' elicits transposon excision, which in turn alters F3'5'H expression levels and flower colors. PMID:21293860

  20. Effect of Zn and Sb Additions on the Impression Creep Behavior of Lead-Free Sn-3.5Ag Solder Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmajidian, M.; Mahmudi, R.; Geranmayeh, A. R.; Hashemizadeh, S.; Gorgannejad, S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of separate additions of 1.5 wt.% Zn and 1.5 wt.% Sb on the creep behavior of Sn-3.5 wt.% Ag lead-free solder alloy was investigated by impression testing. The tests were carried out under constant punching stresses in the range of 60-120 MPa and at temperatures in the range of 298-370 K. Both of the ternary alloys showed creep resistances higher than that of the eutectic binary Sn-3.5Ag alloy. The superior creep resistance of the ternary Sn-3.5Ag-1.5Sb alloy is attributed to the strong solid solutioning effect of antimony in the tin matrix, while the formation of AgZn particles and refinement of the Ag3Sn precipitates account for the higher creep resistance of the Sn-3.5Ag-1.5Zn alloy. The average stress exponents of 8.2, 8.5, and 8.6 and activation energies of 47.4 kJ mol-1, 45.3 kJ mol-1, , and 43.3 kJ mol-1 were obtained for Sn-3.5Ag, Sn-3.5Ag-1.5Zn, and Sn-3.5Ag-1.5Sb, respectively. These activation energies are close to 46 kJ mol-1 for dislocation pipe diffusion of tin. This, together with the stress exponents of 8.2-8.6, suggests that dislocation climb controlled by dislocation pipe diffusion is the predominant creep mechanism in these alloys.

  1. Calibration and Validation of WRF 3.0-CLM3.5 in Snowpack Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, J.; Wen, L.; Subin, Z. M.; Miller, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Community Land Model version 3.5 (CLM3.5) developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) was coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model version 3.0. The performance of WRF3.0-CLM3.5 in simulating snowpack was extensively evaluated with in-situ observations from a mountainous site called Col de Porte, located in northern Alps region of France, and the Columbia River Basin, located in the northwestern United States. CLM3.5 was configured with a five-layer snow scheme, and includes snow compaction and liquid water transfer processes, and a sophisticated snow albedo scheme. WRF3.0-CLM3.5 was forced with the National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data to simulate for the 1988-1989 snow season for the Col de Porte site and the 2001-2002 season for the Columbia River Basin, with 60km-20km two-way nested domains. The initial simulations show that WRF3.0-CLM3.5 significantly improves snow simulations when compared to those produced with the WRF3.0 coupled to the Noah land surface scheme at the both study sites. However, WRF3.0-CLM3.5 still tends to underestimate the observed snowpack. Calibration with the observed data from the Col de Porte site indicates that the snow water content bias mainly results from stronger, high elevation incoming solar radiation. An adjustment for the radiation scheme in WRF3.0 was made to reduce the incoming radiation to better fit with the observations. This adjustment improves snow simulations at both Col de Porte site and the Columbia River Basin. Additional offline snow simulations with CLM3.5 driven with observed forcing data were performed at the Col de Porte site. These offline simulations are compared to the results produced with the coupled WRF3.0-CLM3.5. Through this comparison, snow-atmosphere interactions are quantitatively indentified. The improved snow simulations in WRF3.0-CLM3.5 will benefit regional hydro-climate research and

  2. Cleavage of carbon-nitrogen bond in 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane by copper(I) bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Suman; Majumdar, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Reactions of CuCl, CuCl2 and CuBr2 with 1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (tBu3tach) resulted in the formation of [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuCl2)] (1), [(tBu3tach)(CuCl2)] (2) and [(tBu3tach-H)+(CuBr2)] (3) respectively. Interestingly, CuBr was found to mediate the cleavage of the C-N bonds of tBu3tach in a vast range of solvents, namely, chloroform, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile and methanol to yield [Cu4Br4(tBuNCH2)4] (4) and stands as an example of C-N bond cleavage of 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane rings by copper salts. Compounds 1 and 3 contains amidinium cations and are unstable in solution towards the release of copper. The release of copper from 3 in solution was confirmed by the isolation of the compound, [CuBr(MeCN)] (5). Formation of the amidinium cations [(tBu3tach-H)+] in 1 and 3 may be avoided by the use of PPh3 to yield [(tBu3tach)Cu(PPh3)](PF6) (6), while the coordinated N-tert-butylmethanimine (tBuNCH2) in 4 could be replaced by PPh3 to yield [Cu4Br4(PPh3)4] (7). Complexes 1-7 are characterized by a combination of single crystal X-ray structure determination and/or elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Mass spectrometry.

  3. The Use of Quantile Regression to Forecast Higher Than Expected Respiratory Deaths in a Daily Time Series: A Study of New York City Data 1987-2000

    PubMed Central

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal / temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept. PMID:24147122

  4. The use of quantile regression to forecast higher than expected respiratory deaths in a daily time series: a study of New York City data 1987-2000.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal/temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept. PMID:24147122

  5. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p < 0.05). A significant correlation for jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p < 0.05), although none existed for jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.01) when compared to the 2-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the 1-legged repeated rebound jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump. PMID:19996782

  6. Complex formation of vanadium(IV) with 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Bernd; Steinhauser, Stefan; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele; Nagy, László

    2004-05-17

    The complex formation of vanadium(IV) with 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci) was studied in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The formation constants of [V(IV)O(taci)](2+), [V(IV)O(tdci)](2+), and [V(IV)(tdci)(2)](4+) and of the deprotonation product [V(IV)(tdci)(2)H(-)(1)](3+) were determined (25 degrees C, 0.1 M KNO(3)). Cyclic voltammetry measurements established a reversible one-electron transfer for the [V(IV)(tdci)(2)H(-)(m)]((4)(-)(m))/[V(III)(tdci)(2)H(-)(n)]((3)(-)(n)) couple (0

  7. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of the Energetic Compound 3,5-Dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiao-Qin; Cao, Duan-Lin; Cui, Jian-Lan

    2016-07-01

    A novel energetic material, 3,5-dinitro-4-nitroxypyrazole (DNNP), was synthesized via nitration and nucleophilic substitution reaction using 4-chloropyrazole as raw material. The structure of DNNP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and elemental analysis. Its detonation properties were calculated and compared with those of other commonly used energetic compounds. The thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was studied by means of thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with a mass spectrometry (DSC-MS). The results show that the detonation properties of DNNP were better than those of TNT and comparable to those of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In addition, the thermal decomposition mechanism of DNNP was supposed. Initially, the O-NO2 bond was broken, thereby producing a nitropyrazole oxygen radical. Subsequently, the nitropyrazole oxygen radical was decomposed by free radical cleavage of nitro or isomerized to nitritepyrazole and subsequently decomposed by free radical cleavage of the nitroso group. Finally, pyrazole ring fission occurred and produced N2, NO, N2O, and CO2.

  8. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development. PMID:25837094

  9. Ab initio equation of state of the organic molecular crystal: beta-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine.

    PubMed

    Zerilli, Frank J; Kuklja, Maija M

    2010-04-29

    We apply a simple strategy for calculating from first principles a thermodynamically complete equation of state for molecular crystals using readily available quantum chemistry techniques. The strategy involves a combination of separate methods for the temperature-independent mechanical compression and the thermal vibrational contributions to the free energy. A first principles equation of state for beta-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (beta-HMX) has been calculated for temperatures between 0 and 400 K and for specific volumes from 0.42 to 0.55 cm(3)/g, corresponding to relative volumes from 0.8 to 1.03. The calculated 300 K isotherm agrees very well with the experimentally measured pressure-volume relation. We also discuss thermodynamic properties of the material such as the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, the Gruneisen parameter, and the specific heat (1.0 kJ/kg/K at 300 K and atmospheric pressure). The developed computational approach exhibits a reliable predictive power and is easily transferable to other molecular materials. PMID:20364852

  10. Synthesis, structural and computational characterization of 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic acid and 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, M. Hakkı; Paşaoğlu, Hümeyra; Odabaşoğlu, Hakkı Yasin; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Arzu Özek

    2015-07-01

    The benzoic acid compounds 2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzoic acid (2A35Br) and 2-amino-3,5-diiodobenzoic (2A35I) acid have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and computational methods. Molecular geometry, intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction technique. Fundamental vibrational bands of the title compounds were founded by FT-IR and UV-Vis method was used to obtain electronic bands. Geometry optimizations and the calculation of IR frequencies were performed both Gaussian type orbitals at Gaussian 09W and Slater type orbitals at ADF2009.01 software. The calculations are compatible with the experiment results. In addition, geometrical parameters, energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps and electrophilicity indexes have been calculated for thirty possible positional isomers of 2A35Br and 2A35I. Calculations show that 2A35Br and 2A35I isomers have the lowest energy, the narrowest HOMO-LUMO gap and the highest electrophilicity index values. Molecular electrostatic potential maps, Fukui indices, natural bond orbital analysis, thermodynamic parameters and non-linear optical properties of the 2A35Br and 2A35I were also investigated by theoretical calculations.

  11. Assessing the non-cancer risk for RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L; Reddy, Gunda; Williams, Larry R; Johnson, Mark S

    2012-02-01

    RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) is an explosive used in military applications. It has been detected in ground water surrounding US military installations and at manufacturing facilities. RDX has been shown to produce hepatotoxicity, testicular, and neurological effects in animals, the latter also in humans. The current chronic oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.003 mg/kg/day was derived based on prostate effects in rats. Here, we provide a reevaluation of the risk associated with RDX exposure by examining old and new data and using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approaches. Candidate non-cancer endpoints in rodents were evaluated and the most plausible mode(s) of action were determined. A PBPK model was used to derive appropriate internal doses based on the mode of action, and then a benchmark dose (BMD) and the lower confidence limit on the BMD (BMDL) were determined using these internal doses in animals. Uncertainty factors (UF) were applied to the animal BMDL or no-observed effect level and a human PBPK model was used to determine a human equivalent dose resulting in the candidate RfDs (cRfDs). A proposed chronic RfD of 0.07 mg/kg/day, based on multiple effects observed in rats, was selected from among the cRfDs. PMID:22197625

  12. Towards engineering degradation of the explosive pollutant hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in the rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Astrid; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Strand, Stuart E; Bruce, Neil C

    2013-03-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a serious environmental pollutant on military land. This compound is the most widely used explosive and pollution has arisen primarily as the result of military training, along with munition manufacturing and disassembly processes. This toxic explosive is recalcitrant to degradation in the environment and leaches rapidly into groundwater, where accumulation in aquifers is threatening drinking water supplies (Clausen, et al., 2004). While plants have only limited degradative activity towards RDX, microorganisms, including Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y, have been isolated from contaminated land. Despite the presence of microbial RDX-metabolising activity in contaminated soils, the persistence of RDX in leachate from contaminated soil indicates that this activity or biomass is insufficient, limiting its use to remediate polluted soils. Bacterial activity in the rhizosphere is of magnitudes greater than in the surrounding soil, and the roots of grass species on training ranges in the United States are known to penetrate deeply into the soil, producing a compact root system and providing an ideal environment to support the capture of RDX by microorganisms in the rhizosphere. Here, we have investigated the ability of the root-colonising bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, engineered to express XplA, to degrade RDX in the rhizosphere. PMID:23289483

  13. Electron shuttle-mediated biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine adsorbed to granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Millerick, Kayleigh; Drew, Scott R; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-08-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) effectively removes hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) from groundwater but generates RDX-laden GAC that must be disposed of or regenerated. Batch reactors containing GAC to which RDX was preadsorbed were used in experiments to test the potential for adsorbed RDX reduction and daughter product formation using (i) chemically reduced anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2QDS), (ii) resting Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and (iii) a combined system containing AQDS and GS-15. Approximately 97.0% of the adsorbed RDX was transformed in each of these experimental systems by 90 h. Chemically reduced AQDS (AH2QDS) transformed 99.2% of adsorbed RDX; formaldehyde was produced rapidly and was stoichiometric (3 mol HCHO per mol RDX). Geobacter metallireducens also reduced RDX with and without AQDS present. This is the first study to demonstrate biological transformation of RDX adsorbed to GAC. Formaldehyde increased and then decreased in biological systems, suggesting a previously unreported capacity for G. metallireducens to oxidize formaldehyde, which was confirmed with resting cell suspensions. These data suggest the masses of GAC waste currently produced by activated carbon at RDX remediation sites can be minimized, decreasing the carbon footprint of the treatment technology. Alternatively, this strategy may be used to develop a Bio-GAC system for ex situ RDX treatment. PMID:23837558

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of thin films deposited from 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkey, Daniel D.; Gleason, Karen K.

    2003-05-01

    Pulsed-plasma chemical vapor deposition of 1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinylcyclotrisiloxane (V3D3) and water produced thin films with significant Si-OH content. Subsequent annealing of the films resulted in condensation of proximal Si-OH groups, further generating a Si-O-Si network and strengthening the film. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed increasing OH content with increasing plasma duty cycle, and nanoindentation results confirmed increasing hardness with duty cycle, with the 10-40 duty cycle annealed sample having a hardness value of 0.527 GPa. These results were explained within the context of the continuous random network theory and percolation of rigidity arguments. Thermal stability was excellent, with a best-case thickness retention of 99.25% after a 2 h anneal at 400 °C under N2. Dielectric constants for the annealed films ranged between 2.55 and 2.9. The moderate power involved (200 W peak) is amenable to inclusion of a porogen species, opening the possibility of using this methodology to generate a porous thin film with adequate mechanical properties via chemical vapor deposition.

  15. Biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by a prospective consortium and its most effective isolate Serratia marcescens

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.M.; Ogden, K.L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1997-03-05

    The biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) has been observed in liquid culture by a consortium of bacteria found in horse manure. Five types of bacteria were found to predominate in the consortium and were isolated. The most effective of these isolates at transforming RDX was Serratia marcescens. The biotransformation of RDX by all of these bacteria was found to occur only in the anoxic stationary phase. The process of bacterial growth and RDX biotransformation was quantified for the purpose of developing a predictive type model. Cell growth was assumed to follow Monod kinetics. All of the aerobic and anoxid growth parameters were determined: {mu}{sub max}, K{sub s}, and Y{sub x/s}. RDX was found to competitively inhibit cell growth in both atmospheres. Degradation of RDX by Serratia marcescens was found to proceed through the stepwise reduction of the three nitro groups to nitroso groups. Each of these reductions was found to be first order in both component and cell concentrations. The degradation rate constant for the first step in this reduction process by the consortium was 0.022 L/g cells {center_dot} h compared to 0.033 L/g cells {center_dot} h for the most efficient isolate.

  16. Human monocyte killing of Staphylococcus aureus: modulation by agonists of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    O'Dorisio, M S; Vandenbark, G R; LoBuglio, A F

    1979-01-01

    This study was designed to test whether cyclic nucleotides play a role in the regulation of bacterial killing by human monocytes. Agents were tested for their ability to activate monocyte adenylate or guanylate cyclase in cell-free preparations, to increase cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in intact human monocytes, and to modulate monocyte-induced killing of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Prostaglandin E1 and cholera toxin activated monocyte adenylate cyclase and inhibited monocyte killing of S. aureus. An adenylate cyclase inhibitor, RMI 12330A, reversed the prostaglandin E1-mediated inhibition of bacterial killing, thus implicating cAMP as the intracellular mediator of this inhibition. In contrast, monocyte cGMP levels were increased 5- and 17-fold by 5-hydroxytryptamine and N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, respectively, but neither agent was effective in modulating monocyte bactericidal activity. Thus, modulation of bactericidal activity in human monocytes did not conform to the yin/yang theory of opposing actions by cAMP and cGMP, for although monocyte-mediated killing of S. aureus was inhibited by cAMP agonists, it was not enhanced by cGMP agonists. PMID:44704

  17. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  18. RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) biodegradation in aquifer sediments under manganese-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)–contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with [U-14C] RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of14C-RDX to 14CO2 was observed in aquifer sediment microcosms under native, manganese-reducing, anoxic conditions. Significant increases in the mineralization of 14C-RDX to 14CO2 were observed in anoxic microcosms under NO3-amended or Mn(IV)-amended conditions. No evidence of 14C-RDX biodegradation was observed under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial degradation of RDX may contribute to natural attenuation of RDX in manganese-reducing aquifer systems.

  19. Anaerobic transformation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by ovine rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Craig, A M

    2012-01-01

    Explosives such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) provide a challenge in terms of bioremediation. In the present study, sheep rumen was studied for its potential to detoxify HMX using analytical chemistry and molecular microbial ecology tools. Results indicated significant loss (p < 0.05) of HMX at 8 h post-incubation and complete disappearance of the parent molecule after 16 h. Qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis provided evidence for the formation of 1-NO-HMX and MEDINA metabolites. A total of 1006 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced and the Classifier tool of the RDPII database was used to sort the sequences at their phylum level. Most sequences were associated with either the phylum Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Significant differences at the phylum level (p < 0.001) were found between 0 h and 8 h HMX treatments. Using LibCompare analysis, 8 h HMX treatment showed enrichment of clones (p < 0.01) belonging to the genus Prevotella. From these results, it could be concluded that members of the genus Prevotella are enriched in the rumen and are capable of detoxifying HMX. PMID:22903090

  20. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours. PMID:26440946

  1. Geochemical and petrological study of Barberton Greenstone Belt cherts (3.2-3.5 Ga), South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledevin, M.; Arndt, N.; Simionovici, A.

    2011-12-01

    The massive deposition of cherts during Archean time provides important information about conditions on the sea floor during the early history of the Earth. We studied samples from four sites in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (3.2-3.5 Ga), South Africa, including fresh ICDP core samples, to understand their formation. We identified three different origins for cherts: direct precipitation from seawater, precipitation in fractures from silica-rich fluids, and replacement of preexisting rocks (silicification) at or near the surface. To better constrain the various formation processes of cherts, we use a petrological, rheological and geochemical approach: both macro- and micro- structural observations are used to understand early physical behavior of chert, silica precipitation, and silicification processes. Rheological information is obtained by careful field observations: we observe a complex behavior for cherts, with ductile to brittle deformation structures, sometimes both in the same layer, extremely fast diagenetic induration processes, and evidence of an early colloidal silica phase. High-resolution analyses (RAMAN, synchrotron and lab-based X-Ray microfluorescence, cathodoluminescence) are used to link micro-scale element distribution with microstructures, and to understand micro-scale formation processes. These approaches will be complemented by stable isotope (Si and O) and fluid inclusions analyses. Coupling petrological informations and geochemical analyses allow us to define reliable criteria to differentiate the three origins of cherts. When petrological observations show a secondary silicification of previously deposited sediments (e.g. laminations, ripple marks, silicified ashes), samples have trace element patterns with high HREE contents, and strong negative Sr and Li anomalies. In comparison, when cherts seem to be chemically precipitated on the sea floor, patterns show lower HREE and higher LILE contents, with a strong positive Ba anomaly and

  2. Mars - Subsurface properties from observed longitudinal variation of the 3.5-mm brightness temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, E. E.; Andrew, B. H.; Briggs, F. H.; Jakosky, B. M.; Palluconi, F. D.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive 3.5-mm measurements are reported which show a variation in the brightness temperature of Mars, with the Central Meridian Longitude that is generally in phase with the variation at 2.8 cm and is opposite in sign from the variations at 20 microns. It is pointed out that the phase result is not unexpected, since 3.5 mm is longer than the wavelength at which the phase behavior is expected to change. The result that the 3.5-mm rotation curve amplitude is larger than the amplitudes at both 20 microns and 2.8 cm, however, is unexpected. This result, it is noted, can be explained as a consequence of subsurface scattering from rocks smaller than 1.5 cm in radius. A correlation of subsurface scatterers with the location of the high-thermal inertial regions would be consistent with the hypothesis that rock abundance predominates in determining the thermal inertia.

  3. Assessment of air quality in preschool environments (3-5 years old children) with emphasis on elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated concentrations of main air pollutants in a Portuguese preschool (indoors/outdoors) environment, with emphasis on elemental characterization of different PM fractions, and estimated risks for the pupils (aged 3-5 years). With exception to total volatile organic compounds, levels of PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde were below legislative guidelines. Calcium, sodium, aluminium, and potassium were the most abundant elements in indoor PM (82-84% of the analysed content) resulting mainly from crustal sources. Carcinogenic elements (1-2% of the indoor analysed content) were mostly PM2.5-bound (83-91%). Indoor-to-outdoor ratios of individual elements indicated contributions of indoor origin and from penetration of outdoor emissions indoors; trace metals were associated with ambient anthropogenic emissions (namely traffic). Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from overall preschool exposure were acceptable for children; for adults carcinogenic risks exceeded (4-11 times) the USEPA recommend value of 10(-6), being 8-40 times higher than for children. PMID:27112725

  4. Hydrostatic supports for telescopes: the experience of 3.5 NTT with a glance at VTL.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreolli, C.; Andreolli, C.

    1988-10-01

    Today's large telescopes use hydrostatic supports to give their axes of motion the highest precision and stiffness. Since their performance of a hydrostatic bearing depend as much on the pad as on the structures directly concerned, certain designing expedients that are peculiar of large machine tools can be adopted profitably with telescopes as well. This was the case with 3.5 m NTT. It may be assumed correctly that the experience made with 3.5 m NTT, may be extended successfully to telescopes of a larger size.

  5. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation of 3,5-disubstituted analogues of paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Bessems, J G; Te Koppele, J M; Van Dijk, P A; Van Stee, L L; Commandeur, J N; Vermeulen, N P

    1996-06-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-dependent binding of paracetamol and a series of 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -CH3, -C2H5, -iC3H7) have been determined with beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF)-induced rat liver microsomes and produced reverse type I spectral changes. Ks,app varied from 0.14 mM for 3,5-diiC3H7-paracetamol to 2.8 mM for paracetamol. 2. All seven analogues underwent rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent oxidation, as reflected by the formation of GSSG in the presence of GSH. The GSSG-formation was increased in all cases upon pretreatment of rats by beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF) and was generally decreased upon pretreatment by phenobarbital (PB). 3. Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 as well as horseradish peroxidase catalysed the formation of 3,5-disubstituted NAPQI analogues from the corresponding parent compounds, as identified by UV-spectrophotometry of the NAPQI analogues and by GC/MS detection of the following GSH-conjugates: 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dimethyl-1,4-dihydroxybenzene, 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dichloro-paracetamol, and 2-glutathione-S-yl-3,5-dibromo-paracetamol. 4. In liver microsomal (beta NF-induced) incubations, apparent K(m) values, as determined for the cytochrome P450 catalysis-dependent oxidation of GSH, for seven 3,5-disubstituted paracetamol analogues (R = -F, -Cl, -Br, -I, -CH3, -C2H5, iC3H7) varied from 0.07 to 0.64 mM. Paracetamol exhibited an apparent K(m) of 0.73 mM. Apparent Vmax values for the cytochrome P450 catalysis dependent oxidation of GSH varied from 0.66 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for paracetamol to 3.0 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein for 3,5-dimethyl-paracetamol. PMID:8810035

  6. Access to Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones through Anodic N-N Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Gieshoff, Tile; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-08-01

    Pyrazolidin-3,5-diones are important motifs in heterocyclic chemistry and are of high interest for pharmaceutical applications. In classic organic synthesis, the hydrazinic moiety is installed through condensation using the corresponding hydrazine building blocks. However, most N,N'-diaryl hydrazines are toxic and require upstream preparation owing to their low commercial availability. We present an alternative and sustainable synthetic approach to pyrazolidin-3,5-diones that employs readily accessible dianilides as precursors, which are anodically converted to furnish the N-N bond. The electroconversion is conducted in a simple undivided cell under constant-current conditions. PMID:27392318

  7. Ninety-day study of inhaled 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene in rats. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasmore, D.P.; Palmer, D.

    1981-09-23

    Male and female rats were exposed to 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppM of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene vapors for 6 hours daily, 5 days a week, for up to 13 weeks. After 4 weeks or 13 weeks of exposure, animals were sacrificed and examined for changes in blood, clinical chemistry, internal organs, and tissues resulting from the 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene treatment. No treatment-related effects on the blood and clinical chemistry were evident. Squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia were observed in the respiratory epithelium in the nasal passages of several high-dose rats.

  8. Prevalence of Bloodstream Pathogens Is Higher in Neonatal Encephalopathy Cases vs. Controls Using a Novel Panel of Real-Time PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Cally J.; Nkurunziza, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Oweka, James; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Were, Jackson; Nyombi, Natasha; Hughes, Peter; Willey, Barbara A.; Elliott, Alison M.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda. Methodology Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls. Principal Findings Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively). Conclusion/Significance This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting. PMID:24836781

  9. Numerical approximation of higher-order time-fractional telegraph equation by using a combination of a geometric approach and method of line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.

  10. Evaluation of Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation To Stimulate Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine Degradation in an Aerobic Groundwater Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Mandy M; King, Aaron S; Rule, Rebecca A; Fuller, Mark E; Hatzinger, Paul B; Condee, Charles W; Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Istok, Jack D

    2016-07-19

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5,-triazine (RDX) is a toxic and mobile groundwater contaminant common to military sites. This study compared in situ RDX degradation rates following bioaugmentation with Gordonia sp. strain KTR9 (henceforth KTR9) to rates under biostimulation conditions in an RDX-contaminated aquifer in Umatilla, OR. Bioaugmentation was achieved by injecting site groundwater (6000 L) amended with KTR9 cells (10(8) cells mL(-1)) and low carbon substrate concentrations (<1 mM fructose) into site wells. Biostimulation (no added cells) was performed by injecting groundwater amended with low (<1 mM fructose) or high (>15 mM fructose) carbon substrate concentrations in an effort to stimulate aerobic or anaerobic microbial activity, respectively. Single-well push-pull tests were conducted to measure RDX degradation rates for each treatment. Average rate coefficients were 1.2 day(-1) for bioaugmentation and 0.7 day(-1) for high carbon biostimulation; rate coefficients for low carbon biostimulation were not significantly different from zero (p values ≥0.060). Our results suggest that bioaugmentation with KTR9 is a feasible strategy for in situ biodegradation of RDX and, at this site, is capable of achieving RDX concentration reductions comparable to those obtained by high carbon biostimulation while requiring ~97% less fructose. Bioaugmentation has potential to minimize substrate quantities and associated costs, as well as secondary groundwater quality impacts associated with anaerobic biostimulation processes (e.g., hydrogen sulfide, methane production) during full-scale RDX remediation. PMID:27301804

  11. Validation of a novel extraction method for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation by ruminal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Giarrizzo, J G; Murty, L; Tanaree, D; Walker, K; Craig, A M

    2013-04-15

    A simple, fast liquid-liquid extraction method was developed for studying hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) biodegradation using small sample volumes. The method was tested in vitro with anaerobic incubations of RDX with whole rumen fluid (WRF) and a commercial Sporanaerobacter acetigenes strain in methanogenic media for RDX. Additionally, validation experiments were conducted in deionized water in order to show applicability toward various aqueous matrices. Conditions for extraction were as follows: 300 μL of sample were mixed with an equal volume of a 0.34 M ammonium hydroxide solution to reach a basic pH, extracted with a hexane/ethyl acetate 1:1 (v/v) solution (1 mL) and shaken vigorously for 10 s. The resulting organic phase was transferred, then dried under a constant flow of N2 and reconstituted with acetonitrile (300 μL) for HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS analysis. Percent recovery values were obtained (83-101%) in all matrices for RDX. In WRF (n=3 animals), RDX degradation was observed with almost 100% elimination of RDX after 4 h. The five nitroso and ring cleavage metabolites were observed by mass spectrometry. Liquid cultures of S. acetigenes did not show significant RDX biodegradation activity. RDX extractions from deionized water samples indicated acceptable recoveries with low variability, suggesting suitability of the method for aqueous matrices. Overall, the new method demonstrated acceptable efficiency and reproducibility across three matrices, providing an advantageous alternative for studies where complex matrices and small volume samples are in use. PMID:23523880

  12. Analysis of the xplAB-containing gene cluster involved in the bacterial degradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A; Strand, Stuart E; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Bruce, Neil C

    2014-11-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  13. Geochemical and microbiological processes contributing to the transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in contaminated aquifer material.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Man Jae; O'Loughlin, Edward J; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Finneran, Kevin T

    2011-08-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a potential human carcinogen, and its contamination of subsurface environments is a significant threat to public health. This study investigated abiotic and biological degradation of RDX in contaminated aquifer material. Anoxic batch systems were started with and without pre-aeration of aquifer material to distinguish initial biological RDX reduction from abiotic RDX reduction. Aerating the sediment eliminated chemical reductants in the native aquifer sediment, primarily Fe(II) sorbed to mineral surfaces. RDX (50 μM) was completely reduced and transformed to ring cleavage products when excess concentrations (2mM) of acetate or lactate were provided as the electron donor for aerated sediment. RDX was reduced concurrently with Fe(III) when acetate was provided, while RDX, Fe(III), and sulfate were reduced simultaneously with lactate amendment. Betaproteobacteria were the dominant microorganisms associated with RDX and Fe(III)/sulfate reduction. In particular, Rhodoferax spp. increased from 21% to 35% and from 28% to 60% after biostimulation by acetate and lactate, respectively. Rarefaction analyses demonstrated that microbial diversity decreased in electron-donor-amended systems with active RDX degradation. Although significant amounts of Fe(III) and/or sulfate were reduced after biostimulation, solid-phase reactive minerals such as magnetite or ferrous sulfides were not observed, suggesting that RDX reduction in the aquifer sediment is due to Fe(II) adsorbed to solid surfaces as a result of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activity. These results suggest that both biotic and abiotic processes play an important role in RDX reduction under in situ conditions. PMID:21664641

  14. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  15. Mineralization of the Cyclic Nitramine Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Gordonia and Williamsia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Karen T.; Crocker, Fiona H.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a cyclic nitroamine explosive that is a major component in many military high-explosive formulations. In this study, two aerobic bacteria that are capable of using RDX as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen to support their growth were isolated from surface soil. These bacterial strains were identified by their fatty acid profiles and 16S ribosomal gene sequences as Williamsia sp. KTR4 and Gordonia sp. KTR9. The physiology of each strain was characterized with respect to the rates of RDX degradation and [U-14C]RDX mineralization when RDX was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in the presence and absence of competing carbon and nitrogen sources. Strains KTR4 and KTR9 degraded 180 μM RDX within 72 h when RDX served as the only added carbon and nitrogen source while growing to total protein concentrations of 18.6 and 16.5 μg/ml, respectively. Mineralization of [U-14C]RDX to 14CO2 was 30% by strain KTR4 and 27% by KTR9 when RDX was the only added source of carbon and nitrogen. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 greatly inhibited KTR9's degradation of RDX but had little effect on that of KTR4. These are the first two pure bacterial cultures isolated that are able to use RDX as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. These two genera possess different physiologies with respect to RDX mineralization, and each can serve as a useful microbiological model for the study of RDX biodegradation with regard to physiology, biochemistry, and genetics. PMID:16332812

  16. Characterization of polymorphic states in energetic samples of 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) fabricated using drop-on-demand inkjet technology.

    PubMed

    Emmons, Erik D; Farrell, Mikella E; Holthoff, Ellen L; Tripathi, Ashish; Green, Norman; Moon, Raphael P; Guicheteau, Jason A; Christesen, Steven D; Pellegrino, Paul M; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-06-01

    The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be "trained" to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other. PMID:22732532

  17. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  18. 3-Chlorotyrosine and 3,5-Dichlorotyrosine as biomarkers of respiratory tract exposure to chlorine gas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of tyrosine by reactive chlorine can produce both 3-chlorotyrosine (CY) and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine (dCY). Both of these amino acids have proven to be promising biomarkers for assessing the extent of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed chlorine stress in a number of adverse physi...

  19. FOURTEEN-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic effects of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female rats were evaluated by feeding powdered certified laboratory chow diet supplemented with varied concentrations of TNB (0,50,200,400,800 and 1200 mg kg-1 diet) for 14 days. Food intake by female rats in 400,800 and 12...

  20. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  1. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  2. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  3. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  4. 45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Services Administration regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property and, in... Office and sold and the proceeds deposited in accordance with 41 CFR 101-45.304 and 101-48.305. ... Section 3.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT...

  5. CHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats was evaluated by feeding a diet containing 0, 5, 60 and 300 ppm of TNB for 2 years. The calculated average TNB intake over 2 years for males and females was 0.22, 2.64, 13.44 and 0.23,...

  6. Synthesis and Structure of Alkylzinc 3,5-Diphenylpyrazolates: Dramatic Influence of Steric and Solvent Effects.

    PubMed

    Komorski, Szymon; Leszczyński, Michał K; Justyniak, Iwona; Lewiński, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    The reaction of R2Zn (R = Et, (t)Bu) with 3,5-diphenylpyrazole results in the formation of three structurally diverse alkylzinc pyrazolates: a novel dinuclear tetrahydrofuran solvate, an unprecedented trimeric structure, and a spiro trinuclear aggregate. Structural analysis of the resulting complexes provides a new look at the aggregation and stabilization of alkylzinc species. PMID:27186891

  7. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF 1,3,5-TRINITROBENZENE IN FISCHER 344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subchronic toxicity of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) in male and female Fischer 344 rats was evaluated by feeding a powdered certified laboratory diet containing 0, 66.7, 400 and 800 mg TNB/kg diet for 90 days. The calculated average TNB intake was 4.29, 24.70, and 49.28 mg/kg...

  8. Smart Spending and Saving: Personal Finance Economics 3-5. Teacher Resource Manual. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Diana C.; Haskell, Douglas A.

    This book is designed to help students in grades 3-5 make better decisions as spenders, savers, borrowers, and managers of money. The learning experiences focus on personal finance and money management. The 10 lessons are divided into 4 units focusing on children making spending decisions, saving decisions, borrowing decisions, and money…

  9. Evaluation of GALAXY Classroom Science for Grades 3-5. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Gloria J. A.; Austin, Susan; DeLong, Bo; Pasta, David J.; Block, Clifford

    The GALAXY Classroom is a package of integrated curricular and instructional approaches, supported by the first U.S. interactive satellite communications network designed to facilitate the introduction of innovative curricula to improve student learning in elementary schools. GALAXY Classroom Science for grades 3-5 features the organization of…

  10. Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine

    2009-01-01

    More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades 3-5" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…

  11. 40 CFR 721.4265 - Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrazinecarboxamide, N-(3,5-difluorophenyl-). 721.4265 Section 721.4265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  12. Earthwatch: Designing Environmental Education into the Curriculum. Volume I, Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry, Ed.; Hungerford, Nancy, Ed.

    This environmental education activities package for grades 3-5 contains activities in the following curriculum areas: (1) social science; (2) science; (3) language arts; and (4) mathematics. The activities are divided into seven sections based on seven environmental topics: (1) ecosystems; (2) population; (3) energy and resources; (4) economics,…

  13. FIFTH SYMPOSIUM ON FUGITIVE EMISSIONS: MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL (MAY 3-5, 1982, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the Fifth Symposium on Fugitive Emissions: Measurement and Control, May 3-5, 1982, in Charleston, SC. The Symposium was sponsored by the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (known then as the Industrial Environmental...

  14. Teacher Implementation of Guided Reading and the Effect on Students in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Melissa S.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored implementing guided reading in grades 3-5 in a suburban school district located in Southeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how teachers implement guided reading in their classrooms and how the use of guided reading affects student achievement in Text Structure and Vocabulary, Reading…

  15. Chemistry of the pyrazolidines. 26. Alkylation of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines

    SciTech Connect

    Moldarev, B.L.; Aronzon, M.E.; Adanin, V.M.; Zyakun, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    The reaction of 4-benzyliden-1-phenyl-3,5-dioxopyrazolidines with alkyl halides in the presence of sodium alkoxide gave 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-4-benzyliden- and 1-phenyl-2,4-dialkyl-4-(..cap alpha..-alkoxybenzyl)-3,4-dioxopyrazolines. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, and PMR spectroscopy, and by mass-spectrometry.

  16. Algebraic Reasoning: Professor Arbegla Introduces Variables and Functions. GEMS Teacher's Guide for Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Jaine; Bergman, Lincoln

    This teacher guide helps build a solid foundation in algebra for students in grades 3-5 in which students gain essential understanding of properties of numbers, variables, functions, equations, and formulas. Throughout the problem solving activities, students use computational skills and gain a deeper understanding of the number system. Students…

  17. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  18. Russian/English Interdisciplinary Lessons for General Education and Special Education Students. Grades 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    The materials consist of four lessons each at grade levels 3-5, designed for use by both Russian bilingual and English-monolingual teachers in general and special education. The lessons are cross-referenced to learning and performance standards established for New York City (New York) public schools. Each unit (group of grade-level lessons)…

  19. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  20. Developing Essential Understanding of Multiplication and Division for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 3-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Albert; Caldwell, Janet; Hancock, Sarah Wallus; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2011-01-01

    This book identifies and examines two big ideas and related essential understandings for teaching multiplication and division in grades 3-5. Big Idea 1 captures the notion that multiplication is usefully defined as a scalar operation. Problem situations modeled by multiplication have an element that represents the scalar and an element that…

  1. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  2. Preparation of 1,3,5-triamo-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene of submicron particle size

    DOEpatents

    Rigdon, Lester P.; Moody, Gordon L.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-05-01

    A method is disclosed for the preparation of very small particle size, relatively pure 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). Particles of TATB prepared according to the disclosed method are of submicron size and have a surface area in the range from about 3.8 to 27 square meters per gram.

  3. The Self-Assembly Properties of a Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide Derivative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stals, Patrick J. M.; Haveman, Jan F.; Palmans, Anja R. A.; Schenning, Albertus P. H. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments involving the synthesis and characterization of a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide derivative and its self-assembly properties are reported. These laboratory experiments combine organic synthesis, self-assembly, and physical characterization and are designed for upper-level undergraduate students to introduce the topic of…

  4. Fluorescent and nonfluorescent crystals of N-(3,5-dihalogenosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimoto, Masanobu; Yoshida, Narihiro; Sugimoto, Atsuki; Teramoto, Naozumi; Nakajima, Kiyohiko

    2016-02-01

    Crystals of N-(3,5-diXsalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (X = fluoro, chloro, bromo, and iodo) were prepared, and their structural and luminescence properties in the solid state were investigated. Only fluorescent orange crystals were obtained for N-(3,5-difluorosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (1). Both fluorescent orange crystals (2a) and nonfluorescent red-orange crystals (2b) were obtained for N-(3,5-dichlorosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline. Slightly fluorescent orange crystals were obtained for N-(3,5-dibromosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (3) and N-(3,5-diiodosalicylidene)-2-methoxyaniline (4). Fluorescence spectra of 1, 2a, 3, and 4 in the solid state show a fluorescence band at around 600 nm by excitation at 480 nm. The fluorescence intensities were in the order 1 > 2a > 3 > 4. X-ray crystal-structure analyses of 1, 2a, and 2b were obtained. The N-salicylideneaniline molecules in all of the crystals have planar structures. The molecules in both 1 and 2b take the enol form, while the molecules in 2a take the cis-keto form. The crystals 2a include water of crystallization, which is hydrogen bonded to the adjacent N-salicylideneaniline molecules. Molecules in fluorescent 2a are arranged in stacks along the a-axis to form a columnar structure in the crystals. In contrast, molecules in nonfluorescent 2b are strongly π-π stacked to form dimers in crystals. The orange crystals 2a were transformed to the red-orange crystals 2b by removal of water of crystallization upon heating at 70 °C.

  5. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Studies in Mossy Maze Polypore, Cerrena unicolor (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Qi; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    With its ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases, white-rot basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor, a medicinal mushroom, has great potential in biotechnology. Elucidation of the expression profiles of genes encoding ligninolytic enzymes are important for increasing their production. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool to study transcriptional regulation of genes of interest. To ensure accuracy and reliability of qPCR analysis of C. unicolor, expression levels of seven candidate reference genes were studied at different growth phases, under various induction conditions, and with a range of carbon/nitrogen ratios and carbon and nitrogen sources. The stability of the genes were analyzed with five statistical approaches, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder. Our results indicated that the selection of reference genes varied with sample sets. A combination of four reference genes (Cyt-c, ATP6, TEF1, and β-tubulin) were recommended for normalizing gene expression at different growth phases. GAPDH and Cyt-c were the appropriate reference genes under different induction conditions. ATP6 and TEF1 were most stable in fermentation media with various carbon/nitrogen ratios. In the fermentation media with various carbon or nitrogen sources, 18S rRNA and GAPDH were the references of choice. The present study represents the first validation analysis of reference genes in C. unicolor and serves as a foundation for its qPCR analysis. PMID:27279538

  6. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  7. Zonal Wave Number 2 Rossby Wave (3.5-day oscillation) Over The Martian Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Thokuluwa, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Over the Mars, height (800-50 Pascal pressure coordinate) profiles of temperature (K), measured by radio occultation technique during the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor) mission, obtained for the period of 1-10 January 2006 at the Martian latitude of ~63N in almost all the longitudes are analyzed to study the characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. To avoid significant data gaps in a particular longitude sector, we selected a set of 7 Mars longitude regions with ranges of 0-30E, 35-60E, 65-95E, 190-230E, 250-280E, 290-320E, and 325-360E to study the global characteristics of the 3.5-day oscillation. The 3.5-day oscillation is not selected as a-priori but observed as a most significant oscillation during this period of 1-10 January 2006. It is observed that in the longitude of 0-30E, the 3.5-day oscillation shows statistically significant power (above the 95% confidence level white noise) from the lowest height (800 Pascal, 8 hPa) itself and up to the height of 450 Pascal level with the maximum power of ~130 K^2 at the 600 & 650 Pascal levels. It started to grow from the power of ~ 50 K^2 at the lowest height of 800 Pascal level and reached the maximum power in the height of 600-650 Pascal level and then it started to get lessened monotonously up to the height of 450 Pascal level where its power is ~ 20 K^2. Beyond this height and up to the height of 50 Pascal level, the wave amplitude is below the white noise level. As the phase of the wave is almost constant at all the height levels, it seems that the observed 3.5-day oscillation is a stationary wave with respect to the height. In the 35-60 E longitude sector, the vertical structure of the 3.5-day oscillation is similar to what observed for the 0-30 E longitude region but the power is statistically insignificant at all the heights. However in the 65-95E longitude sector, the wave grows from the lowest level (70 K^2) of 800 Pascal to its maximum power of 280 K^2 in the height of 700 Pascal level and then it started

  8. Determination of Key Metabolites during Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine with Rhodococcus sp. Strain DN22†

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim; Fiurasek, Petr; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DN22 can convert hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to nitrite, but information on degradation products or the fate of carbon is not known. The present study describes aerobic biodegradation of RDX (175 μM) when used as an N source for strain DN22. RDX was converted to nitrite (NO2−) (30%), nitrous oxide (N2O) (3.2%), ammonia (10%), and formaldehyde (HCHO) (27%), which later converted to carbon dioxide. In experiments with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, gas chromatographic/mass spectrophotometric (GC/MS) analysis revealed N2O with two molecular mass ions: one at 44 Da, corresponding to 14N14NO, and the second at 45 Da, corresponding to 15N14NO. The nonlabeled N2O could be formed only from -NO2, whereas the 15N-labeled one was presumed to originate from a nitramine group (15N-14NO2) in RDX. Liquid chromatographic (LC)-MS electrospray analyses indicated the formation of a dead end product with a deprotonated molecular mass ion [M-H] at 118 Da. High-resolution MS indicated a molecular formula of C2H5N3O3. When the experiment was repeated with ring-labeled [15N]-RDX, the [M-H] appeared at 120 Da, indicating that two of the three N atoms in the metabolite originated from the ring in RDX. When [U-14C]-RDX was used in the experiment, 64% of the original radioactivity in RDX incorporated into the metabolite with a molecular weight (MW) of 119 (high-pressure LC/radioactivity) and 30% in 14CO2 (mineralization) after 4 days of incubation, suggesting that one of the carbon atoms in RDX was converted to CO2 and the other two were incorporated in the ring cleavage product with an MW of 119. Based on the above stoichiometry, we propose a degradation pathway for RDX based on initial denitration followed by ring cleavage to formaldehyde and the dead end product with an MW of 119. PMID:11772623

  9. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N–H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) and S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗})/S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N–X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH{sub 3}) or internal conversion to the S{sub 1}(ππ{sup ∗}) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S{sub 2}(3s/πσ{sup ∗}) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  10. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James O F; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W; Paterson, Martin J; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-21

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N-H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S1(ππ(∗)) and S2(3s/πσ(∗)). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S1(ππ(∗))/S2(3s/πσ(∗)) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S2(3s/πσ(∗)) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N-X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH3) or internal conversion to the S1(ππ(∗)) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S2(3s/πσ(∗)) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system. PMID:25796251

  11. Ultraviolet relaxation dynamics of aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline at 250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, James O. F.; Saalbach, Lisa; Crane, Stuart W.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2015-03-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the electronic relaxation dynamics of gas-phase aniline, N, N-dimethylaniline, and 3,5-dimethylaniline following ultraviolet excitation at 250 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio coupled-cluster calculations evaluating excited state energies and (in aniline) the evolution of a range of excited state physical properties as a function of N-H bond extension. Due to a lack of consistency between several earlier studies undertaken in aniline, the specific aim of this present work was to gain new insight into the previously proposed non-adiabatic coupling interaction between the two lowest lying singlet excited states S1(ππ∗) and S2(3s/πσ∗). The methyl-substituted systems N, N-dimethylaniline and 3,5-dimethylaniline were included in order to obtain more detailed dynamical information about the key internal molecular coordinates that drive the S1(ππ∗)/S2(3s/πσ∗) coupling mechanism. Our findings suggest that in all three systems, both electronic states are directly populated during the initial excitation, with the S2(3s/πσ∗) state then potentially decaying via either direct dissociation along the N-X stretching coordinate (X = H or CH3) or internal conversion to the S1(ππ∗) state. In aniline and N, N-dimethylaniline, both pathways most likely compete in the depletion of S2(3s/πσ∗) state population. However, in 3,5-dimethylaniline, only the direct dissociation mechanism appears to be active. This is rationalized in terms of changes in the relative rates of the two decay pathways upon methylation of the aromatic ring system.

  12. Effect of Machining Configurations on the Electrochemical Response of Mild Steel in 3.5% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Moon, A. P.; Mondal, K.; Shekhar, S.

    2015-09-01

    The present work is based on the study of the electrochemical response of mild steel as a function of machining configurations. The variable parameters were rake angle and turning speed, while feed rate and depth of cut remained fixed. Dynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5% NaCl solution were done to analyze the electrochemical behavior of mild steels with the variation of rake angle and turning speed. The electrochemical response showed that the steel machined at higher speed and positive rake angle had higher resistance to charge transfer. Similarly, steel machined at lower speed and negative rake angle showed lower resistance to charge transfer. The results obtained in this study suggest that machining on mild steel should be carried out at positive rake angle and at higher speed to have smoother surface finish, strain-relieved surface grains, and subsequently better corrosion resistance, which was measured from corrosion current as determined by the Tafel extrapolation from the polarization plots.

  13. 22 CFR 3.5 - Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of officials and offices responsible for administration of foreign gifts and decorations. 3.5 Section 3.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL GIFTS AND DECORATIONS FROM FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS § 3.5 Designation of officials...

  14. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  15. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  16. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  17. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  18. 29 CFR 3.5 - Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of Labor. 3.5 Section 3.5 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.5 Payroll deductions permissible without application to or approval of the Secretary of...

  19. Three-dimensional calculations for a 4 kA, 3.5 MV, 2 microsecond injector with asymmetric power feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Thomas P.; Clark, Robert E.; Yu, Simon S.

    1999-11-01

    The DARHT-2 accelerator under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires a long flattop (2μs) 2-4 kA, 3.5 MV, low-emittance electron beam source. The injector is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and consists of a large-area thermionic cathode mounted atop a vertical column. The 90° bend between the horizontally emitted beam and the column produces dipole and higher-pole fields which must be corrected. In addition, the fast rise of the current flowing into the vacuum tank excites rf modes which cause transverse oscillations of the beam centroid. We have modeled these effects with the 3D electromagnetic code LSP. The code has models for pulsed power transmission lines, space-charge-limited emission and transport of charged particles, externally applied magnetic fields, and frequency-dependent absorption of rf. We calculate the transverse displacement of the beam as a function of time during the current pulse, and the positioning and thickness of ferrite absorber needed to damp the rf modes. The numerical results are compared to analytic calculations.

  20. The possible relationship between expressions of TRPC3/5 channels and cognitive changes in rat model of chronic unpredictable stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xuan; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Minghui; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-09-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC) is a nonselective cation channel dominantly permeable to Ca(2+). It consists of seven homologues, TRPC1-TRPC7, based on their sequence similarity. According to some researches, the expression of TRPC3/5 in hippocampus is related to the morphological changes of hippocampus, including axon length and dendritic spine density [1]. This study observed whether the expression of TRPC3/5 was changed in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression of rat model and can the altered TRPC3/5 expression affect the morphology of neurons in hippocampus of depressive rats as well as the cognitive ability. A total of 16 rats were equally and randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the depression model group, which underwent a process of CUS for three weeks. Western blot assay was conducted to test the content of TRPC3/5 in hippocampus, and Golgi-Cox staining was used to observe the morphological changes of neurons in hippocampus. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to observe the changes of spatial cognitive ability of rats while the long-term potentiation was applied to evaluate synaptic plasticity. Results showed that there was a difference in the expression of TRPC3/5 in hippocampal neurons, as well as the neuron morphology between control group and depression model group. At the same time the cognitive ability and synaptic plasticity were significantly changed. Results suggest that there is an association between expressions of TRPC3/5 and cognitive changes in CUS rat model, and the mechanism maybe that the different expressions of TRPC3/5 can cause morphological changes of the neurons in hippocampus, which has a profound impact on the spatial cognitive ability and synaptic plasticity. PMID:25958233

  1. Multi temporal regression method for mid infrared [3-5microm] emissivity outdoor.

    PubMed

    Nerry, Françoise; Malaplate, Alain; Stoll, Marc

    2004-12-27

    An experimental study to address issues encountered in the determination of surface bi-directional reflectivity and emissivity of materials [3-5microm] region has been conducted in outdoors conditions. The measurement protocol included radiometric infrared camera acquisitions in both [3-5microm] (band-2) and [8-14microm] (band-3). The band-2 bi-directional reflectivity is obtained from a sequence of sunlit and shade measurements. Best results are found with measurements relative to a diffuse aluminum reflector. Direct inversion of band-2 radiometric signal is unstable. A multitemporal method is introduced and the slope of the linear regression is the searched emisssivity. A detailed analysis is conducted to assess the impact of different sources of systematic errors. The proposed method is found to have a good potential with an estimated measurement error in the range of 2%. PMID:19488308

  2. 3.5-GHz intra-burst repetition rate ultrafast Yb-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerse, Can; Kalaycıoğlu, Hamit; Elahi, Parviz; Akçaalan, Önder; Ilday, F. Ömer

    2016-05-01

    We report on an all-fiber Yb laser amplifier system with an intra-burst repetition rate of 3.5 GHz. The system is able to produce minimum of 15-ns long bursts containing approximately 50 pulses with a total energy of 215 μJ at a burst repetition rate of 1 kHz. The individual pulses are compressed down to the subpicosecond level. The seed signal from a 108 MHz fiber oscillator is converted to approximately 3.5 GHz by a multiplier consisting of six cascaded 50/50 couplers, and then amplified in ten stages. The highly cascaded amplification suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at low repetition rates. Nonlinear interactions between overlapping pulses within a burst is also discussed.

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure of cadmium coordination polymer with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.-H.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.-Y.; Zhang, N.-X.; Yi, Z.-H.

    2015-11-01

    The title compound [Cd(HBTA)(H2O)2] n (H3BTA = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure analysis. The crystal possesses a two dimensional sheet structure formed by Cd(II) metal centers and HBTA2- ligands showing honeycomb caves. The compound exhibits intensive photoluminescence.

  4. Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34)

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2004-01-01

    A pink-pigmented symbiotic bacterium was isolated from hybrid poplar tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34). The bacterium was identified by 16S and 16S-23S intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA analysis as a Methylobacterium sp. (strain BJ001). The isolated bacterium was able to use methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy, which is a specific attribute of the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterium in pure culture was shown to degrade the toxic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX). [U-ring-14C]TNT (25 mg liter−1) was fully transformed in less than 10 days. Metabolites included the reduction derivatives amino-dinitrotoluenes and diamino-nitrotoluenes. No significant release of 14CO2 was recorded from [14C]TNT. In addition, the isolated methylotroph was shown to transform [U-14C]RDX (20 mg liter−1) and [U-14C]HMX (2.5 mg liter−1) in less than 40 days. After 55 days of incubation, 58.0% of initial [14C]RDX and 61.4% of initial [14C]HMX were mineralized into 14CO2. The radioactivity remaining in solution accounted for 12.8 and 12.7% of initial [14C]RDX and [14C]HMX, respectively. Metabolites detected from RDX transformation included a mononitroso RDX derivative and a polar compound tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine. Since members of the genus Methylobacterium are distributed in a wide diversity of natural environments and are very often associated with plants, Methylobacterium sp. strain BJ001 may be involved in natural attenuation or in situ biodegradation (including phytoremediation) of explosive-contaminated sites. PMID:14711682

  5. Synthesis of 3,5- and 3,6-linked calix[n]naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Shorthill, Berkeley J; Granucci, Robert G; Powell, Douglas R; Glass, Timothy E

    2002-02-01

    The preparation of calix[n]naphthalenes from derivatives of 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene is described. 1,8-Dialkyl substitution is used to direct the regiochemistry of the acid-catalyzed condensation reactions. Acyclic peri substituents lead to a 3,5-linked calix[3]naphthalene, whereas cyclic peri substituents give predominantly a calix[5]naphthalene with the corresponding 3,6-linkage. The 3,6-linked calix[4]naphthalene is prepared in pure form by a dimerization strategy. PMID:11856035

  6. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  7. A short and modular approach towards 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Nebe, Marco M; Zinn, Sina; Opatz, Till

    2016-08-01

    3,5-Dialkyl indolizidines have been prepared in four linear steps from commercially available starting materials. The sequence involves two direct α-functionalization steps and a subsequent reductive amination and provides diastereoselective access to both C-3 epimers of the 5,9-trans-substituted indolizines. The naturally occurring indolizidines 195B and 223AB have been synthesized using this methodology. PMID:27377480

  8. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  9. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Betty W.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the present invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve much of the TATB, but readily dissolves these explosives.

  10. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  11. Reliability of Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints in High Temperature Packaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Nalini Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K; Leslie, Dr Scott

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in this paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.

  12. Structure and applications of metal-organic framework based on cyanide and 3,5-dichloropyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; El-bendary, Mohamed M.

    2013-06-01

    The reaction of the aqueous/acetonitrile solutions of K3[Cu(CN)4] and 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-dClpy), in the presence of Me3SnCl affords a new metal-organic framework (MOF), 3∞[(CuCN)2·(3,5-dClpy)2], 1. The structure of the MOF 1 was characterized by IR, UV-visible, TGA and X-ray single crystal analysis. The structure of MOF 1 consists of CuCN building blocks which are connected by CN group forming 1D-zig-zag chains. Each chain is bridged to another chain by hydrogen bonding organizing 2D-sheets. The structure of 1 is further close packed by hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking and lp-π interactions creating 3D-network. The emission spectra and the thermodynamic parameters from TGA of the MOF 1 were discussed. The MOF 1 was used as heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidative discoloration of methylene blue dye (MB) by dilute solution of hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The in vitro cytotoxic activity has been evaluated against the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. The cytotoxic effect of the MOF 1 on the viability of MCF-7 cells was determined by MTT assay.

  13. Cytochemical demonstration of cyclic 3', 5' AMP phosphodiesterase in different tissue of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R.F.).

    PubMed

    Benedeczky, I; Rózsa, K S

    1981-01-01

    The localization of cyclic 3', 5'-AMP phosphodiesterase was studied by ultrastructural cytochemical methods in the various tissues of Locusta migratoria. Large amounts of electron dense, granular reaction products were detectable on the surface of the corpora allata and the corpus cardiacum, bound to the basal lamina. In the protocerebral neuropile rather large amounts of reaction products were observed in the processes of the glial cells. A significant number of lead phosphate deposit was found to occur on the membrane of certain large axons, the microtubules of the axons, furthermore on the membrane of several terminals. Reaction product was also observable in certain terminals, bound to the synaptic vesicles and the mitochondria. At the same time, electron dense deposits were not detectable at all on the surface of cerebral neurons. In the case of myocardium, reaction product was only found on the basal lamina and the extracellular surface of the sarcolemma. On the basis of our results it can be stated that the cyclic 3', 5'-AMP phosphodiesterase is detectable by cytochemical methods in different tissues of Locusta migratoria and presumably it fulfils the task of the extracellular cAMP level regulation. PMID:6260713

  14. Examining implicit metacognition in 3.5-year-old children: an eye-tracking and pupillometric study

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Markus; Proust, Joelle; Sodian, Beate

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined early signs of implicit metacognitive monitoring in 3.5-year-old children. During a learning phase children had to learn paired associates. In the test phase, children performed a recognition task and choose the correct associate for a given target among four possible answers. Subsequently, children's explicit confidence judgments (CJs) and their fixation time allocation at the confidence scale were assessed. Analyses showed that explicit CJs did not differ for remembered compared to non-remembered items. In contrast, children's fixation patterns on the confidence scale were affected by the correctness of their memory, as children looked longer to high confidence ratings when they correctly remembered the associated item. Moreover, analyses of pupil size revealed pupil dilations for correctly remembered, but not incorrectly remembered items. The results converge with recent behavioral findings that reported evidence for implicit metacognitive memory monitoring processes in 3.5-year-old children. The study suggests that implicit metacognitive abilities might precede the development of explicit metacognitive knowledge. PMID:23526709

  15. A Study on the Physical Properties and Interfacial Reactions with Cu Substrate of Rapidly Solidified Sn-3.5Ag Lead-Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Tao; Wang, Jie; Qu, Lin; Zhao, Ning; Kunwar, A.

    2013-08-01

    A rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag eutectic alloy produced by the melt-spinning technique was used as a sample in this research to investigate the microstructure, thermal properties, solder wettability, and inhibitory effect of Ag3Sn on Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound (IMC). In addition, an as-cast Sn-3.5Ag solder was prepared as a reference. Rapidly solidified and as-cast Sn-3.5Ag alloys of the same size were soldered at 250°C for 1 s to observe their instant melting characteristics and for 3 s with different cooling methods to study the inhibitory effect of Ag3Sn on Cu6Sn5 IMC. Experimental techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and energy-dispersive spectrometry were used to observe and analyze the results of the study. It was found that rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag solder has more uniform microstructure, better wettability, and higher melting rate as compared with the as-cast material; Ag3Sn nanoparticles that formed in the rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag solder inhibited the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC during aging significantly much strongly than in the as-cast material because their number in the rapidly solidified Sn-3.5Ag solder was greater than in the as-cast material with the same soldering process before aging. Among the various alternative lead-free solders, this study focused on comparison between rapidly solidified and as-cast solder alloys, with the former being observed to have better properties.

  16. Functional characterization of pGKT2, a 182-kilobase plasmid containing the xplAB genes, which are involved in the degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by Gordonia sp. strain KTR9.

    PubMed

    Indest, Karl J; Jung, Carina M; Chen, Hao-Ping; Hancock, Dawn; Florizone, Christine; Eltis, Lindsay D; Crocker, Fiona H

    2010-10-01

    Several microorganisms have been isolated that can transform hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a cyclic nitramine explosive. To better characterize the microbial genes that facilitate this transformation, we sequenced and annotated a 182-kb plasmid, pGKT2, from the RDX-degrading strain Gordonia sp. KTR9. This plasmid carries xplA, encoding a protein sharing up to 99% amino acid sequence identity with characterized RDX-degrading cytochromes P450. Other genes that cluster with xplA are predicted to encode a glutamine synthase-XplB fusion protein, a second cytochrome P450, Cyp151C, and XplR, a GntR-type regulator. Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 expressing xplA from KTR9 degraded RDX but did not utilize RDX as a nitrogen source. Moreover, an Escherichia coli strain producing XplA degraded RDX but a strain producing Cyp151C did not. KTR9 strains cured of pGKT2 did not transform RDX. Physiological studies examining the effects of exogenous nitrogen sources on RDX degradation in strain KTR9 revealed that ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate each inhibited RDX degradation by up to 79%. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of glnA-xplB, xplA, and xplR showed that transcript levels were 3.7-fold higher during growth on RDX than during growth on ammonium and that this upregulation was repressed in the presence of various inorganic nitrogen sources. Overall, the results indicate that RDX degradation by KTR9 is integrated with central nitrogen metabolism and that the uptake of RDX by bacterial cells does not require a dedicated transporter. PMID:20709853

  17. Functional Characterization of pGKT2, a 182-Kilobase Plasmid Containing the xplAB Genes, Which Are Involved in the Degradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine by Gordonia sp. Strain KTR9 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Indest, Karl J.; Jung, Carina M.; Chen, Hao-Ping; Hancock, Dawn; Florizone, Christine; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2010-01-01

    Several microorganisms have been isolated that can transform hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a cyclic nitramine explosive. To better characterize the microbial genes that facilitate this transformation, we sequenced and annotated a 182-kb plasmid, pGKT2, from the RDX-degrading strain Gordonia sp. KTR9. This plasmid carries xplA, encoding a protein sharing up to 99% amino acid sequence identity with characterized RDX-degrading cytochromes P450. Other genes that cluster with xplA are predicted to encode a glutamine synthase-XplB fusion protein, a second cytochrome P450, Cyp151C, and XplR, a GntR-type regulator. Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 expressing xplA from KTR9 degraded RDX but did not utilize RDX as a nitrogen source. Moreover, an Escherichia coli strain producing XplA degraded RDX but a strain producing Cyp151C did not. KTR9 strains cured of pGKT2 did not transform RDX. Physiological studies examining the effects of exogenous nitrogen sources on RDX degradation in strain KTR9 revealed that ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate each inhibited RDX degradation by up to 79%. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of glnA-xplB, xplA, and xplR showed that transcript levels were 3.7-fold higher during growth on RDX than during growth on ammonium and that this upregulation was repressed in the presence of various inorganic nitrogen sources. Overall, the results indicate that RDX degradation by KTR9 is integrated with central nitrogen metabolism and that the uptake of RDX by bacterial cells does not require a dedicated transporter. PMID:20709853

  18. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  19. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  20. The thermal decomposition of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and RDXd6 at high temperatures. [burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, P. J.; Nauflett, G. W.; Carlson, D. W.; Brasch, J. W., Sr.

    1980-01-01

    The ballistics behavior of nitramine propellants containing RDX in an inert binder was examined. It is shown that at 2000 to 5000 psi, depending on the particle size, a slope break or discontinuity in the log burning rate versus log pressure curve occurs. It is shown that at higher pressures the nitramine decomposition proceeds predominately by C-N bond rupture and gives CH2 and N20. At still higher pressures (after the slope break) the decomposition proceeds by N-N rupture. The decomposition of RDX was investigated from 170 to 800 C at atmospheric pressure. The major decomposition products were CH2, CO, CO2, N20, N2, and H20. The ratio of the products varied with the pyrolysis rate and temperature.